Sample records for bar-on emotional quotient

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Bernadette; Urban, Robert; Paksi, Borbala; Csobor, Lujza Vargane; Olah, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only…

  2. The BarOn Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuven Bar-On

    2005-01-01

    The present manuscript is an empirically based theoretical paper that presents, describes, and exami- nes the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI) in deep. First, a description of the Emo- tional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i), which has played an instrumental role in developing the model, is given. The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. It

  3. The Relationship between Principal's Emotional Intelligence Quotient, School Culture, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between secondary school principal's emotional intelligence quotient, school culture, and student achievement. Partial correlation was conducted to examine the degree of relationships between principal's emotional intelligence quotient and school culture controlling for the effect…

  4. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  5. An Analytical Model / Emotional Intelligence Quotient and QOL in Mothers with Infants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Junko; Katsura, Toshiki; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence quotient and health-related quality of life using structural equation modeling. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,911 mothers who visited the Health Center for an infant medical examination. A hypothetical model was constructed using variables of the emotional intelligence quotient, social support, coping, parenting stress, and perceived health competence. Result: There were a total of 1,104 valid responses (57.8%). Significant standardized estimates were obtained, confirming the goodness of fit issues with the model. The emotional intelligence quotient had a strong impact on physical and psychological quality of life, and showed the greatest association with coping. This study differed from previous studies in that, due to the inclusion of social support and explanatory variables in coping, an increase in coping strategies was more highly associated with emotional intelligence quotient levels than with social support. Conclusion: An enhanced emotional intelligence quotient should be considered a primary objective to promote the health of mothers with infant children. PMID:25649222

  6. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Vanessa C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success in middle school students with learning disabilities. Emotional Intelligence (EI) was measured using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV). The results of the BarOn EQ-i: YV was then compared to…

  7. An Exploratory Study of Emotional Intelligence and Domestic Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Winters; Robert J. W. Clift; Donald G. Dutton

    2004-01-01

    To date, there is no literature specifically addressing the relationship between spousal battering and emotional intelligence, a concept that captures the success, or lack thereof, of a person's functioning in their immediate environment. Forty-four men convicted of spousal assault and 76 undergraduate students completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; R. Bar-On, BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: User's Manual, Multi-Health Systems, Inc.,

  8. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Decisional Conflict Styles: Some Empirical Evidence among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Blustein, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between emotional intelligence and decisional conflict styles. Five hundred and twenty-eight Italian high school students (median age = 18; SD = 0.76) were given the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: short (Bar-On EQ-i:S). The "Intrapersonal" dimension…

  10. Development of Emotional Intelligence in First-Year Undergraduate Students in a Frontier State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leedy, Gail M.; Smith, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as knowing the emotional state of self and others. Its relevance for college student development is only beginning to be researched. In the present research, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was administered to college students at the beginning and end of a semester-long course designed…

  11. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

  12. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness among Sponsored Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ventez Derrell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence, as perceived by senior level university sponsored research administration professionals and their perceived leadership effectiveness, as measured by the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory and the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) for Self.…

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Turkish EFL Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocoglu, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy among 90 English language pre-service teachers from a university in Turkey. Data sources included Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy's Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and Reuven Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory. The findings indicated that Turkish EFL…

  14. The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

  15. Mathematical Quotients and Quotient Types in Coq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Chicli; Loic Pottier; Carlos Simpson

    2002-01-01

    This note studies quotient types in the Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC), implemented in the proof assistant coq,\\u000a and compares their expressivity to that of mathematical quotients. In [Hof95], Martin Hofmann proposes an extension of the\\u000a Calculus of Constructions (CC) with quotient types which he shows consistent, but notices that they are not sufficient to\\u000a account for the natural isomorphism

  16. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  17. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  18. Quotients of the Dwork pencil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Gilberto; Garbagnati, Alice

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the geometry of the Dwork pencil in any dimension. More specifically, we study the automorphism group G of the generic fiber of the pencil over the complex projective line, and the quotients of it by various subgroups of G. In particular, we compute the Hodge numbers of these quotients via orbifold cohomology.

  19. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  20. Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

  1. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305...Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on collective bargaining. As provided...not subject to collective bargaining. This bar on collective bargaining applies...

  2. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  3. Self quotient image for face recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitao Wang; Stan Z. Li; Yangsheng Wang; Jianjun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of facial recognition techniques is often affected by the variation of illumination, such as shadows and illumination direction changes. In this paper, we present a novel framework, called the self-quotient image, for the elimination of the lighting effect in the image. Although this method has a similar invariant form to the quotient image by Shashua etc. (2001), it

  4. Self-Reported Sleep Correlates with Prefrontal-Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Emotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608. PMID:24179291

  5. A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Conte

    2005-01-01

    Summary Emotional intelligence measures vary widely in both their content and in their method of assessment. In particular, emotional intelligence measures tend to use either a self-report personality-based approach, an informant approach, or an ability-based assessment procedure. In this paper, the measurement and psychometric properties of four of the major emotional intelligence measures (Emotional Competence Inventory, Emotional Quotient Inventory, Multifactor

  6. Groups with Hypercyclic Proper Quotient Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Kurdachenko; P. Soules

    2003-01-01

    We continue the investigation of (solvable) groups all proper subgroups of which are hypercyclic. The monolithic case is studied completely; in the nonmonolithic case, however, one should impose certain additional conditions. We investigate groups all proper quotient groups of which possess supersolvable classes of conjugate elements.

  7. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  8. Creative Quotient: Currency for the Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gupta, Uma

    This keynote presentation for the 2005 Advancing Innovations in Engineering Technology Education Conference by Dr. Uma Gupta, President of Alfred State College at the State University of New York, discusses the "Creativity Quotient"--points of creative teaching and learning she promotes as key to revitalizing engineering technology education. The presentation may be large and take a few minutes to open.

  9. On the Divisibility of Fermat Quotients Jean Bourgain

    E-print Network

    Ford, Kevin

    On the Divisibility of Fermat Quotients Jean Bourgain Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, NJ primes p the bound can be improved as (log p)5/3+o(1). Keywords: Fermat quotients, smooth numbers For a prime p and an integer a the Fermat quotient is defined as qp(a) = ap-1 - 1 p . It is well known

  10. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  11. Math Videos Captioned and Signed in ASL: Quotient Rule and Quotients with Negative Exponents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a video on exponents in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this 10:18 video, Blatto-Vallee uses an electronic whiteboard to show several examples of how to use the quotient rule and use quotients with negative exponents. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

  12. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence…

  13. Emotional intelligence: the most potent factor in the success equation.

    PubMed

    Strickland, D

    2000-03-01

    Star performers can be differentiated from average ones by emotional intelligence. For jobs of all kinds, emotional intelligence is twice as important as a person's intelligence quotient and technical skills combined. Excellent performance by top-level managers adds directly to a company's "hard" results, such as increased profitability, lower costs, and improved customer retention. Those with high emotional intelligence enhance "softer" results by contributing to increased morale and motivation, greater cooperation, and lower turnover. The author discusses the five components of emotional intelligence, its role in facilitating organizational change, and ways to increase an organization's emotional intelligence. PMID:10725939

  14. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  15. Fans, cones, and orbits Toric varieties via quotients

    E-print Network

    Little, John B.

    Fans, cones, and orbits Divisors Toric varieties via quotients Fans, Orbits, and Divisors on Toric, Urbana-Champaign July 29-31, 2013 Henry K. Schenck Fans, Orbits, and Divisors on Toric Varieties #12;Fans, cones, and orbits Divisors Toric varieties via quotients Outline 1 Fans, cones, and orbits 2 Divisors 3

  16. The Children's Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Atkinson, Matthew; Samarawickrema, Nelum; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Children's versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4-11 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored…

  17. 9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  18. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  19. Academic Achievement and Emotional Intelligence: Predicting the Successful Transition from High School to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Duffy, Jon M.; Wood, Laura M.; Bond, Barbara J.; Hogan, Marjorie J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on the successful transition from high school to university. The short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) was completed by 1,426 first-year students attending four different universities within the first week of classes (September). At the end of the academic year (May),…

  20. Technical versus Non-Technical Students: Does Emotional Intelligence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatt, James Poon Teng

    2004-01-01

    Intellectual Quotient (IQ) has long been considered in education as the deciding factor in a person's success but have we overlooked emotional intelligence (EI) in determining one's success in life? In my attempt to reexamine the acceptance of EI, I studied the difference in EI between different groups of undergraduates in Singapore in terms of…

  1. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus*

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (P<0.01) and significantly higher in urban as compared to rural residents (85.1±19.5 versus 77.3±10.8 respectively, P=0.02). Patients with coexisting amblyopia and alternate deviation had lower IQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus. PMID:23943689

  2. Convergent, Discriminant, and Incremental Validity of Competing Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. Brackett; John D. Mayer

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the convergent, discriminant, and incre- mental validity of one ability test of emotional intelligence (EI)—the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)—and two self-report measures of EI—the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) and the self-report EI test (SREIT). The MSCEIT showed minimal relations to the EQ-i and SREIT, whereas the latter two measures were moderately interrelated. Among EImeasures, the MSCEIT was

  3. The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adilogullari, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

  4. Emotional Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Valentine's Day or the celebration of a holiday feast. Sometimes emotional eating is tied to major ... feel better afterwards (honestly!). 2. Write down the emotions that trigger your eating. One of the best ...

  5. Rational emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meir Meshulam; Eyal Winter; Gershon Ben-Shakhar; Itzhak Aharon

    2011-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain “mental state” is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the

  6. Rational emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meir Meshulam; Eyal Winter; Gershon Ben-Shakhar; Itzhak Aharon

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain “mental state” is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the

  7. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  8. Measuring emotional intelligence: content, construct and criterion-related validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Dulewicz; Malcolm Higgs; Mark Slaski

    2003-01-01

    Many authors claim there is a paucity of evidence for the validity of measures of emotional intelligence (EI). This paper summarises existing information on the reliability and validity of two measures of EI, the Dulewicz and Higgs EIQ and the Bar-on EQ-i. It also reports the results of a study on middle managers which investigated the degree to which these

  9. The Children’s Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Auyeung; Sally Wheelwright; Carrie Allison; Matthew Atkinson; Nelum Samarawickrema; Simon Baron-Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Children’s versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4–11 years. Both measures showed good test–retest reliability and\\u000a high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored significantly higher\\u000a on the SQ-C. A further sample of n = 265 children with Autism Spectrum

  10. Growth of Finitely Presented Rees Quotients of Free Inverse Semigroups

    E-print Network

    Sydney, University of

    quotients of free semigroups in terms of primitive words that label loops of the Ufnarovsky graph the notion of height in his celebrated study of rings which satisfy a polynomial identity. In Theorem 4 that label loops of the Ufnarovsky graph. 2. PRELIMINARIES We assume familiarity with the basic definitions

  11. Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem

    E-print Network

    Darmon, Henri

    Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem Henri Darmon at Montr´eal Lo¨ic Merel of the following variants of Fermat's equation xn + yn = zn : xn + yn = 2zn , (1) xn + yn = z2 , (2) xn + yn = z3 Fermat's Last Theorem to the Shimura-Taniyama conjecture (and the precise 1 #12;form of this conjecture

  12. Brain size, head size, and intelligence quotient in monozygotic twins

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    -Many studies of monozygotic (MZ)twins have revealed evidence of genetic influences on intellectual functionsBrain size, head size, and intelligence quotient in monozygotic twins M.J. Tramo, MD; W.C. Loftus is known about genetic influences on the size and shape of the human forebrain and its gross morphologic

  13. ON THE MOTIVE OF A QUOTIENT VARIETY SEBASTIAN DEL BA ~

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    ON THE MOTIVE OF A QUOTIENT VARIETY SEBASTIAN DEL BA ~ NO ROLLIN AND VICENTE NAVARRO AZNAR En with the realization functors and Chow groups. Recently, in the case char k = 0, Guill'en and Navarro Aznar have given. DEL BA ~ NO ROLLIN AND V. NAVARRO AZNAR group, K 0 M k , these decompositions were considered by Denef

  14. Quotients of group algebrae in the calculation of intermediate ligand field matrix elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Donini; Bryan R. Hollebone

    1976-01-01

    The structure of the classes of symmetry elements excluded during the subduction of the representations of SU(2) onto the finite group 0* is shown to quantitatively define the relationship of the coupling algebrae of these two groups. This relationship is formalized as a quotient algebra. This quotient algebra is realized as 3G-like symbols which exist whether or not the quotient

  15. Emotional Eating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

    \\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

  16. Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

  17. Brief report: development of the adolescent empathy and systemizing quotients.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher on the SQ. A sample of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) (n = 213) scored significantly lower on the EQ, and significantly higher on the SQ, compared to typical boys. Similar patterns of sex differences and cognitive brain types are observed in children, adolescents and adults, suggesting from cross-sectional studies that the behaviours measured by age-appropriate versions of the EQ and SQ are stable across time. Longitudinal studies would be useful to test this stability in the future. Finally, relative to typical sex differences, individuals with ASC, regardless of age, on average exhibit a 'hyper-masculinized' profile. PMID:22350450

  18. Raman spectrometric determination of tribasic sodium phosphate hydrolysis quotient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan G. Miller; John W. Macklin

    1983-01-01

    The hydrolysis quotient of tribasic sodium phosphate has been determined over the 0.001 to 0.4 M phosphate concentration range in order to establish hydroxide concentration limits for the quantitative determination of POâ\\/sup 3 -\\/ in aqueous solutions by laser Raman spectrometry. Concentrations of phosphate species in the hydrolysis equilibrium were measured by laser Raman spectrometry and hydroxide concentrations were determined

  19. Fermat quotients: Exponential sums, value set and primitive roots

    E-print Network

    Shparlinski, Igor E

    2011-01-01

    For a prime $p$ and an integer $u$ with $\\gcd(u,p)=1$, we define Fermat quotients by the conditions $$ q_p(u) \\equiv \\frac{u^{p-1} -1}{p} \\pmod p, \\qquad 0 \\le q_p(u) \\le p-1. $$ D. R. Heath-Brown has given a bound of exponential sums with $N$ consecutive Fermat quotients that is nontrivial for $N\\ge p^{1/2+\\epsilon}$ for any fixed $\\epsilon>0$. We use a recent idea of M. Z. Garaev together with a form of the large sieve inequality due to S. Baier and L. Zhao, to show that on average over $p$ one can obtain a nontrivial estimate for much shorter sums starting with $N\\ge p^{\\epsilon}$. We also obtain lower bounds on the image size of the first $N$ consecutive Fermat quotients and use it to prove that there is a positive integer $n\\le p^{3/4 + o(1)}$ such that $q_p(n)$ is a primitive root modulo $p$.

  20. Emotional intelligence and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ)

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Race, Mary-Clare; Rosen, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the Bar-on EQ-I and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire OPQ32i to determine if there is a link between self- and other-reported Emotional Intelligence and personality traits. Data was obtained from 329 managers working in the IT and Finance sectors and included multi-source (360°) measures of Emotional Intelligence. Results indicated construct overlap and correlations between some elements of Emotional Intelligence and the OPQ32i with a stronger relationship between 360 measures of Emotional Intelligence and personality. On both the self-report measure of EQ-I and the 360 measure the mood scale showed a strongest link with personality factors. Measures of Emotional Intelligence which include a 360 component may thus provide a more useful indicator of an individual's ability to manage their own feelings and those of others. PMID:25309468

  1. Emotional Disturbance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... terms such as emotional disturbance, behavioral disorders, or mental illness. Beneath these umbrella terms, there is actually a ... may also be affected. The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) puts this very well: Mental illnesses are ...

  2. Multiplication is discontinuous in the Hawaiian earring group (with the quotient topology)

    E-print Network

    Fabel, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The natural quotient map q from the space of based loops in the Hawaiian earring onto the fundamental group provides a new and naturally occuring example of a quotient map such that q x q fails to be a quotient map. This counterexample also contradicts a number of published claims, notably pi1(X,p) can in fact fail to be a topological group.

  3. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu?K? radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  4. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  5. A Floating Point Divider Performing IEEE Rounding and Quotient Conversion in Parallel

    E-print Network

    Yang, Sung-Bong

    A Floating Point Divider Performing IEEE Rounding and Quotient Conversion in Parallel Woo-Chan Park-749 Korea, {hantack}@kurene.yonsei.ac.kr {yang}@cs.yonsei.ac.kr Abstract. Processing floating point division time. In this paper, a floating point divider performing quotient conversion and rounding in parallel

  6. THE EFFECT OF GLUCOSE AND SUCROSE ON THE EESPIEATORY QUOTIENT AND MUSCULAR EFFICIENCYOF EXERCISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAKGARET WRIGHTINGTON; TWO FIGURES

    The controversial question of just how fats and carbo hydrates are utilized for muscular energy has been studied from many angles. One of the most important of these is the interpretation of the respiratory quotients obtained during exercise. The specific effects on the respiratory quotient following the ingestion of various sugars were first studied by Carpenter and his associates (Carpenter

  7. The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Decisional Styles among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and styles of decision making. Two hundred and six Italian high school students completed two measures of EI, the Bar-On EI Inventory, based on a mixed model of EI, and the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test, based on an ability-based model of EI, in addition to the General…

  8. An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

  9. Reduced Accuracy and Sensitivity in the Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Individuals with High Autism Spectrum Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poljac, Ervin; Poljac, Edita; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is among other things characterized by specific impairments in emotion processing. It is not clear, however, to what extent the typical decline in affective functioning is related to the specific autistic traits. We employed "The Autism Spectrum-Quotient" (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 500…

  10. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts Maria Gendron Boston College and Northeastern University/Harvard Medical School People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research

  11. Positive emotions Some positive emotions

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Friendship Fulfillment Generosity Happiness Hope Joy Love Loyalty Passion Playfulness Pride Relief content, recording instances of happiness, interest, love and hope. They found that nuns who expressed hypothesis of positive emotions Fredrikson, 2003, Amer Sci, 91, 330-335. #12;Animal models of positive

  12. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  13. Emotion is for influence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerben A. Van Kleef; Evert A. Van Doorn; Marc W. Heerdink; Lukas F. Koning

    2012-01-01

    Functional approaches to emotion are rapidly gaining in popularity. Thus far the functions of emotions have been conceptualised and studied mainly at the intrapersonal level of analysis, the key question being how individuals are influenced by the emotions they experience. Relatively little is known about the interpersonal effects of emotions; that is, how one person's emotions influence other people's cognitions,

  14. Emotional eating: Eating when emotional or emotional about eating?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke A. Adriaanse; Denise T. D. de Ridder; Catharine Evers

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to

  15. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type? Don't worry. Everyone can develop the skill of responding well when emotions run high. It ... might do next time. Continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react ...

  16. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28?±?7.82 and 34.93?±?9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:25893214

  17. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD? ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  18. Use of risk quotient and probabilistic approaches to assess risks of pesticides to birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting ecological risk assessments for pesticides, the United States Environmental Protection Agency typically relies upon the risk quotient (RQ). This approach is intended to be conservative in nature, making assumptions related to exposure and effects that are intended...

  19. Estimated intelligence quotient in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesised that people with anorexia nervosa have a higher intelligence quotient (IQ) level than the general population. The purpose of this review was to systematically appraise the research into reported IQ levels in people with anorexia nervosa. Methods A search using the terms intelligence quotient, IQ, intelligence, cognition, eating disorders and anorexia was conducted in electronic databases only. Results In all, 30 peer-reviewed studies written in English that used well established measures of intelligence quotient (the National Adult Reading Test and Wechsler Intelligence Scales) were identified. This review established that people with anorexia nervosa score 10.8 units and 5.9 units above the average intelligence quotient of the normative population on the National Adult Reading Test and Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively. An association was found between Body Mass Index and intelligence quotient, as measured by the National Adult Reading Test. Conclusions More studies including other eating disorder categories and recovered people are needed to explore important questions regarding the role of the intelligence quotient in treatment response. PMID:21182794

  20. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  1. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  2. 7?Emotion in Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillary Anger Elfenbein

    2007-01-01

    Emotion has become one of the most popular—and popularized—areas within organizational scholarship. This chapter attempts to review and bring together within a single framework the wide and often disjointed literature on emotion in organizations. The integrated framework includes processes detailed by previous theorists who have defined emotion as a sequence that unfolds chronologically. The emotion process begins with a focal

  3. Normalizing emotion in organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blake E Ashforth; Glen E Kreiner

    2002-01-01

    Organizations use various means of regulating socially undesirable emotions, including normalizing. We define normalizing as institutionalized processes by which extraordinary situations are rendered seemingly ordinary. Four means of normalizing are discussed: (1) diffusing, where undesired emotions are dissipated or their impact is reduced; (2) reframing, where emotions or the situation are recast such that the emotions are forestalled, redefined, or

  4. Effects of Music Interventions on Emotional States and Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Davis, Paul A.; Devonport, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key points Listening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance. Beliefs on the effectiveness of music intended to alter emotions were associated with high scores on the BMRI-2. Runners seeking to use music as an emotion regulating strategy should consider using the BMRI-2 as an effective means by which to identify potentially motivating tracks. PMID:24149889

  5. Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  6. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  7. Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students

    PubMed Central

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

  8. Emotion and decision making.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models. PMID:25251484

  9. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Be More Aware of Your Emotions Understanding Your Emotions Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions Emotional Intelligence Gratitude About Stressful Feelings Contact Us Print Additional ...

  10. Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy

    E-print Network

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    Negative Emotion Enhances Memory Accuracy Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence Elizabeth A. Kensinger Boston College ABSTRACT--There have been extensive discussions about whether emotional memories that they have remembered emotional ex- periences more accurately. I review evidence that negative emotion

  11. Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. George

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion

  12. Peripheral nervous control of cold-induced reduction in the respiratory quotient of the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    1990-03-01

    Cold-exposed rats show a reduction in the respiratory quotient which is indicative of a relative shift from carbohydrates to lipids as substrates for oxidative metabolism. In the present study, the effects of food deprivation and cold exposure on the respiratory quotient were observed. In addition, the involvement of the three main branches of the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic) was investigated by means of synaptic blockade with propranolol, atropine, and quinine, respectively. Both propranolol and quinine blocked the cold-induced decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in heat production, whereas atropine had only minor and very brief effects. It is concluded that both the sympathetic and somatic branches are involved in the metabolic changes associated with cold-induced thermogenesis and that the increase in metabolic heat production involves a shift from carbohydrate to lipid utilization irrespective of which of the two branches is activated.

  13. Emotions and Sapient Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Angélica García-Vega; Carlos Rubén de la Mora-Basáñez

    In this chapter we review some issues related to emotions and their role in reasoning and behavior. We propose complex systems\\u000a methods to design control architectures for sapient robots with an embedded emotion model.

  14. On vanishing Fermat quotients and a bound of the Ihara sum

    E-print Network

    Shparlinski, Igor E

    2011-01-01

    We improve an estimate of A.Granville (1987) on the number of vanishing Fermat quotients $q_p(\\ell)$ modulo a prime $p$ when $\\ell$ runs through primes $\\ell \\le N$. We use this bound to obtain an unconditional improvement of the conditional (under the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis) estimate of Y. Ihara (2006) on a certain sum, related to vanishing Fermat quotients. In turn this sum appears in the study of the index of certain subfields of of cyclotomic fields $\\Q(\\exp(2 \\pi i/p^2))$.

  15. Binary Threshold Sequences Derived from Carmichael Quotients with Even Numbers Modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenhuang; Chen, Zhixiong; Du, Xiaoni

    We define a family of 2e+1-periodic binary threshold sequences and a family of p2-periodic binary threshold sequences by using Carmichael quotients modulo 2e(e>2) and 2p (p is an odd prime), respectively. These are extensions of the construction derived from Fermat quotients modulo an odd prime in our earlier work. We determine exact values of the linear complexity, which are larger than half of the period. For cryptographic purpose, the linear complexities of the sequences in this letter are of desired values.

  16. Emotion Detection from Text

    E-print Network

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  17. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  18. Three dimensions of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Schlosberg

    1954-01-01

    The author contends that the activation theory of emotions is the most adequate to date for conceptualizing the intensitive dimension of emotion, and that electrical skin conductance is a good measure of the extent of activation present. For other dimensions of emotion, however, he feels that other measurement approaches are necessary and discusses facial expressions as one of these. Evidence

  19. Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    CHAPTER 1 Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS JAMES J. GROSS ROSS A. THOMPSON Standing, paper or plastic are made. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important- changes that require us to regulate how emotions are experienced and expressed. But what do people do

  20. The laws of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico H. Frijda

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

  1. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  2. Emotion elicitation using films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

  3. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional

  4. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  5. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

  6. How Emotions Change Time

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Annett

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention, or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share. PMID:22065952

  7. On sum and quotient of quasi-Chebyshev subspaces in Banach spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mohebi; Sh. Rezapour

    2003-01-01

    It will be determined under what conditions types of proximinality are transmitted to and from quotient spaces. In the final\\u000a section, by many examples we show that types of proximinality of subspaces in Banach spaces can not be preserved by equivalent\\u000a norms.

  8. What Has Caused the Flynn Effect? Secular Increases in the Development Quotients of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Results of five studies show that during the second half of the twentieth century there were increases in the Development Quotients (DQs) of infants in the first two years of life. These gains were obtained for the Bayley Scales in the United States and Australia, and for the Griffiths Test in Britain. The average of 19 data points is a DQ gain of…

  9. Effect of Leucovorin (Folinic Acid) on the Developmental Quotient of Children with Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effect of Leucovorin (Folinic Acid) on the Developmental Quotient of Children with Down's Syndrome deficiency may contribute to mental retardation in Down's syndrome (DS). Methodology: We investigated development of children with Down's syndrome, at least in some subgroups of the DS population, particularly

  10. On the relation between upper central quotients and lower central series of a group

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Graham

    1 On the relation between upper central quotients and lower central series of a group Graham Ellis, National University of Ireland, Galway. (e-mail: graham.ellis@ucg.ie) January 1999 1. Introduction A group bounds when c = 1. In particular, there are papers by J.A. Green [17], J. Wiegold [29] [30], W. Gasch

  11. MediaQuotient[TM]: National Survey of Family Media Habits, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.

    This study examined family media habits, including the use of television, movies, videos, computer and video games, the Internet, music, and print media. The study was conducted by mail with telephone follow-ups, surveying a national random sample of 527 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds who completed MediaQuotient questionnaires. Findings were…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

  13. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  14. The Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Instable Personality in Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Haj Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh Zare Anari, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Substance dependence has recently turned into one of the most important social problems. Clinical findings have shown personality traits, social relations, attitudes and values, along with emotional intelligence factors such as emotions, feelings, emotions management, challenging with problems, problem solving, tolerating psychological pressure, impulse control, self esteem and interpersonal relations, to affect substance dependence. Consequently, understanding the meaning and developing tools for assessment of emotional intelligence are significantly vital in human psychological health. This study aimed to investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and instable personality in substance abusers. Methods The present correlational study selected 80 male addicts through available sampling. The subjects referred to the Therapeutic Community Center and Kimia, Yas, and Aban Clinics in Yazd, Iran. Their emotional intelligence and personality were evaluated by BarOn questionnaire and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) for adults, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations between different factors. Findings There was a negative significant correlation (P = 0.050) between emotional intelligence and instable personality in substance abusers. Problem solving and optimism (P = 0.001), interpersonal relation (P = 0.010), self esteem (P = 0.013), and realities (P = 0.017) had significant effects on instable personality. Conclusion Based on our findings, emotional intelligence was significantly correlated with instable personality in substance abusers. However, using more accurate tools in order to assess all aspects of personality can give better results. PMID:24494128

  15. The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

  16. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-aged Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geunyoung Kim; Tedra Walden; Vicki Harris; Jan Karrass; Thomas Catron

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children’s externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade\\u000a children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported\\u000a adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that negative emotion, especially anger, was important\\u000a in externalizing problems. Less positive emotion was associated with more

  17. What's Basic About Basic Emotions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

    1990-01-01

    A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

  18. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  19. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  20. Evolutionary explanations of emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph M. Nesse

    1990-01-01

    Emotions can be explained as specialized states, shaped by natural selection, that increase fitness in specific situations.\\u000a The physiological, psychological, and behavioral characteristics of a specific emotion can be analyzed as possible design\\u000a features that increase the ability to cope with the threats and opportunities present in the corresponding situation. This\\u000a approach to understanding the evolutionary functions of emotions is

  1. COPD Emotional Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Contact Us More Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Associated Conditions Treatment Lifestyle Management Emotional Management Common Feelings Anxiety Depression ...

  2. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  3. Creating an Emotionally Adaptive Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim J. W. Tijs; Dirk Brokken; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

    2008-01-01

    To optimize a player’s experience, an emotionally adaptive game continuously adapts its mechanics to the player’s emotional\\u000a state, measured in terms of emotion-data. This paper presents the first of two studies that aim to realize an emotionally\\u000a adaptive game. It investigates the relations between game mechanics, a player’s emotional state and his\\/her emotion-data.\\u000a In an experiment, one game mechanic (speed)

  4. The Empathy Quotient: A cross-cultural comparison of the Italian version

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Preti; Marcello Vellante; Simon Baron-Cohen; Giulia Zucca; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The Empathy Quotient (EQ) is a self-report questionnaire that was developed to measure the cognitive, affective, and behavioural aspects of empathy. We evaluated its cross-cultural validity in an Italian sample.Methods. A sample of 18- to 30-year-old undergraduate students of both sexes (N=256, males=118) were invited to fill in the Italian version of the EQ, as well as other measures

  5. Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

  6. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  7. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  8. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  9. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  10. Towards Emotionally Adapted Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

  11. Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Emotion Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras). Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion. Emotion. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028105 #12;Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras

  12. Quotient Based Multiresolution Image Fusion of Thermal and Visual Images Using Daubechies Wavelet Transform for Human Face Recognition

    E-print Network

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the multiresolution level-1 and level-2 Quotient based Fusion of thermal and visual images. In the proposed system, the method-1 namely "Decompose then Quotient Fuse Level-1" and the method-2 namely "Decompose-Reconstruct then Quotient Fuse Level-2" both work on wavelet transformations of the visual and thermal face images. The wavelet transform is well-suited to manage different image resolution and allows the image decomposition in different kinds of coefficients, while preserving the image information without any loss. This approach is based on a definition of an illumination invariant signature image which enables an analytic generation of the image space with varying illumination. The quotient fused images are passed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction and then those images are classified using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). The performances of both the methods have been evaluated using OTCBVS and IRIS databases. All the different classes have been ...

  13. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  14. Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion Lisa Feldman Barrett Department of Psychology Boston College In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe that they know an emo- tion when they see it, and as a consequence assume that emotions are discrete events

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

    2011-01-01

    The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

  16. What good are positive emotions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Fredrickson

    1998-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the

  17. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

  18. An argument for basic emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ekman

    1992-01-01

    Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish

  19. Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    Unconscious Emotion Piotr Winkielman1 and Kent C. Berridge2 1 University of California, San Diego and necessary ingredient of emotion. Here we argue that emotion also can be genuinely unconscious. We describe affective reactions origi- nated prior to systems for conscious awareness. The idea of unconscious emotion

  20. Piecing Together the Emotion Jigsaw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roddy Cowie; Marc Schröder

    2004-01-01

    People are emotional, and machines are not. That constrains their communication, and defines a key challenge for the information sciences. Dif- ferent groups have addressed it from different angles, trying to develop meth- ods of detecting emotion, agents that convey emotion, systems that predict behaviour in emotional circumstances, and so on. Progress has been limited. The new network of excellence

  1. Intergroup Emotions and Intergroup Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Mackie; Eliot R. Smith; Devin G. Ray

    2008-01-01

    Intergroup emotions theory seeks to understand and improve intergroup relations by focusing on the emotions engendered by belonging to, and by deriving identity from, a social group (processes called self-categorization and identification). Intergroup emotions are shaped by the very different ways in which members of different groups see group-relevant objects and events. These emotions come, with time and repetition, to

  2. From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Baumgartner; Michaela Esslen; Lutz Jäncke

    2006-01-01

    Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System

  3. Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Cancer Society Previous Topic Sex, fertility, and chemotherapy Next Topic Paying for chemo treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can impact the thinking ...

  4. RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

  5. Paying attention to emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Compton; Marie T. Banich; Aprajita Mohanty; Michael P. Milham; John Herrington; Gregory A. Miller; Paige E. Scalf; Andrew Webb; Wendy Heller

    2003-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the degree to which brain systems involved in ignoring emotionally salient information differ\\u000a from those involved in ignoring nonemotional information. The design allowed examination of regional brain activity, using\\u000a fMRI during color-word and emotional Stroop tasks. Twelve participants indicated the color of words while ignoring word meaning\\u000a in conditions in which neutral words were contrasted

  6. Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction in Employees of Kashan Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Sadat; Zahirrodine, Ali Reza; Assarian, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Zare Zadeh Mehrizi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction and emotional intelligence are two important variables in organizational behavioral studies, and are key factors in promoting the efficiency of organizations. Objectives: The present study was conducted in order to determine the job satisfaction and emotional intelligence of employees of Kashan hospitals in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 121 employees of Kashan hospitals who were selected using random stratified method. In this study, Bar-on emotional intelligence and job satisfaction questionnaires were used. The data were analyzed using statistical methods such as odds ratio, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results: The majority of employees (76%) had moderate emotional intelligence while 88.2% of them had moderate job satisfaction. In this study, there were no significant relations between emotional intelligence and variables such as sex, education, and marital and job status (P > 0.05) but significant relations were found between the age and emotional intelligence (P = 0.01). Furthermore, there was no significant relation between job satisfaction and demographic variables. Moreover, no significant relation was found between the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction (P > 0.05). Conclusions: As the majority of the staff had average level of job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and others were lower than average, it seems necessary for authorities to explore the reasons for job dissatisfaction to prevent job burnout, depression and developing a sense of helplessness in the staff. It is also recommended to hold educational workshops for the staff especially who are younger than 40 years to promote their emotional intelligence. PMID:25414889

  7. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2?×?2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively. PMID:23675363

  8. Emotions in robot psychology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology. PMID:24677038

  9. ALE Ricci-flat Kahler metrics and deformations of quotient surface singularities

    E-print Network

    Suvaina, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    Let N_0 = C^2/H be an isolated quotient singularity with H in U (2) a finite subgroup. We show that for any Q-Gorenstein smoothings of N_0 a nearby fiber admits ALE Ricci-flat Kahler metrics in any Kahler class. Moreover, we generalize Kronheimer's results on hyperkahler 4-manifolds, by giving an explicit classification of the ALE Ricci-flat Kahler surfaces. We construct ALF Ricci-flat Kahler metrics on the above non-simply connected manifolds. These provide new examples of ALF Ricci-flat Kahler 4-manifolds, with cubic volume growth and cyclic fundamental group at infinity.

  10. Relationships Between Spiritual Quotient and Marital Satisfaction Level of Men, Women and Couples Referred to Consultancy Centers of Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples’ scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples’ understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples’ spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.–More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None PMID:24644499

  11. Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech emotional gestures + articulation movements Focus Multispeaker emotional database Extraction IEMOCAP Database Dyadic acted emotional database Multimodal (audio, video, MOCAP, text

  12. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebi?ska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  13. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  14. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT CALIBRATION AND ASSOCIATION WITH POSTMENOPAUSAL BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ross L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Pettinger, Mary; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Qi, Lihong; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background The respiratory quotient (RQ), defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide exhaled to oxygen uptake, reflects substrate utilization when energy is expended. Fat and alcohol have RQ values of about 0.7, compared to 1.0 for carbohydrate, and about 0.8 for protein. Here, the association between RQ and postmenopausal breast cancer risk is studied. Methods Paired RQ measurements were obtained, separated by about 6 months, for women in the reliability subset of a Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study. Linear regression of the average of the paired log RQ assessments on a corresponding log food quotient (FQ) average and other study subject characteristics, including age, body mass index, race, and education, yielded calibration equations for predicting RQ. Results Calibration equations, using any of food frequency, food record, or dietary recall data, explained an appreciable fraction of measured log RQ variation, and these were used to compute calibrated RQ estimates throughout WHI cohorts. Calibrated RQ estimates using four-day food record data related inversely (P=0.004) to (invasive) breast cancer risk in the WHI Dietary Modification trial comparison group, and corresponding RQ estimates using food frequency data related inversely (P=0.002) to breast cancer incidence in this cohort combined with the larger WHI Observational Study. Conclusion Though preliminary, these analyses suggest a substantially higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk among women having relatively low RQ. Impact RQ elevation could provide a novel target for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:24108790

  15. The Impact of Executive Function on Emotion Recognition and Emotion Experience in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the impact of executive function on the performance of two different affective tasks, the Facial Affect Identification Task (FAIT) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls completed the FAIT and the IGT, followed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the intelligence quotient (IQ) test. In addition to correlation analysis, regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which the performance of the WCST, in particular, perseverative error (PE), accounted for the variation in both the FAIT and the IGT. Results Relative to normal controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in the IGT, the FAIT and the WCST even after controlling for IQ. While normal controls did not show any relationships between the WCST and two affective tasks, patients with schizophrenia showed that variables in the WCST correlated not only with the FAIT total correct score (r=-0.503, p=0.001 for PE) but also with the IGT net score (r=0.385, p=0.016 for PE). The PE score was a better predictor of the performance on the FAIT (R2=0.25) than that of the performance on the IGT (R2=0.15). Conclusion Our findings imply that deficits in executive function in schizophrenia can affect performance on facial emotion recognition task more than performance on task based on emotion experience, that is, the feedback from the body. Therefore, more consideration is needed of the impact of executive function when interpreting the result of "conventional" facial affect recognition tests as opposed to interpreting the IGT. PMID:20046390

  16. Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F; Atkinson, Anthony P; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-07-01

    According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

  17. Maternal emotional responsiveness and toddlers' social-emotional competence.

    PubMed

    Denham, S A

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated, via extended naturalistic observation: (a) how mothers and children responded emotionally to each other's emotional displays; and (b) whether ratings of the child's social-emotional competence (made when the mother was absent) could be predicted by specific maternal responses to the child's emotions. Subjects were 28 mother-toddler pairs. Sequential analyses suggested that emotional dialogue does exist between mothers and children: certain emotional responses of mothers and children occurred more often than expected by their base rate during interaction. Maternal responsiveness to child sadness, anger, fear and neutrality predicted dimensions of children's social-emotional competence. Implications regarding the mother-child affective environment, socialization of emotion and social competency, and developmental methodology are discussed. PMID:8340440

  18. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

  19. Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation 

    E-print Network

    Mulholland, Paula Claire

    2010-11-26

    An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN ...

  20. Vicarious emotional experience and emotional expression in group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rosner, R; Beutler, L E; Daldrup, R J

    2000-01-01

    Emotional arousal is a key concept in most theories of change. To be able to understand the role of emotional expression better, two treatments, cognitive therapy (CT) and focused expressive psychotherapy (FEP; a manualized form of Gestalt therapy), with opposite process assumptions about the expression of emotions were compared. Additionally vicarious emotional experience in the sense of an underlying emotional contagion was examined. Clients suffering from major depression were rated for the expression of emotion in three randomly selected sessions of a 20-session treatment course. While the types of emotions generally experienced by CT clients and FEP clients did not differ significantly, differences in the subgroups of active and observing-group members were found. This indicated that the process assumptions made by the respective treatments were only valid for the actively participating clients and not for the observing group members. Emotional contagion as a process was not supported. PMID:10661364

  1. Emotional Intelligence: Giving Computers Effective Emotional Skills to Aid Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Creed; Russell Beale

    2008-01-01

    Why do computers need emotional intelligence? Science fiction often portrays emotional computers as dangerous and frightening,\\u000a and as a serious threat to human life. One of the most famous examples is HAL, the supercomputer onboard the spaceship Discovery,\\u000a in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could express, recognize and respond to human emotion, and generally had strong emotional skills

  2. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

  3. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

  4. Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

  5. Language and emotions: Emotional Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2009-01-01

    An emotional version of Sapir–Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and

  6. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

  7. 158 Emotion Elicitation Emotion Elicitation With Neurological Patients

    E-print Network

    Levenson, Robert W.

    158 Emotion Elicitation 10 Emotion Elicitation With Neurological Patients Robert W. Levenson 158 This chapter presents a set of issues and methods related to studying emotional functioning in neurological to inform research using the other abound. Patient Studies Studies of neurological patients have been

  8. Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Nursing Leadership Styles Among Nurse Managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  9. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  10. Empathy and emotion recognition in people with autism, first-degree relatives, and controls.

    PubMed

    Sucksmith, E; Allison, C; Baron-Cohen, S; Chakrabarti, B; Hoekstra, R A

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is the lens through which we view others' emotion expressions, and respond to them. In this study, empathy and facial emotion recognition were investigated in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC; N=314), parents of a child with ASC (N=297) and IQ-matched controls (N=184). Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy (the Empathy Quotient [EQ]) and a modified version of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Task (KDEF) using an online test interface. Results showed that mean scores on the EQ were significantly lower in fathers (p<0.05) but not mothers (p>0.05) of children with ASC compared to controls, whilst both males and females with ASC obtained significantly lower EQ scores (p<0.001) than controls. On the KDEF, statistical analyses revealed poorer overall performance by adults with ASC (p<0.001) compared to the control group. When the 6 distinct basic emotions were analysed separately, the ASC group showed impaired performance across five out of six expressions (happy, sad, angry, afraid and disgusted). Parents of a child with ASC were not significantly worse than controls at recognising any of the basic emotions, after controlling for age and non-verbal IQ (all p>0.05). Finally, results indicated significant differences between males and females with ASC for emotion recognition performance (p<0.05) but not for self-reported empathy (p>0.05). These findings suggest that self-reported empathy deficits in fathers of autistic probands are part of the 'broader autism phenotype'. This study also reports new findings of sex differences amongst people with ASC in emotion recognition, as well as replicating previous work demonstrating empathy difficulties in adults with ASC. The use of empathy measures as quantitative endophenotypes for ASC is discussed. PMID:23174401

  11. Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

    1983-01-01

    Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

  12. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  13. Emotional processing in personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine C. Herpertz

    2003-01-01

    In the field of personality disorders, borderline and antisocial types are associated with emotional dysfunctioning. In borderline\\u000a personality disorder (BPD), the hypothesis of emotional hyperresponsiveness can be supported by several experimental studies\\u000a that suggest highly intensive and slowly subsiding emotions to primed and non-primed stimuli, as well as by data showing biased\\u000a information, which processes in the context of emotions.

  14. Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules.

    PubMed

    Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module ? over the polynomial algebra [Formula: see text] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring [Formula: see text] of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module [Formula: see text] and of quotient behaviors [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior ensures the absence of impulsive solutions in the continuous case, and that of the compensator enables its realization by Kalman state space equations or elementary building blocks. We note that every behavior admits an IO decomposition with proper transfer matrix, but that most of these decompositions do not have this property, and therefore we do not assume the properness of the plant. (4) The new technique can also be applied to more general control interconnections according to Willems, in particular to two-parameter feedback compensators and to the recent tracking framework of Fiaz/Takaba/Trentelman. In contrast to these authors, however, we pay special attention to the properness of all constructed transfer matrices which requires more subtle algorithms. PMID:22389529

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keyvan Geula

    Recent studies of the human brain have brought into focus the importance of the emotional brain. The development of the emotional brain is closely associated with the proper attachment between parent and child. It is believed that social experiences of the human child shape the genetic expression of that individual. While genes are pivotal in establishing some aspects of emotionality,

  16. Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaman, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

  17. Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

  18. Emotion Education without Ontological Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion education is enjoying new-found popularity. This paper explores the "cosy consensus" that seems to have developed in education circles, according to which approaches to emotion education are immune from metaethical considerations such as contrasting rationalist and sentimentalist views about the moral ontology of emotions. I spell out five…

  19. Repositioning Emotions in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Kia Jane

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that emotions should be regarded as important components of learning. Focuses on recent trends in composition relating to how the emotions have or have not been included in discussions emphasizing writing instruction. Suggests opportunities for further research that give attention to emotion. (PM)

  20. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N = 185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n = 24; DS) and non-depressive (n = 31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. PMID:21432655

  1. How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

  2. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  3. Emotion dysregulation and schizotypy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie D. Henry; Melissa J. Green; Corinne Restuccia; Amber de Lucia; Peter G. Rendell; Skye McDonald; Jessica R. Grisham

    2009-01-01

    In schizophrenia, blunted affect has been argued to reflect difficulties with the amplification of emotion expressive behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ostensibly healthy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia present with similar difficulties. In the first component of the study, 843 non-clinical participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, of which 27 scoring in the upper 15%

  4. Motivation & Emotion Affective Computing

    E-print Network

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    such as stuffed animals often play important roles in children's games. Children treat nonliving toysMotivation & Emotion Affective Computing A Note of Paper Survey Edward Shen Student ID: R91922007 skeptic about what ideas the "Affective Computing Group" in the MIT Media Lab are really trying to deliver

  5. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  6. Tears: Emotional or somatic?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sotiris Zalidis

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years of his life Dr Alexis Brook directed his interest in psychosomatic medicine towards the study of the relationship between emotions and eye problems. This paper describes the history of this work, and concentrates on Alexis's exploration of the feelings behind two eye problems that are prevalent in general practice: Blepharitis and watering eyes.

  7. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  8. Early breastfeeding is linked to higher intelligence quotient scores in dietary treated phenylketonuric children.

    PubMed

    Riva, E; Agostoni, C; Biasucci, G; Trojan, S; Luotti, D; Fiori, L; Giovannini, M

    1996-01-01

    Strict control of phenylalanine intake is the main dietary intervention for phenylketonuric children. Whether other dietary-related factors improve the clinical outcome for treated phenylketonuric children in neurodevelopmental terms, however, remains unexplored. We retrospectively compared the intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 26 school-age phenylketonuric children who were either breastfed or formula fed for 20-40 days prior to dietary intervention. Children who had been breastfed as infants scored significantly better (IQ advantage of 14.0 points, p = 0.01) than children who had been formula fed. A 12.9 point advantage persisted also after adjusting for social and maternal education status (p = 0.02). In this sample of early treated term infants with phenylketonuria there was no associated between IQ scores and the age at treatment onset and plasma phenylalanine levels during treatment. We conclude that breastfeeding in the prediagnostic stage may help treated infants and children with phenylketonuria to improve neurodevelopmental performance. PMID:8834980

  9. Quotient-difference type generalizations of the power method and their analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Ford, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The recursion relations that were proposed by W. F. Ford and A. Sidi (Appl. Numer. Math, 4 (1988), pp. 477-489) for implementing vector extrapolation methods are used for devising generalizations of the power method for linear operators. These generalizations are shown to produce approximations to largest eigenvalues of a linear operator under certain conditions. They are similar in form to the quotient-difference algorithm and share similar convergence properties with the latter. These convergence properties also resemble those obtained for the basic LR and QR algorithms. Finally, it is shown that the convergence rate produced by one fo these generalizations is twice as fast for normal operators as it is for nonnormal operators.

  10. Target hazard quotient evaluation of cadmium and lead in fish from Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Khoshnood, Zahra

    2013-10-23

    Heavy metals are being increasingly released into the natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distributions of several heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were investigated in muscle and liver of three different fish species seasonally collected from Caspian Sea (autumn 2011-summer 2012). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The target hazard quotient (THQ) index for fish was calculated. Estimation of THQ calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQ values of Pb and Cd for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively, and for children were 0.08 and 0.05 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively. PMID:24081633

  11. A QR-type reduction for computing the SVD of a general matrix product\\/quotient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delin Chu; Lieven De Lathauwer; Bart De Moor

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a QR-type reduction technique is developed for the computation of the SVD of a general matrix product\\/quotient $A=A_1^{s_1}A_2^{s_2}\\\\cdots A_m^{s_m}$ with $A_i\\\\in {\\\\bf R}^{n \\\\times n} \\\\hbox{ and } s_i=1$or $s_i=-1$. First the matrix A is reduced by at most m QR-factorizations to the form $Q^{(1)}_{11}(Q^{(1)}_{21})^{-1}$, where $Q^{(1)}_{11}, Q^{(1)}_{21}\\\\in {\\\\bf R}^{n \\\\times n}$ and $(Q^{(1)}_{11})^TQ^{(1)}_{11}+(Q^{(1)}_{21})^TQ^{(1)}_{21}=I$. Then the SVD

  12. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  13. The correlation between brain gray matter volume and empathizing and systemizing quotients in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Wakabayashi, Akio; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-05-01

    The abilities to empathize and to systemize, two fundamental dimensions of cognitive style, are characterized by apparent individual differences. These abilities are typically measured using an empathizing quotient (EQ) and a systemizing quotient (SQ) questionnaire, respectively. The purpose of this study was to reveal any correlations between EQ and SQ scores and regional gray matter volumes in healthy children by applying voxel-based morphometry to magnetic resonance images. We collected MRIs of brain structure and administered children's versions of the EQ and SQ questionnaires (EQ-C and SQ-C, respectively) to 261 healthy children aged 5-15 years. Structural MRI data were segmented, normalized, and smoothed using an optimized voxel-based morphometric analysis. Next, we analyzed the correlation between regional gray matter volume and EQ-C and SQ-C scores adjusting for age, sex, and intracranial volume. The EQ-C scores showed significant positive correlations with the regional gray matter volumes of the left fronto-opercular and superior temporal cortices, including the precentral gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, and the insula, which are functionally related to empathic processing. Additionally, SQ-C scores showed a significant negative correlation with the regional gray matter volume of the left posterior parietal cortex, which is functionally involved in selective attention processing. Our findings suggest that individual differences in cognitive style pertaining to empathizing or systemizing abilities could be explained by differences in the volume of brain structures that are functionally relevant to empathizing and systemizing. PMID:22369996

  14. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

  15. Emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants and its relationship with empathy and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Carlos; Ibañez, Agustín; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ochoa, John; Trujillo, Natalia; Decety, Jean; Pineda, David

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the neural correlates of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants with different empathy profiles were compared to normal controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Forty ex-combatants and 20 non ex-combatants were recruited for this study. Empathy levels as well as executive functions were measured. Empathy level was used to create three groups. Group 1 (G1) included ex-combatants with normal empathy scores, and Group 2 included ex-combatants with low scores on at least one empathy sub-scales. In control group (Ctrl), participants with no antecedents of being combatants and with normal scores in empathy were included. Age, gender, educational and intelligence quotients level were controlled among groups. event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while individuals performed an affective picture processing task that included positive, neutral and negative emotional stimuli, which elicit an early modulation of emotion categorization (Early Posterior Negativity (EPN)) and late evaluative process (LPP). EPN differences were found among affective categories, but no group effects were observed at this component. LPP showed a main effect of category and group (higher amplitudes in ex-combatants). There was an inverse correlation between empathy and executive functions scores and ERPs. Results are discussed according to the impact of emotional processing on empathy profile. PMID:25302548

  16. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  17. The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

    2004-01-01

    Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

  18. Section 11.6: Complex Numbers First of all, I want to discuss the theorem about the quotients of power

    E-print Network

    Section 11.6: Complex Numbers First of all, I want to discuss the theorem about the quotients of complex numbers. Recall that we define i to be the square root of -1. Don't worry too much about what. Definition: a complex number is an expression a + bi. Complex numbers can be added and multiplied. Examples

  19. A quick referral guide for adults with suspected autism who do not have a learning disability. Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    A quick referral guide for adults with suspected autism who do not have a learning disability. AQ-10 Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) 1 I often notice small sounds when others do not 2 I usually diagnostic assessment. This test is recommended in `Autism: recognition, referral, diagnosis and management

  20. Autism spectrum quotient (AQ) profiles among male patients within high security psychiatric care: comparison with personality and cognitive functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Murphy

    2011-01-01

    The autism spectrum quotient (AQ) is a screening tool used to assess self-reported autistic traits. However, the available comparative data are based on non-forensic samples, with little examination of the relationship with other aspects of personality or cognitive functioning. An examination of the AQ among a high secure psychiatric sample of patients with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), a mental

  1. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (FHP) and respiratory quotient (RQ), and compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). The experiment used 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) under controlled temp...

  2. Brief Report: The Autism Spectrum Quotient Has Convergent Validity with the Social Responsiveness Scale in a High-Functioning Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to measure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and screen for ASD. It is readily available free of charge online and is easily accessible to practitioners, researchers and individuals who suspect that they may have an ASD. Thus, the AQ is a potentially useful, widely accessible tool for ASD…

  3. An improved correction formula for the estimation of harmonic magnitudes and its application to open quotient estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Iseli; Abeer Alwan

    2004-01-01

    Many voice quality parameters, such as the open quotient (OQ), depend on an accurate estimate of the source spectrum. It is known that OQ, for example, is correlated with the magnitude difference of the first two harmonics (H1-H2) of the speech source spectrum. In order to compare OQ estimates across different vocal tract configurations a magnitude correction is achieved by

  4. Neural network modeling of emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

  5. Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

  6. Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

  7. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  8. The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander L. Koole

    2009-01-01

    The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation

  9. Language, Emotions, and Cultures: Emotional Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. Conceptual and emotional mechanisms of languages are considered here along with their functions in the mind and cultural evolution. A fundamental contradiction in human mind is considered: language evolution requires reduced emotionality, but "too low" emotionality makes language "irrelevant to life," disconnected from sensory-motor experience. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the language instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, dynamic logic, neur...

  10. This Emotional Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

  11. Range of emotion.

    PubMed

    Weisz, C L

    1987-01-01

    Physical therapists speak of the range of motion given to patients with physical handicaps. There is for families, a "range of emotion" that is part of having a handicapped child. My daughter fills me with both joy and pain, yet she is completely passive. She speaks only with her eyes, and I am learning to listen with mine. In this article I show a rare glimpse inside the heart of a mother with a severely retarded child. It is an honest account of the range of emotion felt, the values that have been affected and the intense love I feel. Our bonding that is normally developed between mother and infant grows only stronger and lasts forever. PMID:2963558

  12. Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES

    E-print Network

    Double Dissociation between Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation 1 DOUBLE DISSOCIATION: CIRCADIAN OFF-PEAK TIMES INCREASE EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY; AGING IMPAIRS EMOTION REGULATION VIA REAPPRAISAL Running Head: Double Dissociation between

  13. Emotional gestures in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Merola

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible\\u000a differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures\\u000a a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal,\\u000a and type.

  14. Hamburger hazards and emotions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

  15. Speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Dodonova, Yulia A; Dodonov, Yury S

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the speed of emotional information processing and emotional intelligence (EI). To evaluate individual differences in the speed of emotional information processing, a recognition memory task consisted of two subtests similar in design but differing in the emotionality of the stimuli. The first subtest required judgment about whether an emotional facial expression in the test face was identical to one of the four emotional expressions of the same individual previously presented. The second subtest required deciding whether the test face with a neutral emotional expression was identical to one of the four neutral faces of different individuals previously presented. Mean response latencies were calculated for "Yes" and "No" responses. All latencies were correlated with other measures of processing speed such as discrimination time and time of figure recognition. However, the emotional expression recognition subtest was hypothesized to require the processing of emotional information in addition to that of facial identity. Latencies in this subtest were longer than those in the face recognition subtest. To obtain a measure of the additional processing that was called for by the emotionality of the stimuli, a subtraction method and regression analysis were employed. In both cases, measures calculated for "No" responses were related to ability EI, as assessed via a self-report questionnaire. According to structural equation modeling, there was a moderately negative association between latent EI and the latency of "No" responses in the subtest with emotional stimuli. These relationships were not observed for "Yes" responses in the same subtest or for responses in the subtest with neutral face stimuli. Although the differences between "Yes" and "No" responses in their associations with EI require further investigation, the results suggest that, in general, individuals with higher EI are also more efficient in the processing of emotional information. PMID:22506680

  16. Drug Design and Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  17. Emotional content of true and false memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    2008-01-01

    Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

  18. EARLY CAREER AWARD Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive,

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    EARLY CAREER AWARD Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences JAMES J. GROSS challenges is successfully regulating emotions. Do some emotion regulation strategies have more to recommend of emotion regulation, strategies that act early in the emotion-generative process should have a different

  19. Emotional Labor: A Conceptualization and Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glomb, Theresa M.; Tews, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite increased research attention, the emotional labor construct remains without a clear conceptualization and operationalization. This study designed a conceptually grounded, psychometrically sound instrument to measure emotional labor with an emphasis on the experience of discrete emotions-the Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS).…

  20. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  1. Attention modulates emotional expression processing.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

  2. Emotional foundations of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515

  3. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations. There were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but no significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. PMID:22738323

  4. Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

    \\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

  5. Teachers' emotions and test feedback

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1998-01-01

    & Edmund T. Emmer Published online: 25 Nov 2010. To cite this article: Laura M. Stough & Edmund T. Emmer (1998) Teachers' emotions and test feedback, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11:2, 341-361, DOI: 10... Teachers’ emotions and test feedback LAURA M. STOUGHTexas A & M UniversityEDMUND T. EMMERUniversity of Texas at Austin A qualitative methodology, grounded theory, was used to examine the thoughts and emotions ofteachers who delivered test feedback...

  6. Linguistic markers and emotional intensity.

    PubMed

    Argaman, Osnat

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced sadness. At the end of each film, subjects were asked to report on their emotions. This experiment was based on the supposition that there is a relationship between the various lexical modalities used by the subjects when writing about their emotions and the intensity of those emotions. The lexical modalities examined included intensifiers, the use of emotion words, repetitions, the use of first person singular, the use of metaphors, and the use of exclamations, among others. This experiment supported the research hypothesis, as it confirmed that significant differences existed between the lexical modalities found in texts written with lower emotional intensity (for both happiness and sadness) and those written with greater emotional intensity. PMID:19644755

  7. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  8. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  9. Effect of emotion on attentional processing 

    E-print Network

    Finucane, Anne Margaret

    2009-11-26

    Previous research on the relationship between emotion and attention has focused primarily on attention to emotionally valenced stimuli; trait anxiety and attentional biases for threat; or the relationship between emotion ...

  10. Knowledge and Self-Knowledge of Emotions 

    E-print Network

    Zamuner, Edoardo

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two questions. One concerns the metaphysics of emotions and asks what kinds of mental states emotions are. The other asks how the metaphysics of emotions bears on first and third-personal knowledge ...

  11. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.

    PubMed

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure. PMID:24228837

  12. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    PubMed Central

    Nahid, Reisi; Leila, Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods: We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads cranial irradiation and 20 healthy controls. The IQ was measured using the Raven's test in these patients. Results: Raven's test revealed significant differences in IQ between the survivors of ALL that were treated with IT MTX, IT MTX plus cranial irradiation and control group. There was no significant difference in the IQ with respect to sex, age and irradiation dose. Conclusion: We can that reveal that CNS prophylaxis treatment, especially the combined treatment, is associated with IQ score decline in ALL survivors. Therefore,a baseline and an annual assessment of their educational progress are suggested. PMID:23326813

  13. Preschoolers' Understanding of Parents' Emotions: Implications for Emotional Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    This study investigated preschoolers' understanding of three parental emotions: happiness, sadness, and anger. The study also examined relationships of these understandings to preschoolers' emotional competence. Subjects, 70 children with a mean age of 55 months, were presented with a dollhouse and were encouraged to imagine that the dollhouse…

  14. Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar

    E-print Network

    Levenson, Robert W.

    ), especially the semantic dementia (SD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes.1 Most previous research on these symptoms has relied on clinical inter- views,2 caregiver reports,3 and having patients identify the emotion to identify emotion in others have consistently found deficits,4,10-12 which are confirmed by caregiver

  15. Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

  16. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  17. Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

  18. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome\\/High-Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Richard Skinner; Joanne Martin; Emma Clubley

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Indi- viduals score in the range 0-50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with

  19. A critique of the microbial metabolic quotient ( qCO 2) as a bioindicator of disturbance and ecosystem development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Wardle; A. Ghani

    1995-01-01

    The microbial metabolic quotient (respiration-to-biomass ratio) or qCO2, conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem succession, is increasingly being used as an index of ecosystem development (during which it supposedly declines) and disturbance (due to which it supposedly increases). We investigated the suitability of qCO2 as an bioindicator using: (1) data from the Franz Josef Glacier chronosequence, spanning over 22,000

  20. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-04-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  2. Emotion and sociable humanoid robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Breazeal

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

  3. Emotional isolation in BBC Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

  4. Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carola

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

  5. Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

  6. Emotional States and Physical Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Salovey; Alexander J. Rothman; Jerusha B. Detweiler; Wayne T. Steward

    2000-01-01

    Positive emotional states may promote healthy perceptions, beliefs, and physical well-being itself. To explore potential mechanisms linking pleasant feelings and good health, the authors consider several lines of research, including (a) direct effects of positive affect on physiology, especially the immune system, (b) the information value of emotional experiences, (c) the psychological resources engendered by positive feeling states, (d) the

  7. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  8. The cognitive control of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin N. Ochsner; James J. Gross

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to control emotion is important for human adaptation. Questions about the neural bases of emotion regulation have recently taken on new import- ance, as functional imaging studies in humans have permitted direct investigation of control strategies that draw upon higher cognitive processes difficult to study in nonhumans. Such studies have examined (1) control- ling attention to, and (2)

  9. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  10. Measures of emotion: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

  11. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  12. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  13. Conceptual spaces and robotic emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Chella; Ignazio Infantino; Irene Macaluso

    2004-01-01

    A robot architecture is proposed that integrates in a simple and principled way artificial vision, artificial emotions and symbolic knowledge representation by means of a rich and expressive conceptual representation where affective computing takes place. The role of artificial emotions is to handle the expectation and confirmation mechanism at the basis of the evolution of the architecture. Experimental results are

  14. The importance of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Cheri

    2014-11-27

    Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

  15. On the Nature of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

  16. Emotional intelligence and educational reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lefkios Neophytou

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This reform aims primarily on the maximization of performance

  17. Children's emotional associations with colors.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, C J; Varghese, R

    1994-03-01

    In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, "How does (the color) make you feel?" All children were able to verbally express an emotional response to each color, and 69% of children's emotional responses were positive (e.g., happiness, excitement). Responses also demonstrated distinct color-emotion associations. Children had positive reactions to bright colors (e.g., pink, blue, red) and negative emotions for dark colors (e.g., brown, black, gray). Children's emotional reactions to bright colors became increasingly positive with age, and girls in particular showed a preference for brighter colors and a dislike for darker colors. Boys were more likely than girls were to have positive emotional associations with dark colors. Potential sources for children's color-emotion concepts, such as gender-related and idiosyncratic experiences, are discussed. PMID:8021626

  18. Parents’ Beliefs about Emotions and Children’s Recognition of Parents’ Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Perez-Rivera, Marie B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated parents’ emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children’s recognition of their parents’ emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children’s emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers’ emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children’s general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child’s emotion socialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents’ emotions. PMID:20160992

  19. The attraction of emotions: Irrelevant emotional information modulates motor actions.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Foroni, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Emotional expressions are important cues that capture our attention automatically. Although a wide range of work has explored the role and influence of emotions on cognition and behavior, little is known about the way that emotions influence motor actions. Moreover, considering how critical detecting emotional facial expressions in the environment can be, it is important to understand their impact even when they are not directly relevant to the task being performed. Our novel approach was to explore this issue from the attention-and-action perspective, using a task-irrelevant distractor paradigm in which participants are asked to reach for a target while a nontarget stimulus is also presented. We tested whether the movement trajectory would be influenced by irrelevant stimuli-faces with or without emotional expressions. The results showed that reaching paths veered toward faces with emotional expressions, in particular happiness, but not toward neutral expressions. This reinforces the view of emotions as attention-capturing stimuli that are, however, also potential sources of distraction for motor actions. PMID:25471046

  20. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  1. Reduction in Non-Protein Respiratory Quotient Is Related to Overall Survival after Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masaya; Seo, Yasushi; Yano, Yoshihiko; Momose, Kenji; Hirano, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that can occasionally lead to the shortening of life expectancy. We aimed to make a new and more accurate prognostic model taking into account the course of disease after TACE. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective cohort study involving 100 HCC patients who underwent TACE at Kobe University Hospital. Indirect calorimetry and blood biochemical examinations were performed before and 7 days after TACE. Time-dependent and time-fixed factors associated with 1-year mortality after TACE were assessed by multivariate analyses. A predictive model of 1-year mortality was established by the combination of odds ratios of these factors. Multivariate analyses showed that the ratio of non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ) (7 days after/before TACE) and Cancer of Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score were independent factors of 1-year mortality after TACE (p?=?0.014 and 0.013, respectively). Patient-specific 1-year mortality risk scores can be calculated by summarizing the individual risk scores and looking up the patient-specific risk on the graph. Conclusions The short-term reduction of npRQ was a time-dependent prognostic factor associated with overall survival in HCC patients undergoing TACE. CLIP score was a time-fixed prognostic factor associated with overall survival. Using the prediction model, which consists of the combination of time-dependent (npRQ ratio) and time-fixed (CLIP score) prognostic factors, 1-year mortality risk after TACE would be better estimated by taking into account changes during the course of disease. PMID:23520445

  2. Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveal health risks

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Declan P; Petróczi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Background Metal ions such as iron and copper are among the key nutrients that must be provided by dietary sources. Numerous foodstuffs have been evaluated for their contributions to the recommended daily allowance both to guide for satisfactory intake and also to prevent over exposure. In the case of heavy metal ions, the focus is often on exposure to potentially toxic levels of ions such as lead and mercury. The aim of this study is to determine target hazard quotients (THQ) from literature reports giving empirical levels of metal ions in table wines using the reference upper safe limit value. Contributions to the THQ value were calculated for seven metal ions along with total values for each wine. Results The THQ values were determined as ranges from previously reported ranges of metal ion concentrations and were frequently concerningly high. Apart from the wines selected from Italy, Brazil and Argentina, all other wines exhibited THQ values significantly greater than one indicating levels of risk. The levels of vanadium, copper and manganese had the highest impact on THQ measures. Typical potential maximum THQ values ranged from 50 to 200 with Hungarian and Slovakian wines reaching 300. THQ values for a sample of red and white wines were high for both having values ranging from 30 to 80 for females based on a 250 mL glass per day. Conclusion The THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ<1. It is notable that in the absence of upper safe limits, THQ values cannot be calculated for most metal ions, suggesting that further unaccountable risks are associated with intake of these wines. PMID:18973648

  3. Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Cathy; Hipskind, Peggy; Tsien, Cynthia; Malin, Steven K.; Kasumov, Takhar; Shah, Shetal N.; Kirwan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have increased gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation that may contribute to a low respiratory quotient (RQ), and this may be linked to sarcopenia and metabolic decompensation when these patients are hospitalized. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to measure RQ and its impact on skeletal muscle mass, survival, and related complications in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Fasting RQ and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined by indirect calorimetry in cirrhotic patients (n = 25), and age, sex, and weight-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Abdominal muscle area was quantified by computed tomography scanning. In cirrhotic patients we also examined the impact of RQ on mortality, repeat hospitalizations, and liver transplantation. Mean RQ in patients with cirrhosis (0.63 ± 0.05) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than healthy matched controls (0.84 ± 0.06). Psoas muscle area in cirrhosis (24.0 ± 6.6 cm2) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in controls (35.9 ± 9.5 cm2). RQ correlated with the reduction in psoas muscle area (r2 = 0.41; P = 0.01). However, in patients with cirrhosis a reduced RQ did not predict short-term survival or risk of developing complications. When REE was normalized to psoas area, energy expenditure was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis (66.7 ± 17.8 kcal/cm2) compared with controls (47.7 ± 7.9 kcal/cm2). We conclude that hospitalized patients with cirrhosis have RQs well below the traditional lowest physiological value of 0.69, and this metabolic state is accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle area. Although low RQ does not predict short-term mortality in these patients, it may reflect a decompensated metabolic state that requires careful nutritional management with appropriate consideration for preservation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:23288550

  4. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  5. The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

  6. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display: The Signaling Effects of Supervisors’ Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine K. Lam; Xu Huang; Onne Janssen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors’ emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates’ emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates’ emotional exhaustion was

  7. Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions. PMID:20230076

  8. Moral emotions and moral behavior.

    PubMed

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

    2007-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

  9. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  10. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  11. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience. PMID:21219075

  12. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

  13. Quantum Mechanical Model of Emotional Robot Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the emotional model of the humanoid Cynthea (Cybernetic Networked Humanoid Emotional Agent) robot is presented. The robot is explained at two lev- els: the cognitive level is described by the CRL language, and the emotional level manipulates the language in a data independent way. An emotional mapping is introduced and is used to alter the language words

  14. Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness Franck Berthelon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness Franck Berthelon Laboratoire I3S Sophia-Antipolis, France@polytech.unice.fr Abstract--We present an emotion ontology for describing and reasoning on emotion context in order to improve emotion detection based on bodily expression. We incorporate context into the two-factor theory

  15. ,CHAPTER 11 USING AN EMOTION REGULATION

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    ,CHAPTER 11 USING AN EMOTION REGULATION FRAMEWORK TO PREDICT THE OUTCOMES OF EMOTIONAL LABOR Moira Mikolajczak, Veronique Tran, Celeste M. Brotheridge and James J. Gross ABSTRACT Because our emotions different perspec- tives have sought to understand how emotions can be best managed for optimal functioning

  16. A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Model for Adaptive Emotion Regulation Tibor Bosse, Matthijs Pontier, and Jan Treur} Abstract. Emotion regulation describes how a subject can use certain strategies to affect emotion response levels. Usually, models for emotion regulation as- sume mechanisms based on feedback loops that indicate

  17. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  18. The Emotional Side of Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Richard F.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance improvement focuses on the effect of emotions on performance. Topics include the emotional intelligence of the performers; how people deal with emotional demands and the stress of their performance; and emotional states that affect attention, focus, perception, and time on task. (LRW)

  19. A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    72 3 A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence edmund t. rolls Emotions may be defined also leads to a framework for understanding emotional intelligence, in that the evolution of each and intelligence. By focusing on the core capacities that are fundamental to emotion, it is possible to identify

  20. Syllabus Subject to Change Human Emotion

    E-print Network

    with whom!). In particular we will cover topics of: Theories of emotion: Are our emotions a general physical to the case of Autism. Emotion Regulation: How do we change the emotions we have to turn up or down positive in general. Course Requirements The bulk of the class work will consist of active participation, predicated

  1. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

  2. Emotion Clustering Using the Results of Subjective Opinion Tests for Emotion Recognition in Infants' Cries

    E-print Network

    Hirschberg, Julia

    Emotion Clustering Using the Results of Subjective Opinion Tests for Emotion Recognition in Infants}@cis.nagasaki-u.ac.jp Abstract This paper proposes an emotion clustering procedure for emotion detection in infants' cries. Our clustering procedure is performed using the results of subjective opinion tests regarding the emotions

  3. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects Elise S. Dan-Glauser and James J. Gross Stanford University One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate

  5. African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs About Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was

  6. Emotional conflict and social context

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Chloë

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur. PMID:22661905

  7. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

  8. From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juslin, Patrik N.

    2013-09-01

    The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

  9. The architecture of emotion experience

    E-print Network

    Damm, Lisa Marie

    2009-01-01

    consistent with the hypothesis that happiness is an approachhappiness, to be a withdrawal emotion, which places significant doubt upon the hypothesishappiness. More plausible, as Phan et al. suggest is the hypothesis

  10. The emotional economy of housing 

    E-print Network

    Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception 

    E-print Network

    Teale, Cassandra

    2010-06-30

    The present study had the chief aim of validating the new Social Perception Test (SPT) as a veridically scored, pragmatic measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). To this end the SPT was compared to three similarly visually based tests – picture...

  12. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care provider writes them down so you can review them after leaving the office. All of these recommendations are intended to reduce the emotional concerns and stress most patients experience with pain. If you are ...

  13. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  14. Is Disgust a Homogeneous Emotion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Simpson; Sarah Carter; Susan H. Anthony; Paul G. Overton

    2006-01-01

    Many theoretical accounts consider disgust to be a unitary emotion, although others have challenged this notion. We predict\\u000a that if core disgust and socio-moral disgust are different constructs, then their co-associated elicited emotions are likely\\u000a to be different, and time as well as gender are likely to differentially affect their intensity (via a greater reliance of\\u000a socio-moral disgust on cognitive

  15. The Relationships Among Momentary Emotion Experiences, Personality Descriptions, and Retrospective Ratings of Emotion.

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    The Relationships Among Momentary Emotion Experiences, Personality Descriptions, and Retrospective Ratings of Emotion. by LISA FELDMAN BARRETT In psychological research, respondents often make retrospective ratings of their emotional experiences after an extended period of time. The present study sought

  16. Emotion and trauma: underlying emotions and trauma symptoms in two flooded populations 

    E-print Network

    Nesbitt, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    -related distress over time. Participants were asked to complete a survey pertaining to: basic emotions experienced during the flood event, basic emotions experienced after the flood, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ...

  17. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

  18. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  19. The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Jamshidi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people. Materials and Methods: The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P < 0.001). The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relation between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P < 0.001, r = 0.529). The results of linear regression also showed that the general emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x). Conclusion: Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the quality of the married people relations and promoting health of the families and the society. PMID:24741664

  20. Language and emotions: emotional Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    An emotional version of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that differences in language emotionalities influence differences among cultures no less than conceptual differences. Conceptual contents of languages and cultures to significant extent are determined by words and their semantic differences; these could be borrowed among languages and exchanged among cultures. Emotional differences, as suggested in the paper, are related to grammar and mostly cannot be borrowed. The paper considers conceptual and emotional mechanisms of language along with their role in the mind and cultural evolution. Language evolution from primordial undifferentiated animal cries is discussed: while conceptual contents increase, emotional reduced. Neural mechanisms of these processes are suggested as well as their mathematical models: the knowledge instinct, the dual model connecting language and cognition, neural modeling fields. Mathematical results are related to cognitive science, linguistics, and psychology. Experimental evidence and theoretical arguments are discussed. Dynamics of the hierarchy-heterarchy of human minds and cultures is formulated using mean-field approach and approximate equations are obtained. The knowledge instinct operating in the mind heterarchy leads to mechanisms of differentiation and synthesis determining ontological development and cultural evolution. These mathematical models identify three types of cultures: "conceptual" pragmatic cultures in which emotionality of language is reduced and differentiation overtakes synthesis resulting in fast evolution at the price of uncertainty of values, self doubts, and internal crises; "traditional-emotional" cultures where differentiation lags behind synthesis, resulting in cultural stability at the price of stagnation; and "multi-cultural" societies combining fast cultural evolution and stability. Unsolved problems and future theoretical and experimental directions are discussed. PMID:19616406

  1. EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

    In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

  2. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566

  3. Using the perturbation of the contact quotient of the EGG waveform to analyze age differences in adult speech.

    PubMed

    Bier, Stephen D; Watson, Catherine I; McCann, Clare M

    2014-05-01

    This study examines electroglottographic (EGG) recordings for 15 young and 14 old male speakers of New Zealand English. Analysis was performed on the sustained vowels /i:/ and /a:/ at three target levels for both pitch and loudness. Jitter was greater for older speakers, and the contact quotient (Qx) was significantly lower for older speakers. The greater jitter for older speakers indicates a decrease in the stability of the vocal production mechanism of the older speakers. The jitter is an acoustic measure, so to examine the stability at a physiological level, a perturbation measure of the Qx is developed and applied to the EGG recordings. The contact quotient perturbation (CQP) showed a significant increase for older speakers (1.55% and 3.54% for young and old, respectively), and this demonstrated more about the variability than the jitter data alone. When loudness is also considered, the Qx was significantly greater for louder vowels, whereas its perturbation was significantly lower for louder vowels. This relationship combined with the age effect, with the CQP for all three loudness levels being greater for the older speakers. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of vocal fold models that account for aging. PMID:24495426

  4. A probabilistic analysis reveals fundamental limitations with the environmental impact quotient and similar systems for rating pesticide risks

    PubMed Central

    Schleier, Jerome J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparing risks among pesticides has substantial utility for decision makers. However, if rating schemes to compare risks are to be used, they must be conceptually and mathematically sound. We address limitations with pesticide risk rating schemes by examining in particular the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) using, for the first time, a probabilistic analytic technique. To demonstrate the consequences of mapping discrete risk ratings to probabilities, adjusted EIQs were calculated for a group of 20 insecticides in four chemical classes. Using Monte Carlo simulation, adjusted EIQs were determined under different hypothetical scenarios by incorporating probability ranges. The analysis revealed that pesticides that have different EIQs, and therefore different putative environmental effects, actually may be no different when incorporating uncertainty. The EIQ equation cannot take into account uncertainty the way that it is structured and provide reliable quotients of pesticide impact. The EIQ also is inconsistent with the accepted notion of risk as a joint probability of toxicity and exposure. Therefore, our results suggest that the EIQ and other similar schemes be discontinued in favor of conceptually sound schemes to estimate risk that rely on proper integration of toxicity and exposure information. PMID:24795854

  5. The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

  6. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  7. Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition. PMID:24278456

  8. Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

  9. Virtual Humans Growing up: From Primary Toward Secondary Emotions

    E-print Network

    Kopp, Stefan

    of emotions ­ from primary emotions like happiness and fear, toward secondary emotions like hope and relief. 1 to classify emotions along a varying number of dimensions of connotative meaning [14]. In the following, we

  10. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  11. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion

    E-print Network

    Cabeza, Roberto

    Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto-Amygdalar Differences during Emotional Perception and Episodic Memory Peggy L. St. Jacques, Brandy Bessette

  12. CORRESPONDENCE Neurobiology of Emotional Dysfunction in

    E-print Network

    CORRESPONDENCE Neurobiology of Emotional Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: New Directions Revealed Through Meta-Analyses To the Editor: A ffective dysfunction is a prominent feature of schizophrenia psychopathology. Behavioral studies converge on several distinct aspects of emotional dysfunction, namely, 1) emo

  13. The effect of praying on emotion regulation 

    E-print Network

    Kossurok, Anke

    2012-11-28

    , and is associated with experiencing a greater purpose in life. Similarly, the present study examined whether praying affects people’s ability to regulate emotions. Participants were randomly assigned to a prayer, coping and control group. They completed the Emotion...

  14. Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions Dealing with a flood of emotions can be hard for stroke ... your doctor, “Where am I on my stroke recovery journey? Note: This fact sheet is compiled from ...

  15. Imagery and emotion in chronic pain 

    E-print Network

    Lonsdale, Jennifer Helen

    2010-11-26

    Psychological factors have important implications for adjustment to chronic pain, which itself has a variety of emotional consequences. Mental imagery has historically been assumed to be closely connected to emotional ...

  16. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...

  17. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & PEAK PERFORMANCE Intended for: Managers who want to increase intelligence in leading employees to optimal performance. Course Description: Current research in organizations intelligence. Emotional intelligence can be learned and improved over time, as opposed to traditional

  18. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Feelings & Emotions > 3 Ways to ...

  19. "There Are No Emotions in Math": How Teachers Approach Emotions in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Meca; Cross, Dionne; Hong, Ji; Aultman, Lori; Osbon, Jennifer; Schutz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Our research describes teacher emotions and the way that teachers manage emotional events in the classroom. Recent work completed by these researchers suggests that teachers' emotions and their reaction to student emotions are influenced by the teachers' beliefs. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: In this…

  20. Unpacking the neural associations of emotion and judgment in emotion-congruent judgment

    E-print Network

    Beer, Jennifer

    Unpacking the neural associations of emotion and judgment in emotion-congruent judgment Jamil P The current study takes a new approach to understand the neural systems that support emotion-congruent judgment. The bulk of previous neural research has inferred emotional influences on judgment from

  1. Attention and emotion: Does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films?

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    Attention and emotion: Does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films? C potent emotion-eliciting amusing and sad films, employed a novel method of continuous self-reported rating of emotion experience, and compared the impact of rating with passive viewing of amusing and sad

  2. Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Suppression and Reappraisal

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation and Vulnerability to Depression: Spontaneous Versus Instructed Use of Emotion Emotion dysregulation has long been thought to be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders. However vulnerability is related to difficulties with emotion regulation by comparing recovered-depressed and never

  3. Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  4. Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial Expressions of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial}@rrlab.kaist.ac.kr, 4 mjchung@ee.kaist.ac.kr Abstract. We can't overemphasize the importance of robot's emotional expressions as robots step into human's daily lives. So, the believable and socially acceptable emotional

  5. In press: Emotion (July, 2013) Association learning for emotional harbinger cues

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    In press: Emotion (July, 2013) Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: When do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations? Michiko-213-740-9407, Fax: +1-213-821-5561. #12;MEMORY OF EMOTIONAL PREDICTIVE CUES 2 Abstract Neutral cues that predict

  6. The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion Philippe R. Goldin, Kateri McRae, Wiveka Ramel, and James J. Gross Background: Emotion regulation strategies are thought to differ in when and how they influence the emotion-generative process. However, no study to date

  7. Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

  8. Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne M. Bloise; Marcia K. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    In studies of autobiographical memory, women typically remember more emotional information than do men. The present study evaluated whether women recall more emotional information than men when the content of an event is controlled. Participants read a script containing emotional and neutral information, under instructions to prepare advice for the characters addressing either interpersonal issues (emotional focus), concrete plans (neutral

  9. The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a,

    E-print Network

    The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a, , Deanna Schizophrenia Face recognition Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits both in facial emotion recognition­1644). Thus, individuals with schizophrenia may have deficits in facial emotion processing, at least in part

  10. Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

  11. Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expressions and their influence on decoding accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Hess; Sylvie Blairy

    2001-01-01

    The present study had the goal to assess whether individuals mimic and show emotional contagion in response to relatively weak and idiosyncratic dynamic facial expressions of emotions similar to those encountered in everyday life. Furthermore, the question of whether mimicry leads to emotional contagion and in turn facilitates emotion recognition was addressed. Forty-one female participants rated a series of short

  12. Dream Emotions, Waking Emotions, Personality Characteristics and Well-Being—A Positive Psychology Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Gilchrist; John Davidson; Jane Shakespeare-Finch

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to discover whether personality characteristics and waking emotions relate to dreaming emotions. There were 123 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. It was hypothesized that participants with significant positive emotional trait and state ratings in waking life would experience more positive dreams. Data collection utilized diaries and questionnaires, including Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire, IPIP Emotional

  13. The Couples Emotion Rating Form: Psychometric Properties and Theoretical Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Couples Emotion Rating Form assesses 3 types of negative emotion that are salient during times of relationship conflict. Hard emotion includes feeling angry and aggravated, soft emotion includes feeling hurt and sad, and flat emotion includes feeling bored and indifferent. In Study 1, scales measuring hard and soft emotion were validated by…

  14. Emotional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blonder, Lee X.; Slevin, John T.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor symptomatology, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by emotional dysfunction. Depression affects some 30 to 40 percent of Parkinson patients and other psychiatric co-morbidities include anxiety and apathy. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional dysfunction in Parkinson patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. There is also evidence suggesting that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems is important in the understanding and treatment of mood disorders in Parkinson's disease. In this review we discuss the neuropsychiatric abnormalities that accompany Parkinson's disease and describe their neuropsychological, neuropharmacologic, and neuroimaging concomitants. PMID:21876260

  15. Emotional Sequencing and Development in Fairy Tales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Ovesdotter Alm; Richard Sproat

    2005-01-01

    Afiect is a transient phenomenon, with emotions tending to blend and interact over time (4). This paper discusses emotional distri- butions in child-directed texts. It provides statistical evidence for the relevance of emotional sequencing, and evaluates trends of emotional story development, based on annotation statistics on 22 Grimms' fairy tales which form part of a larger on-going text-annotation project that

  16. Moving Beyond Basic Emotions in Aging Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise H. Phillips; Gillian Slessor

    There is consistent evidence that older adults have difficulties in perceiving emotions. However, emotion perception measures\\u000a to date have focused on one particular type of assessment: using standard photographs of facial expressions posing six basic\\u000a emotions. We argue that it is important in future research to explore adult age differences in understanding more complex,\\u000a social and blended emotions. Using stimuli

  17. Milestones and Mechanisms of Emotional Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Holodynski

    This chapter describes central stages in the development of emotions and emotion regulation. A developmental theory is proposed\\u000a that focuses on the complex interaction of emotions and social interactions. Expression signs for emotions in caregiver–child\\u000a interaction are seen as an important mediating factor that serves as the critical means of communication, particularly during\\u000a early ontogenesis, and through which culture enters

  18. Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome. PMID:25125770

  19. Temporal dynamics of emotional responding: amygdala recovery predicts emotional traits

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Brianna S.; Kral, Tammi R. A.; Jacquart, Jolene; Burghy, Cory A.; Weng, Helen Y.; Perlman, David M.; Bachhuber, David R. W.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; MacCoon, Donal G.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lutz, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s affective style is influenced by many things, including the manner in which an individual responds to an emotional challenge. Emotional response is composed of a number of factors, two of which are the initial reactivity to an emotional stimulus and the subsequent recovery once the stimulus terminates or ceases to be relevant. However, most neuroimaging studies examining emotional processing in humans focus on the magnitude of initial reactivity to a stimulus rather than the prolonged response. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the time course of amygdala activity in healthy adults in response to presentation of negative images. We split the amygdala time course into an initial reactivity period and a recovery period beginning after the offset of the stimulus. We find that initial reactivity in the amygdala does not predict trait measures of affective style. Conversely, amygdala recovery shows predictive power such that slower amygdala recovery from negative images predicts greater trait neuroticism, in addition to lower levels of likability of a set of social stimuli (neutral faces). These data underscore the importance of taking into account temporal dynamics when studying affective processing using neuroimaging. PMID:23160815

  20. Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

  1. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions

  2. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  3. Intimacy and Emotional Labour in Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of intimacy and emotional labour in academic development are explored utilising two methodological resources: autoethnography and narrative practice. An excerpt from the author's reflective professional journal infused with affect and emotion is analysed utilising theories of intimacy in modernity, emotion work, and…

  4. PETEEI: a PET with evolving emotional intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magy Seif El-Nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of what is now called 'emotional inte lligence' has revealed yet another aspect of human intelligence. Emotions have been shown to have a major impact on many of our everyday functions, including decision-making, planning, communication, and behavior. AI researchers have recently acknowle dged this major role that emotions play, and thus have began to incorporate models for simulating

  5. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  6. Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion

  7. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  8. Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Systems Science

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics Dan Yang Systems Science University of Ottawa Ottawa aspect of research which combines different classifiers of musical emotion such as acoustics and lyrical text. Keywords: Text Mining, Text Classification, Music Information Retrieval, Lyrical Text, Emotion. I

  9. Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression Asuka Murata,1 Jason S. Moser,2 that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are culturally trained to down

  10. Identifying Expressions of Emotion in Text

    E-print Network

    Identifying Expressions of Emotion in Text Saima Aman and Stan Szpakowicz School of Information, disgust, surprise, fear Goals investigate the expression of emotion in text through a corpus annotation study explore computational techniques for emotion classification Data drawn from blog posts

  11. Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias

    PubMed Central

    Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

  12. Examining categorical perception of emotional facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenna L Cheal

    2010-01-01

    Individuals perceive emotional facial expressions in categories. Specifically, for basic emotional expressions, discrimination performance is better for pairs of stimuli that fall on either side of a perceptual category boundary than for those within a perceptual category. In this thesis I have examined categorical perception of emotional facial expressions from a number of different perspectives. In Chapter 2, I found

  13. Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

    2008-01-01

    Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

  14. Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

  15. Emotion capture based on body postures and

    E-print Network

    systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 #12;The goalEmotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay

  16. Patterns of Cognitive Appraisal in Emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Smith; Phoebe C. Ellsworth

    1985-01-01

    There has long been interest in describing emotional experience in terms of underlying dimensions, but traditionally only two dimensions, pleasantness and arousal, have been reliably found. The reasons for these findings are reviewed, and integrating this review with two recent theories of emotions (Roseman, 1984; Scherer, 1982), we propose eight cognitive appraisal dimensions to differentiate emotional experience. In an investigation

  17. Relationships Among Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, William L.; And Others

    Although predictive accuracy (cognitive empathy) and emotional empathy may be aspects of the same general ability, few empirical studies have examined the relationships between these dimensions. The relationship between cognitive empathy and emotional empathy was investigated by correlating the Mehrabian and Epstein Emotional Empathy Scale and its…

  18. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened. PMID:24056239

  19. EMOTION AND CARDIAC TECHNOLOGY: AN INTERPRETIVE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Anderson; Wendy Moyle; Margaret McAllister

    This paper presents a frequently overlooked aspect of advanced technological care - that of the human dimension and emotions. Emotionality is defined as the emotional ways that a client experiences their embodied experience as a recipient of a cardiac pacemaker. One individual' s story from a larger interpretive study of clients who received pacemakers is presented and interpreted. Kev' s

  20. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  1. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion

  2. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina R. Jakoby

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting

  3. Facilitating Maltreated Children's Use of Emotional Language.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Lyon, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4-9-year-old maltreated children's spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children's use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children's use of emotional language. PMID:25243047

  4. Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces

    PubMed Central

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d? analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

  5. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  6. Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

  7. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  8. Assessing Your Emotional IQ. Professional Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stufft, William David

    1996-01-01

    Explores the current popular concept of emotional intelligence and discusses its relevance to teaching. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand, interpret, and control ones emotions. This is important for teachers, not only in terms of role modeling and classroom management, but also for understanding their students. (MJP)

  9. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  10. Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

  11. Automatic Discrimination of Emotion from Spoken Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toivanen, Juhani; Vayrynen, Eero; Seppanen, Tapio

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, experiments on the automatic discrimination of basic emotions from spoken Finnish are described. For the purpose of the study, a large emotional speech corpus of Finnish was collected; 14 professional actors acted as speakers, and simulated four primary emotions when reading out a semantically neutral text. More than 40 prosodic…

  12. How Emotional Development Unfolds Starting at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Ross Thompson, PhD, responds to questions about the capacity of infants and toddlers to experience complex emotions and about how parents and caregivers can support early social and emotional development. He underscores the importance of allowing children to experience a wide range of emotions--including frustration and anger--as vital to their…

  13. The Siegel Upper Half Space is a Marsden-Weinstein Quotient: Symplectic Reduction and Gaussian Wave Packets

    E-print Network

    Tomoki Ohsawa

    2015-04-15

    We show that the Siegel upper half space $\\Sigma_{d}$ is identified with the Marsden-Weinstein quotient obtained by symplectic reduction of the cotangent bundle $T^{*}\\mathbb{R}^{2d^{2}}$ with $\\mathsf{O}(2d)$-symmetry. The reduced symplectic form on $\\Sigma_{d}$ corresponding to the standard symplectic form on $T^{*}\\mathbb{R}^{2d^{2}}$ turns out to be a constant multiple of the symplectic form on $\\Sigma_{d}$ obtained by Siegel. Our motivation is to understand the geometry behind two different formulations of the Gaussian wave packet dynamics commonly used in semiclassical mechanics. Specifically, we show that the two formulations are related via the symplectic reduction.

  14. Remembering faces with emotional expressions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng; Ward, James

    2014-01-01

    It is known that happy faces create more robust identity recognition memory than faces with some other expressions. However, this advantage was not verified against all basic expressions. Moreover, no research has assessed whether similar differences also exist among other expressions. To tackle these questions, we compared the effects of six basic emotional expressions on recognition memory using a standard old/new recognition task. The experiment also examined whether exposure to different emotional expressions at training creates variable effects on transfer of the trained faces to a new/neutral expression. Our results suggest that happy faces produced better identity recognition relative to disgusted faces, regardless of whether they were tested in the same image or a new image displaying a neutral expression. None of the other emotional expressions created measurable advantage for recognition memory. Overall, our data lend further support for the happy face advantage for long-term recognition memory. However, our detailed analyses also show that the advantage of happy expression on identity recognition may not be equally discernible from all other emotional expressions. PMID:25540634

  15. Common Reactions to Stress Emotional

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    · Take breaks from social media and news #12;Things to consider... · This may take time, take the time#12;Common Reactions to Stress · Physical · Mental · Emotional · Behavioral #12;Physical · Fatigue Health Services · www.uhs.fsu.edu · (850) 644-4567 #12;Resources · Career Center · www

  16. Emotion and reason in persuasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Buck; Erika Anderson; Arjun Chaudhuri; Ipshita Ray

    2004-01-01

    Whereas practitioners in advertising and marketing clearly appreciate the importance of affect and emotion, traditional academic approaches to the analysis of persuasion tend to stress rational “central route” or “systematic” processing. However, the notion of two sorts of cognitive process—one rational, the other affective—has gained increasing support. This paper presents a view of the conceptualization and operationalization of the interaction

  17. Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

  18. Attentional bias in emotional disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

    1986-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

  19. Emotion Circuits in the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. LeDoux

    2000-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

  20. Emotional adjustment in infertile couples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh; Ahmad Ali Noorbala; Nasrin Abedinia; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed emotional adjustment of infertile couples and the psychological outcomes of infertility (depression, anxiety, relationship and sexual problems, and personality disorders) in different phases of treatment. References used include studies which have been performed within the last two decades. The articles were invested on data bases at Pub med, Scholar, Google, Scpous and Amazon and key words

  1. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  2. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  3. The Importance of Emotional Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yi-Hsuen; Liu, Min

    2008-01-01

    As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver…

  4. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

  5. Spatial frequencies and emotional perception.

    PubMed

    De Cesarei, Andrea; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that, during evolution, specific mechanisms developed in order to optimize the detection of threats and opportunities even in perceptually degraded conditions. A naturalistic example of perceptual degradation can be found in blurry images, which contain the coarsest elements of a scene (low spatial frequencies) but lack the fine-grained details (high spatial frequencies). In the past decade, several studies have examined the relation between spatial frequencies and emotions, using a variety of methods, stimuli, and rationales. Here, we conduct a literature survey on the studies that have examined the relation between emotion and spatial frequencies. Some studies have suggested that the low spatial frequencies of emotional stimuli may be processed by a subcortical neural pathway, eventually eliciting emotional responses. However, the evidence provided by the reviewed studies does not support this possibility, for conceptual and methodological reasons (e.g., mistaking the processing of a fuzzy stimulus for subcortical processing). Here, the conceptual and methodological problems present in the reviewed studies are analyzed and discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23183741

  6. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n?=?196) and without (n?=?163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P?

  7. Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

  8. Emotions: Happy, Sad, Mad, and Glad

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Plouffe

    2011-12-09

    In this activity, you and your child can explore the emotions we all experience. Read the instructions aloud to your child and follow the links provided. Discuss each question with your child as you go through. You may be surprised by how much you both learn! Do you know what emotions are? Emotions are the feelings we have. We can show these feelings on our face, by our actions, or through our words. Some examples of positive emotions are: happiness, joy, and excitement. Some examples of negative emotions are: sadness, fear, or anger. In this video, our friend Kermit ...

  9. Further Evidence on the Factorial Structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for Adults with and without a Clinical Diagnosis of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu Pow; Kelly, Adrian B.; Peterson, Candida Clifford

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic traits however its factor structure has been primarily determined from nonclinic populations. This study aimed to establish an internally coherent and reliable factor structure for the AQ using a sample of 455 Australian adults of whom 141 had autism spectrum disorder…

  10. Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

  11. A Simplified Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment to Evaluate the Effect of the Ionic Strength on the Equilibrium Concentration Quotient of the Bromcresol Green Dye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hernan B.; Mirenda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A modified laboratory experiment for undergraduate students is presented to evaluate the effects of the ionic strength, "I", on the equilibrium concentration quotient, K[subscript c], of the acid-base indicator bromcresol green (BCG). The two-step deprotonation of the acidic form of the dye (sultone form), as it is dissolved in water, yields…

  12. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  13. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients with and without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizoo, Bram B.; van den Brink, Wim; Gorissen-van Eenige, Marielle; Koeter, Maarten W.; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD or ADHD. We applied receiver operating…

  14. How does emotional content affect lexical processing?

    PubMed

    Vinson, David; Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience. PMID:24215294

  15. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. PMID:24309879

  16. Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Contrasting cognitive and physical decline, research in emotional aging suggests that most older adults enjoy high levels of affective well-being and emotional stability into their 70s and 80s. We investigate the contributions of age-related changes in emotional motivation and competence to positive affect trajectories. We give an overview on the recent literature on emotional processing and emotional regulation, combining evidence from correlational and experimental, as well as behavioral and neuroscience studies. In particular, we focus on emotion–cognition interactions, including the positivity effect. Looking forward, we argue that efforts to link levels of emotional functioning with long-term outcomes, combining space- and time-sensitive measures of brain function, and developing interventions to improve life quality for older adults may further refine life-span theories and open promising avenues of empirical investigation. PMID:20054013

  17. Age and emotional experience during mutual reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Carstensen, Laura L

    2003-09-01

    In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, 129 adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion. Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience during other social activities. Age was associated with increasing positive emotion during mutual reminiscing. In Study 2 (n = 132), the authors examined emotions during reminiscing for specific positive and negative events. In this case, age was associated with improved emotional experiences but only during reminiscing about positive experiences. Findings are discussed in terms of socioemotional selectivity theory and the literature on reminiscence and life review. PMID:14518806

  18. Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

  19. Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration. PMID:25759676

  20. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: Relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  1. A rule-based emotion-dependent feature extraction method for emotion analysis from speech.

    PubMed

    Hozjan, Vladimir; Kacic, Zdravko

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a rule-based method to determine emotion-dependent features, which are defined from high-level features derived from the statistical measurements of prosodic parameters of speech. Emotion-dependent features are selected from high-level features using extraction rules. The ratio of emotional expression similarity between two speakers is defined by calculating the number and values of the emotion-dependent features that are present for the two speakers being compared. Emotional speech from Interface databases is used for evaluation of the proposed method, which was used to analyze emotional speech from five male and four female speakers in order to find any similarities and differences among individual speakers. The speakers are actors that have interpreted six emotions in four different languages. The results show that all the speakers share some universal signs regarding certain emotion-dependent features of emotional expression. Further analysis revealed that almost all speakers in the analysis used unique sets of emotion-dependent features and each speaker used unique values for the defined emotion-dependent features. The comparison among speakers shows that the expressed emotions can be analyzed according to two criteria. The first criterion is a defined set of emotion-dependent features and the second is an emotion-dependent feature value. PMID:16708965

  2. Relations among Teachers’ Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices, and Preschoolers’ Emotional Competence

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Carol A.S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings Utilizing a three-part model of emotion socialization that includes Modeling, Contingent Responding, and Teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers’ self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers’ emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multi-level analyses revealed that the majority of the variance in the children’s emotion knowledge scores and observed emotional behavior was predicted by factors within, rather than between, classrooms. Teachers’ use of all three emotion socialization techniques did contribute to the prediction of the children’s scores; however, the nature of these associations differed by children’s age and gender. Practice or Policy The development of children’s emotional competence is a complex, multi-faceted process in which many interaction partners play a role; early childhood teachers act as emotion socialization agents for the children in their care by modeling emotions, responding either supportively or punitively to children’s expressions of emotions, and engaging in direct instruction regarding emotional experience. This research may provide a basis for potential future interventions designed to assist teachers in developing their own emotion socialization skills so that they can be more effective emotion socialization agents for the children in their care. PMID:24159256

  3. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

  4. Social-emotional predictors of preschoolers' responses to adult negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Denham, S A; Couchoud, E A

    1991-05-01

    The study examined predictors of children's prosocial responses to adult negative emotions. An adult displayed anger, sadness and pain during play sessions with 39 preschoolers (mean age = 43 months). Older children responded more prosocially to all three emotions, whereas children with greater emotion knowledge responded more prosocially to the adult's sadness. Children who behaved prosocially in response to peers' negative emotions also were prosocial after the adult's negative emotions, even with effects of age and emotion knowledge held constant. Assertive children responded more prosocially to the adult's anger, even with effects of other variables held constant. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:1864891

  5. Emotion Regulation Patterns in Adolescents With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison to Typically Developing Adolescents and Association With Psychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Borue, Xenia; Day, Taylor N.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with poor emotional control and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Emotion regulation (ER) is a potential contributing factor, but there has been limited research on ER and its role in comorbid psychopathology in ASD. In this study, we compared self-reported ER with self- and parent reports of psychopathology in 25 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 23 age- and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)-matched typically developing controls. Contrary to expectations, both groups reported similar levels of adaptive, voluntary forms of ER (problem solving, acceptance, etc.). However, the ASD group reported significantly greater use of involuntary forms of ER that are typically maladaptive, including remaining focused on the stressor (e.g. rumination and emotional arousal) and shutting down (e.g. emotional numbing and being unable to think or act). Associations between ER and psychopathology were generally more robust using self-report rather than parent report. For both groups, greater endorsement of involuntary ER strategies was associated with higher ratings of psychopathology, whereas voluntary ER strategies focused on changing or adapting to the situation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychopathology. The magnitude and direction of association between ER types and psychopathology were similar for measures of depression and anxiety. These findings can help guide the development of psychosocial treatments targeting dysfunctional ER in adolescents with ASD. Interventions focused on ER as a transdiagnostic process may be a more robust method to improve emotional control and decrease emotional distress in ASD than disorder-specific interventions. PMID:24610869

  6. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. PMID:21787073

  7. Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

  8. Neuroanatomical correlates of categorizing emotional valence.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Erin L; Vartanian, Oshin; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Robertson, John A; Mandel, David R; Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2014-06-11

    Categorization is fundamental to cognition, and evidence suggests that categorizing emotional stimuli holds a privileged position in human information processing. According to theories on embodied emotion, the subjective emotional feeling elicited by a stimulus plays a causal role in its categorization. Using functional MRI, we tested the hypothesis that categorizing emotional stimuli in terms of valence would activate structures involved in valence-specific experience of emotion. On each trial, two pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented successively. Upon viewing the second picture, participants categorized it as belonging to the same valence category as or a different valence category from the first picture. Categorization activated an exclusively left-lateralized set of regions implicated in taxonomic categorization (i.e. judging whether two items are of the same kind) including the middle temporal gyrus and precuneus, as well as the posterior cingulate cortex. Critically, for negative pictures categorization activated structures that underlie the experience of negative emotions (anterior insula, left orbitofrontal cortex), whereas for positive pictures categorization activated structures that underlie the experience of positive emotions (dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Consistent with predictions derived from theories on embodied emotion, these results suggest that experience of emotion contributes to categorizing emotional valence. PMID:24922349

  9. A Framework for Studying Emotions Across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David J.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether “emotions” are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have “emotions,” since emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as “emotion primitives”, can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases, and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach aims not only at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. PMID:24679535

  10. Asymmetric effects of emotion on mnemonic interference

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Tighe, Sarah K.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional experiences can strengthen memories so that they can be used to guide future behavior. Emotional arousal, mediated by the amygdala, is thought to modulate storage by the hippocampus, which may encode unique episodic memories via pattern separation – the process by which similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations. While prior work has examined mnemonic interference due to similarity and emotional modulation of memory independently, examining the mechanisms by which emotion influences mnemonic interference has not been previously accomplished in humans. To this end, we developed an emotional memory task where emotional content and stimulus similarity were varied to examine the effect of emotion on fine mnemonic discrimination (a putative behavioral correlate of hippocampal pattern separation). When tested immediately after encoding, discrimination was reduced for similar emotional items compared to similar neutral items, consistent with a reduced bias towards pattern separation. After 24 h, recognition of emotional target items was preserved compared to neutral items, whereas similar emotional item discrimination was further diminished. This suggests a potential mechanism for the emotional modulation of memory with a selective remembering of gist, as well as a selective forgetting of detail, indicating an emotion-induced reduction in pattern separation. This can potentially increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio in any given situation to promote survival. Furthermore, we found that individuals with depressive symptoms hyper-discriminate negative items, which correlated with their symptom severity. This suggests that utilizing mnemonic discrimination paradigms allows us to tease apart the nuances of disorders with aberrant emotional mnemonic processing. PMID:24607286

  11. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

  12. The emotional effects of disruption

    E-print Network

    Adcock, Christina Annie Lee

    2004-11-15

    OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Jane Sell Dudley Poston (Chair of Committee) (Member) Charles Samuelson Rogelio Saenz (Member) (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: Sociology iii ABSTRACT... The Emotional Effects of Disruption. (August 2004) Christina Annie Lee Adcock, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jane Sell Disruption is something that we must negotiate as part of our everyday lives. The context of disruption...

  13. Physiological and self-assessed emotional responses to emotion-eliciting films in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Elices, Matilde; Soler, Joaquim; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Jesús Portella, María; Pérez, Víctor; Alvarez, Enrique; Carlos Pascual, Juan

    2012-12-30

    According to Linehan's biosocial model, the core characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotional dysregulation. In the present study, we investigated two components of this model: baseline emotional intensity and emotional reactivity. A total of 60 women, 30 with BPD diagnosis and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects (HCs), participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated emotional responses to six films designed to elicit discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement and neutral). The second experiment evaluated emotional reactions to three emotion-eliciting films containing BPD-specific content (sexual abuse, emotional dependence and abandonment/separation). Skin conductance level, heart rate, and subjective emotional response were recorded for each film. Although self-reported data indicated that negative emotions at baseline were stronger in the BPD group, physiological measures showed no differences between the groups. Physiological results should be interpreted with caution since most BPD participants were under pharmacological treatment. BPD subjects presented no subjective heightened reactivity to most of the discrete emotion-eliciting films. Subjective responses to amusement and "BPD-specific content" films revealed significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the main characteristic of BPD might be negative emotional intensity rather than heightened emotional reactivity. PMID:22884218

  14. Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. Kring; Albert H. Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Although previous studies of emotional responding have found that women are more emotionally expressive than men, it remains unclear whether men and women differ in other domains of emotional response. We assessed the expressive, experiential, and physiological emotional responses of men and women in 2 studies. In Study 1, undergraduates viewed emotional films. Compared with men, women were more expressive,

  15. Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus R. Scherer

    1993-01-01

    Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

  16. Joint Emotion-Topic Modeling for Social Affective Text Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenghua Bao; Shengliang Xu; Li Zhang; Rong Yan; Zhong Su; Dingyi Han; Yong Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of social affective text mining, which aims to discover the connections between social emotions and affective terms based on user-generated emotion labels. We propose a joint emotion-topic model by augmenting latent Dirichlet allocation with an additional layer for emotion modeling. It first generates a set of latent topics from emotions, followed by generating

  17. Towards Background Emotion Modeling for Embodied Virtual Agents

    E-print Network

    Gaspar, Graça

    Towards Background Emotion Modeling for Embodied Virtual Agents Luís Morgado1,2 1 Instituto a model of emotion that represents both structural and dynamic aspects of emotional phenomena to serve as background support for multifaceted emotion characterization. In this paper we present an emotion model

  18. Emotion and Decision-Making Explained Edmund T. Rolls

    E-print Network

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    Emotion and Decision-Making Explained Edmund T. Rolls Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience Oxford England OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS . OXFORD 2014 #12;Preface What produces emotions? Why do we have emotions? How do we have emotions? Why do emotional states feel like something? How do we take decisions

  19. Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder Aleena C. Hay, Gal How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder. Emotion. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000024 #12;BRIEF REPORT Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar

  20. Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Stefan; Paulus, Frieder M; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2013-12-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology. PMID:24304773

  1. The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dawn V.

    2010-01-01

    Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

  2. Individual Differences in Emotional Complexity: Their Psychological Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Mee Kang; Phillip R. Shaver

    2004-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature and psychological impli- cations of individual differences in emotional complexity, defined as hav- ing emotional experiences that are broad in range and well differentiated. Emotional complexity was predicted to be associated with private self- consciousness, openness to experience, empathic tendencies, cognitive complexity, ability to differentiate among named emotions, range of emotions experienced daily, and interpersonal

  3. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    ?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  4. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  5. Emotional Granularity and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Suvak, Michael K.; Litz, Brett T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant–unpleasant) and arousal (calm–activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21171723

  6. Building Emotional Resilience to Promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked positive emotional health with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of negative emotion. Several potential mechanisms have been posited to account for these associations, including improved health behavior, direct physiological benefits, and enhanced resistance to and recovery from stress among individuals with high versus low positive emotional resources. Links between positive emotion and health have implications for targeted interventions, but no empirical investigations to date have tested the impact of efforts to enhance positive emotion on cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, some existing data point to the potential value of strategies to increase emotional resources for individuals' functional health and capacity to manage stress. PMID:20046858

  7. Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

    2013-06-01

    Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

  8. The impact of emotion on numerosity estimation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Both time and numerosity can be represented continuously as analog properties whose discrimination conforms to Weber’s Law, suggesting that the two properties may be represented similarly. Recent research suggests that the representation of time is influenced by the presence of emotional stimuli. If time and numerosity share a common cognitive representation, it follows that a similar relationship may exist between emotional stimuli and the representation of numerosity. Here, we provide evidence that emotional stimuli significantly affect humans’ estimation of visual numerosity. During a numerical bisection task, enumeration of emotional stimuli (angry faces) was more accurate compared to enumeration of neutrally valenced stimuli (neutral faces), demonstrating that emotional stimuli affect humans’ visual representation of numerosity as previously demonstrated for time. These results inform and broaden our understanding of the effect of negative emotional stimuli on psychophysical discriminations of quantity. PMID:23950754

  9. Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.

    SciTech Connect

    Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-08-01

    Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

  10. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  11. Auditory emotional cues enhance visual perception.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, René; Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by emotional cues as compared to neutral cues. When the cue was presented visually we replicated the emotion-induced impairment found in other studies. Our results suggest emotional stimuli have a twofold effect on perception. They impair perception by reflexively attracting attention at the expense of competing stimuli. However, emotional stimuli also induce a nonspecific perceptual enhancement that carries over onto other stimuli when competition is reduced, for example, by presenting stimuli in different modalities. PMID:20096407

  12. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  13. Investigation of the role of parenting, emotion regulation, emotional eating and lifestyle factors in adolescents’ weight 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arlene Anne

    2012-11-28

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescent’s weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of ...

  14. Emotional Complexity and Emotional Well-being in Older Adults: Risks of High Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Åkerstedt, Anna M.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Older and midlife adults tend to report greater emotional complexity and greater emotional wellbeing than younger adults but there is variability in these factors across the lifespan. The current study determined how the personality trait of Neuroticism at baseline predicts emotional complexity and emotional well-being 10 years later; a goal was to determine if Neuroticism is a stronger predictor of these emotion outcomes with increasing age in adulthood. Data were from two waves of the MIDUS projects (N = 1,503; aged 34 to 84). Greater Neuroticism predicted less emotional complexity as indicated by associations between Positive (PA) and Negative Affect (NA), particularly for older participants. Neuroticism predicted lower emotional well-being and this association was stronger for older and midlife than for younger adults. Overall, high Neuroticism may be greater liability for poor emotion outcomes for older and perhaps for midlife adults than for younger persons. Clinical and theoretical implications of this conclusion are discussed. PMID:21854349

  15. Emotion Recognition: The Effects of Age on the Identification of Emotion from Facial and Body Expressions 

    E-print Network

    Gibbon, Sarah

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has identified a well-replicated decline in the recognition of emotion in healthy adult ageing. Furthermore, research has shown that multiple sources of emotion al information can help to reduce the severity of this decline...

  16. Do Emotional Intelligence and personality predict the way that Emotional Labour is performed 

    E-print Network

    Dore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Despite the many claims made about the importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI) for employee performance, no previous research has studied EI as an antecedent of Emotional Labour (EL). The focus of the present study was ...

  17. Eating Pathology, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Overeating in Obese Adults with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gianini, Loren M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Method The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Discussion Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. PMID:23910772

  18. Emotional news : how emotional content of news and financial markets are related

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Wan Li, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    We present here a first step towards developing a quantitative model that relates investor emotions to financial markets. We used Wall Street Journal articles as a proxy of investor emotions on a "macro" level. We measured ...

  19. Impact of the Usage of a Slotted Collector Bar on Thermoelectric Field in a 300-kA Aluminum Reduction Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wenju; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhaowen; Gao, Bingliang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Cui, Jianzhong

    2015-02-01

    The horizontal current in a metal pad is critical because of its effect on the aluminum reduction cell current efficiency and energy consumption. A type of slotted collector bar was considered to have great potential to reduce the horizontal current. The effects of the slotted collector bar on the horizontal current in the metal pad, current, and temperature distribution in the cathode carbon and collector bar were simulated using the finite-element method. The results show that the maximum current at the middle of the metal pad decreases from 11,940 A m-2 to 9490 A m-2 and the peak of current density (the maximum current density) shifts toward the cell side. Moreover, the maximum horizontal current and average horizontal current at the middle of the metal pad in the cell with slotted collector bar decreases by ~50% and 50.9%, respectively. However, the cathode voltage in the cathode with the slotted collector bar is ~53 mV higher than that in the conventional cell, and the temperature in the slotted collector bar is higher than that in the conventional cathode. The results of this study may provide the database in understanding the effect of the slotted collector bar on cell.

  20. Attachment and Emotion in Autobiographical Memory Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jeffrey Farrar; Lauren G. Fasig; Melissa K. Welch-Ross

    1997-01-01

    The relation of attachment status to autobiographical memory was assessed in 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds. Of specific interest was the relation between attachment status and the emotional content of parent–child memory conversations. Forty-six mother–child dyads discussed four events designed to elicit positive and negative emotional themes. Both attachment status and gender moderated the emotional content of this memory talk. Mother–daughter dyads

  1. Grief as a social emotion: theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jakoby, Nina R

    2012-09-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting a cognitive-structural model of grief that integrates the different theoretical elements. PMID:24563936

  2. Cultural variations in emotion: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Batja Mesquita; Nico H. Frijda

    1992-01-01

    The psychological and anthropological literature on cultural variations in emotions is reviewed. The literature has been interpreted within the framework of a cognitive-process model of emotions. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were identified in each phase of the emotion process; similarities in 1 phase do not necessarily imply similarities in other phases. Whether cross-cultural differences or similarities are found depends

  3. Emotional empathy and associated individual differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Mehrabian; Andrew L. Young; Sharon Sato

    1988-01-01

    Emotional empathic tendency is defined as an individual’s characteristic inclination to respond with emotions similar to those\\u000a of others who are present. Within a three-dimensional framework for describing temperament, more empathic persons were found\\u000a to be more arousable, and secondarily, more pleasant. Greater skin conductance and heart-rate responses of more empathic persons\\u000a to emotional stimuli confirmed their greater arousability. Also,

  4. Fundamentals of Mathematical Theory of Emotional Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg Pensky; Kirill Chernikov

    2010-01-01

    In this book we introduce a mathematically formalized concept of emotion,\\u000arobot's education and other psychological parameters of intelligent robots. We\\u000aalso introduce unitless coefficients characterizing an emotional memory of a\\u000arobot. Besides, the effect of a robot's memory upon its emotional behavior is\\u000astudied, and theorems defining fellowship and conflicts in groups of robots are\\u000aproved. Also unitless parameters

  5. The Temporal Dynamics of Voluntary Emotion Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Walter; Alexander von Kalckreuth; Dina Schardt; Achim Stephan; Thomas Goschke; Susanne Erk; André Aleman

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundNeuroimaging has demonstrated that voluntary emotion regulation is effective in reducing amygdala activation to aversive stimuli during regulation. However, to date little is known about the sustainability of these neural effects once active emotion regulation has been terminated.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe addressed this issue by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy female subjects. We performed an active emotion regulation

  6. Gender Stereotypes of Emotional Reactions: How We Judge an Emotion as Valid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Hutson-Comeaux; Janice R. Kelly

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report a partial replication of the finding that women face a double-bind with respect to emotional expression (Kelly & Hutson-Comeaux, 2000) and explore the hypothesis that gender-inconsistent emotional reactions are perceived to be more valid indicators of one's underlying emotional experience than gender-consistent emotional reactions. Men and women evaluated the appropriateness and sincerity of women's and

  7. Emotion recognition and emotional theory of mind in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Oldershaw; D. Hambrook; K. A. Rimes; K. Tchanturia; J. Treasure; S. Richards; U. Schmidt; T. Chalder

    2011-01-01

    Background: Difficulties with social function have been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but underpinning factors are unknown. Emotion recognition, theory of mind (inference of another's mental state) and ‘emotional’ theory of mind (eToM) (inference of another's emotional state) are important social abilities, facilitating understanding of others. This study examined emotion recognition and eToM in CFS patients and their relationship

  8. Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571

  9. The multiplicity of emotions: A framework of emotional functions in decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Rüdiger Pfister; Gisela Böhm

    2008-01-01

    A four-fold classification of emotions with respect to their functions in decision making is proposed. It is argued that emotions are not homogenous concerning their role in decision making, but that four distinct functions can be distinguished concerning emotional phenomena. One function is to provide information about pleasure and pain for preference construction, a second function is to enable rapid

  10. Emotional speech in the context of entertainment robots. The effect of different emotions on users' perceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Kroll-peters; Simon Rauterberg; Ugur Surucu; Andreas Unterstein; Mathias Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    We examined if entertainment-robots should use emotions. In an experiment we presented jokes to participants to find out if different emotions have different effects on their pleasure. We found out that emotions do have an impact on userspsila perceptions when using entertainment robots.

  11. Emotion-Related Parenting Styles (ERPS): A Short Form for Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Camodeca, Amy; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Hakim-Larson, Julie; Voelker, Sylvia; Gragg, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Parents' meta-emotion philosophy guides their approach to teaching their children about emotions (J. M. Gottman, L. F. Katz, & C. Hooven, 1997) and is measured with the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test-Likert (Gottman et al., 1997, modified by J. Hakim-Larson, A. Parker, C. Lee, J. Goodwin, & S. Voelker, 2006). The…

  12. Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    for our work is on general software agents that model human performance in rich simulated worlds of emotional appraisal: how emotions arise from an evalua- tion of how environmental events relate to an agent's plans and goals. Marsella et al.'s IPD system focuses more on the impact of emotions on behavior

  13. Service With a Smile: Do Emotional Intelligence, Gender, and Autonomy Moderate the Emotional Labor Process?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazel-Anne M. Johnson; Paul E. Spector

    2007-01-01

    This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomy were significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal outcomes of emotional exhaustion, affective well-being, and job satisfaction. Females were more likely to

  14. The Components of Young Children's Emotion Knowledge: Which Are Enhanced by Adult Emotion Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks were…

  15. Relationships between a Social-Emotional Learning Program and Emotional Intelligence in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Katherine Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between a social-emotional learning program and the 5 dimensions of emotional intelligence and whether the relationships were moderated by gender. The problem addressed in the study was the lack of research focused on the development of emotional intelligence at the middle school level. The participants…

  16. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    PubMed

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N°?=?°269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N°?=?°110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective. PMID:24489647

  17. Aging and Goal-Directed Emotional Attention: Distraction Reverses Emotional Biases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa Knight; Travis L. Seymour; Joshua T. Gaunt; Christopher Baker; Kathryn Nesmith; Mara Mather

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings reveal that older adults favor positive over negative stimuli in both memory and attention (for a review, see Mather & Carstensen, 2005). This study used eye tracking to investigate the role of cognitive control in older adults’ selective visual attention. Younger and older adults viewed emotional-neutral and emotional-emotional pairs of faces and pictures while their gaze patterns were

  18. Social and Emotional Pedagogies: Critiquing the New Orthodoxy of Emotion in Classroom Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Val

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines new structured attempts to address and manage emotions in the classroom. Critical analysis focuses on the broad emotional literacy agenda operating within schools, and more specifically the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) programme. Data are drawn on from an ethnographic study located in Behaviour Support Units…

  19. Emotional Labor Actors: A Latent Profile Analysis of Emotional Labor Strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2014-07-28

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068812

  20. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N?=?72) and an experience sampling study (N?=?34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  1. The Primacy of Perceiving: Emotion Recognition Buffers Negative Effects of Emotional Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Rohrmann, Sonja; De Pater, Irene E.; Beersma, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    There is ample empirical evidence for negative effects of emotional labor (surface acting and deep acting) on workers' well-being. This study analyzed to what extent workers' ability to recognize others' emotions may buffer these effects. In a 4-week study with 85 nurses and police officers, emotion recognition moderated the relationship between…

  2. Giving Shape and Form to Emotion: Using Drawings to Identify Emotions in University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Academia is generally not considered a place for expressing emotions, yet emotions are inevitably present in complex activities such as teaching. We investigated whether drawings could be used as a means of gaining access to emotions in university teaching and how. The data consisted of academics' drawings of themselves as university teachers…

  3. The Nonverbal Expression of Negative Emotions: Peer and Supervisor Responses to Occupational Therapy Students' Emotional Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality

  4. Improving Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Self-Efficacy through a Teaching Intervention for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Lorraine Dacre; Qualter, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in…

  5. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  6. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  7. Long-term memory for the emotional gist and the emotional essence of an experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin A. Safer; Carolyn W. Breslin; Richard P. Boesch; Renata Cerqueira

    2007-01-01

    We investigated accuracy in recalling past emotional behaviours and emotionality. Male couples discussed the history of their relationship, and coders rated the extent to which each partner engaged in behaviours such as complimenting or criticising. These ratings were combined into dimensions representing the deeper, emotional essence of that partner's discussion (expressions of We-ness, Fondness, Negativity, and Disappointment). Four years later,

  8. Facial EMG Responses to Emotional Expressions Are Related to Emotion Perception Ability

    PubMed Central

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a “reactivation” of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG) - in response to emotional facial expressions. N°?=?°269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N°?=?°110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective. PMID:24489647

  9. Emotionally-Vulnerable Subjects and New Inequalities: The Educational Implications of an "Epistemology of the Emotions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by very different goals, various interest groups argue that the British government should address problems with citizens' emotional well-being. Concerns about emotional vulnerability and poor emotional well-being amongst growing numbers of children, young people and adults produce ideas and approaches from different branches of…

  10. Are Women the ``More Emotional'' Sex? Evidence From Emotional Experiences in Social Context

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    . These beliefs pervade American culture, from self-help books to talk shows, from ® lms to comedy routines between global, retrospective, and on-line, momentary self-descriptions of emotional experience-related differences in emotion in global self-descriptions, but not in the averaged momentary ratings of emotion

  11. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  12. Child and Adolescent Emotion Regulation: The Role of Parental Emotion Regulation and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bariola, Emily; Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and child emotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future…

  13. Emotional Competence, Emotion Socialization, and Young Children's Peer-Related Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Estep, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated linkages between aspects of emotional competence and preschoolers' social skills with peers, as well as parental emotion socialization practices as predictors of social skill. Found that emotional competence variables were meaningfully related to the peer variables and that, for non-constructive anger reactions, maternal reports of…

  14. The Learning Organisation Part II. "Getting Emotional": The Learning Organisation and Emotional Intelligence. CLMS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jason

    Emotional intelligence (EI) can be a diagnostic tool and a set of guiding principals to address the learning organization's concern of overcoming the barriers to collective learning. EI can be defined as "how well you handle yourself." It refers to "emotional literacy" and a person's capacity to manage emotions and use them as a resource. This is…

  15. On the Validity of the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task for Emotion Induction

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed. PMID:24776697

  16. Emotion Framing: Does It Relate to Children's Emotion Knowledge and Social Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Hart, Sybil

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between maternal emotion framing and mother--child relationship quality and children's emotional and social competence. Sixty-one mothers and their preschool children (33 boys) completed dyadic and individual measures. Observations were made of mother--child synchrony and maternal emotion framing. Children's…

  17. Is Obesity Associated With a Decline in Intelligence Quotient During the First Half of the Life Course?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the first half of the life course. We analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study to test whether becoming obese was associated with intellectual decline from childhood to midlife. We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured in childhood and adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person assessments. As expected, cohort members who became obese had lower adulthood IQ scores. However, obese cohort members exhibited no excess decline in IQ. Instead, these cohort members had lower IQ scores since childhood. This pattern remained consistent when we accounted for children's birth weights and growth during the first years of life, as well as for childhood-onset obesity. Lower IQ scores among children who later developed obesity were present as early as 3 years of age. We observed no evidence that obesity contributed to a decline in IQ, even among obese individuals who displayed evidence of the metabolic syndrome and/or elevated systemic inflammation. PMID:24029684

  18. Theory and Methodology in Researching Emotions in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Differing theoretical approaches to the study of emotions are presented: emotions as private (psychodynamic approaches); emotions as sociocultural phenomena (social constructionist approaches); and a third perspective (interactionist approaches) transcending these two. These approaches have important methodological implications in studying…

  19. Quantification of the push-pull Effect in disubstituted alkynes - Application of occupation quotients ?*/? and 13C chemical shift differences ??Ctbnd C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinpeter, Erich; Klaumünzer, Ute

    2014-09-01

    Structures, 13C chemical shifts, and the occupation quotients of anti-bonding ?* and bonding ? orbitals of the Ctbnd C triple bond along a series of push-pull alkynes (p)Xsbnd C6H4sbnd C(O)sbnd Ctbnd Csbnd NHsbnd C6H4sbnd Y(p) (X,Y = H, Me, OMe, NMe2, NO2, COMe, COOMe, F, Cl, Br) were computed at the DFT level (B3LYP/6-311G**) of theory. Both the stereochemistry (cis/trans-isomers) by steric twist and the push-pull character by both 13C chemical shift differences (??Ctbnd C) and the occupation quotient (?*Ctbnd C/?Ctbnd C) were studied; the latter two parameters can be readily employed to precisely quantify the push-pull effect in alkynes.

  20. Cognitive–emotional distinctiveness: Separating emotions from non-emotions in the representation of a stressful memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriel Boals; Kitty Klein

    2005-01-01

    Current theories on autobiographical memory and recent neurological evidence suggest that emotional and non-emotional features of a memory may be retrieved by separate systems. To test this notion, 207 participants who had experienced the break-up of a significant romantic relationship in the last 12 months completed a Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) procedure in relation to the previous relationship. The resulting MDS

  1. A comparison of cardiac rate-pressure product and pressure-rate quotient with Holter monitoring in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Campbell; William G Langston; Gregory A Ross

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with hypertension or cardiovascular disease, or both, for myocardial ischemia and cardiac arrhythmias while undergoing minor oral surgery.Study design. Sixteen patients were studied with noninvasive monitoring including heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure to calculate rate-pressure product (systolic blood pressure multiplied by heart rate) and pressure-rate quotient

  2. Display rules for expressed emotion within organizations and gender: implications for emotional labor and social place marking

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Andrea Eugenie Charlotte

    2004-09-30

    in emotional interactions. Findings indicate that there were no main effects for level of gendering as operationalized by this study on emotional dissonance, emotional exhaustion and subjective social place. Exploratory data analyses conducted further...

  3. Emotional manipulation : factor analysis of a self-report measure. Links to emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and personality 

    E-print Network

    Moore, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The current emotions research literature emphasises positive understanding and management of others’ emotions. However, a more negative type of management of others may occur. A 41-item self-report emotional manipulation ...

  4. Behavioural and emotional problems in early-treated adolescents with phenylketonuria in comparison with diabetic patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Weglage, J; Grenzebach, M; Pietsch, M; Feldmann, R; Linnenbank, R; Denecke, J; Koch, H G

    2000-07-01

    Even early-treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. This study was performed to determine whether emotional and behavioural problems are specific in phenylketonurics and whether they depend on the quality of biochemical control. This comparative study covered 42 PKU patients aged 10-18 years (mean 14.7 years) and 42 diabetic patients matched for sex, age and socioeconomic status. Patients' groups were compared with a control sample of healthy controls (n = 2900) from an epidemiological study. We used the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) according to Achenbach, intelligence quotient (IQ) test according to Weiss, and monitoring of blood phenylalanine concentrations and HBA1 concentrations. Internalizing problems such as depressive mood, anxiety, physical complaints or social isolation were significantly elevated in both phenylketonuric and diabetic patients, whereas externalizing problems were not. The two patient groups did not differ significantly either in the degree or in the pattern of their psychological profile. In both groups no significant correlations could be computed between the psychological characteristics and the biochemical control, the IQ, and the socioeconomic status. No patient was undergoing psychiatric treatment or psychotherapy. Our results strongly support a psychological perspective for the development of behavioural and emotional problems in both phenylketonuric and diabetic patients. Thus, medical treatment should be accompanied by psychological support for the families. PMID:10947203

  5. Seeing emotion with your ears: emotional prosody implicitly guides visual attention to faces.

    PubMed

    Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal communication involves the processing of multimodal emotional cues, particularly facial expressions (visual modality) and emotional speech prosody (auditory modality) which can interact during information processing. Here, we investigated whether the implicit processing of emotional prosody systematically influences gaze behavior to facial expressions of emotion. We analyzed the eye movements of 31 participants as they scanned a visual array of four emotional faces portraying fear, anger, happiness, and neutrality, while listening to an emotionally-inflected pseudo-utterance (Someone migged the pazing) uttered in a congruent or incongruent tone. Participants heard the emotional utterance during the first 1250 milliseconds of a five-second visual array and then performed an immediate recall decision about the face they had just seen. The frequency and duration of first saccades and of total looks in three temporal windows ([0-1250 ms], [1250-2500 ms], [2500-5000 ms]) were analyzed according to the emotional content of faces and voices. Results showed that participants looked longer and more frequently at faces that matched the prosody in all three time windows (emotion congruency effect), although this effect was often emotion-specific (with greatest effects for fear). Effects of prosody on visual attention to faces persisted over time and could be detected long after the auditory information was no longer present. These data imply that emotional prosody is processed automatically during communication and that these cues play a critical role in how humans respond to related visual cues in the environment, such as facial expressions. PMID:22303454

  6. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed. PMID:22389432

  7. Emotion regulation in customer service roles: testing a model of emotional labor.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David

    2003-01-01

    The study used a time-sampling method to test aspects of A. Grandey's (2000) emotion regulation model of emotional labor. Eighteen customer service employees from a call center recorded data on pocket computers every 2 hr at work for 2 weeks. Participants completed ratings of emotion regulation, events, expressed and felt emotions, well-being, and performance on 537 occasions and completed questionnaires containing individual and organizational measures. Multilevel analyses supported many aspects of the model but indicated that it has to be implemented precisely in terms of regulating emotion for organizational goals. Results also showed that deep and surface acting had different consequences for employees. Overall, the study found that emotion regulation is a viable platform for understanding emotional labor. PMID:12553529

  8. Cardiovascular changes during induced emotion: an application of lang's theory of emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Prkachin, K M; Williams-Avery, R M; Zwaal, C; Mills, D E

    1999-09-01

    Studies of emotion have provided occasional support for physiological differentiation of affective states; however, the evidence has been inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to investigate cardiovascular changes associated with relived experiences of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust and to examine the utility of methods designed to optimize the induction of emotional responses. Thirty-four undergraduates who scored 0.5 sd above the mean on Larsen and Diener's Affect Intensity Measure described their most intense experiences of five emotions. These descriptions were then used to induce those emotions while blood pressure and other hemodynamic measures were monitored. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke volume differentiated among emotions. The results support the suggestion that cardiovascular activity differentiates emotional states and provide some insight into the physiological adjustments subserving such effects. The study demonstrates a method that may be applied to studies of discrete emotions. PMID:10576474

  9. Service with a smile: do emotional intelligence, gender, and autonomy moderate the emotional labor process?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hazel-Anne M; Spector, Paul E

    2007-10-01

    This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomy were significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal outcomes of emotional exhaustion, affective well-being, and job satisfaction. Females were more likely to experience negative consequences when engaging in surface acting. Autonomy served to alleviate negative outcomes for individuals who used emotional labor strategies often. Contrary to our hypotheses, emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between the emotional labor strategies and personal outcomes. Results demonstrated how the emotional labor process can influence employee well-being. PMID:17953492

  10. Emotional intelligence, not music training, predicts recognition of emotional speech prosody.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Christopher G; Cuddy, Lola L

    2008-12-01

    Is music training associated with greater sensitivity to emotional prosody in speech? University undergraduates (n = 100) were asked to identify the emotion conveyed in both semantically neutral utterances and melodic analogues that preserved the fundamental frequency contour and intensity pattern of the utterances. Utterances were expressed in four basic emotional tones (anger, fear, joy, sadness) and in a neutral condition. Participants also completed an extended questionnaire about music education and activities, and a battery of tests to assess emotional intelligence, musical perception and memory, and fluid intelligence. Emotional intelligence, not music training or music perception abilities, successfully predicted identification of intended emotion in speech and melodic analogues. The ability to recognize cues of emotion accurately and efficiently across domains may reflect the operation of a cross-modal processor that does not rely on gains of perceptual sensitivity such as those related to music training. PMID:19102595

  11. Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

  12. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  13. Music and emotions: from enchantment to entrainment.

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Trost, Wiebke

    2015-03-01

    Producing and perceiving music engage a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional processes. Emotions are a central feature of the enjoyment of music, with a large variety of affective states consistently reported by people while listening to music. However, besides joy or sadness, music often elicits feelings of wonder, nostalgia, or tenderness, which do not correspond to emotion categories typically studied in neuroscience and whose neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we review the similarities and differences in the neural substrates underlying these "complex" music-evoked emotions relative to other more "basic" emotional experiences. We suggest that these emotions emerge through a combination of activation in emotional and motivational brain systems (e.g., including reward pathways) that confer its valence to music, with activation in several other areas outside emotional systems, including motor, attention, or memory-related regions. We then discuss the neural substrates underlying the entrainment of cognitive and motor processes by music and their relation to affective experience. These effects have important implications for the potential therapeutic use of music in neurological or psychiatric diseases, particularly those associated with motor, attention, or affective disturbances. PMID:25773637

  14. Mother and Child Emotions during Mathematics Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet S.; Hejmadi, Ahalya

    2008-01-01

    Mathematics is often thought of as a purely intellectual and unemotional activity. Recently, researchers have begun to question the validity of this approach, arguing that emotions and cognition are intertwined. The emotions expressed during mathematics work may be linked to mathematics achievement. We used behavioral measures to identify the…

  15. ARCHIVAL REPORT Anhedonia and Emotional Experience in

    E-print Network

    ARCHIVAL REPORT Anhedonia and Emotional Experience in Schizophrenia: Neural and Behavioral considered key features of schizophrenia. However, self-report research suggests that emotional experience in response to affect-eliciting stimuli is intact in schizophrenia. Investigation of neural activity during

  16. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Nina R.

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  17. The Emotional Dimensions of Urban Teacher Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta

    2006-01-01

    This study used an emotional geographies theoretical framework to analyze the emotional dimensions of urban teacher change. Fifteen urban physical education teachers involved in a comprehensive curriculum reform project were interviewed and observed multiple times across one school year. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis, and…

  18. http://emr.sagepub.com/ Emotion Review

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    our liberty ... at stake" (Hatch, 2009, p. 13). But judges are people, and people naturally feel.sagepub.comDownloaded from at Stanford University Libraries on March 7, 2014emr.sagepub.comDownloaded from #12;Emotion Review conflict with the reality of flesh-and-blood judges. This disconnect with regard to judicial emotion

  19. Towards a Cognitive Theory of Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Oatley; P. N. Johnson-laird

    1987-01-01

    A theory is proposed that emotions are cognitively based states which co-ordinate quasi-autonomous processes in the nervous system. Emotions provide a biological solution to certain problems of transition between plans, in systems with multiple goals. Their function is to accomplish and maintain these transitions, and to communicate them to ourselves and others. Transitions occur at significant junctures of plans when

  20. Supporting the Emotional Work of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Belinda M.

    2007-01-01

    This practical book deals with the emotional and moral dimensions of school leadership. The author sets out the intra-personal and interpersonal attributes, attitudes and behaviours necessary to develop emotional and moral leadership within the school community. The book provides a range of person-centred strategies for building communities of…