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1

Assessing emotional intelligence: reliability and validity of the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined reliability and validity of a new measure of emotional (i.e. non-cognitive) intelligence, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997, in a sample of 243 university students. Results indicated that the EQ-i domain and component scales had good item homogeneity and internal consistency. Scores were not unduly affected by response styles or biases. The EQ-i scales had

Darek Dawda; Stephen D. Hart

2000-01-01

2

The Relationship between Principal's Emotional Intelligence Quotient, School Culture, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between secondary school principal's emotional intelligence quotient, school culture, and student achievement. Partial correlation was conducted to examine the degree of relationships between principal's emotional intelligence quotient and school culture controlling for the effect…

Noe, Jeff

2012-01-01

3

Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

2011-01-01

4

An Analytical Model / Emotional Intelligence Quotient and QOL in Mothers with Infants in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence quotient and health-related quality of life using structural equation modeling. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,911 mothers who visited the Health Center for an infant medical examination. A hypothetical model was constructed using variables of the emotional intelligence quotient, social support, coping, parenting stress, and perceived health competence. Result: There were a total of 1,104 valid responses (57.8%). Significant standardized estimates were obtained, confirming the goodness of fit issues with the model. The emotional intelligence quotient had a strong impact on physical and psychological quality of life, and showed the greatest association with coping. This study differed from previous studies in that, due to the inclusion of social support and explanatory variables in coping, an increase in coping strategies was more highly associated with emotional intelligence quotient levels than with social support. Conclusion: An enhanced emotional intelligence quotient should be considered a primary objective to promote the health of mothers with infant children.

Ohashi, Junko; Katsura, Toshiki; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae

2013-01-01

5

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success in middle school students with learning disabilities. Emotional Intelligence (EI) was measured using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV). The results of the BarOn EQ-i: YV was then compared to…

Petersen, Vanessa C.

2010-01-01

6

An Exploratory Study of Emotional Intelligence and Domestic Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there is no literature specifically addressing the relationship between spousal battering and emotional intelligence, a concept that captures the success, or lack thereof, of a person's functioning in their immediate environment. Forty-four men convicted of spousal assault and 76 undergraduate students completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; R. Bar-On, BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: User's Manual, Multi-Health Systems, Inc.,

Jason Winters; Robert J. W. Clift; Donald G. Dutton

2004-01-01

7

Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

2009-01-01

8

Emotional Intelligence and Decisional Conflict Styles: Some Empirical Evidence among Italian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relationship between emotional intelligence and decisional conflict styles. Five hundred and twenty-eight Italian high school students (median age = 18; SD = 0.76) were given the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: short (Bar-On EQ-i:S). The "Intrapersonal" dimension…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Blustein, David L.

2010-01-01

9

Development of Emotional Intelligence in First-Year Undergraduate Students in a Frontier State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as knowing the emotional state of self and others. Its relevance for college student development is only beginning to be researched. In the present research, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was administered to college students at the beginning and end of a semester-long course designed…

Leedy, Gail M.; Smith, James E.

2012-01-01

10

Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

2012-01-01

11

Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

2011-01-01

12

Emotional Intelligence and Selection to Administrative Chief Residency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors sought to determine whether emotional intelligence, as measured by the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is associated with selection to administrative chief resident. Method: Authors invited senior-year residents at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston to participate in an observational…

Kilpatrick, Charlie C.; Doyle, Peter D.; Reichman, Eric F.; Chohan, Lubna; Uthman, Margaret O.; Orejuela, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

13

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness among Sponsored Research Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence, as perceived by senior level university sponsored research administration professionals and their perceived leadership effectiveness, as measured by the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory and the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) for Self.…

Jones, Ventez Derrell

2012-01-01

14

Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

2004-01-01

15

The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

2012-01-01

16

Emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy: a study of Turkish EFL pre-service teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy among 90 English language pre-service teachers from a university in Turkey. Data sources included Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy’s Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale and Reuven Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory. The findings indicated that Turkish EFL pre-service teachers felt more efficacious in managing the class rather than in making the class

Zeynep Koço?lu

2011-01-01

17

Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.  

PubMed

A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. PMID:25400166

Megreya, Ahmed M

2015-01-01

18

EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR AND THE BARON EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT INVENTORY: APPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MBTI and the BarOn EQ-i are both widely used for professional development. Minimal research has been conducted on the relationship between these instruments. The MBTI and the EQ-i were administered to 34 MBA students, and 23 working professionals. Significant correlations found on numerous scales are discussed. Practical applications are also outlined. Over the past decades, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Manitoba Elizabeth Gilbert

19

Computing in quotient groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present polynomial-time algorithms for computation in quotient groupsG=K of a permutation group G. In effect, these solve, for quotient groups,the problems that are known to be in polynomial-time for permutation groups.Since it is not computationally feasible to represent G=K itself as a permutationgroup, the methodology for the quotient-group versions of such problemsfrequently differ markedly from the procedures that have

William M. Kantor; Eugene M. Luks

1990-01-01

20

The role of cognitive versus emotional intelligence in Iowa Gambling Task performance: What’s emotion got to do with it?  

PubMed Central

Debate persists regarding the relative role of cognitive versus emotional processes in driving successful performance on the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). From the time of its initial development, patterns of IGT performance were commonly interpreted as primarily reflecting implicit, emotion-based processes. Surprisingly, little research has tried to directly compare the extent to which measures tapping relevant cognitive versus emotional competencies predict IGT performance in the same study. The current investigation attempts to address this question by comparing patterns of associations between IGT performance, cognitive intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WASI) and three commonly employed measures of emotional intelligence (EI; Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, EQ-i; Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, SREIS). Results indicated that IGT performance was more strongly associated with cognitive, than emotional, intelligence. To the extent that the IGT indeed mimics “real-world” decision-making, our findings, coupled with the results of existing research, may highlight the role of deliberate, cognitive capacities over implicit, emotional processes in contributing to at least some domains of decision-making relevant to everyday life.

Webb, Christian A.; DelDonno, Sophie; Killgore, William D.S.

2014-01-01

21

Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university  

PubMed Central

Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

2014-01-01

22

Quotient Fuzzy Cognitive Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a decomposition theory for fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs). First, we partition the set of vertices of an FCM into blocks according to an equivalence relation on the set, and by regarding these blocks as vertices we construct a quotient FCM. Second, each block induces a natural sectional FCM of the original FCM. We apply our

Jian Ying Zhang; Zhi-qiang Liu

2001-01-01

23

Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar [14] offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…

Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

2005-01-01

24

The impact of stroke on emotional intelligence  

PubMed Central

Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is important for personal, social and career success and has been linked to the frontal anterior cingulate, insula and amygdala regions. Aim To ascertain which stroke lesion sites impair emotional intelligence and relation to current frontal assessment measurements. Methods One hundred consecutive, non aphasic, independently functioning patients post stroke were evaluated with the Bar-On emotional intelligence test, "known as the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)" and frontal tests that included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Frontal Systems Behavioral Inventory (FRSBE) for correlational validity. The results of a screening, bedside frontal network syndrome test (FNS) and NIHSS to document neurological deficit were also recorded. Lesion location was determined by the Cerefy digital, coxial brain atlas. Results After exclusions (n = 8), patients tested (n = 92, mean age 50.1, CI: 52.9, 47.3 years) revealed that EQ-i scores were correlated (negatively) with all FRSBE T sub-scores (apathy, disinhibition, executive, total), with self-reported scores correlating better than family reported scores. Regression analysis revealed age and FRSBE total scores as the most influential variables. The WCST error percentage T score did not correlate with the EQ-i scores. Based on ANOVA, there were significant differences among the lesion sites with the lowest mean EQ-i scores associated with temporal (71.5) and frontal (87.3) lesions followed by subtentorial (91.7), subcortical gray (92.6) and white (95.2) matter, and the highest scores associated with parieto-occipital lesions (113.1). Conclusions 1) Stroke impairs EI and is associated with apathy, disinhibition and executive functioning. 2) EI is associated with frontal, temporal, subcortical and subtentorial stroke syndromes. PMID:21029468

2010-01-01

25

Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

2014-01-01

26

Predicting Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) from the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Empathizing is a specific component of social cognition. Empathizing is also specifically impaired in autism spectrum condition (ASC). These are two dimensions, measurable using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). ASC also involves strong systemizing, a dimension measured using the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). The present study examined the relationship between the EQ, AQ and SQ. The

S. Wheelwright; S. Baron-Cohen; N. Goldenfeld; J. Delaney; D. Fine; R. Smith; L. Weil; A. Wakabayashi

2006-01-01

27

The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

2011-01-01

28

Self-Reported Sleep Correlates with Prefrontal-Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Emotional Functioning  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608. PMID:24179291

Killgore, William D. S.

2013-01-01

29

On Ternary Quotients of Cubic Hecke Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that the quotient of the group algebra of the braid group introduced by Funar (Commun Math Phys 173:513-558, 1995) collapses in characteristic distinct from 2. In characteristic 2 we define several quotients of it, which are connected to the classical Hecke and Birman-Wenzl-Murakami quotients, but which admit in addition a symmetry of order 3. We also establish conditions on the possible Markov traces factorizing through it.

Cabanes, Marc; Marin, Ivan

2012-08-01

30

Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

2009-01-01

31

Emotional intelligence of leaders: a profile of top executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the emotional intelligence (EI) scores of two high profile executive groups in comparison with the general population. Also the study aims to investigate the executive group's EI scores in relation to various organizational outcomes such as net profit, growth management, and employee management and retention. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Emotional Quotient

Steven J. Stein; Peter Papadogiannis; Jeremy A. Yip; Gill Sitarenios

2009-01-01

32

Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.  

PubMed

One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources. PMID:20159912

Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

2010-06-01

33

The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence…

Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

2014-01-01

34

Creative Quotient: Currency for the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This keynote presentation for the 2005 Advancing Innovations in Engineering Technology Education Conference by Dr. Uma Gupta, President of Alfred State College at the State University of New York, discusses the "Creativity Quotient"--points of creative teaching and learning she promotes as key to revitalizing engineering technology education. The presentation may be large and take a few minutes to open.

Gupta, Uma

2009-07-15

35

Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

Chen, Zhibo

2012-01-01

36

Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow.  

PubMed

It is well known that a half-sinusoid has no odd harmonics other than the fundamental. If glottal flow in phonation were to approximate this exact waveshape, which is generally unlikely, some misperception of pitch and loss of vowel intelligibility would occur. The sensitivity of the glottal waveshape to this special shape is explored by systematically varying two parameters, open quotient and skewing quotient. Mild asymmetry (open quotient below 0.45 or above 0.55 and/or skewing quotient greater than 2.0) equalizes the odd-even harmonic series. Singers and speakers avoid the exact symmetry by skewing the flow pulse with source-filter interaction. PMID:25618080

Titze, Ingo R

2015-01-01

37

On the Divisibility of Fermat Quotients Jean Bourgain  

E-print Network

On the Divisibility of Fermat Quotients Jean Bourgain Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, NJ primes p the bound can be improved as (log p)5/3+o(1). Keywords: Fermat quotients, smooth numbers For a prime p and an integer a the Fermat quotient is defined as qp(a) = ap-1 - 1 p . It is well known

Ford, Kevin

38

Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To place the concept of emotion in perspective, various issues must be considered: the usefulness of emotion as a unitary concept; the measurement of emotions and the relations among diverse measures; developmental changes; the origins of individual differences in emotional behavior; and the relation between emotional and cognitive development.…

Yarrow, Leon J.

1979-01-01

39

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response parameters in ways that have increased fitness in adaptively challenging situations that recurred

Randolph M. Nesse; Phoebe C. Ellsworth

2009-01-01

40

On the quotient ring by diagonal invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a Weyl group W and its reflection representation mathfrak{h}, we find the character and Hilbert series for a quotient ring of C[mathfrak{h} oplus mathfrak{h}^*] by an ideal containing the W--invariant polynomials without constant term. This confirms conjectures of Haiman. The proof makes use of rational Cherednik algebras, as studied by Etingof and Ginzburg, and others.

Gordon, Iain

2003-09-01

41

Personality and emotional intelligence in teacher burnout.  

PubMed

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between teacher's personality types, emotional intelligence and burnout and to predict the burnout levels of 147 teachers in the city of Mashhad (Iran). To this end, we have used three inventories: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). We used Homogeneity Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression to analyze the data. The results exhibited a significant relationship between personality types and emotional intelligence and the three dimensions of burnout. It was indicated that the best predictors for emotional exhaustion were neuroticism and extroversion, for depersonalization were intrapersonal scale of emotional intelligence and agreeableness, and for personal accomplishment were interpersonal scale and conscientiousness. Finally, the results were discussed in the context of teacher burnout. PMID:22379712

Pishghadam, Reza; Sahebjam, Samaneh

2012-03-01

42

Math Videos Captioned and Signed in ASL: Quotient Rule and Quotients with Negative Exponents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a video on exponents in the series of lessons on math provided by DeafTEC. Gary Blatto-Vallee, a math and science instructor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, guides viewers through a variety of mathematical exercises in this DeafTEC video series. All lessons are fully captioned, signed in ASL, and voiced. In this 10:18 video, Blatto-Vallee uses an electronic whiteboard to show several examples of how to use the quotient rule and use quotients with negative exponents. See the main Math Video Resources page for an introduction to this video series.

2014-08-06

43

The Role of EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Their Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between EFL teachers' emotional quotient (EQ) and their pedagogical success in language institutes. In addition, the role played by their years of teaching experience in their EQ and the relationship between their age and EQ were also studied. For this purpose, 89 EFL teachers were chosen from different…

Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Moafian, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

44

Brain size, head size, and intelligence quotient in monozygotic twins  

E-print Network

Brain size, head size, and intelligence quotient in monozygotic twins M.J. Tramo, MD; W.C. Loftus-Many studies of monozygotic (MZ)twins have revealed evidence of genetic influences on intellectual functions in MZ twins and their relationship to head size and intelligence quotient (IQ).ANOVA were carried out

Gazzaniga, Michael

45

Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

46

Convergence of the dominant pole algorithm and Rayleigh quotient  

E-print Network

Convergence of the dominant pole algorithm and Rayleigh quotient iteration by Joost Rommes;Convergence of the dominant pole algorithm and Rayleigh quotient iteration Joost Rommes and Gerard L dynamical systems (E, A, b, c, d) of the form E x(t) = Ax(t) + bu(t) y(t) = c x(t) + du(t), (1) where A, E

Sleijpen, Gerard

47

Emotional Issues  

MedlinePLUS

Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a variety of ways. Patience, consistency, understanding, and love are ... of your child. Parents of a child with Duchenne will find straight answers, vital information, and access ...

48

"Almost" Quotient Space, Non-dynamical Decoherence and Quantum Measurement  

E-print Network

An alternative approach to decoherence, named non-dynamical decoherence is developed and used to resolve the quantum measurement problem. According to decoherence, the observed system is open to a macroscopic apparatus(together with a possible added environment) in a quantum measurement process. We show that this open system can be well described by an "almost" quotient Hilbert space formed phenomenally according to some stability conditions. A group of random phase unitary operators is introduced further to obtain an exact quotient space for the observed system. In this quotient space, a density matrix can be constructed to give the Born's probability rule, realizing a (non-dynamical) decoherence. The concept of the ("almost") quotient space can also be used to explain the classical properties of a macroscopic system. We show further that the definite outcomes in a quantum measurement are mainly caused by the "almost" quotient space of the macroscopic apparatus.

Yu-Lei Feng; Yi-Xin Chen

2014-09-25

49

The Children's Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4-11 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Atkinson, Matthew; Samarawickrema, Nelum; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2009-01-01

50

The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

Adilogullari, Ilhan

2011-01-01

51

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This photograph of the northeast abutment shows cracks and efflorescence which as developed at the edge of the arch entrados. These effects show the thickness of the arch casting as it is contained by the spandrels and abutment. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

52

The Accessibility Quotient: A New Measure of Open Access  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The Accessibility Quotient (AQ), a new measure for assisting authors and librarians in assessing and characterizing the degree of accessibility for a group of papers, is proposed and described. The AQ offers ...

Willmott, Mathew A.

2012-05-15

53

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... quality may actually make you reach for these foods again when feeling upset. Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, ...

54

Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing  

PubMed Central

Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

2013-01-01

55

Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from high school to university was used as the context for examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. During the first month of classes 372 first-year full-time students at a small Ontario university completed the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:Short). At the end of the academic year the EQ-i:Short data was matched with

James D. A. Parker; Laura J. Summerfeldt; Marjorie J. Hogan; Sarah A. Majeski

2004-01-01

56

Emotion and emotion regulation: from another perspective.  

PubMed

An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and pitfalls of emotion research and its potential for understanding child development. PMID:15056185

Langlois, Judith H

2004-01-01

57

Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem  

E-print Network

Winding quotients and some variants of Fermat's Last Theorem Henri Darmon at Montr´eal Lo¨ic Merel of the following variants of Fermat's equation xn + yn = zn : xn + yn = 2zn , (1) xn + yn = z2 , (2) xn + yn = z3 Fermat's Last Theorem to the Shimura-Taniyama conjecture (and the precise 1 #12;form of this conjecture

Darmon, Henri

58

A new constrained edit distance between quotiented ordered trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a dynamic programming algorithm to compare two quo- tiented ordered trees using a constrained edit distance. An ordered tree is a tree in which the left-to-right order among siblings is significant. A quotiented ordered tree is an ordered tree T with an equivalence relation on vertices and such that, when the equivalence classes are collapsed

Aïda Ouangraoua; Pascal Ferraro

2009-01-01

59

Psychometric analysis of the empathy quotient (EQ) scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of the empathy quotient (EQ) measured by Baron-Cohen (2003) are examined. In particular, confirmatory factor analyses comparing a unifactorial structure and a three correlated factor structure suggest that the three factor structure proposed by Lawrence et al. (2004) is a better fit. Exploratory analysis using modification indices suggests that it might be possible to measure the three

Steven J. Muncer; Jonathan Ling

2006-01-01

60

On the rank of quotients of hyperbolic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the rank does not decrease if one passes from a torsion- free locally quasi-convex hyperbolic group to the quotient by the normal closure of certain high powered element. An argument provided by Ilya Kapovich further shows that the quasiconvexity assumption cannot be dropped without adding other assumptions.

Richard Weidmann

61

Quotient FCMs-a decomposition theory for fuzzy cognitive maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a decomposition theory for fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM). First, we partition the set of vertices of an FCM into blocks according to an equivalence relation, and by regarding these blocks as vertices we construct a quotient FCM. Second, each block induces a natural sectional FCM of the original FCM, which inherits the topological structure as

Jian Ying Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Liu; Sanming Zhou

2003-01-01

62

Quotients over Minimal Type Theory Maria Emilia Maietti  

E-print Network

Quotients over Minimal Type Theory Maria Emilia Maietti Dipartimento di Matematica Universit`a di constructive foun- dations such as the generic internal theory of a topos and Martin-L¨of's type the- ory, besides the classical Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Then, being Martin-L¨of's type theory predicative, our

Maietti, Maria Emilia

63

QUOTIENTS OF FULLY NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS PAULO TABUADA AND GEORGE J. PAPPAS  

E-print Network

QUOTIENTS OF FULLY NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS PAULO TABUADA AND GEORGE J. PAPPAS SIAM J. CONTROL. In this paper, we introduce and study quotients of fully nonlinear control systems. Our definition is inspired by categorical definitions of quotients as well as recent work on abstractions of affine control systems. We show

Pappas, George J.

64

Emotion and Emotion Regulation: From Another Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and…

Langlois, Judith H.

2004-01-01

65

Gromov-Witten invariants of symplectic quotients and adiabatic limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study pseudoholomorphic curves in symplectic quotients as adiabatic limits\\u000aof solutions of a system of nonlinear first order elliptic partial differential\\u000aequations in the ambient symplectic manifold. The symplectic manifold carries a\\u000aHamiltonian group action. The equations involve the Cauchy-Riemann operator\\u000aover a Riemann surface, twisted by a connection, and couple the curvature of\\u000athe connection with the moment

A. Rita Gaio; Fac. Ciencias-Porto

2001-01-01

66

The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Decisional Styles among Italian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and styles of decision making. Two hundred and six Italian high school students completed two measures of EI, the Bar-On EI Inventory, based on a mixed model of EI, and the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test, based on an ability-based model of EI, in addition to the General…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

2012-01-01

67

An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

2011-01-01

68

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

69

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

70

Spaces of fractional quotients, discrete operators, and their applications. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of discrete operators in spaces of fractional quotients is developed. A theorem on the stability of discrete operators under smooth perturbations is proved. On this basis, using special quadrature formulae of rectangular kind, the convergence of approximate solutions of hypersingular integral equations to their exact solutions is demonstrated and a mathematical substantiation of the method of closed discrete vortex frameworks is obtained. The same line of argument is also applied to difference equations arising in the solution of the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a general second-order elliptic equation with variable coefficients.

Lifanov, I. K.; Poltavskii, L. N.

1999-12-01

71

[Determination of the intelligence quotient of pilots with incipient atherosclerosis].  

PubMed

Comprehensive examination, including clinical-functional and psychological testing, was given to 189 essentially healthy civil pilots and 235 pilots with atherosclerosis of aorta and trunks without considerable blood flow disturbance. The total of 835 investigations was performed. Distribution into health groups was conducted on clinical diagnosis. Pilots with cardiovascular pathologies were found to have the intelligence quotient significantly lowered. Associated clinical and psychological tests were effective in revealing and dynamic monitoring of incipient diseases, and taking reasoned disposition regarding pilot's fitness for flight duties. PMID:17405281

Krapivnitskaia, T A

2006-01-01

72

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

73

Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.  

PubMed

Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu K? radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

2013-06-01

74

Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport  

SciTech Connect

Today's "grand challenge" neutron transport problems require 3-D meshes with billions of cells, hundreds of energy groups, and accurate quadratures and scattering expansions. Leadership-class computers provide platforms on which high-fidelity fluxes can be calculated. However, appropriate methods are needed that can use these machines effectively. Such methods must be able to use hundreds of thousands of cores and have good convergence properties. Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) is an eigenvalue solver that has been added to the Sn code Denovo to address convergence. Rayleigh quotient iteration is an optimal shifted inverse iteration method that should converge in fewer iterations than the more common power method and other shifted inverse iteration methods for many problems of interest. Denovo's RQI uses a new multigroup Krylov solver for the fixed source solutions inside every iteration that allows parallelization in energy in addition to space and angle. This Krylov solver has been shown to scale successfully to 200,000 cores: for example one test problem scaled from 69,120 cores to 190,080 cores with 98% efficiency. This paper shows that RQI works for some small problems. However, the Krylov method upon which it relies does not always converge because RQI creates ill-conditioned systems. This result leads to the conclusion that preconditioning is needed to allow this method to be applicable to a wider variety of problems.

Slaybaugh, R [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

2012-01-01

75

The brain of the horse: weight and cephalization quotients.  

PubMed

The horse is a common domestic animal whose anatomy has been studied since the XVI century. However, a modern neuroanatomy of this species does not exist and most of the data utilized in textbooks and reviews derive from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here, we report information on the brain of Equus caballus obtained by sampling 131 horses, including brain weight (as a whole and subdivided into its constituents), encephalization quotient (EQ), and cerebellar quotient (CQ), and comparisons with what is known about other relevant species. The mean weight of the fresh brains in our experimental series was 598.63 g (SEM ± 7.65), with a mean body weight of 514.12 kg (SEM ± 15.42). The EQ was 0.78 and the CQ was 0.841. The data we obtained indicate that the horse possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a weight similar to that of other hoofed species of like mass. However, the shape of the brain, the noteworthy folding of the neocortex, and the peculiar longitudinal distribution of the gyri suggest an evolutionary specificity at least partially separate from that of the Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals and cetaceans) with whom Perissodactyla (odd-toed mammals) are often grouped. PMID:24335261

Cozzi, Bruno; Povinelli, Michele; Ballarin, Cristina; Granato, Alberto

2014-01-01

76

Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube for Median Dept. of Computer Science,  

E-print Network

Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube for Median Cuiping Li Dept. of Computer Science, Renmin of China Beijing 100872, China ABSTRACT Data cube pre-computation is an important concept for sup- porting to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube

Tung, Anthony Kum Hoe

77

Students' Errors in Setting up Difference Quotients and Connections to Their Conceptions of Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although finding the limits of the difference quotients in the definitions of the derivative is troubling for many students, a difficulty that preceded this confusion was observed: students were not able to correctly set up the difference quotients as required in the definitions. The purpose of this study is to uncover student errors in setting up…

Tang, Gail

2012-01-01

78

A Novel Public Key Crypto system Based on Semi-modules over Quotient Semi-rings  

E-print Network

A Novel Public Key Crypto system Based on Semi-modules over Quotient Semi-rings Reza Ebrahimi Atani on a finite set, more precisely, linear actions of abelian semi-rings on semi- modules. In this paper, we extend such a generalization to the linear actions of quotient semi-rings on semi-modules. In fact, we

79

Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

2010-01-01

80

Emotion and decision making.  

PubMed

A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models. PMID:25251484

Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

2015-01-01

81

Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2015-01-01

82

Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2015-01-01

83

Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students  

PubMed Central

Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

2014-01-01

84

Effects of lifter bars on the ball motion and aluminum foil milling in tumbler ball mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of lifter bars on the ball motion during ball milling and characteristics of aluminum flake powders prepared by the ball milling of aluminum foil scraps were studied. When rotation speed of milling jar without lifter bar is below 75% of critical revolutions per minute (rpm), balls slide in the jar. As rotation speed of milling jar increases up to

Seong-Hyeon Hong; Byoung-Kee Kim

2002-01-01

85

THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD? ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

86

Cognition and Emotion Lecture at the 2010 SPSP Emotion Preconference  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental distinctions in the field of emotion is the distinction between emotion generation and emotion regulation. This distinction fits comfortably with folk theories, which view emotions as passions that arise unbidden and then must be controlled. But is it really helpful to distinguish between emotion generation and emotion regulation? In this article, we begin by offering

James J. Gross; Gal Sheppes; Heather L. Urry

2011-01-01

87

Emotion, Social Function, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies of emotion function and emotional disorders complement one another. In this article, the authors outline relations between the social functions of emotion and four psychological disorders. The authors first present a social-functional account of emotion and argue that emotions help coordinate social interactions through their informative, evocative, and incentive functions. They then review evidence concerning the emotional and

Dacher Keltner; Ann M. Kring

1998-01-01

88

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in func- tional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

89

The laws of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

Nico H. Frijda

1988-01-01

90

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

91

White matter microstructure correlates of mathematical giftedness and intelligence quotient.  

PubMed

Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain activation between mathematically gifted adolescents and controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mathematical giftedness, intelligent quotient (IQ), and the microstructure of white matter tracts in a sample composed of math-gifted adolescents and aged-matched controls. Math-gifted subjects were selected through a national program based on detecting enhanced visuospatial abilities and creative thinking. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure in neuroanatomical connectivity. The processing included voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses of the fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter which is purportedly related to white matter microstructure. In a whole-sample analysis, IQ showed a significant positive correlation with FA, mainly in the corpus callosum, supporting the idea that efficient information transfer between hemispheres is crucial for higher intellectual capabilities. In addition, math-gifted adolescents showed increased FA (adjusted for IQ) in white matter tracts connecting frontal lobes with basal ganglia and parietal regions. The enhanced anatomical connectivity observed in the forceps minor and splenium may underlie the greater fluid reasoning, visuospatial working memory, and creative capabilities of these children. PMID:24038774

Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Javier; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

2014-06-01

92

Neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotient in autosomal dominant Segawa disease.  

PubMed

Segawa disease is a rare dystonia due to autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (adGTPCH) deficiency, affecting dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Recently, the clinical phenotype was expanded to include psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sleep disturbances. Although cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributable to dopamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuitry, intelligence is considered normal in Segawa disease. Our aim was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotients (IQ) in a series of individuals with adGTPCH deficiency. The assessment included a structured clinical interview following the DSM-IV-TR's guidelines, Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Equivalent tests were applied to pediatric patients as appropriate for their age group. Fourteen patients with adGTPCH deficiency were evaluated (seven adult and seven pediatric patients). Depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not more common than expected in the general population. However, the seven adults showed impulsivity in the BIS-11; nine individuals had an IQ in the range of borderline intellectual functioning to mild mental retardation, and sleep disturbances were found in four individuals. We found no differences between these results and the motor impairment. In conclusion, our findings would suggest that cognitive impairment, and impulsivity in adults, may be associated with Segawa disease. PMID:21556877

López-Laso, Eduardo; Sánchez-Raya, Araceli; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Gual, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Mateos-González, María Elena; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis; Ochoa-Sepúlveda, Juan José; Ormazabal, Aida; Opladen, Thomas; Klein, Christine; Lao-Villadóniga, José Ignacio; Beyer, Katrin; Artuch, Rafael

2011-12-01

93

[Managing emotions--emotions under control].  

PubMed

Emotion regulation processes are of central importance to mental and physical health. Based on this relationship we developed the group intervention "Managing Emotions: Emotions under control" (German: "Gefühle im Griff"), which systematically teaches participants specific emotion regulation strategies. Structure and content of the intervention program as well as preliminary results of efficacy are presented (n=18). Using the H-FERST, large effect sizes resulted for the increase of reappraisal and acceptance and for the reduction of rumination, a medium effect size could be shown for the reduction of avoidance, and a small effect size resulted for the increase of activity and social support. Overall psychopathology by means of the BSI was reduced with an effect size of d=0.63 in participants with more severe mental strain (GSI ? 0.6). PMID:24446184

Barnow, Sven; Löw, Christina Alexandra; Dodek, Anja; Stopsack, Malte

2014-07-01

94

What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

95

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION  

E-print Network

The Brain Basis of Emotions 1 BRAIN BASIS OF EMOTION The brain basis of emotion: A meta, Building 149 Charlestown, MA 02129 lindqukr@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu #12;The Brain Basis of Emotions 2 Abstract Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

96

Embodiment of emotion concepts.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition hold that higher cognitive processes operate on perceptual symbols and that concept use involves partial reactivations of the sensory-motor states that occur during experience with the world. On this view, the processing of emotion knowledge involves a (partial) reexperience of an emotion, but only when access to the sensory basis of emotion knowledge is required by the task. In 2 experiments, participants judged emotional and neutral concepts corresponding to concrete objects (Experiment 1) and abstract states (Experiment 2) while facial electromyographic activity was recorded from the cheek, brow, eye, and nose regions. Results of both studies show embodiment of specific emotions in an emotion-focused but not a perceptual-focused processing task on the same words. A follow up in Experiment 3, which blocked selective facial expressions, suggests a causal, rather than simply a correlational, role for embodiment in emotion word processing. Experiment 4, using a property generation task, provided support for the conclusion that emotions embodied in conceptual tasks are context-dependent situated simulations rather than associated emotional reactions. Implications for theories of embodied simulation and for emotion theories are discussed. PMID:19469591

Niedenthal, Paula M; Winkielman, Piotr; Mondillon, Laurie; Vermeulen, Nicolas

2009-06-01

97

Supramodal representation of emotions.  

PubMed

Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

2011-09-21

98

Emotions: from brain to robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to improve human-computer interaction. In this article we analyze what it would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields a deepening understanding of inter- acting brain structures and

Michael A. Arbib; Jean-Marc Fellous

2004-01-01

99

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

100

The hidden emotions of tourism  

E-print Network

. A. , Trinity University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Charles R. Conrad To date, scholarship has presented us with three perspectives on organizational uses of emotion: Emotion as Work, Organizational Uses of Emotional Expression...

Carnegie, Margaret Simone

1996-01-01

101

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. PMID:12639333

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

102

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

103

Weather and emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in

Z. Spasova

2010-01-01

104

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

105

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

106

Neural Mechanisms of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views neural mechanisms of emotion from an evolutionary perspective, seeing them distributed across the brainstem, limbic, paralimbic, and neocortical regions. Discusses descending and ascending connections among these levels in relation to three types of emotional processes: peripheral effects on patterned bodily responses, central effects on…

Derryberry, Douglas; Tucker, Don M.

1992-01-01

107

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

108

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

109

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

110

Susceptibility to Emotional Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a psychometric evaluation of a measure of susceptibility to emotional contagion, designed to measure the degree to which a person is vulnerable to “catching” and sharing the emotion experienced by another. The scale was examined to test its application to depression, burnout, and impairment among practicing social workers. Data from a probability sample of 751 practicing social

Darcy Clay Siebert; Carl F. Siebert; Alicia Taylor-McLaughlin

2007-01-01

111

Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion  

PubMed Central

According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

112

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

113

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

114

8 Strategic Emotion in Negotiation: Cognition, Emotion, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an overview of research on emotion in negotiation that integrates cognitive, affective, and cultural aspects of the field. We address the following issues: (1) the effects of mood and emotion on negotiator cognition and performance and the potential of emotion as a negotiation strategy; (2) individual differences in emotional expression and individual traits, such as self-monitoring and

Shu LI; Michael E. ROLOFF

115

A Novel Method Testing the Ability to Imitate Composite Emotional Expressions Reveals an Association with Empathy  

PubMed Central

Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants’ attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ), were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression. PMID:23626756

Williams, Justin H. G.; Nicolson, Andrew T. A.; Clephan, Katie J.; de Grauw, Haro; Perrett, David I.

2013-01-01

116

Children's emotion processing: relations to emotionality and aggression.  

PubMed

We examined the relations between emotionality, emotion processing, and aggression in 182 first- and second-grade children. Consistent with Tomkins' and Izard's theoretical predictions, emotionality correlated with emotion processing. In particular, the happiness component of emotionality correlated with emotion attribution accuracy and empathy, the anger component correlated with anger attribution bias and empathy, and the fear component correlated with fear attribution bias. Multiple emotion processing deficits--including emotion attribution accuracy, anger attribution bias, and self-report of empathy--placed children at risk for heightened levels of teacher-reported aggression. Mediational analyses revealed that an emotion processing risk index fit a model of significant partial mediation between happiness and aggression but not between anger and aggression. The results suggest the multifaceted manner in which children's emotion experiences may influence the development of aggressive tendencies. PMID:15487601

Schultz, David; Izard, Carroll E; Bear, George

2004-01-01

117

Binary Threshold Sequences Derived from Carmichael Quotients with Even Numbers Modulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a family of 2e+1-periodic binary threshold sequences and a family of p2-periodic binary threshold sequences by using Carmichael quotients modulo 2e(e>2) and 2p (p is an odd prime), respectively. These are extensions of the construction derived from Fermat quotients modulo an odd prime in our earlier work. We determine exact values of the linear complexity, which are larger than half of the period. For cryptographic purpose, the linear complexities of the sequences in this letter are of desired values.

Wu, Chenhuang; Chen, Zhixiong; Du, Xiaoni

118

Variation of Mumford quotients by torus actions on full flag varieties. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper continues the study of the variation of the Mumford quotient by the action of a maximal torus T on a flag variety G/B in terms of its dependence on the projective embedding G/B\\hookrightarrow\\mathbb P(V(\\chi)). In the case when G is of type A_l, the Picard group of the quotient (G/B)^{ss}/\\!/T is calculated under the assumption that the T-linearization comes from the standard G-linearization. Bibliography : 12 titles.

Zhgoon, V. S.

2008-04-01

119

Variation of Mumford quotients by torus actions on full flag varieties. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the variation of the Mumford quotient by the action of a maximal torus T on a flag variety G/B as we change the projective embedding G/B \\hookrightarrow\\mathbb P(V(\\chi)), where the T-linearization is induced by the standard G-linearization. To do this, we describe the linear spans of the supports of the semistable orbits. This enables us to calculate the rank of the Picard group of the quotient (G/B)^{ss}/\\!/T in the case when G contains no simple components of type A_n.

Zhgoon, V. S.

2007-12-01

120

What good are positive emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the

Barbara L. Fredrickson

1998-01-01

121

An Adaptive Emotion Reading Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on how capabilities to interpret somebody else's emotions can be modelled in an adaptive manner. First a cognitive model to generate emotional states is described. This model involves a recursive body loop: a converging positive feedback loop based on reciprocal causation between body states and emotions felt. By this model emotion reading can be modelled taking into

Tibor Bosse; Zulfiqar A. Memon

122

Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

2007-01-01

123

Social functionality of human emotion.  

PubMed

Answers to the question "What are human emotions for?" have stimulated highly productive programs of research on emotional phenomena in psychology and neuroscience in the past decade. Although a variety of functions have been proposed and examined at different levels of abstraction, what is undeniable is that when emotional processing is compromised, most things social go awry. In this review we survey the research findings documenting the functions of emotion and link these to new discoveries about how emotion is accurately processed and transmitted. We focus specifically on emotion processing in dyads and groups, which reflects the current scientific trend. Within dyads, emotional expressions and learning and understanding through vicarious emotion are the phenomena of interest. Behavioral and brain mechanisms supporting their successful occurrence are evaluated. At the group level, group emotions and group-based emotions, two very different phenomena, are discussed, and mechanistic accounts are reviewed. PMID:22017377

Niedenthal, Paula M; Brauer, Markus

2012-01-01

124

RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN  

PubMed Central

I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

LeDoux, Joseph

2013-01-01

125

Effects of a bar on optical transmission through Z-shaped metallic slit arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of a bar on optical transmission through Z-shaped metallic slit arrays by using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. A new hybrid Fabry—Perot (FP) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode emerges when changing the geometric parameters of the bar, and this mode can be viewed as a coupling between FP mode and SPP mode. In addition, an obvious dip appears in a featured area when the bar deviates from the central line, and a small displacement of the bar leads to tremendous change of the dip. These behaviors can be attributed to the phase resonance. In short, the structure is very sensitive to the metal bar. Furthermore, it combines photonic device miniaturization with sensitivity, which is useful for making optical switches.

Wu, Cai-Ni; Li, Hong-Jian; Peng, Xiao; Cao, Guang-Tao; Liu, Zhi-Min

2013-05-01

126

Paying attention to emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigated the degree to which brain systems involved in ignoring emotionally salient information differ\\u000a from those involved in ignoring nonemotional information. The design allowed examination of regional brain activity, using\\u000a fMRI during color-word and emotional Stroop tasks. Twelve participants indicated the color of words while ignoring word meaning\\u000a in conditions in which neutral words were contrasted

Rebecca J. Compton; Marie T. Banich; Aprajita Mohanty; Michael P. Milham; John Herrington; Gregory A. Miller; Paige E. Scalf; Andrew Webb; Wendy Heller

2003-01-01

127

Feeding your feelings: emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating.  

PubMed

The process by which emotions affect eating behavior emerges as one of the central unresolved questions in the field of emotional eating. The present studies address the hypothesis that the regulation strategies people use to deal with these emotions are responsible for increased eating. Negative emotions were induced and intake of comfort food and non-comfort food was measured by means of taste tests. Emotion induction was preceded by measuring individual differences in emotion regulation strategies (Study 1) or by instructions to regulate emotions in either an adaptive (reappraisal) or maladaptive (suppression) manner (Study 2). Study 3 also entailed a control condition without any regulation instructions. Relative to reappraisal and spontaneous expression, suppression led to increased food intake, but only of the comfort foods. Emotions themselves were not responsible for this effect. These findings provide new evidence that the way in which emotions are regulated affects eating behavior. PMID:20460650

Evers, Catharine; Marijn Stok, F; de Ridder, Denise T D

2010-06-01

128

Endowing Emotional Agents with Coping Strategies: From Emotions to Emotional Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion takes an increasingly important place in the design of intelligent virtual agents. Designers of emotional agents build\\u000a on theories from cognitive psychology, that describe the cognitive functioning of emotions with two indivisible processes\\u000a [1,2]: the appraisal process triggers emotions, in particular intense negative emotions to point out threatening stimuli, and the coping process modifies the behaviour to manage these

Carole Adam; Dominique Longin

2007-01-01

129

Effect of Leucovorin (Folinic Acid) on the Developmental Quotient of Children with Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21)  

E-print Network

Effect of Leucovorin (Folinic Acid) on the Developmental Quotient of Children with Down's Syndrome deficiency may contribute to mental retardation in Down's syndrome (DS). Methodology: We investigated development of children with Down's syndrome, at least in some subgroups of the DS population, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

130

A new approach for mechatronic system design: mechatronic design quotient (MDQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mechatronic system design, many issues are very complicated and are under multiple design criteria. In this paper a general and integrated approach is presented for the design of complex electro-mechanical systems. The formal approach is based on the concept of mechatronic design quotient (MDQ). Five steps are presented to establish and optimize an MDQ index. The approach is illustrated

Rose Xiujuan Lu; Clarence W. de Silva; Marcelo H. Ang Jr.; J. A. N. Poo; H. Corporaal

2005-01-01

131

Perceptual learning and perceptual search are altered in male university students with higher Autism Quotient scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated the validity of the Autism Quotient (AQ) scale for measuring traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in a population of male university students. Both studies found evidence that individuals who scored higher on the AQ questionnaire performed in a similar way to individuals with ASD on tasks with a perceptual component. Experiment 1 demonstrated a difference

Phil Reed; Caroline Lowe; Rhiannan Everett

2011-01-01

132

Measuring the machine intelligence quotient (MIQ) of human-machine cooperative systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical and systematic strategy for measuring machine intelligence quotient (MIQ) of human-machine cooperative systems. So far, much research related to intelligent control has been established, but the issues about definition and measurement of machine intelligence are not yet clearly formulated. We propose the intelligence task graph (ITG) as a modeling and analysis tool. By using the ITG,

Hee-jun Park; Byung Kook Kim; Kye Young Lim

2001-01-01

133

QUOTIENTS OF CALABI-YAU VARIETIES JANOS KOLLAR AND MICHAEL LARSEN  

E-print Network

QUOTIENTS OF CALABI-YAU VARIETIES J´ANOS KOLL´AR AND MICHAEL LARSEN Let X be a Calabi-Yau variety dimensional nonuniruled varieties. Date: January 20, 2007. 1 #12;2 J´ANOS KOLL´AR AND MICHAEL LARSEN Theorem 3

Tschinkel, Yuri

134

An application of the fermat quotient of units to the method of kim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Fermat Quotient, defined in [8], of units that are not necessarily congruent to 1 modulo a prime of a fixed odd\\u000a primep, we improve some results of J. M. KlM [4, 5, 6] to certain cyclotomic fields or abelian fields.

T. Shimada

2001-01-01

135

Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction in Employees of Kashan Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background: Job satisfaction and emotional intelligence are two important variables in organizational behavioral studies, and are key factors in promoting the efficiency of organizations. Objectives: The present study was conducted in order to determine the job satisfaction and emotional intelligence of employees of Kashan hospitals in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 121 employees of Kashan hospitals who were selected using random stratified method. In this study, Bar-on emotional intelligence and job satisfaction questionnaires were used. The data were analyzed using statistical methods such as odds ratio, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results: The majority of employees (76%) had moderate emotional intelligence while 88.2% of them had moderate job satisfaction. In this study, there were no significant relations between emotional intelligence and variables such as sex, education, and marital and job status (P > 0.05) but significant relations were found between the age and emotional intelligence (P = 0.01). Furthermore, there was no significant relation between job satisfaction and demographic variables. Moreover, no significant relation was found between the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction (P > 0.05). Conclusions: As the majority of the staff had average level of job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and others were lower than average, it seems necessary for authorities to explore the reasons for job dissatisfaction to prevent job burnout, depression and developing a sense of helplessness in the staff. It is also recommended to hold educational workshops for the staff especially who are younger than 40 years to promote their emotional intelligence. PMID:25414889

Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Sadat; Zahirrodine, Ali Reza; Assarian, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Zare Zadeh Mehrizi, Maryam

2014-01-01

136

Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions  

PubMed Central

The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

Braniecka, Anna; Trzebi?ska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

2014-01-01

137

What Good Are Positive Emotions?  

PubMed Central

This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

Fredrickson, Barbara L.

2011-01-01

138

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements  

PubMed Central

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-01-01

139

Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In particular, the BOLD response within bilateral amygdala and

K. S. Blair; B. W. Smith; D. G. V. Mitchell; J. Morton; M. Vythilingam; L. Pessoa; D. Fridberg; A. Zametkin; E. E. Nelson; W. C. Drevets; D. S. Pine; A. Martin; R. J. R. Blair

2007-01-01

140

Modeling Emotion Expression and Perception Behavior in Auditive Emotion Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider both speaker dependent and listener dependent aspects in the assessment of emotions in speech. We model the speaker dependencies in emotional speech produc- tion by two parameters which describe the individual's emo- tional expression behavior. Similarly, we model the listener's emotion perception behavior by a simple parametric model. These models form a basis for improving

Michael Grimm; Kristian Kroschel; Shrikanth Narayanan

2006-01-01

141

Resilience and Positive Emotions: Examining the Role of Emotional Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emo- tions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psy- chological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present re-

Frederick L. Philippe; Serge Lecours; Geneviève Beaulieu-Pelletier

2009-01-01

142

Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2007-01-01

143

Effects of magnetostatic interaction between two single-domain cobalt bars on crystal anisotropy and switching field (abstract)  

E-print Network

Effects of magnetostatic interaction between two single-domain cobalt bars on crystal anisotropy the cobalt on top of the template lift off. MFM showed that as-fabricated bars are single magnetic domain. We polarized the magnetic moment of the twin single-domain bars in the same direction and measured the magnetic

144

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

145

Social and Emotional Aging  

PubMed Central

The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

2014-01-01

146

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

147

A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

Liu, Zhen

2008-11-01

148

Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of…

Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

2003-01-01

149

Arrested emotions in reality television  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Arrested emotions” references the capitalist firm’s conscious mobilization of prosumers’ emotions and their associated expressions as amenable input for production within corporate confines. We draw on reality TV – The Bachelor and Extreme Makeover (Home Edition) – to suggest the centrality of emotional recruitment in the contemporary economy. Reality TV is driven almost entirely by the work of audiences and

Samuel K. Bonsu; Aron Darmody

2010-01-01

150

Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

2012-01-01

151

Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

Hesse, Petra

152

Classification of intelligence quotient via brainwave sub-band power ratio features and artificial neural network.  

PubMed

This paper elaborates on the novel intelligence assessment method using the brainwave sub-band power ratio features. The study focuses only on the left hemisphere brainwave in its relaxed state. Distinct intelligence quotient groups have been established earlier from the score of the Raven Progressive Matrices. Sub-band power ratios are calculated from energy spectral density of theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Synthetic data have been generated to increase dataset from 50 to 120. The features are used as input to the artificial neural network. Subsequently, the brain behaviour model has been developed using an artificial neural network that is trained with optimized learning rate, momentum constant and hidden nodes. Findings indicate that the distinct intelligence quotient groups can be classified from the brainwave sub-band power ratios with 100% training and 88.89% testing accuracies. PMID:24560277

Jahidin, A H; Megat Ali, M S A; Taib, M N; Tahir, N Md; Yassin, I M; Lias, S

2014-04-01

153

Resilience and positive emotions: examining the role of emotional memories.  

PubMed

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emotions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psychological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present research examined this hypothesis in two studies. Study 1 provided initial data on the validity and reliability of a measure of emotional memories networks (EMN) and showed that it had a predictive value for broad emotion regulation constructs and outcomes. In addition, Study 1 showed that positive EMN mediated the relationship between psychological resilience and the experience of positive emotions in a context of sadness, even after controlling for pre-experimental positive mood. Study 2 replicated results of Study 1 in a context of anxiety and after controlling for positive affectivity trait. PMID:19077002

Philippe, Frederick L; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Geneviève

2009-02-01

154

Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

155

The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

156

Emotions and Acne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Acne is a very common and disfiguring disease that more or less severely affects the majority of adolescents and, to some extent, also adults. The importance of emotional stress in the onset or worsening particularly of skin diseases has long been a subject of study and debate, and it has been shown that stress stimuli may lead to

M. M. Polenghi; S. Zizak; E. Molinari

2002-01-01

157

Sad music induces pleasant emotion  

PubMed Central

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

158

How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.  

PubMed

Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

2014-10-01

159

The Spectrum Of Hypercubes Quotiented By Doubly Even Codewords And The Thermodynamics Of Adinkras  

E-print Network

In a previous paper, a solution to the problem of determining isomorphism classes of Lie algebra representations was explored using graphs called adinkras and subgraphs called baobabs arXiv:1306.0550[math-ph] In this paper, I show that adinkras contain Shannon entropy and a latent heat from the information stored in their associated baobabs. In Garden algebra, both properties are closely related to the spectrum of hypercubes quotiented by doubly even codewords, which is introduced in this paper.

Keith Burghardt

2013-09-16

160

De Branges spaces of entire functions closed under forming difference quotients  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a de Branges spaceH(E) of entire functions a functionq, analytic in C+ and satisfying there Imq(z)=0, is associated. In this note we give necessary and sufficient conditions forH(E) to be closed under forming certain difference quotients in terms of the poles and zeros ofq. Moreover, we obtain a criterion whether a functionq possessing the above mentioned properties can be

Harald Woracek

2000-01-01

161

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

162

High-speed imaging and electroglottography measurements of the open quotient in untrained male voices' register transitions.  

PubMed

Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In 10 subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration. PMID:20083378

Echternach, Matthias; Dippold, Sebastian; Sundberg, Johan; Arndt, Susan; Zander, Mark F; Richter, Bernhard

2010-11-01

163

Is emotional intelligence worthwhile?: Assessing incremental validity and adverse impact  

E-print Network

Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive emotion, understand emotion, facilitate thought with emotion, and regulate emotion. Considerable debate exists as to whether emotional intelligence adds incremental validity above more...

Rhodes, Dana Lanay

2009-05-15

164

Comparing closed quotient in children singers' voices as measured by high-speed-imaging, electroglottography, and inverse filtering.  

PubMed

The closed quotient, i.e., the ratio between the closed phase and the period, is commonly studied in voice research. However, the term may refer to measures derived from different methods, such as inverse filtering, electroglottography or high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). This investigation compares closed quotient data measured by these three methods in two boy singers. Each singer produced sustained tones on two different pitches and a glissando. Audio, electroglottographic signal (EGG), and HSDI were recorded simultaneously. The audio signal was inverse filtered by means of the decap program; the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the flow glottogram. Glottal area was automatically measured in the high speed images by the built-in camera software, and the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the area-signal. The EGG-signal was analyzed in four different ways using the matlab open quotient interface. The closed quotient data taken from the EGG were found to be considerably higher than those obtained from inverse filtering. Also, substantial differences were found between the closed quotient derived from HSDI and those derived from inverse filtering. The findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing between these quotients. PMID:22280605

Mecke, Ann-Christine; Sundberg, Johan; Granqvist, Svante; Echternach, Matthias

2012-01-01

165

Comparative analysis of the closed quotient for lip and tongue trills in relation to the sustained vowel /?/.  

PubMed

Various types of trill exercises have been used for a long time as a tool in the treatment and preparation of the voice. Although they are reported to produce vocal benefits in most subjects, their physiology has not yet been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to compare the mean and standard deviation of the closed quotient in exercises of lip and tongue trills with the sustained vowel /?/ in opera singers. Ten professional classical (operatic) singers, reportedly in perfect laryngeal health, served as subjects for this study and underwent electroglottography. During the examination, the subjects were instructed to deliver the sustained vowel /?/ and lip and tongue trills in a same preestablished frequency and intensity. The mean values and standard deviation of the closed quotient were obtained using the software developed for this purpose. The comparison of the results was intrasubjects; maximum intensities were compared only among them and so were minimum intensities. The means of closed quotient were statistically significant only in the strong intensities, and the lip trill was different from the tongue trill and the sustained vowel /?/. The standard deviation of the closed quotient distinguished the sustained vowel /?/ from the lip and tongue trills in the two intensities. We concluded that there is oscillation of the closed quotient during the exercises of tongue and lip trills, and the closed quotient is higher during the performance of exercises of the lip trill, when compared with the two other utterances, only in the strong intensities. PMID:20926253

Cordeiro, Gislaine Ferro; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto; Nemr, Nair Kátia; Menezes, Márcia Helena Moreira; Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

2012-01-01

166

Empirical Study of Hall Bars on Few-Layer Graphene on C-Face 4H-SiC  

E-print Network

Empirical Study of Hall Bars on Few-Layer Graphene on C-Face 4H-SiC M.L. BOLEN,1,2,5 T. SHEN,1,4 J, IN 47907, USA. 5.--e-mail: mbolen@purdue.edu Hall bars were fabricated on epitaxial graphene formed on 4H characterization, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman mapping, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM

Ye, Peide "Peter"

167

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

168

Emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants and its relationship with empathy and executive functions.  

PubMed

In this work, the neural correlates of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants with different empathy profiles were compared to normal controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Forty ex-combatants and 20 non ex-combatants were recruited for this study. Empathy levels as well as executive functions were measured. Empathy level was used to create three groups. Group 1 (G1) included ex-combatants with normal empathy scores, and Group 2 included ex-combatants with low scores on at least one empathy sub-scales. In control group (Ctrl), participants with no antecedents of being combatants and with normal scores in empathy were included. Age, gender, educational and intelligence quotients level were controlled among groups. event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while individuals performed an affective picture processing task that included positive, neutral and negative emotional stimuli, which elicit an early modulation of emotion categorization (Early Posterior Negativity (EPN)) and late evaluative process (LPP). EPN differences were found among affective categories, but no group effects were observed at this component. LPP showed a main effect of category and group (higher amplitudes in ex-combatants). There was an inverse correlation between empathy and executive functions scores and ERPs. Results are discussed according to the impact of emotional processing on empathy profile. PMID:25302548

Tobón, Carlos; Ibañez, Agustín; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ochoa, John; Trujillo, Natalia; Decety, Jean; Pineda, David

2015-04-01

169

Emotion in Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contemporary research on negotiation and group decision support systems (see the chapter by Lewis, this volume) pays a special\\u000a attention on emotion as a factor in restructuring and reframing of problem representation and solution (Barry, Group Decis\\u000a Negotiation 17:97–105, 2008; Druckman and Olekalns, Group Decis Negotiation 17:1–11, 2008). It involves multi-disciplinary\\u000a approaches and reaches beyond sociology and behavioral research (see

Bilyana Martinovski

170

Bimodal Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When interacting with robots we show a plethora of affective reactions typical of natural communications. Indeed, emotions\\u000a are embedded on our communications and represent a predominant communication channel to convey relevant, high impact, information.\\u000a In recent years more and more researchers have tried to exploit this channel for human robot (HRI) and human computer interactions\\u000a (HCI). Two key abilities are

Marco Paleari; Ryad Chellali; Benoit Huet

2010-01-01

171

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

172

Tactile-emotion synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test\\/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the

V. S. Ramachandran; David Brang

2008-01-01

173

Emotional memory and psychopathology.  

PubMed Central

A leading model for studying how the brain forms memories about unpleasant experiences is fear conditioning. A cumulative body of work has identified major components of the neural system mediating this form of learning. The pathways involve transmission of sensory information from processing areas in the thalamus and cortex to the amygdala. The amygdala's lateral nucleus receives and integrates the sensory inputs from the thalamic and cortical areas, and the central nucleus provides the interface with motor systems controlling specific fear responses in various modalities (behavioural, autonomic, endocrine). Internal connections within the amygdala allow the lateral and central nuclei to communicate. Recent studies have begun to identify some sites of plasticity in the circuitry and the cellular mechanisms involved in fear conditioning. Through studies of fear conditioning, our understanding of emotional memory is being taken to the level of cells and synapses in the brain. Advances in understanding emotional memory hold out the possibility that emotional disorders may be better defined and treatment improved. PMID:9415924

Ledoux, J E; Muller, J

1997-01-01

174

Drug Design and Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

2007-11-01

175

Emotion Management and Strategies for Social Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion scripts provide children with culturally meaningful emotional experiences and plans of action for managing feelings and the circumstances surrounding emotional experiences. In an effort to understand how developing children acquire these emotion scripts, two studies described here investigated how children deploy emotion scripts to manage…

Saarni, Carolyn

176

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

177

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent attention has been given to the role of emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Gross (1998) provided a framework from which to understand emotion regulation processes, and it is within this framework that the literature on emotion regulation/dysregulation in the anxiety disorder population is reviewed, with a focus on possible deficiencies that lead to or maintain the disorders. The present paper aims to (1) briefly introduce emotion regulation strategies of suppression and reappraisal; (2) summarize the empirical studies of emotion regulation within anxiety disorders; (3) discuss the neurobiological markers of emotion regulation within these disorders; (4) provide future directions for research; and (5) summarize possible treatment implications resulting from this important area of research. PMID:17349775

Amstadter, Ananda B.

2009-01-01

178

Categorical Perception for Emotional Faces  

PubMed Central

Categorical perception (CP) refers to how similar things look different depending on whether they are classified as the same category. Many studies demonstrate that adult humans show CP for human emotional faces. It is widely debated whether the effect can be accounted for solely by perceptual differences (structural differences among emotional faces) or whether additional perceiver-based conceptual knowledge is required. In this review, I discuss the phenomenon of CP and key studies showing CP for emotional faces. I then discuss a new model of emotion which highlights how perceptual and conceptual knowledge interact to explain how people see discrete emotions in others’ faces. In doing so, I discuss how language (emotion words included in the paradigm) contribute to CP.

Fugate, Jennifer M. B.

2014-01-01

179

Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

180

Emotion and self-control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biology-based model of choice is used to examine time-inconsistent preferences and the problem of self-control. Emotion is shown to be the biological substrate of choice, in that emotional systems assign value to ‘goods’ in the environment and also facilitate the learning of expectations regarding alternative options for acquiring those goods. A third major function of the emotional choice systems

Adam Gifford Jr.

2002-01-01

181

Quotient lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are now a number of bidirectional programming languages, where every program can be read both as a forward transformation mapping one data structure to another and as a reverse transfor- mation mapping an edited output back to a correspondingly edited input. Besides parsimony—the two related transformations are de- scribed by just one expression—such languages are attractive be- cause they

J. Nathan Foster; Alexandre Pilkiewicz; Benjamin C. Pierce

2008-01-01

182

Quotient lenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are now a number of BIDIRECTIONAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, where every program can be read both as a forward transformation mapping one data structure to another and as a reverse transformation mapping an edited output back to a correspondingly edited input. Besides parsimony - the two related transformations are described by just one expression - such languages are attractive because

J. Nathan Foster; Alexandre Pilkiewicz; Benjamin C. Pierce

2008-01-01

183

Emotions in teaching environmental science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

Quigley, Cassie

2015-01-01

184

Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders  

PubMed Central

Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-01-01

185

Topological Measure and Graph-Differential Geometry on the Quotient Space of Connections  

E-print Network

(This is a report for the Proceedings of ``Journees Relativistes 1993'' written in September 1993. Containes a short description of the results published elsewhere in the joint paper with A. Ashtekar) Integral calculus on the space of gauge equivalent connections is developed. By carring out a non-linear generalization of the theory of cylindrical measures on topological vector spaces, a faithfull, diffeomorphism invariant measure is introduced on a suitable completion of the quotient space. The strip (i.e. momentum) operators are densely-defined in the resulting Hilbert space and interact with the measure correctly, to become essentially self adjoint operators.

Jerzy Lewandowski

1994-06-16

186

Emotion socialization in formerly homeless families.  

E-print Network

??Emotional competence in children is increasingly understood as an outcome of parents? adaptive socialization behaviors. Parent?s socialization of children?s emotions and children?s emotion competence were… (more)

Davis, Karen Laurel

2012-01-01

187

Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice  

PubMed Central

In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

2014-01-01

188

Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

2012-03-01

189

Contextually appropriate emotional word use predicts adaptive health behavior: Emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence.  

PubMed

Emotion context sensitivity is the ability to respond emotionally in a manner that is functionally appropriate for the context in which the emotion arises. This study examined the relationship between emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence in adults with the chronic illness Thalassemia. Emotional responses were measured by examining the frequency of positive and negative emotional words used to answer two interview questions that created two different emotional contexts. Consistent with previous research on adaptive and contextually appropriate emotions, negative emotion words were related to adherence in the context of the disease itself, while positive emotion words were related to adherence in the context of coping. PMID:24801328

Harvey, Meredith M; Coifman, Karin G; Ross, Gail; Kleinert, Dorothy; Giardina, Patricia

2014-05-01

190

Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.  

PubMed

This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

Tong, Eddie M W

2015-04-01

191

Measures of emotion: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

2009-01-01

192

Emotional intelligence and educational reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This reform aims primarily on the maximization of performance

Lefkios Neophytou

2012-01-01

193

Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

2012-01-01

194

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

195

Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

2002-01-01

196

The importance of emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

Clancy, Cheri

2014-11-27

197

Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

Nelson, Dean R.

2012-01-01

198

Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

2013-01-01

199

On the Nature of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

Kagan, Jerome

1994-01-01

200

Examining Emotions in Identity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study I develop theoretically the role of emotions in identity theory by examining individuals' emotional reactions to identity nonverification (in a positive and a negative direction) and identity verification, which occurs once versus repeatedly, and which is perpetrated by a familiar other compared with an unfamiliar other. Predictions…

Stets, Jan E.

2005-01-01

201

Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization  

PubMed Central

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2011-01-01

202

Contradictions of emotion in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers contradictory features of emotional or affective experience and expression in schizophrenia in light of the “Kretschmerian paradox”—the fact that schizophrenia-spectrum patients can simultaneously experience both exaggerated and diminished levels of affective response. An attempt is made to explain the paradox and explore its implications. Recent research on emotion in schizophrenia is reviewed, including subjective reports, psychophysiological measures

Louis Sass

2007-01-01

203

Inverse association between 18-carbon trans fatty acids and intelligence quotients in smoking schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomeric fatty acid status in schizophrenia patients. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) was analyzed by gas chromatography in 29 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls. We found no difference in PL n-3 fatty acid status between the two groups, while the values of 22:5n-6 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In TG, values of docosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. We found no difference in the trans fatty acid status between patients and controls. In smoking schizophrenia patients significant negative correlations were detected between Wechsler adult full-scale intelligence quotients and values of total trans fatty acids in PL lipids, whereas no such correlation was seen either in non-smoking schizophrenia patients, or in healthy controls. While data obtained in the present study fail to furnish evidence for n-3 PUFA supplementation to the diet of patients with schizophrenia, they indicate that in smoking schizophrenia patients high dietary exposure to trans fatty acids is associated with lower intelligence quotients. PMID:24210662

Lohner, Szimonetta; Vágási, Judit; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Decsi, Tamás

2014-01-30

204

Networks of Emotion Concepts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

Toivonen, Riitta; Kivelä, Mikko; Saramäki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

205

Stereotype associations and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Study 2) expression displays. Stereotype consistent expressions were more quickly decoded than stereotype inconsistent expression on Moroccan and White male faces. Importantly, we found consistent and novel evidence that participants' associations between ethnicities and emotions, as measured with a newly developed emotion Implicit Association Test (eIAT), predicted the strength of their ethnicity-based stereotype biases in expression recognition. In both studies, as perceivers' level of Moroccan-anger and Dutch-sadness associations (compared with the opposite) increased, so did perceivers' tendency to decode anger more readily on Moroccan faces and sadness on White faces. The observed stereotype effect seemed to be independent of implicit prejudice (Study 2), suggesting dissociable effects of prejudices and stereotypes in expression perception. PMID:24523297

Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

2014-05-01

206

On the nature of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same, rendering the value of the distinction largely for the benefit of analysis. There is an extensive discussion of how the same processes can generate emotions (i.e., are constitutive of emotion) and account for variability of manifestation of emotion in context (i.e., regulate them). Following an extensive review of many of the principles involved in emotion and emotion regulation, the paper presents implications for developmental study of infants and children, includes several methodological recommendations, and concludes with an analysis of the extent to which contemporary affective neuroscience contributes to the study of emotion and emotion regulation. PMID:15056194

Campos, Joseph J; Frankel, Carl B; Camras, Linda

2004-01-01

207

Emotion to emotion speech conversion in phoneme level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having an ability to synthesize emotional speech can make human-machine interaction more natural in spoken dialogue management. This study investigates the effectiveness of prosodic and spectral modification in phoneme level on emotion-to-emotion speech conversion. The prosody modification is performed with the TD-PSOLA algorithm (Moulines and Charpentier, 1990). We also transform the spectral envelopes of source phonemes to match those of target phonemes using LPC-based spectral transformation approach (Kain, 2001). Prosodic speech parameters (F0, duration, and energy) for target phonemes are estimated from the statistics obtained from the analysis of an emotional speech database of happy, angry, sad, and neutral utterances collected from actors. Listening experiments conducted with native American English speakers indicate that the modification of prosody only or spectrum only is not sufficient to elicit targeted emotions. The simultaneous modification of both prosody and spectrum results in higher acceptance rates of target emotions, suggesting that not only modeling speech prosody but also modeling spectral patterns that reflect underlying speech articulations are equally important to synthesize emotional speech with good quality. We are investigating suprasegmental level modifications for further improvement in speech quality and expressiveness.

Bulut, Murtaza; Yildirim, Serdar; Busso, Carlos; Lee, Chul Min; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

2004-10-01

208

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

209

[The nurse opposite emotions].  

PubMed

When one approaches a work of classical literature best thing can do is shut up and let that speak for itself "La señorita Cora" doubly deserves the title of classic. First, because it still extraordinary tales of Cortázar, some like this reach the condition of anthological parts. Secondly, because within the literature starring nurses, it is difficult to find a work that explore the emotional world of nursing care with such lucidity. Therefore, much more interesting that read this comment is read and reread the story. And I say back to read because the classical works are characterized by the more return on them, far from tired, offer us new perspectives which we had not seen until then. PMID:24245414

Bellver Capella, Vicente

2013-09-01

210

Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

2012-01-01

211

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

212

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same,

Joseph J. Campos; Carl B. Frankel; Linda Camras

2004-01-01

213

Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

2012-01-01

214

Emotions as Natural and Normative Kinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier work I have claimed that emotion and some emotions are not 'natural kinds'. Here I clarify what I mean by 'natural kind', suggest a new and more accurate term, and discuss the objection that emotion and emotions are not descriptive categories at all, but fundamentally normative categories. 1. Introduction. It is unlikely that all the psychological states and

Paul E. Griffiths

2004-01-01

215

IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION  

E-print Network

-reported effortful emotion regulation, and an adaptive pattern of cardiovascular responding. These findings suggest on deliberate, response-focused emotion regulation, as predicted by participants' explicit reports of emotionIMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION 1 Running Head: IMPLICIT EVALUATION OF EMOTION REGULATION

Gross, James J.

216

Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

Oplatka, Izhar

2007-01-01

217

The emotional feeling as a combination of two qualia: A neurophilosophical-based emotion theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the emotional feeling comprises the following two emotional qualia. (1) A nucleus feeling or primary emotional quale, which is the phenomenological counterpart of the end product of appraisal by the central nervous system. (2) The experience of being urged to emotion-related reflection or secondary emotional quale, which is the phenomenological counterpart of the brain's decision to

Bob Bermond

2008-01-01

218

Brain-age quotients in recently detoxified alcoholic, recovered alcoholic and nonalcoholic women.  

PubMed

Examined performance of three matched groups (N = 35 each) of female alcoholics (average sobriety 1 month), female recovered alcoholics (average sobriety 1 year), and female nonalcoholic controls on the Brain-Age Quotient (BAQ), an age-adjusted index of cerebral dysfunction. The mean BAQs of the alcoholics and recovered alcoholics were significantly lower than that of the controls. Analyses of the BAQ subtests indicated that the alcoholics performed significantly less well than the controls on the Halstead Category Test, Tactual Performance Test-Time, WAIS Block Design and WAIS Digit Symbol, which replicates findings with male alcoholics. The recovered alcoholics performed at the alcoholic level on WAIS Block Design and Digit Symbol and performed at the control level on the Halstead Category test; which suggests a differential recovery of cognitive abilities in abstinent female alcoholics. PMID:7056868

Hochla, N A; Fabian, M S; Parsons, O A

1982-01-01

219

Flops of G-Hilb and equivalences of derived categories by variation of GIT quotient  

E-print Network

For a finite subgroup G in SL(3,C), Bridgeland, King and Reid proved that the moduli space of G-clusters is a crepant resolution of the quotient C^3/G. This paper considers the moduli spaces M_\\theta, introduced by Kronheimer and further studied by Sardo Infirri, which coincide with G-Hilb for a particular choice of the GIT parameter \\theta. For G Abelian, we prove that every projective crepant resolution of C^3/G is isomorphic to M_\\theta for some parameter \\theta. The key step is the description of GIT chambers in terms of the K-theory of the moduli space via the appropriate Fourier--Mukai transform. We also uncover explicit equivalences between the derived categories of moduli M_\\theta for parameters lying in adjacent GIT chambers.

Alastair Craw; Akira Ishii

2003-10-15

220

Target hazard quotient evaluation of cadmium and lead in fish from Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are being increasingly released into the natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distributions of several heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were investigated in muscle and liver of three different fish species seasonally collected from Caspian Sea (autumn 2011-summer 2012). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The target hazard quotient (THQ) index for fish was calculated. Estimation of THQ calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQ values of Pb and Cd for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively, and for children were 0.08 and 0.05 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively. PMID:24081633

Basim, Yalda; Khoshnood, Zahra

2013-10-23

221

The effect of a voiced lip trill on estimated glottal closed quotient.  

PubMed

The use of lip trills has been advocated for both vocal habilitation and rehabilitation. A voiced lip trill requires continuous vibration of the lips while simultaneously maintaining phonation. The mechanism of any effects of a lip trill on vocal fold vibration is still unknown. While other techniques that either constrict or artificially lengthen the vocal tract have been investigated, no studies thus far have systematically examined the effect of lip trills on vocal fold vibration. Classically trained singers and vocally untrained participants produced a lip trill for approximately 1 minute, and vocal fold closed quotient (CQ) was calculated both during the lip trill and on a sustained spoken vowel before and after the trill. Data are reported for both a group design and a single-subject design. Most participants showed a tendency for a reduction in CQ during the lip trill, with a more pronounced change in the untrained participants. PMID:17574810

Gaskill, Christopher S; Erickson, Molly L

2008-11-01

222

Quality of life of Israeli adults with borderline intelligence quotient and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

The quality of life of 127 Israeli young adults diagnosed as having borderline intelligence quotient and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and living in community residences, was studied with respect to personal, disability and social ecology data. Overall, quality of life was associated with studying in inclusive education, total attention-deficit disorder symptomatology score, monthly income, participation in leisure activities and having a personal friend. Two significant predictors of quality of life were attention-deficit disorder symptomatology score and monthly income. Additional analysis indicates that among younger residents the two significant predictors were inclusive education and high monthly income, whereas the predictors for older residents were low level of medical disability and low attention-deficit disorder symptomatology score. PMID:17293721

Rimmerman, Arie; Yurkevich, Oren; Birger, Moshe; Azaiza, Fisal; Elyashar, Shlomo

2007-03-01

223

The 24-hour respiratory quotient predicts energy intake and changes in body mass.  

PubMed

To define the relationship between the respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy intake (EI) and to determine the impact of spontaneous locomotor activity (LMA) in the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO), we fed C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for either 4 days or 17 wk and analyzed them using indirect calorimetry. Importantly, changes in body mass during calorimetry (DeltaM(b)) significantly covaried with RQ and EI; adjusting the data for DeltaM(b) permitted an analysis of the energy-balanced state. The 24-h RQ strongly predicted 24-h EI, and the slope of this relationship was diet dependent (HFD or chow) but independent of the HFD feeding period. Early-stage DIO was characterized by dark-period hyperphagia and fat storage, offset by greater light-period lipid oxidation; later stage DIO mice had a milder hyperphagia and lower substrate flexibility. Consequently, whereas 24-h RQ equaled the food quotient of the HFD in both early- and late-stage DIO, the range of RQ values was negatively correlated with, and mostly explained by, 24-h EI only in late-stage DIO. Lean and early-stage DIO mice had similar LMA values that were reduced in late-stage DIO. However, LMA significantly explained variance in total energy expenditure (EE) in only early-stage DIO mice. This indicated that the link between LMA and EE was a transient adaptive response to early DIO, whereas the later loss of LMA did not explain body weight gain in C57BL/6 DIO mice. PMID:20018821

Longo, Kenneth A; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Govek, Elizabeth K; McDonagh, Thomas; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

2010-03-01

224

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

225

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-09-01

226

The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2004-01-01

227

A quick referral guide for adults with suspected autism who do not have a learning disability. Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)  

E-print Network

A quick referral guide for adults with suspected autism who do not have a learning disability. AQ-10 Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) 1 I often notice small sounds when others do not 2 I usually diagnostic assessment. This test is recommended in `Autism: recognition, referral, diagnosis and management

Cambridge, University of

228

The emotional economy of housing   

E-print Network

This paper offers an interpretation of the role of emotions in animating housing markets which complements more traditional economic and behavioural studies of locally based house-price inflation. Looking to debates within ...

Christie, H.; Smith, S.J.; Munro, M.

2008-10-01

229

Emotional Intelligence and Social Perception   

E-print Network

The present study had the chief aim of validating the new Social Perception Test (SPT) as a veridically scored, pragmatic measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). To this end the SPT was compared to three similarly visually based tests – picture...

Teale, Cassandra

2010-06-30

230

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Back Pain and Emotional Distress Common Reactions to Back Pain Four out of five adults will experience an episode of significant back pain sometime during ...

231

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

232

Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.  

PubMed

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

2013-01-01

233

Cognition and Motivation in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cognition—and to some extent motivation—in emotion, the ways meaning is generated, unconscious appraising, and the implications of this way of thinking for life-span development are addressed. It is argued that appraisal is a necessary as well as sufficient cause of emotion and that knowledge is necessary but not sufficient. This position is examined in light of what

Richard S. Lazarus

1991-01-01

234

The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench,  

E-print Network

about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, is that emotions must be inventions (i.e., constructions) of the human mind. This is not a claim that emotions

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

235

Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The trait-like nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more state-like and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter (CWNS). Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

2015-01-01

236

Emotion and the motivational brain  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain’s motivational circuits that determine human emotion. PMID:19879918

Lang, Peter J.; Bradley, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

237

An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632

Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

2014-01-01

238

The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people. Materials and Methods: The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P < 0.001). The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relation between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P < 0.001, r = 0.529). The results of linear regression also showed that the general emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x). Conclusion: Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the quality of the married people relations and promoting health of the families and the society. PMID:24741664

Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Jamshidi, Farid

2014-01-01

239

Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat  

PubMed Central

Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations. There were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but no significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. PMID:22738323

2012-01-01

240

The role of emotion and emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation. In this review, we consider recent findings regarding emotion and emotion regulation in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). We first describe key features of SAD which suggest altered emotional and self-related processing difficulties. Next, we lay the conceptual foundation for a discussion of emotion and emotion regulation and present a common framework for understanding emotion regulation, the process model of emotion regulation. Using the process model, we evaluate the recent empirical literature spanning self-report, observational, behavioral, and physiological methods across five specific families of emotion regulation processes-situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation. Next, we examine the empirical evidence behind two psychosocial interventions for SAD: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Throughout, we present suggestions for future directions in the continued examination of emotion and emotion regulation in SAD. PMID:25413637

Jazaieri, Hooria; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

2015-01-01

241

Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.  

PubMed

Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

2015-02-01

242

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

243

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

244

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

245

Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health  

MedlinePLUS

... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...

246

Cognition and Emotion in Cerebellar Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... ATAXIA FOUNDATION Are problems in the areas of cognition and emotion related to the cerebellar damage in ... minimal or no ataxia. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT... Cognition and Emotion in Cerebellar Disorders National Ataxia Foundation ...

247

Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

Horner, Michelle S.

2009-01-01

248

Entropy growth in emotional online dialogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and model the dialogues between its participants by assuming that the driving force for the discussion is the entropy growth of emotional probability distribution.

Sienkiewicz, J.; Skowron, M.; Paltoglou, G.; Ho?yst, Janusz A.

2013-02-01

249

Motivation and Emotion ISSN 0146-7239  

E-print Network

suppression. Within CCT, the amount of formal meditation practiced was related to reductions in worry Mindfulness Á Affect Á Emotion Á Emotion regulation Á Meditation Introduction Compassion may be defined

Gross, James J.

250

On the distribution for sums of partial quotients in continued fraction expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let x in [0, 1) and [a1(x), a2(x), ...] be the continued fraction expansion of x. For any n >= 1, write S_n(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^n a_k(x) . Khintchine (1935 Compos. Math. 1 361-82) proved that \\frac{S_n(x)}{n log n} converges in measure to \\frac{1}{log 2} with respect to {L}^1 , where L^1 denotes the one dimensional Lebesgue measure. Philipp (1988 Monatsh. Math. 105 195-206) showed that there is not a reasonable normalizing sequence such that a strong law of large numbers is satisfied. In this paper, we show that for any ? >= 0, the set \\[ \\begin{equation*} E(\\alpha)=\\left\\{x\\in [0,1)\\colon \\lim_{n\\to \\infty}\\frac{S_n(x)}{nlog n}=\\alpha\\right\\} \\end{equation*} \\] is of Hausdorff dimension 1. Furthermore, we prove that the Hausdorff dimension of the set consisting of reals whose sums of partial quotients grow at a given polynomial rate is 1.

Wu, Jun; Xu, Jian

2011-04-01

251

Intelligence quotient profile in myotonic dystrophy, intergenerational deficit, and correlation with CTG amplification.  

PubMed Central

An abbreviated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) was used to assess verbal and arithmetical cognitive performance in 55 subjects with myotonic dystrophy (DM), covering all grades of disease severity, and 31 controls at 50% risk of inheriting DM. Scaled scores from the assessment were converted into an intelligence quotient (IQ) estimation on each person. Significant IQ differences were found between: (1) all 55 DM subjects (mean 90.2, SD 16.1) and 31 controls (102.6, SD 9.4), with no sex differences in either group; (2) 15 affected parents (99.3, SD 12.2) and their affected children (88.1, SD 17.2), where significance was dependent on parental sex being female; and (3) 15 pairs of affected sibs (89.6, SD 13.2) and their normal sibs (100.2, SD 7.6). IQ steadily declined as (1) the age of onset of signs and symptoms decreased, and (2) the CTG expansion size increased. The correlation appeared to be more linear with age of onset. The correlation of IQ difference and CTG expansion difference in both the DM parent-child pairs and normal sib-affected sib pairs was poor, indicating that CTG expansion is not a reliable predictor of IQ either in individual persons or families. Further analysis of cognitive function in DM is required to clarify specific deficits characteristic of this patient group. PMID:8071955

Turnpenny, P; Clark, C; Kelly, K

1994-01-01

252

Intelligence quotient is associated with epilepsy in children with intellectual disability in India  

PubMed Central

Background: Epilepsy is a disorder that is commonly found in people with intellectual disability (ID). The prevalence of epilepsy increases with the severity of ID. The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between intelligence quotient (IQ) and epilepsy in children with ID. Materials and Methods: A total of 262 children, aged 3-18 years, with ID were identified as part of a community-based rehabilitation project. These children were examined for epilepsy and diagnosed by a psychiatrist and physicians based on results of electroencephalogram tests. A Spearman's correlation (?) was used to determine if there was an association between IQ scores and the occurrence of epilepsy. X2 statistics used to examine the relationship of epilepsy with gender, socioeconomic status, population type, severity of ID, family history of mental illness, mental retardation, epilepsy, and coexisting disorder. Results: Spearman's rho –0.605 demonstrates inverse association of IQ with epilepsy. X2 demonstrates statistically significant association (P < 0.05) with gender, severity of ID, cerebral palsy, behavior problems, and family history of mental illness, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Conclusions: Lower IQ score in children with ID has association with occurrence of epilepsy. Epilepsy is also found highly associated with male gender and lower age. PMID:24347947

Lakhan, Ram

2013-01-01

253

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.

2012-01-01

254

The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

Fisher, R. Michael

2009-01-01

255

Examining the effect of spinal cord injury on emotional awareness, expressivity and memory for emotional material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view on the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on emotion is that it dampens emotional experience due to a loss of peripheral bodily feedback, with the higher the lesion on the spinal cord the greater the reduction in the intensity of emotional experience. This view persists despite many studies showing an absence of such an emotional impairment

D. K. Deady; N. T. North; D. Allan; M. J. Law Smith; R. E. OCarroll

2010-01-01

256

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a,  

E-print Network

The effect of emotional context on facial emotion ratings in schizophrenia Yu Sun Chung a, , Deanna Schizophrenia Face recognition Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits both in facial emotion recognition­1644). Thus, individuals with schizophrenia may have deficits in facial emotion processing, at least in part

257

Relationships of Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse to Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Incarcerated Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationships of sexual, physical and emotional abuse to emotional and behavioral problems among incarcerated girls and boys. Analyses indicated that girls were more likely than boys to internalize their problems. The only abuse variable that was positively and significantly associated with emotional problems was emotional abuse.…

Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Koopman, Cheryl; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Nicole; Canterbury, R. J., II

2001-01-01

258

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the 'bottom-up' (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or 'top-down' (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

McRae, Kateri; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K; Pereira, Sean C; Gross, James J

2012-03-01

259

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

260

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome\\/High-Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Indi- viduals score in the range 0-50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Richard Skinner; Joanne Martin; Emma Clubley

2001-01-01

261

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early childhood. A subsequent structural model indicated that emotion understanding processes were significantly positively

Esther M. Leerkes; Matthew John. Paradise; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Garrett. Lange

2008-01-01

262

Historical analysis in the study of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical research on emotion has burgeoned in recent years. While some historians examine continuities in emotion despite changes in context—as in 19th- and 20th-century grief reactions—most attention has been directed toward charting major changes in emotional standards and explaining their causation. In Western civilization, the century and a half following about 1680 stands as a major period of emotional change,

Peter N. Stearns

1986-01-01

263

Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Classification and Classification Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the problem of human facial emotion and emo- tion intensity levels recognition and resulting classification accuracy evalua- tion. Final testing set classification accuracy value is usually taken as a quan- tifier of method quality. However, this value is often strongly affected by the testing set parameters such as number, age and gender of subjects or

Marian Beszédes; Phil F. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

264

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Work: Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

This contribution links psychological models of emotion regulation to sociological accounts of emotion work to demonstrate the extent to which emotion regulation is systematically shaped by culture and society. I first discuss a well-established two-factor process model of emotion regulation and argue that a substantial proportion of emotion regulatory goals are derived from emotion norms. In contrast to universal emotion values and hedonic preferences, emotion norms are highly specific to social situations and institutional contexts. This specificity is determined by social cognitive processes of categorization and guided by framing rules. Second, I argue that the possibilities for antecedent-focused regulation, in particular situation selection and modification, are not arbitrarily available to individuals. Instead, they depend on economic, cultural, and social resources. I suggest that the systematic and unequal distribution of these resources in society leads to discernible patterns of emotion and emotion regulation across groups of individuals. PMID:23181041

von Scheve, Christian

2012-01-01

265

Emotions and their expression in Chinese culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to integrate the scattered studies on Chinese emotion and proposes some methodological and substantive suggestions for future work. Emotions are construed as interpretations of physiological response to important social events with these interpretations guiding behavior. Concerning interpretation, the dimensions used by Chinese to understand emotion-eliciting events are the same as those found in many other cultures. Which

Michael Harris Bond

1993-01-01

266

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

267

Why emotions should be integrated into conversational  

E-print Network

and motivation Sonny: I did not murder him. Detective Spooner: You were emotional... I don't want my vacuum1 Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents Christian Becker, Stefan Kopp & Sons, Ltd #12;2 WHY EMOTIONS SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO CONVERSATIONAL AGENTS 1.1 Introduction

Becker-Asano, Christian

268

Why emotions should be integrated into conversational  

E-print Network

Sonny: I did not murder him. Detective Spooner: You were emotional... I don't want my vacuum cleaner1 Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents Christian Becker, Stefan Kopp & Sons, Ltd #12;2 WHY EMOTIONS SHOULD BE INTEGRATED INTO CONVERSATIONAL AGENTS When building

Kopp, Stefan

269

Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

2008-01-01

270

Positive emotions enhance recall of peripheral details  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects

Jennifer M. Talarico; Dorthe Berntsen; David C. Rubin

2009-01-01

271

Facilitating Maltreated Children's Use of Emotional Language.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4-9-year-old maltreated children's spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children's use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children's use of emotional language. PMID:25243047

Ahern, Elizabeth C; Lyon, Thomas D

2013-05-01

272

Stereotypical Portrayals of Emotionality in News Photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research content analyzed the news photographs of a major U.S. daily newspaper to examine the emotional portrayals of individuals in different gender, age, and ethnic subgroups. A multidimensional measure of emotion (pleasure, arousal, dominance) was used. A total of 1,595 individuals were coded. The results demonstrate that emotionality was stereotyped to some degree, particularly in relation to women, ethnic

Shelly Rodgers; Linda Jean Kenix; Esther Thorson

2007-01-01

273

Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting

Nina R. Jakoby

2012-01-01

274

Visual Search for Faces with Emotional Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this review is to critically examine contradictory findings in the study of visual search for emotionally expressive faces. Several key issues are addressed: Can emotional faces be processed preattentively and guide attention? What properties of these faces influence search efficiency? Is search moderated by the emotional state of the…

Frischen, Alexandra; Eastwood, John D.; Smilek, Daniel

2008-01-01

275

Social and Emotional Education in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' social and emotional development is vital in today's education, especially in light of changing family structures. This paper examines implications of recent cultural changes which have resulted in positive and negative changes in students' social and emotional needs, then describes and presents approaches to social and emotional…

Burke, Robert W.

2002-01-01

276

Expressions of Emotion as Mediated by Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her thoughtful work regarding various aspects of emotion and emotion related words, Pavlenko explores a variety of perspectives on how we might characterize and conceptualize expressions of emotion. It is a work that is quite rich in breadth--one that leads to a variety of different thoughts on this topic, many of which are amenable to…

Altarriba, Jeanette

2008-01-01

277

Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence suggests that a key distinction in the classification of human emotion is that between an appetitive motivational system associated with positive or pleasant emotion and an aversive motivational system associated with negative or unpleasant emotion. To explore the neural substrates of these two systems, 12 healthy women viewed sets of pictures previously demonstrated to elicit pleasant, unpleasant and

Eric M. Reiman; Margaret M. Bradley; Peter J. Lang; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Richard J. Davidson; Gary E. Schwartz

1997-01-01

278

Higher Education Emotions: A Scale Development Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion experienced in the classroom has been shown to influence subject-level satisfaction and loyalty to the institution. To date, a valid and reliable scale to measure higher-education satisfaction emotions does not exist and this study aims to rectify this shortfall. After a qualitative and quantitative investigation, 14 emotions that formed…

White, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

279

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

2008-01-01

280

"Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

Wang, Hongyu

2008-01-01

281

Emotion capture based on body postures and  

E-print Network

systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 #12;The goalEmotion capture based on body postures and movements Alexis Clay*, Nadine Couture*, Laurence Nigay

282

Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

283

Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

2010-01-01

284

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

285

A survey on emotional semantic image retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional semantic image retrieval is a new and promising research direction in recent years. This paper attempts to introduce this emerging area to researchers, give them a brief overview of current research progress and framework. In this field three key issues, emotional semantic representation, image feature extraction, and emotion recognition, are discussed in detail with approaches and challenges. In addition,

Weining Wang; Qianhua He

2008-01-01

286

The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion

Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

2008-01-01

287

The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders. Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997–2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis. Results and Conclusion: We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ? 0.01) the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation). The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ? 0.05) or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ? 0.01) among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking. PMID:25584419

Shang, Ce

2015-01-01

288

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

289

Remembering faces with emotional expressions  

PubMed Central

It is known that happy faces create more robust identity recognition memory than faces with some other expressions. However, this advantage was not verified against all basic expressions. Moreover, no research has assessed whether similar differences also exist among other expressions. To tackle these questions, we compared the effects of six basic emotional expressions on recognition memory using a standard old/new recognition task. The experiment also examined whether exposure to different emotional expressions at training creates variable effects on transfer of the trained faces to a new/neutral expression. Our results suggest that happy faces produced better identity recognition relative to disgusted faces, regardless of whether they were tested in the same image or a new image displaying a neutral expression. None of the other emotional expressions created measurable advantage for recognition memory. Overall, our data lend further support for the happy face advantage for long-term recognition memory. However, our detailed analyses also show that the advantage of happy expression on identity recognition may not be equally discernible from all other emotional expressions. PMID:25540634

Liu, Chang Hong; Chen, Wenfeng; Ward, James

2014-01-01

290

Online Gaming and Emotion Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to simulate lifelike interactive characters has many appli- cations in the gaming industry. A lifelike human face can enhance interactive applications by providing straightforward feedback to and from the users and stimulating emotional responses from them. Thus, the gaming and entertain- ment industries can benefit from employing believable, expressive characters since such features significantly enhance the atmosphere of

Amaryllis Raouzaiou; Kostas Karpouzis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2003-01-01

291

Emotional brain-computer interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in brain-computer interface (BCI) has significantly increased during the last few years. In addition to their initial role as assisting devices for the physically challenged, BCIs are now proposed for a wider range of applications. As in any HCI application, BCIs can also benefit from adapting their operation to the emotional state of the user. BCIs have the advantage

Gary Garcia Molina; Tsvetomira Tsoneva; Anton Nijholt; J. Cohn; Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

292

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

293

Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

294

Attentional bias in emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

1986-01-01

295

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

296

Emotion Circuits in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

Joseph E. LeDoux

2000-01-01

297

Spatial frequencies and emotional perception.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that, during evolution, specific mechanisms developed in order to optimize the detection of threats and opportunities even in perceptually degraded conditions. A naturalistic example of perceptual degradation can be found in blurry images, which contain the coarsest elements of a scene (low spatial frequencies) but lack the fine-grained details (high spatial frequencies). In the past decade, several studies have examined the relation between spatial frequencies and emotions, using a variety of methods, stimuli, and rationales. Here, we conduct a literature survey on the studies that have examined the relation between emotion and spatial frequencies. Some studies have suggested that the low spatial frequencies of emotional stimuli may be processed by a subcortical neural pathway, eventually eliciting emotional responses. However, the evidence provided by the reviewed studies does not support this possibility, for conceptual and methodological reasons (e.g., mistaking the processing of a fuzzy stimulus for subcortical processing). Here, the conceptual and methodological problems present in the reviewed studies are analyzed and discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23183741

De Cesarei, Andrea; Codispoti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

298

Emotion regulation and sport performance.  

PubMed

This study used a single-blind, within-participant, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to examine the relationship between emotional self-regulation and sport performance. Twenty competitive athletes completed four laboratory-based conditions; familiarization, control, emotion suppression, and nonsuppression. In each condition participants completed a 10-km cycling time trial requiring self-regulation. In the experimental conditions participants watched an upsetting video before performing the cycle task. When participants suppressed their emotional reactions to the video (suppression condition) they completed the cycling task slower, generated lower mean power outputs, and reached a lower maximum heart rate and perceived greater physical exertion than when they were given no self-regulation instructions during the video (nonsuppression condition) and received no video treatment (control condition). The findings suggest that emotional self-regulation resource impairment affects perceived exertion, pacing and sport performance and extends previous research examining the regulation of persistence on physical tasks. The results are discussed in line with relevant psychophysiological theories of self-regulation and fatigue and pertinent potential implications for practice regarding performance and well-being are suggested. PMID:25226609

Wagstaff, Christopher R D

2014-08-01

299

Sex, IQ, and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

150 young bankers estimated their IQ (Academic/Cognitive Intelligence) and EQ (Emotional Intelligence) before taking an IQ test. Pearson correlations were r = .40 and .41 between IQ test (Wonderlic Personnel Test) scores (M = 32.8) and IQ estimates (M = 27.9) and EQ estimates, respectively. Women's mean self-estimated IQ was significantly lower than men's. PMID:20229912

Furnham, Adrian

2009-12-01

300

Boosting Social and Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

Beland, Kathy

2007-01-01

301

Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

302

Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and evaluates the La Grange (Illinois) Area Department of Special Education (LADSE) network for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). It also presents a curriculum guide for applying the wraparound approach in schools. The LADSE EBD network is based on three levels of support: special classroom, supported…

La Grange Area Dept. of Special Education, IL.

303

Neural Networks for Emotion Classification  

E-print Network

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. This thesis describes a neural network-based approach for emotion classification. We learn a classifier that can recognize six basic emotions with an average accuracy of 77% over the Cohn-Kanade database. The novelty of this work is that instead of empirically selecting the parameters of the neural network, i.e. the learning rate, activation function parameter, momentum number, the number of nodes in one layer, etc. we developed a strategy that can automatically select comparatively better combination of these parameters. We also introduce another way to perform back propagation. Instead of using the partial differential of the error function, we use optimal algorithm; namely Powell's direction set to minimize the error function. We were also interested in construction an authentic emotion databases. This...

Sun, Yafei

2011-01-01

304

Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

1992-01-01

305

The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.  

PubMed

One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. PMID:24330427

Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

2013-12-11

306

Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony. PMID:24621792

Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D. I.; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2014-01-01

307

The effect of differences in methodology among some recent applications of shearing quotients.  

PubMed

A shearing quotient (SQ) is a way of quantitatively representing the Phase I shearing edges on a molar tooth. Ordinary or phylogenetic least squares regression is fit to data on log molar length (independent variable) and log sum of measured shearing crests (dependent variable). The derived linear equation is used to generate an 'expected' shearing crest length from molar length of included individuals or taxa. Following conversion of all variables to real space, the expected value is subtracted from the observed value for each individual or taxon. The result is then divided by the expected value and multiplied by 100. SQs have long been the metric of choice for assessing dietary adaptations in fossil primates. Not all studies using SQ have used the same tooth position or crests, nor have all computed regression equations using the same approach. Here we focus on re-analyzing the data of one recent study to investigate the magnitude of effects of variation in 1) shearing crest inclusion, and 2) details of the regression setup. We assess the significance of these effects by the degree to which they improve or degrade the association between computed SQs and diet categories. Though altering regression parameters for SQ calculation has a visible effect on plots, numerous iterations of statistical analyses vary surprisingly little in the success of the resulting variables for assigning taxa to dietary preference. This is promising for the comparability of patterns (if not casewise values) in SQ between studies. We suggest that differences in apparent dietary fidelity of recent studies are attributable principally to tooth position examined. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:166-178, 2015 © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25256698

Boyer, Doug M; Winchester, Julia; Kay, Richard F

2015-01-01

308

THE COMPARISON OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF ATOPIC AND NONATOPIC CHILDREN IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Atopy-related illnesses such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are chronic illnesses, and children suffering from such illnesses are subjected to frequent absenteeism from school. Studies have shown that the performance of children with asthma was comparable to their healthy counterparts despite their absenteeism at school, in contrast to findings in other chronic illnesses like epilepsy. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the association between atopy and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a group of Nigerian children in Ibadan, a city in southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of children in an urban elementary school. Questionnaires to ascertain the presence of atopy-associated conditions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were administered to the parents of 128 pupils in the 3rd to 6th grades of elementary school. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, pupils were categorized as being atopic and nonatopic. All the pupils underwent the Standard Progressive Matrices IQ test. The IQ scores were then compared among these two groups of children. Results: Out of the children studied, 26.6% were found to have atopy and after adjusting for factors such as age and sex, the IQ scores in this atopic group were not found to be statistically different from the scores in the nonatopic group (r = 2.122872, P = 0.009). Conclusion: IQ scores were not statistically significantly different for children with and without atopy. Thus, the presence of atopy does not appear to be associated with low IQ scores and hence, may not be related to poor school performance. PMID:21063510

Daramola, O O M; Ayoola, O O; Ogunbiyi, A O

2010-01-01

309

Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study  

PubMed Central

Patients with cirrhosis have increased gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation that may contribute to a low respiratory quotient (RQ), and this may be linked to sarcopenia and metabolic decompensation when these patients are hospitalized. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to measure RQ and its impact on skeletal muscle mass, survival, and related complications in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Fasting RQ and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined by indirect calorimetry in cirrhotic patients (n = 25), and age, sex, and weight-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Abdominal muscle area was quantified by computed tomography scanning. In cirrhotic patients we also examined the impact of RQ on mortality, repeat hospitalizations, and liver transplantation. Mean RQ in patients with cirrhosis (0.63 ± 0.05) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than healthy matched controls (0.84 ± 0.06). Psoas muscle area in cirrhosis (24.0 ± 6.6 cm2) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in controls (35.9 ± 9.5 cm2). RQ correlated with the reduction in psoas muscle area (r2 = 0.41; P = 0.01). However, in patients with cirrhosis a reduced RQ did not predict short-term survival or risk of developing complications. When REE was normalized to psoas area, energy expenditure was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis (66.7 ± 17.8 kcal/cm2) compared with controls (47.7 ± 7.9 kcal/cm2). We conclude that hospitalized patients with cirrhosis have RQs well below the traditional lowest physiological value of 0.69, and this metabolic state is accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle area. Although low RQ does not predict short-term mortality in these patients, it may reflect a decompensated metabolic state that requires careful nutritional management with appropriate consideration for preservation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:23288550

Glass, Cathy; Hipskind, Peggy; Tsien, Cynthia; Malin, Steven K.; Kasumov, Takhar; Shah, Shetal N.; Kirwan, John P.

2013-01-01

310

Magnitude and regulation of bacterioplankton respiratory quotient across freshwater environmental gradients  

PubMed Central

Bacterioplankton respiration (BR) may represent the largest single sink of organic carbon in the biosphere and constitutes an important driver of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from freshwaters. Complete understanding of BR is precluded by the fact that most studies need to assume a respiratory quotient (RQ; mole of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed) to calculate rates of BR. Many studies have, without clear support, assumed a fixed RQ around 1. Here we present 72 direct measurements of bacterioplankton RQ that we carried out in epilimnetic samples of 52 freshwater sites in Québec (Canada), using O2 and CO2 optic sensors. The RQs tended to converge around 1.2, but showed large variability (s.d.=0.45) and significant correlations with major gradients of ecosystem-level, substrate-level and bacterial community-level characteristics. Experiments with natural bacterioplankton using different single substrates suggested that RQ is intimately linked to the elemental composition of the respired compounds. RQs were on average low in net autotrophic systems, where bacteria likely were utilizing mainly reduced substrates, whereas we found evidence that the dominance of highly oxidized substrates, for example, organic acids formed by photo-chemical processes, led to high RQ in the more heterotrophic systems. Further, we suggest that BR contributes to a substantially larger share of freshwater CO2 emissions than presently believed based on the assumption that RQ is ?1. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton RQ is not only a practical aspect of BR determination, but also a major ecosystem state variable that provides unique information about aquatic ecosystem functioning. PMID:22094347

Berggren, Martin; Lapierre, Jean-François; del Giorgio, Paul A

2012-01-01

311

Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

312

IQdb: an intelligence quotient score-associated gene resource for human intelligence.  

PubMed

Intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most widely used phenotype to characterize human cognitive abilities. Recent advances in studies on human intelligence have identified many new susceptibility genes. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in IQ score and the relationship between IQ score and the risk of mental disorders have won little attention. To address the genetic complexity of IQ score, we have developed IQdb (http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn), a publicly available database for exploring IQ-associated human genes. In total, we collected 158 experimental verified genes from literature as a core dataset in IQdb. In addition, 46 genomic regions related to IQ score have been curated from literature. Based on the core dataset and 46 confirmed linked genomic regions, more than 6932 potential IQ-related genes are expanded using data of protein-protein interactions. A systematic gene ranking approach was applied to all the collected and expanded genes to represent the relative importance of all the 7090 genes in IQdb. Our further systematic pathway analysis reveals that IQ-associated genes are significantly enriched in multiple signal events, especially related to cognitive systems. Of the 158 genes in the core dataset, 81 are involved in various psychotic and mental disorders. This comprehensive gene resource illustrates the importance of IQdb to our understanding on human intelligence, and highlights the utility of IQdb for elucidating the functions of IQ-associated genes and the cross-talk mechanisms among cognition-related pathways in some mental disorders for community. Database URL: http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn. PMID:24030781

Kong, Lei; Cheng, Lu; Fan, Li-ya; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

2013-01-01

313

Higher 24-h respiratory quotient and higher spontaneous physical activity in nighttime eaters.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that a higher 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) predicts greater ad-libitum food intake and that nighttime eaters (NE) ingested more calories during an in-patient food intake study and gained more weight over time. We investigated whether 24-h RQ was higher in individuals who exhibited nighttime eating behavior. Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (PI; n = 97, 54 male/43 female) and whites (W; n = 32, 22 male/10 female) were admitted to our Clinical Research Unit. After 3 days of a weight maintaining diet, 24-h energy expenditure (24-h EE), 24-h RQ, rates of carbohydrate (CHOX) and lipid oxidation (LIPOX), and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were measured in a metabolic chamber whereas volunteers were in energy balance and unable to consume excess calories. Individuals subsequently ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine for 3 days with amount and timing of food intake recorded. Fifty-five individuals (36%; 39 PI, 16 W) were NE, who ate between 11 PM and 5 AM on at least one of the 3 days on the vending machines. There were no differences in BMI or percentage body fat between NE and non-NE. After adjusting for age, sex, race, fat-free mass, fat mass, and energy balance, NE had a higher 24-h RQ (P = 0.01), higher CHOX (P = 0.009), and lower LIPOX (P = 0.03) and higher 24-h SPA (P = 0.04) compared to non-NE. There were no differences in adjusted 24-h EE or sleep RQ between the groups. Individuals with nighttime eating behavior have higher 24-h RQ, higher CHOX and lower LIPOX, a phenotype associated with increased food intake and weight gain. PMID:20864947

Gluck, Marci E; Venti, Colleen A; Salbe, Arline D; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

2011-02-01

314

Effects of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on the glottal closed quotient in untrained male voices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique has remained poorly understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a / vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, followed by a minute of repeated phonation into a hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. The tube parameters and tube phonation task criteria were selected according to theoretical calculations predicting an increase in the acoustic load such that phonation would occur under conditions of near-maximum inertive reactance. Following tube phonation, each participant repeated a similar series of spoken /a/ vowels. Electroglottography (EGG) was used to measure the glottal closed quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design with direct replication across subjects was used to identify any changes in CQ across the phases of the experiment. Single-subject analysis using the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

Gaskill, Christopher Somers

315

Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.  

PubMed

Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research. PMID:25470436

Nabi, Robin L

2015-02-01

316

Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

317

Beyond emotional benefits: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.  

PubMed

Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources. PMID:25307453

Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

2015-03-01

318

Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: Testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

2015-01-01

319

Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience  

PubMed Central

Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility – the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli; and b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high trait resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low trait resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High trait resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. PMID:21707168

Waugh, Christian E.; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

2011-01-01

320

Evidence for Unintentional Emotional Contagion Beyond Dyads  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another’s emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B’s faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others’ emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics. PMID:23840683

Dezecache, Guillaume; Conty, Laurence; Chadwick, Michele; Philip, Leonor; Soussignan, Robert

2013-01-01

321

Facial signs of emotional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

35 right-handed White females (18–35 yrs) viewed positive and stress-inducing motion picture films and then reported on their subjective experience. Spontaneous facial expressions provided accurate information about more specific aspects of emotional experience than just the pleasant vs unpleasant distinction. The facial action coding system (P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, 1978) isolated a particular type of smile that was

Paul Ekman; Wallace V. Freisen; Sonia Ancoli

1980-01-01

322

Emotional attachment and mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  This article has provided, through reference to recent research, insights into the ways that people are using their mobile\\u000a phones in their everyday lives and in particular it has explored and examined the concept of emotional attachment to the mobile\\u000a phone. In offering some explanations for this seemingly unique behaviour it has highlighted the role of the social groups\\u000a or

Jane Vincent

2006-01-01

323

The Cerebellum and Emotional Experience  

PubMed Central

Summary While the role of the cerebellum in motor coordination is widely accepted, the notion that it is involved in emotion has only recently gained popularity. To date, functional neuroimaging has not been used in combination with lesion studies to elucidate the role of the cerebellum in the processing of emotional material. We examined six participants with cerebellar stroke and nine age and education matched healthy volunteers. In addition to a complete neuropsychological, neurologic, and psychiatric examination, participants underwent [15O]water positron emission tomography (PET) while responding to emotion-evoking visual stimuli. Cerebellar lesions were associated with reduced pleasant experience in response to happiness-evoking stimuli. Stroke patients reported an unpleasant experience to frightening stimuli similar to healthy controls, yet showed significantly lower activity in the right ventral lateral and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, and retrosplenial cingulate gyrus. Frightening stimuli led to increased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, pulvinar, and insular cortex. This suggests that alternate neural circuitry became responsible for maintaining the evolutionarily critical fear response after cerebellar damage. PMID:17123557

Turner, Beth M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Marvel, Cherie L.; Pierson, Ronald; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Hichwa, Richard D.; Robinson, Robert G.

2007-01-01

324

Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder  

E-print Network

Emotion Choosing How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder Aleena C. Hay, Gal How to Feel: Emotion Regulation Choice in Bipolar Disorder. Emotion. Advance online publication. http June Gruber University of Colorado Boulder Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion

Gross, James J.

325

SonificationSonification, Music, Music and Emotionand Emotion  

E-print Network

SonificationSonification, Music, Music and Emotionand Emotion #12;SonificationSonification, Music and, Music and EmotionEmotion nn SonificationSonification nn What is it?What is it? nn How is it used?How is it used? nn Music and EmotionMusic and Emotion nn How are they linked?How are they linked? nn Combination

Kearney, Joseph K.

326

Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has often been presumed that jobs involving “people work” (e.g., nurses, service workers) are emotionally taxing (Maslach & Jackson, 1982), seldom is the emotional component of these jobs explicitly studied. The current study compared two perspectives of emotional labor as predictors of burnout beyond the effects of negative affectivity: job-focused emotional labor (work demands regarding emotion expression) and

Céleste M. Brotheridge; Alicia A. Grandey

2002-01-01

327

Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

Klaus R. Scherer

1993-01-01

328

The Voice Conveys Specific Emotions: Evidence From Vocal Burst Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of emotion signaling inform claims about the taxonomic structure, evolutionary origins, and physiological correlates of emotions. Emotion vocalization research has tended to focus on a limited set of emotions: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, and for the voice, also tenderness. Here, we examine how well brief vocal bursts can communicate 22 different emotions: 9 negative (Study 1) and

Emiliana R. Simon-Thomas; Dacher J. Keltner; Disa Sauter; Lara Sinicropi-Yao; Anna Abramson

2009-01-01

329

A MULTI-AGENT MODEL FOR MUTUAL ABSORPTION OF EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times researchers have initiated investigating emotion as a collective property of groups, emphasizing the influence of combined emotions among group members on group processes. Within groups humans recognize and react emotionally to expressions of emotions of other group members. This paper uses a multi9agent9based approa ch to formalize and simulate such emotion contagion within groups.

Tibor Bosse; Rob Duell; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur

330

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

331

Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.  

SciTech Connect

Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

2008-08-01

332

Emotional persistence in online chatting communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

2012-05-01

333

Source memory enhancement for emotional words.  

PubMed

The influence of emotional stimuli on source memory was investigated by using emotionally valenced words. The words were colored blue or yellow (Experiment 1) or surrounded by a blue or yellow frame (Experiment 2). Participants were asked to associate the words with the colors. In both experiments, emotionally valenced words elicited enhanced free recall compared with nonvalenced words; however, recognition memory was not affected. Source memory for the associated color was also enhanced for emotional words, suggesting that even memory for contextual information is benefited by emotional stimuli. This effect was not due to the ease of semantic clustering of emotional words because semantically related words were not associated with enhanced source memory, despite enhanced recall (Experiment 3). It is suggested that enhancement resulted from facilitated arousal or attention, which may act to increase organization processes important for source memory. PMID:12894807

Doerksen, S; Shimamura, A P

2001-03-01

334

Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

2014-01-01

335

TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence  

PubMed Central

The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

2014-01-01

336

The impact of emotion on numerosity estimation  

PubMed Central

Both time and numerosity can be represented continuously as analog properties whose discrimination conforms to Weber’s Law, suggesting that the two properties may be represented similarly. Recent research suggests that the representation of time is influenced by the presence of emotional stimuli. If time and numerosity share a common cognitive representation, it follows that a similar relationship may exist between emotional stimuli and the representation of numerosity. Here, we provide evidence that emotional stimuli significantly affect humans’ estimation of visual numerosity. During a numerical bisection task, enumeration of emotional stimuli (angry faces) was more accurate compared to enumeration of neutrally valenced stimuli (neutral faces), demonstrating that emotional stimuli affect humans’ visual representation of numerosity as previously demonstrated for time. These results inform and broaden our understanding of the effect of negative emotional stimuli on psychophysical discriminations of quantity. PMID:23950754

Baker, Joseph M.; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry

2013-01-01

337

Emotional news : how emotional content of news and financial markets are related  

E-print Network

We present here a first step towards developing a quantitative model that relates investor emotions to financial markets. We used Wall Street Journal articles as a proxy of investor emotions on a "macro" level. We measured ...

Zhu, Wan Li, 1981-

2004-01-01

338

Long-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are  

E-print Network

Stanford University Corresponding author: Eran Halperin, Deputy Director Political Psychology ProgramLong-term intergroup conflicts are saturated with negative emotions. These emotions are thought to play a central role in initiating and sustaining intergroup conflicts (Halperin, 2010; Halperin, Bar

Gross, James J.

339

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

340

Mother and Child Emotions during Mathematics Homework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics is often thought of as a purely intellectual and unemotional activity. Recently, researchers have begun to question the validity of this approach, arguing that emotions and cognition are intertwined. The emotions expressed during mathematics work may be linked to mathematics achievement. We used behavioral measures to identify the emotions expressed by U.S. mothers and their 11-year-old children while solving

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet S. Hyde; Ahalya Hejmadi

2008-01-01

341

The empirical themes of five maternal emotions  

E-print Network

emotional quality toward their child (ke. , "a recent time when you were really proud of your child" ). The experimenter asked the subject to write a brief narrative on the front page of a packet. She was instructed that the narrative should describe.... , "a recent time when you were really angry at your child" ). Another brief narrative was written on a new packet. This procedure was carried out for five separate emotional events (two positive and three negative emotions) pertaining...

Krause, Matthew David

1998-01-01

342

Emotion and culture: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of 190 cross-cultural emotion studies, published between 1967 and 2000, was performed to examine (1) to what extent reported cross-cultural differences in emotion variables could be regarded as valid (substantive factors) or as method-related (statistical artefacts, cultural bias), and (2) which country characteristics could explain valid cross-cultural differences in emotion. The relative contribution of substantive and method-related factors

Dianne A. van Hemert; Ype H. Poortinga

2007-01-01

343

Vocal Gestures in Slovak: Emotions and Prosody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-spot words are indicators of high emotional invovement of speakers in the conversation and contain cues to the emotional\\u000a state of the speaker. Understanding and modeling of these cues may improve the effec-tiveness and naturalness of automated\\u000a cross-modal dialogue systems. In this paper we investigate the relationship between prosody and emotions in a subgroup of\\u000a hot-spot words: non-verbal vocal gestures

Stefan Benus; Milan Rusko

2008-01-01

344

Emotion Regulation Patterns in Adolescents With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison to Typically Developing Adolescents and Association With Psychiatric Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with poor emotional control and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Emotion regulation (ER) is a potential contributing factor, but there has been limited research on ER and its role in comorbid psychopathology in ASD. In this study, we compared self-reported ER with self- and parent reports of psychopathology in 25 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 23 age- and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)-matched typically developing controls. Contrary to expectations, both groups reported similar levels of adaptive, voluntary forms of ER (problem solving, acceptance, etc.). However, the ASD group reported significantly greater use of involuntary forms of ER that are typically maladaptive, including remaining focused on the stressor (e.g. rumination and emotional arousal) and shutting down (e.g. emotional numbing and being unable to think or act). Associations between ER and psychopathology were generally more robust using self-report rather than parent report. For both groups, greater endorsement of involuntary ER strategies was associated with higher ratings of psychopathology, whereas voluntary ER strategies focused on changing or adapting to the situation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychopathology. The magnitude and direction of association between ER types and psychopathology were similar for measures of depression and anxiety. These findings can help guide the development of psychosocial treatments targeting dysfunctional ER in adolescents with ASD. Interventions focused on ER as a transdiagnostic process may be a more robust method to improve emotional control and decrease emotional distress in ASD than disorder-specific interventions. PMID:24610869

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Borue, Xenia; Day, Taylor N.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2014-01-01

345

Emotion recognition and emotional theory of mind in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Difficulties with social function have been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but underpinning factors are unknown. Emotion recognition, theory of mind (inference of another's mental state) and ‘emotional’ theory of mind (eToM) (inference of another's emotional state) are important social abilities, facilitating understanding of others. This study examined emotion recognition and eToM in CFS patients and their relationship

A. Oldershaw; D. Hambrook; K. A. Rimes; K. Tchanturia; J. Treasure; S. Richards; U. Schmidt; T. Chalder

2011-01-01

346

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion  

E-print Network

Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 1 RUNNING HEAD: Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion: Fronto:peggy.st.jacques@duke.edu #12;Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Aging and Emotion 2 Abstract Emotional processes are enhanced

Cabeza, Roberto

347

The Effects of an Emotional Education Program on the Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an Emotional Education Program, which is based on the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategy) developed by Domitrovich, Greenberg, Cortes and Kusche, on six year old children's emotional skills (identification of emotions, understanding emotions and expression of emotions). In this study,…

Saltali, Neslihan Durmosoglu; Deniz, M. Engin

2010-01-01

348

Social regulation of emotion: messy layers.  

PubMed

Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the "messy layers." PMID:23424049

Kappas, Arvid

2013-01-01

349

Adolescents’ Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts  

PubMed Central

Adolescents’ emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with adolescents’ reactivity to conflict in friendships and romantic relationships during middle adolescence. Close friendship reactivity partially explained the prospective association between reactivity to interparental conflict and romantic relationship reactivity. The association between perceived emotional reactivity and relationship conflict was stronger for girls than boys. Results have important developmental implications regarding adolescents’ emotional reactivity across salient interpersonal contexts during adolescence. PMID:22545839

Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

2012-01-01

350

Social regulation of emotion: messy layers  

PubMed Central

Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049

Kappas, Arvid

2013-01-01

351

Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

2011-01-01

352

Emotion and Emotionality as a Hidden Dimension of Lexicon and Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her thought-provoking article, Aneta Pavlenko approaches emotion and emotion-laden words in the bilingual lexicon from an impressive number of different perspectives. This is particularly welcome, since most models of linguistic structure do not account for emotional meanings in a systematic way. One exception worth mentioning, however, is…

Viberg, Ake

2008-01-01

353

Emotional needs of car buyers and emotional intent of car designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the emotional intent of car buyers and designers in two related studies. The first study involved 179 Asian and European car owners from 10 countries who were interviewed in a survey. The results showed that several car design descriptors gave similar emotional associations in Europe and in Asia. Clearly, car owners look beyond functionality to consider emotional design

Martin G. Helander; Halimahtun M. Khalid; Tek Yong Lim; Hong Peng; Xi Yang

2012-01-01

354

Giving Shape and Form to Emotion: Using Drawings to Identify Emotions in University Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academia is generally not considered a place for expressing emotions, yet emotions are inevitably present in complex activities such as teaching. We investigated whether drawings could be used as a means of gaining access to emotions in university teaching and how. The data consisted of academics' drawings of themselves as university teachers…

Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne

2014-01-01

355

On the Validity of the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task for Emotion Induction  

PubMed Central

The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed. PMID:24776697

Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

2014-01-01

356

Tears and fears: modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions play a critical role in creating engaging and believable characters to populate virtual worlds. Our goal is to create general computational models to support characters that act in virtual environments, make decisions, but whose behavior also suggests an underlying emotional current. In service of this goal, we integrate two complementary approaches to emotional modeling into a single unified system.

Jonathan Gratch; Stacy Marsella

2001-01-01

357

Emotional Labor Actors: A Latent Profile Analysis of Emotional Labor Strategies.  

PubMed

Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068812

Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

2014-07-28

358

Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

2007-01-01

359

Longitudinal effects of emotional labour on emotional exhaustion and dedication of teachers.  

PubMed

A great number of teachers find teaching fulfilling and are dedicated to it, but others feel emotionally exhausted, indicating that the interaction with pupils can be emotionally demanding. Emotional labor was shown to play an important role for the health of teachers. In a full two-wave longitudinal study over the period of 1 year, the effect of emotional labor on emotional exhaustion and dedication of 102 teachers was investigated. Teachers who were able to influence their emotions to feel the emotion appropriate in a situation (so called deep acting) felt significantly less emotionally exhausted after 1 year. From this result, deep acting can, thus, be characterized as health-beneficial. Once teachers felt emotionally exhausted, they used more surface acting. More dedicated teachers, on the contrary, did neither engage more in deep acting nor in surface acting at Time 2. This indicates that those teachers who are dedicated to teaching seem less likely to act. To prevent emotional exhaustion of teachers, the development of interventions to promote health-beneficial emotional labor is necessary. This can be achieved by fostering deep acting, which reduces emotional exhaustion over longer periods of time. PMID:21058861

Philipp, Anja; Schüpbach, Heinz

2010-10-01

360

Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

Killian, Kyle D.

2012-01-01

361

Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N?=?72) and an experience sampling study (N?=?34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

2014-01-01

362

The Primacy of Perceiving: Emotion Recognition Buffers Negative Effects of Emotional Labor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is ample empirical evidence for negative effects of emotional labor (surface acting and deep acting) on workers' well-being. This study analyzed to what extent workers' ability to recognize others' emotions may buffer these effects. In a 4-week study with 85 nurses and police officers, emotion recognition moderated the relationship between…

Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; Rohrmann, Sonja; De Pater, Irene E.; Beersma, Bianca

2011-01-01

363

The emotional shape of our moral life: anger-related emotions and mutualistic anthropology.  

PubMed

The evolutionary hypothesis advanced by Baumard et al. makes precise predictions on which emotions should play the main role in our moral lives: morality should be more closely linked to “avoidance” emotions (like contempt and disgust) than to “punitive” emotions (like anger). Here, we argue that these predictions run contrary to most psychological evidence. PMID:23445584

Cova, Florian; Deonna, Julien; Sander, David

2013-02-01

364

Emotionally-Vulnerable Subjects and New Inequalities: The Educational Implications of an "Epistemology of the Emotions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by very different goals, various interest groups argue that the British government should address problems with citizens' emotional well-being. Concerns about emotional vulnerability and poor emotional well-being amongst growing numbers of children, young people and adults produce ideas and approaches from different branches of…

Ecclestone, Kathryn

2011-01-01

365

Too Emotional to Be Capable? The Changing Nature of Emotion Work in Definitions of "Capable Teaching"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the concept of emotional labour to understand some of the changes that are ongoing in the teaching profession. While research has explored the impact of the new performance culture upon teachers' work and identified a marginalisation of the caring and emotional aspects of teaching, the concept of emotional labour allows us to…

Hebson, Gail; Earnshaw, Jill; Marchington, Lorrie

2007-01-01

366

Improving Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Self-Efficacy through a Teaching Intervention for University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in…

Pool, Lorraine Dacre; Qualter, Pamela

2012-01-01

367

Context, culture and face emotion perception 1 How does context affect assessments of facial emotion?  

E-print Network

Context, culture and face emotion perception 1 How does context affect assessments of facial emotion? The role of culture and age Seon-Gyu Ko University of Southern California Tae-Ho Lee Korea California February, 2010: in press, Psychology and Aging #12;Context, culture and face emotion perception 2

Mather, Mara

368

Emotion-Related Parenting Styles (ERPS): A Short Form for Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Parents' meta-emotion philosophy guides their approach to teaching their children about emotions (J. M. Gottman, L. F. Katz, & C. Hooven, 1997) and is measured with the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test-Likert (Gottman et al., 1997, modified by J. Hakim-Larson, A. Parker, C. Lee, J. Goodwin, & S. Voelker, 2006). The…

Paterson, Ashley D.; Babb, Kimberley A.; Camodeca, Amy; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Hakim-Larson, Julie; Voelker, Sylvia; Gragg, Marcia

2012-01-01

369

Adolescents’ emotional competence is associated with parents’ neural sensitivity to emotions  

PubMed Central

An essential component of youths’ successful development is learning to appropriately respond to emotions, including the ability to recognize, identify, and describe one’s feelings. Such emotional competence is thought to arise through the parent–child relationship. Yet, the mechanisms by which parents transmit emotional competence to their children are difficult to measure because they are often implicit, idiosyncratic, and not easily articulated by parents or children. In the current study, we used a multifaceted approach that went beyond self-report measures and examined whether parental neural sensitivity to emotions predicted their child’s emotional competence. Twenty-two adolescent–parent dyads completed an fMRI scan during which they labeled the emotional expressions of negatively valenced faces. Results indicate that parents who recruited the amygdala, VLPFC, and brain regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., inferring others’ emotional states) had adolescent children with greater emotional competence. These results held after controlling for parents’ self-reports of emotional expressivity and adolescents’ self-reports of the warmth and support of their parent relationships. In addition, adolescents recruited neural regions involved in mentalizing during affect labeling, which significantly mediated the associated between parental neural sensitivity and adolescents’ emotional competence, suggesting that youth are modeling or referencing their parents’ emotional profiles, thereby contributing to better emotional competence. PMID:25100982

Telzer, Eva H.; Qu, Yang; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galván, Adriana; Lieberman, Matthew D.

2014-01-01

370

In-situ Mass Distribution Quotient (iMDQ) - A New Factor to Compare Bioavailability of Pesticides in Soils?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim of this work was the development of a new non-biological factor to determine microbial in-situ bioavailability of chemicals in soils. Pesticide residues were extracted from ten highly different agricultural soils that had been incubated with the 14C-herbicide isoproturon (IPU) under comparable soil conditions (water tension - 15 kPa; soil density 1.3 g cm 3). Two different pesticide extraction approaches were compared: (i) 14C-Pesticide residues were measured in the pore water (PW) which was extracted from soil by centrifugation; (ii) 14C-Pesticide residues were extracted from soil samples with an excess of water (EEW). We introduce the pesticide's in-situ mass distribution quotient (iMDQ) as a measure for pesticide bioavailability, which is calculated as a quotient of adsorbed and dissolved chemical amounts for both approaches (iMDQPW, iMDQEEW). Pesticide mineralization in soils served as a reference for real microbial availability. A highly significant correlation between iMDQPW and mineralization showed that pore water extraction is adequate to assess IPU bioavailability. In contrast, no correlation exists between IPU mineralization and its extractability from soil with an excess of water. Therefore, it can be concluded that soil equilibration at comparable conditions and subsequent pore water extraction is vital for a isoproturon bioavailability ranking of soils.

Schroll, R.; Folberth, C.; Scherb, H.; Suhadolc, M.; Munch, J. C.

2009-04-01

371

Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether perinatal nutrition influences cognitive function at 7½-8 years in children born preterm. Design Randomised, blinded nutritional intervention trial. Blinded follow up at 7½-8 years. Setting Intervention phase in two neonatal units; follow up in a clinic or school setting. Subjects 424 preterm infants who weighed under 1850?g at birth; 360 of those who survived were tested at 7½-8 years. Interventions Standard infant formula versus nutrient enriched preterm formula randomly assigned as sole diet (trial A) or supplements to maternal milk (trial B) fed for a mean of 1 month. Main outcome measures Intelligence quotient (IQ) at 7½-8 years with abbreviated Weschler intelligence scale for children (revised). Results There was a major sex difference in the impact of diet. At 7½-8 years boys previously fed standard versus preterm formula as sole diet had a 12.2 point disadvantage (95% confidence interval 3.7 to 20.6; P<0.01) in verbal IQ. In those with highest intakes of trial diets corresponding figures were 9.5 point disadvantage and 14.4 point disadvantage in overall IQ (1.2 to 17.7; P<0.05) and verbal IQ (5.7 to 23.2; P<0.01). Consequently, more infants fed term formula had low verbal IQ (<85): 31% versus 14% for both sexes (P=0.02) and 47% versus 13% in boys P=0.009). There was a higher incidence of cerebral palsy in those fed term formula; exclusion of such children did not alter the findings. Conclusions Preterm infants are vulnerable to suboptimal early nutrition in terms of their cognitive performance—notably, language based skills—at 7½-8 years, when cognitive scores are highly predictive of adult ones. Our data on cerebral palsy generate a new hypothesis that suboptimal nutritional management during a critical or plastic early period of rapid brain growth could impair functional compensation in those sustaining an earlier brain insult. Cognitive function, notably in males, may be permanently impaired by suboptimal neonatal nutrition. Key messagesSuboptimal nutrition during sensitive stages in early brain development may have long term effects on cognitive functionIn a randomised trial of early nutrition in preterm infants those fed standard rather than nutrient enriched preterm formula had reduced verbal IQ scores at 7½ to 8 years, at least in boysIn exploratory analyses on children of both sexes verbal IQ below 85 and cerebral palsy were more prevalent in the standard formula groupOur data show the potential vulnerability of the human brain to early suboptimal nutritionAvoidance of undernutrition in sick preterm infants seems important in optimising later neurodevelopmental outcomes PMID:9831573

Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J

1998-01-01

372

Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity  

PubMed Central

A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities. PMID:23508036

Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

2013-01-01

373

Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction  

PubMed Central

The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

2013-01-01

374

Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad, and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion discrimination and regulatory abilities (both cognitive control and emotion regulation) improve steadily for each age group, with each age group showing unique patterns of performance. The findings suggest that emotion regulation is constructed from basic cognition control and emotion discrimination skills. The patterns of behavior from the Emotional Go/Nogo task provide normative benchmark data across a wide range of emotions that can be used for future behavioral and neuroimaging studies that examine the developmental construction of emotion regulatory processes. PMID:21716604

Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

2011-01-01

375

Altered emotion processing circuits during the anticipation of emotional stimuli in women with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with disturbed emotion processing, typically encompassing intense and fast emotional reactions toward affective stimuli. In this study, we were interested in whether emotional dysregulation in BPD occurs not only during the perception of emotional stimuli, but also during the anticipation of upcoming emotional pictures in the absence of concrete stimuli. Eighteen female patients with a diagnosis of BPD and 18 healthy control subjects anticipated cued visual stimuli with prior known emotional valence or prior unknown emotional content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain activity during the anticipation of emotional stimuli was compared between both groups. When anticipating negative pictures, BPD patients demonstrated less signal change in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and left middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and enhanced activations in the left pregenual ACC, left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) as well as in left visual cortical areas including the lingual gyrus. During the anticipation of ambiguously announced stimuli, brain activity in BPD was also reduced in the left MCC extending into the medial and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results point out that deficient recruitment of brain areas related to cognitive-emotional interaction already during the anticipation phase may add to emotional dysregulation in BPD. Stronger activation of the PCC could correspond to an increased autobiographical reference in BPD. Moreover, increased preparatory visual activity during negative anticipation may contribute to hypersensitivity toward emotional cues in this disorder. PMID:24100929

Scherpiet, Sigrid; Brühl, Annette B; Opialla, Sarah; Roth, Lilian; Jäncke, Lutz; Herwig, Uwe

2014-02-01

376

The Classification of Emotion and Scientific Realism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific study of emotion has been characterized by classification schemes that propose to ‘carve nature at the joints.’ This article examines several of these classifications, drawn from both the categorical and dimensional perspectives. Each classification is given credit for what it contributes to our understanding, but the dream of a single, all purpose taxonomy of emotional phenomena is called

Peter Zachar

2006-01-01

377

Parafoveal Semantic Processing of Emotional Visual Scenes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether emotional pictorial stimuli are especially likely to be processed in parafoveal vision. Pairs of emotional and neutral visual scenes were presented parafoveally (2.1[degrees] or 2.5[degrees] of visual angle from a central fixation point) for 150-3,000 ms, followed by an immediate recognition test (500-ms delay).…

Calvo, Manuel G.; Lang, Peter J.

2005-01-01

378

Integrating Social Emotional Learning into Secondary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students are able to cope with, manage and maneuver the social and emotional landscapes of their lives, their ability to learn on all levels improves. Teaching Social / Emotional Learning (SEL), as a component of secondary education, not only increases academic performance, but prepares students to meet the challenges of lifelong learning in…

Lindsay, Marilyn

2013-01-01

379

Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

2012-01-01

380

Auditory Emotional Cues Enhance Visual Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by…

Zeelenberg, Rene; Bocanegra, Bruno R.

2010-01-01

381

The emotion paradox in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews age differences in emotion processing and how they may relate to age-related changes in the brain. Compared with younger adults, older adults react less to negative situations, ignore irrelevant negative stimuli better, and remember relatively more positive than negative information. Older adults’ ability to insulate their thoughts and emotional reactions from negative situations is likely due to a number of factors, such as being less influenced by interoceptive cues, selecting different emotion regulation strategies, having less age-related decline in prefrontal regions associated with emotional control than in other prefrontal regions, and engaging in emotion regulation strategies as a default mode in their everyday lives. Healthy older adults’ avoidance of processing negative stimuli may contribute to their well-maintained emotional well-being. However, when cardiovascular disease leads to additional prefrontal white matter damage, older adults have fewer cognitive control mechanisms available to regulate their emotions, making them more vulnerable to depression. In general, while age-related changes in the brain help shape emotional experience, shifts in preferred strategies and goal priorities are also important influences. PMID:22409159

Mather, Mara

2012-01-01

382

Emotion Context Insensitivity in Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested 3 competing views of how depression alters emotional reactivity: positive attenuation (reduced positive), negative potentiation (increased negative), and emotion context insensitivity (ECI; reduced positive and negative). Normative and idiographic stimuli that elicited happy, sad, and neutral states were presented to currently depressed, formerly depressed, and healthy control individuals while experiential, behavioral, and autonomic responses were measured.

Jonathan Rottenberg; James J. Gross; Ian H. Gotlib

2005-01-01

383

Adaptive Emotion Regulation among Low-Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined early childhood predictors of adaptive emotion regulation among economically disadvantaged urban African American children. Vagal tone (VNA), attachment, and regulation capacities were assessed among 69 preschoolers. Two years later, additional indices of child regulation were obtained for 56 of the children. Emotion regulation was assessed through observation, child self-report, parent report, and teacher report. As expected, attachment

Shari L. Kidwell

2007-01-01

384

Modeling of Internet Influence on Group Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-range interactions are introduced to a two-dimensional model of agents with time-dependent internal variables ei = 0, ±1 corresponding to valencies of agent emotions. Effects of spontaneous emotion emergence and emotional relaxation processes are taken into account. The valence of agent i depends on valencies of its four nearest neighbors but it is also influenced by long-range interactions corresponding to social relations developed for example by Internet contacts to a randomly chosen community. Two types of such interactions are considered. In the first model the community emotional influence depends only on the sign of its temporary emotion. When the coupling parameter approaches a critical value a phase transition takes place and as result for larger coupling constants the mean group emotion of all agents is nonzero over long time periods. In the second model the community influence is proportional to magnitude of community average emotion. The ordered emotional phase was here observed for a narrow set of system parameters.

Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Ho?yst, Janusz A.

385

Social Appraisal Influences Recognition of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or

Christian Mumenthaler; David Sander

2012-01-01

386

How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

2010-01-01

387

Neural processing of emotional faces requires attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention gates the processing of stimuli relatively early in visual cortex. Yet, existing data suggest that emotional stimuli activate brain regions automatically, largely immune from attentional control. To resolve this puzzle, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to first measure activation in regions that responded differentially to faces with emotional expressions (fearful and happy) compared with neutral faces. We then

L. Pessoa; M. McKenna; E. Gutierrez; L. G. Ungerleider

2002-01-01

388

Engineering Student Learning and Emotional Competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to an emotional and social skill set that can underpin a student's success in their university education and their professional workplace, either domestic or global. In order to nurture EI development , the authors believe the learning environment must change from a teacher centred 'dispenser of all knowledge' environment to a student centred climate which takes

M. F. Stewart; C. Chisholm; M. Harris

2010-01-01

389

Organizational Sleepwalkers: Emotional Distress at Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, attention is paid to a dysfunctional emotional behavior pattern whereby individuals experience very little (or a total absence of) pleasure. Instead, there is a feeling of emotional numbness. Although this phenomenon touches all parts of life, this paper focuses on the organizational context. For some executives, the stresses and strains of midlife (including stresses involving career issues)

1999-01-01

390

Culture and Biology in Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a biological and cultural framework that examines species-specific and culture-specific characteristics for the development of human emotions with evidence from Korea, China, and the United States. Discusses how emotions fall into broad families and dimensions across cultures, with both commonalities and differences. Notes that…

Fischer, Kurt W.; Wang, Lianquin; Kennedy, Bruce; Chen, Ching-Ling

1998-01-01

391

Emotional Needs and Control of SLD Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents thoughts and techniques concerning the control of the specific learning disability (SLD) child and the emotional needs which these children have. The SLD child whose learning and behavior problems are significant and are due to some visual-perceptual or organic problem and not emotional disturbance, disadvantagement, or gross…

McEchron, W. David

392

Fashion design in emotional consumption era  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid economic and technological development, a new consumption pattern -emotional consumption arises, which begin to replace the consumption of product attributes gradually. Consumers' demand for garment products has shifted from the focus on the physical functions of products to the direction which is more desirous of comforting the soul for pleasure of emotional experience, that is, from the

Yu Weihua

2009-01-01

393

Emotion Modulates Early Auditory Response to Speech  

E-print Network

Emotion Modulates Early Auditory Response to Speech Jade Wang1 , Trent Nicol1 , Erika Skoe1 , Mikko's physiological response to speech, subjects looked at emotion-evoking pictures while 32-channel EEG evoked re from the Interna- tional Affective Picture System database. They were rated by participants

394

Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

2006-01-01

395

Encouraging Preadolescent Emotional Intelligence through Leadership Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study sought to determine effects of leadership activity on emotional intelligence in preadolescents. Ninety-two Central California Valley sixth grade students in two schools and four classes were assessed on emotional intelligence. Treatment and comparison groups were identified. A Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA examined change over time…

Alvarado, John Henry

2010-01-01

396

Emotional Intelligence in Christian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between…

Gliebe, Sudi Kate

2012-01-01

397

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that the success of higher education institutions is dependent on effective competent leaders and leadership. There is also growing evidence to support the proposition that emotional intelligence is strongly linked to effective leadership in the higher education setting. Additionally, the premise that emotional intelligence…

Parrish, Dominique

2011-01-01

398

Supporting the Emotional Work of School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical book deals with the emotional and moral dimensions of school leadership. The author sets out the intra-personal and interpersonal attributes, attitudes and behaviours necessary to develop emotional and moral leadership within the school community. The book provides a range of person-centred strategies for building communities of…

Harris, Belinda M.

2007-01-01

399

The Core Emotion Themes of Conjugal Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have associated emotion and appraisal with long-term bereavement outcome. The present study extended this research by coding conjugal bereavement narratives for core relational themes (CRT) that served as emotional summaries of unique combinations of appraisal features. A range of CRTs was evidenced at 6 months after loss, with positive CRTs, such as love\\/affection and pride, occurring most frequently.

George A. Bonanno; Michael C. Mihalecz; Jenna T. LeJeune

1999-01-01

400

Managing emotions in research with challenging pupils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the challenge of matching practice with the ideals of participatory research and the reflexivity and (re)negotiation of the researcher's role. We highlight the centrality of emotions to our study, both in terms of the substantive topic and our observations and experiences as researchers. Building on this experience we argue that recognising and foregrounding the emotional dimensions of

Val Gillies; Yvonne Robinson

2010-01-01

401

Audio-visual integration of emotion expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the fact that emotions are usually recognized by combining facial and vocal expressions, the multisensory nature of affect perception has scarcely been investigated. In the present study, we show results of three experiments on multisensory perception of emotions using newly validated sets of dynamic visual and non-linguistic vocal clips of affect expressions. In Experiment 1, participants were required

Olivier Collignon; Simon Girard; Frederic Gosselin; Sylvain Roy; Dave Saint-Amour; Maryse Lassonde; Franco Lepore

2008-01-01

402

Eye movements during emotion recognition in faces.  

PubMed

When distinguishing whether a face displays a certain emotion, some regions of the face may contain more useful information than others. Here we ask whether people differentially attend to distinct regions of a face when judging different emotions. Experiment 1 measured eye movements while participants discriminated between emotional (joy, anger, fear, sadness, shame, and disgust) and neutral facial expressions. Participant eye movements primarily fell in five distinct regions (eyes, upper nose, lower nose, upper lip, nasion). Distinct fixation patterns emerged for each emotion, such as a focus on the lips for joyful faces and a focus on the eyes for sad faces. These patterns were strongest for emotional faces but were still present when viewers sought evidence of emotion within neutral faces, indicating a goal-driven influence on eye-gaze patterns. Experiment 2 verified that these fixation patterns tended to reflect attention to the most diagnostic regions of the face for each emotion. Eye movements appear to follow both stimulus-driven and goal-driven perceptual strategies when decoding emotional information from a face. PMID:25406159

Schurgin, M W; Nelson, J; Iida, S; Ohira, H; Chiao, J Y; Franconeri, S L

2014-01-01

403

Emotional Labor Demands and Compensating Wage Differentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level by incorporating data on generalized work activities and work context features

Theresa M. Glomb; John D. Kammeyer-Mueller; Maria Rotundo

2004-01-01

404

Emotion capture based on body postures and  

E-print Network

systems that are sensible to human emotions based on the body movements. To do so, we first review be captured by the system for being able to recognize the human emotions. Introduction 1 hal-00176161,version1 and e-systems 2007 (TIGERA'07), Hammamet : Tunisia (2007)" #12;The goal of the Human

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

2013-01-01

406

The Diagnosticity of Color for Emotional Objects  

PubMed Central

Object classification can be facilitated if simple diagnostic features can be used to determine class membership. Previous studies have found that simple shapes may be diagnostic for emotional content and automatically alter the allocation of visual attention. In the present study, we analyzed whether color is diagnostic of emotional content and tested whether emotionally diagnostic hues alter the allocation of visual attention. Reddish-yellow hues are more common in (i.e., diagnostic of) emotional images, particularly images with positive emotional content. An exogenous cueing paradigm was employed to test whether these diagnostic hues orient attention differently from other hues due to the emotional diagnosticity. In two experiments, we found that participants allocated attention differently to diagnostic hues than to non-diagnostic hues, in a pattern indicating a broadening of spatial attention when cued with diagnostic hues. Moreover, the attentional broadening effect was predicted by self-reported measures of affective style, linking the behavioral effect to emotional processes. These results confirm the existence and use of diagnostic features for the rapid detection of emotional content. PMID:24659831

McMenamin, Brenton W.; Radue, Jasmine; Trask, Joanna; Huskamp, Kristin; Kersten, Daniel; Marsolek, Chad J.

2012-01-01

407

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

408

The Emotional Development of Exceptional Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and research on children's emotional development are reviewed, and it is suggested that in mainstreaming children with disabilities, everything possible should be done to make the mainstream a hospitable environment for them, beginning with teacher recognition of responsibility for the classroom's socio-emotional climate. (MSE)

Dupont, Henry

1989-01-01

409

Prospective memory, emotional valence, and multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) extend to tasks demanding prospective memory (PM): remembering to perform an intended act during ongoing activity. This study investigated whether emotional content influenced the effects of MS on PM, following evidence that emotional valence can influence other aspects of memory. Thirty participants with MS were compared to 30 controls on a PM task, Virtual

Peter G. Rendell; Julie D. Henry; Louise H. Phillips; Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia; Patricia Booth; Patricia Phillips; Matthias Kliegel

2012-01-01

410

Material Matters: Increasing Emotional Engagement in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational scholars and neuroscientists suggest that when people are more emotionally engaged, they learn more effectively. Clinical art therapists suggest that the experience as well as the expression of emotions can be enabled or constrained by different materials. So then, what materials can be employed by management educators to achieve…

Taylor, Steven S.; Statler, Matt

2014-01-01

411

Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage  

PubMed Central

Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500

Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.

2014-01-01

412

Emotion understanding in postinstitutionalized Eastern European children.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of early emotional neglect on children's affective development, we assessed children who had experienced institutionalized care prior to adoption into family environments. One task required children to identify photographs of facial expressions of emotion. A second task required children to match facial expressions to an emotional situation. Internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children had difficulty identifying facial expressions of emotion. In addition, postinstitutionalized children had significant difficulty matching appropriate facial expressions to happy, sad, and fearful scenarios. However, postinstitutionalized children performed as well as comparison children when asked to identify and match angry facial expressions. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of emotional input early in life on later developmental organization. PMID:15487600

Fries, Alison B Wismer; Pollak, Seth D

2004-01-01

413

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.  

PubMed

A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message. PMID:12415074

Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

2003-01-01

414

Childhood maltreatment, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities.  

PubMed

Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate or tolerate negative emotional states, has been associated with interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress. Affect-regulation difficulties play a role in many psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and mood disorders, and especially major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with wide-ranging psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents, and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood trauma, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric comorbidities in children, adolescents, and adults. PMID:24704784

Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A

2014-01-01

415

How healthcare leaders can increase emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

How leaders deal with a variety of feelings will deduce how successful they are in dealing with the daily challenges of being in a leadership position. Successful healthcare leaders are those who lead with heart and possess the soft skills needed to positively influence others. All humans have two minds: the rational one and the emotional one, which operate in tight harmony to assist in decision making. When passions surge, the emotional mind takes over and sometimes makes a decision before the rational mind has time to react. Some strategies to help leaders strengthen emotional intelligence include keeping an emotional journal, daily meditation, positive visualization, appreciative inquiry, thought before action, and empathetic listening. Four skills that will enhance an individual's emotional intelligence include self awareness, self management, social management, and relationship management. PMID:24358581

Scott, Jason

2013-01-01

416

Emotion and consciousness in adolescent psychogenic amnesia.  

PubMed

Psychogenic amnesia is characterized by an impaired retrieval process of stored information, while the acquisition of new information is conserved. In addition, patients with this condition may display a state of belle indifference towards their own situation and may manifest deficits in emotional processing. So far, these conditions were noted cursorily in previous case descriptions, but have not been investigated thoroughly. We report data on two female juvenile patients that were examined with neuropsychological, including remote memory tests. No impairments in cognitive or anterograde mnestic functions but, as expected, severe disturbances in remote memory tests were found. Additionally, we administered tests to assess basic and higher emotional processing functions. Both patients showed evidence of impaired higher and, though to a lesser extent, basic emotional processing skills. Finally, we discuss the contribution of (self-)consiousness, the current emotional state and emotional processing skills as possible factors, maintaining the condition of psychogenic amnesia. PMID:19331025

Reinhold, Nadine; Markowitsch, Hans J

2007-03-01

417

Emotional context modulates subsequent memory effect.  

PubMed

Emotions have been shown to modulate memory processes. However, the neuronal substrate underlying these modulatory effects is largely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the context of emotional encoding modulates brain activation predictive for subsequent recall of emotionally neutral material. While inferior frontal activation predicted recall in general, our data show that in a positive encoding context, recall was predicted by activation of right anterior parahippocampal and extrastriate visual brain areas, whereas in a negative encoding context, recall was predicted by activation of the amygdala. Thus, we could demonstrate that successful episodic encoding is differentially modulated by emotional context. These results contribute to the understanding of the interaction of emotion and cognition and moreover are of general relevance for studies of episodic memory. PMID:12595197

Erk, Susanne; Kiefer, Markus; Grothe, Jo; Wunderlich, Arthur P; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

2003-02-01

418

Negative affect, emotional acceptance, and smoking cessation.  

PubMed

This article describes recent theoretical developments and empirical findings regarding the role of negative affect (NA) and emotion regulation in nicotine dependence and smoking cessation. It begins with a review of affect-based models of addiction that address conditioning, affect motivational, and neurobiological mechanisms and then describes the role of NA and emotion regulation in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Next, the role of emotion regulation, coping skill deficits, depression, and anxiety sensitivity in explaining the relationship between NA and smoking relapse are discussed. We then review recent models of affect regulation, including emotional intelligence, reappraisal and suppression, and emotional acceptance, and describe implications for substance abuse and smoking cessation interventions. Finally, we point out the need for further investigations of the moderating role of individual differences in response to NA in the maintenance of nicotine dependence, and controlled randomized trials testing the efficacy of acceptance-based interventions in facilitating smoking cessation and relapse prevention. PMID:18303707

Carmody, Timothy P; Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A

2007-12-01

419

Expression of emotion in voice and music.  

PubMed

Vocal communication of emotion is biologically adaptive for socially living species and has therefore evolved in a phylogenetically continuous manner. Human affect bursts or interjections can be considered close parallels to animal affect vocalizations. The development of speech, unique to the human species, has relied on the voice as a carrier signal, and thus emotion effects on the voice become audible during speech. This article reviews (a) the evidence on listeners' ability to accurately identify a speaker's emotion from voice cues alone, (b) the research efforts trying to isolate the acoustic features that determine listener judgments, and (c) the findings on actual acoustic concomitants of a speaker's emotional state (real or portrayed by actors). Finally, based on speculations about the joint origin of speech and vocal music in nonlinguistic affect vocalizations, similarities of emotion expression in speech and music are discussed. PMID:8541967

Scherer, K R

1995-09-01

420

Orbitofrontal Cortex Biases Attention to Emotional Events  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of orbitofrontal (OF) cortex in regulating emotion-attention interaction and the balance between involuntary and voluntary attention allocation. We studied patients with OF lesion applying reaction time (RT) and event-related potential (ERP) measures in a lateralized visual discrimination task with novel task-irrelevant affective pictures (unpleasant, pleasant or neutral) preceding a neutral target. This allowed for comparing the effects of automatic attention allocation to emotional vs neutral stimuli on subsequent voluntary attention allocation to target stimuli. N2-P3a and N2-P3b ERP components served as measures of involuntary and voluntary attention allocation correspondingly. Enhanced N2-P3a amplitudes to emotional distractors and reduced N2-P3b amplitudes to targets preceded by emotional distractors were observed in healthy subjects, suggesting automatic emotional orienting interfered with subsequent voluntary orienting. OF patients showed an opposite pattern with tendency towards reduced N2-P3a responses to emotional distractors, suggesting impaired automatic orienting to emotional stimuli due to orbitofrontal damage. Enhanced N2-P3b responses to targets preceded by any affective distractor was observed in OF patients, suggesting bias towards voluntary target-related attention allocation due to orbitofrontal lesion. Behavioral evidence indicated that LVF attention performance was modulated by emotional stimuli. Specifically, OF patients responded faster to LVF targets subsequent to pleasant emotional distractors. We suggest damage to the orbitofrontal circuitry leads to dysbalance between voluntary and involuntary attention allocation in the context of affective distracters with predisposition to posterior target related processing over frontal novelty and affect related processing. Furthermore, we suggest orbitofrontal influence on emotion- attention interaction is valence and hemisphere dependent. PMID:22413757

Hartikainen, K.M.; Ogawa, K.H.; Knight, R.T.

2012-01-01

421

Altered Emotion Perception in Insomnia Disorder  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Chronic insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that negatively affects daytime functioning and confers risk for the future development of psychiatric disorder. Patients with insomnia often report problems with emotion regulation and impaired social interactions. Moreover, experimental sleep loss in healthy adults is associated with altered reactivity to and interpretation of emotional information. In the current study, we investigated socioemotional processing in patients with chronic insomnia disorder relative to healthy good sleepers. Design: Between-groups comparison. Setting: Sleep Research Laboratory. Participants: Patients with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI; n = 16), free from psychiatric disorder, and an age- and sex-matched control group of good sleepers (GS; n = 15). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: All participants completed a facial expression recognition task, between 18:00 and 19:00, requiring participants to categorize and rate the intensity of four emotional expression categories: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. People with PI did not differ from GS with respect to categorization of facial expressions. However, in terms of intensity judgements, across all emotion categories, patients tended to rate faces as less emotionally intense (Cohen's d = 0.70). Specifically, they rated expressions displaying sadness and fear as significantly less emotionally intense than healthy GS (both P < 0.05; Cohen's d = 0.77 and 0.89, respectively). Measures of sleepiness (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) or self-reported sleep were not reliably associated with emotional intensity ratings. However, anxiety and depression were negatively related to intensity ratings. Conclusion: For the first time we show that chronic insomnia is associated with reduced ratings of emotion intensity for face expressions displaying sadness and fear. Further work is required to elucidate possible mechanisms and pathways underlying insomnia-related emotional impairment. Citation: Kyle SD; Beattie L; Spiegelhalder K; Rogers Z; Espie CA. Altered emotion perception in insomnia disorder. SLEEP 2014;37(4):775-783. PMID:24899765

Kyle, Simon D.; Beattie, Louise; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Rogers, Zoe; Espie, Colin A.

2014-01-01

422

Effects of emotional context on impulse control.  

PubMed

High risk behaviors such as narcotic use or physical fighting can be caused by impulsive decision making in emotionally-charged situations. Improved neuroscientific understanding of how emotional context interacts with the control of impulsive behaviors may lead to advances in public policy and/or treatment approaches for high risk groups, including some high-risk adolescents or adults with poor impulse control. Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is an important contributor to response inhibition (behavioral impulse control). IFG also has a role in processing emotional stimuli and regulating emotional responses. The mechanism(s) whereby response inhibition processes interact with emotion processing in IFG are poorly understood. We used 4.7 T fMRI in 20 healthy young adults performing a rapid event-related emotional Go/NoGo task. This task combined the Go/NoGo task, which is a classic means of recruiting response inhibition processes, with emotionally neutral and aversive distractor images. In IFG, both response inhibition in an emotionally neutral context (neutral NoGo trials) and aversive emotional picture processing (aversive Go trials) evoked activation greater than the simple response baseline (neutral Go trials). These results are consistent with the literature. Activation for response inhibition in aversive contexts (aversive NoGo-neutral Go trials) was approximately the sum of response inhibition activation (neutral NoGo-neutral Go) and aversive emotional distractor activation (aversive Go-neutral Go). We conclude that response inhibition and aversive emotional stimulus processing activities combine additively (linearly) in IFG, rather than interfering with each other (sub-linearly) or mutually-enhancing each other (super-linearly). We also found previously undocumented interaction effects between response inhibition (NoGo vs. Go) and emotional context (aversive vs. neutral distractor pictures) in bilateral posterior middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, right frontal eye field, and other brain regions. These results may reflect the interaction of attention processes driven by emotional stimuli with conflict resolution processes related to Go/NoGo performance. PMID:22781161

Brown, Matthew R G; Lebel, R Marc; Dolcos, Florin; Wilman, Alan H; Silverstone, Peter H; Pazderka, Hannah; Fujiwara, Esther; Wild, T Cameron; Carroll, Alan M; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Zedkova, Lenka; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Thompson, Angus H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

2012-10-15

423

Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting.

Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

2014-01-01

424

Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. PMID:25265320

Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

2014-11-01

425

Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: A validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).  

PubMed

Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author. PMID:24853832

Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

2014-05-23

426

Whole-brain voxel-based correlation analysis between regional cerebral blood flow and intelligence quotient score in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and intelligence quotient (IQ) score was investigated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) without severe dementia. We analyzed the (9mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography quantitative images and Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores of 44 PD patients using statistical parametric mapping. Verbal IQ positively correlated with rCBF in the right ventral striatum and the bilateral prefrontal cortex, performance IQ positively correlated with rCBF in the right operculum, insula and the left middle temporal gyrus, and full-scale IQ positively correlated with rCBF in the right operculum, insula and the ventral striatum. The identified areas may be functionally related to mild to moderate cognitive impairment in patients with PD. PMID:15492484

Oishi, Kenichi; Ogawa, Masafumi; Oya, Yasushi; Kawai, Mitsuru

2004-01-01

427

Dietary correlates of emotional eating in adolescence.  

PubMed

To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency of intake of sweet high energy-dense foods, such as cake and ice cream, salty high energy-dense foods like chips, and soda. Gender stratified analyses revealed an association between emotional eating and more frequent fruit and vegetable intake in boys only, and a positive association between emotional eating and salty high energy-dense intake in both boys and girls. These data support previous literature that reports a preference for high energy-dense food in emotional eating, and shows that this association may be generalizable to Latino youth. Considering that emotional eating may lead to overeating because it often takes place in the absence of hunger, it may be appropriate to develop interventions to teach youth healthier substitutions and regulate mood by means other than eating in order to reduce risk for obesity, especially in high risk populations, such as Latinos. PMID:17466408

Nguyen-Michel, Selena T; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2007-09-01

428

Mapping aesthetic musical emotions in the brain.  

PubMed

Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions. PMID:22178712

Trost, Wiebke; Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2012-12-01

429

Mapping Aesthetic Musical Emotions in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Music evokes complex emotions beyond pleasant/unpleasant or happy/sad dichotomies usually investigated in neuroscience. Here, we used functional neuroimaging with parametric analyses based on the intensity of felt emotions to explore a wider spectrum of affective responses reported during music listening. Positive emotions correlated with activation of left striatum and insula when high-arousing (Wonder, Joy) but right striatum and orbitofrontal cortex when low-arousing (Nostalgia, Tenderness). Irrespective of their positive/negative valence, high-arousal emotions (Tension, Power, and Joy) also correlated with activations in sensory and motor areas, whereas low-arousal categories (Peacefulness, Nostalgia, and Sadness) selectively engaged ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The right parahippocampal cortex activated in all but positive high-arousal conditions. Results also suggested some blends between activation patterns associated with different classes of emotions, particularly for feelings of Wonder or Transcendence. These data reveal a differentiated recruitment across emotions of networks involved in reward, memory, self-reflective, and sensorimotor processes, which may account for the unique richness of musical emotions. PMID:22178712

Ethofer, Thomas; Zentner, Marcel; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2012-01-01

430

The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism  

PubMed Central

Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n?=?196) and without (n?=?163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P?

2014-01-01

431

Successful cognitive and emotional aging  

PubMed Central

We review the definitions, determinants, and ways of enhancing successful cognitive and emotional aging. Objective definitions of successful aging based on physical health emphasize outcomes including freedom from disability and disease, whereas subjective definitions center on well-being, social connectedness, and adaptation. Most older people do not meet objective criteria for successful aging, while a majority meet the subjective criteria. Older people with severe mental illness are not excluded from successful aging. The determinants of successful aging include complex interactions of lifestyle behaviors and social environment with genes. Depression interferes with nearly all determinants of successful aging. Evidence-based means of enhancing successful aging include calorie restriction, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation, social support, and optimization of stress. Future directions for successful aging research and implications for geriatric psychiatry are discussed. PMID:20671889

JESTE, DILIP V.; DEPP, COLIN A.; VAHIA, IPSIT V.

2010-01-01

432

A Comparison of the Spontaneous Writing Quotient of the Test of Written Language (3rd ed.) and Teacher Ratings of Writing Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the Spontaneous Writing Quotient (SWQ) of the Test of Writing Language-3 to teacher progress ratings of 147 students (grades 3-5) in the local writing curriculum. Corrected coefficients ranged from .39 to .48, offering only low to moderate support for the criterion-related validity relative to the local curriculum. (Contains…

Burns, Matthew K.; Symington, Todd

2003-01-01

433

Using Self-Report to Identify the Broad Phenotype in Parents of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Study Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The concept of the "broad phenotype" of autism refers to the finding that relatives of people with autism often have mild forms of autistic-like characteristics, such as social and communicative difficulties. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a questionnaire devised to assess features of the broad phenotype in adults,…

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Maybery, Murray; Maley, Alana; Wong, Dana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim

2004-01-01

434

Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2008-01-01

435

A Simplified Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment to Evaluate the Effect of the Ionic Strength on the Equilibrium Concentration Quotient of the Bromcresol Green Dye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modified laboratory experiment for undergraduate students is presented to evaluate the effects of the ionic strength, "I", on the equilibrium concentration quotient, K[subscript c], of the acid-base indicator bromcresol green (BCG). The two-step deprotonation of the acidic form of the dye (sultone form), as it is dissolved in water, yields…

Rodriguez, Hernan B.; Mirenda, Martin

2012-01-01

436

Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: a study using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The concept of the 'broad phenotype' of autism refers to the finding that relatives of people with autism often have mild forms of autistic-like characteristics, such as social and communicative difficulties. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a questionnaire devised to assess features of the broad phenotype in adults, with parents of people with autism, to see

Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Murray Maybery; Alana Maley; Dana Wong; Wayne Hill; Joachim Hallmayer

2004-01-01

437

The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

2011-01-01

438

Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

439

Further Evidence on the Factorial Structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for Adults with and without a Clinical Diagnosis of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic traits however its factor structure has been primarily determined from nonclinic populations. This study aimed to establish an internally coherent and reliable factor structure for the AQ using a sample of 455 Australian adults of whom 141 had autism spectrum disorder…

Lau, Winnie Yu Pow; Kelly, Adrian B.; Peterson, Candida Clifford

2013-01-01

440

C H A P T E R Emotion, Consciousness,  

E-print Network

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 C H A P T E R 195 12 Emotion, Consciousness, and Social Behavior- science is the operation of emotions. This chapter focuses on the relation of emotion to consciousness components of emotion are necessarily con- scious and which can operate without conscious awareness? Can

Berridge, Kent

441

Mothers' Construal of Self and Emotion Socialisation Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationships between construal of self and emotion socialisation goals. The Parental Goals for Children's Emotional Competence Scale was constructed to measure the relative importance of individualistic emotional competence (IEC) and relational emotional competence (REC) of children to parents. Data were collected…

Chan, Siu Mui

2011-01-01

442

Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions: Affect or Cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether observers' facial reactions to the emotional facial expressions of others represent an affective or a cognitive response to these emotional expressions. Three hypotheses were contrasted: (1) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are due to mimicry as part of an affective empathic reaction; (2) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are a reection of shared affectdue

Ursula Hess Pierre Philippot Sylvie Blairy; Sylvie Blairy

1998-01-01

443

Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

2012-01-01

444

Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for

Paul Ekman; E. Richard Sorenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1969-01-01

445

A State of the Art Review on Emotional Speech Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two emotional speech databases are reviewed. Each database consists of a corpus of human speech pronounced under different emotional conditions. A basic description of each database and its applications is provided. The conclusion of this study is that automated emotion recognition on these databases cannot achieve a correct classification that exceeds 50% for the four basic emotions, i.e., twice as

Dimitrios Ververidis; Constantine Kotropoulos

446

How Emotionally Intelligent Are Pre-Service Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is evidence that teacher emotional intelligence is important for pupil adjustment and learning and for teachers in managing the emotional demands of their work, little is known about the levels of emotional skill of teachers and beginning teachers. Using Mayer and Salovey's emotional intelligence (EI) model and the MSCEIT test of…

Corcoran, Roisin P.; Tormey, Roland

2012-01-01

447

Towards a New Privacy: Totalitarianism, Emotion and Management Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews some leadership and management literature dealing with emotional demands in professional contexts. An image of the "real self", requiring emotional privacy, is highly valued by individuals subjected to intense emotional demands. It is argued that the "real self" and emotional privacy ought to be defended…

Hanley, Christopher

2013-01-01

448

Leadership, affect and emotions: A state of the science review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a selective, qualitative review of affect, emotions, and emotional competencies in leadership theory and research published in ten management and organizational psychology journals, book chapters and special issues of journals from 1990 to 2010. Three distinct themes emerged from this review: (1) leader affect, follower affect and outcomes, (2) discrete emotions and leadership, and (3) emotional competencies

Janaki Gooty; Shane Connelly; Jennifer Griffith; Alka Gupta

2010-01-01

449

"Emotional Intelligence" in the Classroom? An Aristotelian Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent trend in moral education, social and emotional learning, incorporates the mantra of emotional intelligence (EI) as a key element in an extensive program of character building. In making his famous claim that the good life would have to include appropriate emotions, Aristotle obviously considered the schooling of emotions to be an…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2006-01-01

450

The case for positive emotions in the stress process  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many decades, the stress process was described primarily in terms of negative emotions. However, robust evidence that positive emotions co-occurred with negative emotions during intensely stressful situations suggested the need to consider the possible roles of positive emotions in the stress process. About 10 years ago, these possibilities were incorporated into a revision of stress and coping theory (Folkman,

Susan Folkman

2008-01-01

451

Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

2009-01-01

452

An ambient agent model for group emotion support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an agent-based support model for group emotion, to be used by ambient systems to support teams in their emotion dynamics. Using model-based reasoning, an ambient agent analyzes the team's emotion level for present and future time points. In case the team's emotion level is found to become deficient, the ambient agent provides support to the team by

Rob Duell; Zulfiqar A. Memon; Jan Treur; C. Natalie van der Wal

2009-01-01

453

Emotion Regulation Choice: A Conceptual Framework and Supporting Evidence  

E-print Network

­3) and illuminate the mechanisms that underlie choices between different emotion regulation strategies (Studies 4­6 of emotion regulation choice is the idea that our emotions often are advantageous for survival and well-being that flexible choice between emotion regulation strategies is central for well-being and that various forms

Gross, James J.

454

Developing social and emotional aspects of learning: the American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman’s work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL’s exploration and articulation of the implications of emotional intelligence for schools,

Maurice J. Elias; Dominic C. Moceri

2012-01-01

455

Beyond Sentiment: The Manifold of Human Emotions  

E-print Network

Sentiment analysis predicts the presence of positive or negative emotions in a text document. In this paper we consider higher dimensional extensions of the sentiment concept, which represent a richer set of human emotions. Our approach goes beyond previous work in that our model contains a continuous manifold rather than a finite set of human emotions. We investigate the resulting model, compare it to psychological observations, and explore its predictive capabilities. Besides obtaining significant improvements over a baseline without manifold, we are also able to visualize different notions of positive sentiment in different domains.

Kim, Seungyeon; Lebanon, Guy; Essa, Irfan

2012-01-01

456

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this\\u000a study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions under\\u000a two conditions (free association and stress condition). Finally, delinquent participants completed a

Belinda Plattner; Niranjan Karnik; Booil Jo; Rebecca E. Hall; Astrid Schallauer; Victor Carrion; Martha Feucht; Hans Steiner

2007-01-01

457

Gender differences in emotion recognition: Impact of sensory modality and emotional category.  

PubMed

Results from studies on gender differences in emotion recognition vary, depending on the types of emotion and the sensory modalities used for stimulus presentation. This makes comparability between different studies problematic. This study investigated emotion recognition of healthy participants (N = 84; 40 males; ages 20 to 70 years), using dynamic stimuli, displayed by two genders in three different sensory modalities (auditory, visual, audio-visual) and five emotional categories. The participants were asked to categorise the stimuli on the basis of their nonverbal emotional content (happy, alluring, neutral, angry, and disgusted). Hit rates and category selection biases were analysed. Women were found to be more accurate in recognition of emotional prosody. This effect was partially mediated by hearing loss for the frequency of 8,000 Hz. Moreover, there was a gender-specific selection bias for alluring stimuli: Men, as compared to women, chose "alluring" more often when a stimulus was presented by a woman as compared to a man. PMID:24151963

Lambrecht, Lena; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

2014-04-01

458

Age-Related Changes in Associative Memory for Emotional and Non-emotional Integrative Representations  

PubMed Central

Events often include novel combinations of items. Sometimes, through the process of integration, we experience and remember these items as parts of a whole rather than as separate entities. Recent research with younger adults has demonstrated that successfully integrating two non-emotional items at encoding, instead of imagining them separately, produces a disproportionately larger associative memory benefit than integrating an emotional and a non-emotional item (Murray & Kensinger, 2012). In the first study to examine whether age and emotion interact to influence integration, we use two measures of integrative success – the ability to successfully retrieve integrations, measured through associative cued recall, and the ability to successfully generate integrated representations at encoding, measured through self report. The cued recall results (Expt. 1 and 2) reveal that the emotional content of the word pairs interacts to influence the effect of integration on older adults’ associative memory, but in the opposite direction of younger adults: Older adults show no associative retrieval benefit of integration over non-integration for non-emotional pairs, but they show a significant integrative benefit for emotional pairs. We also demonstrate (Expt. 2) that encoding time interacts with emotion and integration in different ways for older and younger adults: Putting younger adults under time pressure reduces their success in generating integrated representations at encoding for non-emotional pairs, whereas for older adults it disrupts their ability to generate integrated representations for emotional pairs. We discuss possible age-related differences in the processes used to create emotional and non-emotional integrations. PMID:24364402

Murray, Brendan D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

459

Psychological Resilience and Positive Emotional Granularity: Examining the Benefits of Positive Emotions on Coping and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, folk theory has promoted the idea that positive emotions are good for your health. Accumulating empirical ev- idence is providing support for this anecdotal wisdom. We use the broad- en-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) as a framework to demonstrate that positive emotions contribute to psycho- logical and physical well-being via more effective coping. We argue

Michele M. Tugade; Barbara L. Fredrickson; Lisa Feldman Barrett

2004-01-01

460

Is facial emotion recognition impairment in schizophrenia identical for different emotions? A signal detection analysis.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty recognising the emotion that corresponds to a given facial expression. According to signal detection theory, two separate processes are involved in facial emotion perception: a sensory process (measured by sensitivity which is the ability to distinguish one facial emotion from another facial emotion) and a cognitive decision process (measured by response criterion which is the tendency to judge a facial emotion as a particular emotion). It is uncertain whether facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia are primarily due to impaired sensitivity or response bias. In this study, we hypothesised that individuals with schizophrenia would have both diminished sensitivity and different response criteria in facial emotion recognition across different emotions compared with healthy controls. Twenty-five individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared with age and IQ matched healthy controls. Participants performed a "yes-no" task by indicating whether the 88 Ekman faces shown briefly expressed one of the target emotions in three randomly ordered runs (happy, sad and fear). Sensitivity and response criteria for facial emotion recognition was calculated as d-prime and In(beta) respectively using signal detection theory. Patients with schizophrenia showed diminished sensitivity (d-prime) in recognising happy faces, but not faces that expressed fear or sadness. By contrast, patients exhibited a significantly less strict response criteria (In(beta)) in recognising fearful and sad faces. Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a specific deficit in recognising happy faces, whereas they were more inclined to attribute any facial emotion as fearful or sad. PMID:18180142

Tsoi, Daniel T; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Khokhar, Waqqas A; Mir, Nusrat U; Swalli, Jaspal S; Gee, Kate A; Pluck, Graham; Woodruff, Peter W R

2008-02-01

461

Nonlinear Dynamics of Emotion-Cognition Interaction: When Emotion Does not Destroy Cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion (i.e., spontaneous motivation and subsequent implementation of a behavior) and cognition (i.e., problem solving by\\u000a information processing) are essential to how we, as humans, respond to changes in our environment. Recent studies in cognitive\\u000a science suggest that emotion and cognition are subserved by different, although heavily integrated, neural systems. Understanding\\u000a the time-varying relationship of emotion and cognition is a

Valentin Afraimovich; Todd Young; Mehmet K. Muezzinoglu; Mikhail I. Rabinovich

2011-01-01

462

Body experiences, emotional competence, and psychosocial functioning in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  

PubMed

We investigated self-image, psychological functioning, and quality of life in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Thirty-nine children with JIA were compared with 80 healthy peers. We first administered the Human Figure Drawing Test (HFDT) to all subjects; children also completed standardized questionnaires evaluating health-related quality of life (PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales) and the main aspects of psychological functioning: anxiety (SAFA-A) and depression (CDI). Parents were asked to complete the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the PEDSQL 4.0. For each patient with JIA, clinical notes were gathered and a global disease assessment (visual analog scale--VAS) was performed. Compared to healthy peers, patients with JIA reported reduced maturity quotients at HFDT, more depressive traits, greater anxiety, and lower health-related quality of life. Among the subjects with JIA, HFDT revealed that adolescents had a greater impairment in all areas investigated. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the physical well-being rated by VAS and the perception of poorer quality of life in patients, mostly in the psychosocial domains. Children and adolescents with JIA exhibit emotional difficulties and a delay of psychological development leading to low self-esteem, a distorted self-image, more anxiety and depression traits, and a worse quality of life, when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:23392772

Bomba, Monica; Meini, Antonella; Molinaro, Anna; Cattalini, Marco; Oggiano, Silvia; Fazzi, Elisa; Neri, Francesca; Plebani, Alessandro; Nacinovich, Renata

2013-08-01

463

The Role of Ineffective Emotion Regulation in Problem Drinking Varies by Emotional Disposition, Delinquency, and Gender of South Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) strategies and emotional disposition in problem drinking of adolescent offenders (n = 303) and non-offending peers (n = 287) from South Korea. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing problem drinking, positive and negative emotion, emotional intensity, and use of problem solving,…

Song, Sunmi; Graham, Jennifer E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Sohn, Young-Woo

2012-01-01

464

Emotional pictures and sounds: a review of multimodal interactions of emotion cues in multiple domains.  

PubMed

In everyday life, multiple sensory channels jointly trigger emotional experiences and one channel may alter processing in another channel. For example, seeing an emotional facial expression and hearing the voice's emotional tone will jointly create the emotional experience. This example, where auditory and visual input is related to social communication, has gained considerable attention by researchers. However, interactions of visual and auditory emotional information are not limited to social communication but can extend to much broader contexts including human, animal, and environmental cues. In this article, we review current research on audiovisual emotion processing beyond face-voice stimuli to develop a broader perspective on multimodal interactions in emotion processing. We argue that current concepts of multimodality should be extended in considering an ecologically valid variety of stimuli in audiovisual emotion processing. Therefore, we provide an overview of studies in which emotional sounds and interactions with complex pictures of scenes were investigated. In addition to behavioral studies, we focus on neuroimaging, electro- and peripher-physiological findings. Furthermore, we integrate these findings and identify similarities or differences. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:25520679

Gerdes, Antje B M; Wieser, Matthias J; Alpers, Georg W

2014-01-01

465

Demythologizing the emotions: adaptation, cognition, and visceral representations of emotion in the nervous system.  

PubMed

This article highlights four issues about the neurobiology of emotions: adaptation vs. dysfunction, peripheral and central representations of emotion, the regulation of the internal milieu, and whether emotions are cognitive. It is argued that the emotions evolved to play diverse adaptive roles and are biologically vital sources of information processing. They were not designed as pieces of pathology, though they certainly can underlie some psychophathologies. Emotions are, in part, appraisal systems that are operative at numerous level of the nervous system from the brainstem to the cortex. Like other information processing systems they are not perfect cognitive systems. Emotional systems often utilize somatic and visceral information for appraisals of events to facilitate decisions of whether to approach or avoid objects. The neural systems of emotions traverse the entire neural axis and are linked to the regulation of the internal milieu. Thus, in addition to the experiential aspects of emotions, emotions embody appraisal systems that are pervasive to all levels of the brain to facilitate function, adaptation, and survival. PMID:12812800

Schulkin, Jay; Thompson, Barbara L; Rosen, Jeffrey B

2003-06-01

466

Emotional pictures and sounds: a review of multimodal interactions of emotion cues in multiple domains  

PubMed Central

In everyday life, multiple sensory channels jointly trigger emotional experiences and one channel may alter processing in another channel. For example, seeing an emotional facial expression and hearing the voice’s emotional tone will jointly create the emotional experience. This example, where auditory and visual input is related to social communication, has gained considerable attention by researchers. However, interactions of visual and auditory emotional information are not limited to social communication but can extend to much broader contexts including human, animal, and environmental cues. In this article, we review current research on audiovisual emotion processing beyond face-voice stimuli to develop a broader perspective on multimodal interactions in emotion processing. We argue that current concepts of multimodality should be extended in considering an ecologically valid variety of stimuli in audiovisual emotion processing. Therefore, we provide an overview of studies in which emotional sounds and interactions with complex pictures of scenes were investigated. In addition to behavioral studies, we focus on neuroimaging, electro- and peripher-physiological findings. Furthermore, we integrate these findings and identify similarities or differences. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:25520679

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Alpers, Georg W.

2014-01-01

467

EMOTION RECOGNITION OF VIRTUAL AGENTS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS: THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND EMOTION INTENSITY  

PubMed Central

People make determinations about the social characteristics of an agent (e.g., robot or virtual agent) by interpreting social cues displayed by the agent, such as facial expressions. Although a considerable amount of research has been conducted investigating age-related differences in emotion recognition of human faces (e.g., Sullivan, & Ruffman, 2004), the effect of age on emotion identification of virtual agent facial expressions has been largely unexplored. Age-related differences in emotion recognition of facial expressions are an important factor to consider in the design of agents that may assist older adults in a recreational or healthcare setting. The purpose of the current research was to investigate whether age-related differences in facial emotion recognition can extend to emotion-expressive virtual agents. Younger and older adults performed a recognition task with a virtual agent expressing six basic emotions. Larger age-related differences were expected for virtual agents displaying negative emotions, such as anger, sadness, and fear. In fact, the results indicated that older adults showed a decrease in emotion recognition accuracy for a virtual agent's emotions of anger, fear, and happiness.

Beer, Jenay M.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

2014-01-01

468

Designing for emotion (among other things)  

PubMed Central

Using computational approaches to emotion in design appears problematic for a range of technical, cultural and aesthetic reasons. After introducing some of the reasons as to why I am sceptical of such approaches, I describe a prototype we built that tried to address some of these problems, using sensor-based inferencing to comment upon domestic ‘well-being’ in ways that encouraged users to take authority over the emotional judgements offered by the system. Unfortunately, over two iterations we concluded that the prototype we built was a failure. I discuss the possible reasons for this and conclude that many of the problems we found are relevant more generally for designs based on computational approaches to emotion. As an alternative, I advocate a broader view of interaction design in which open-ended designs serve as resources for individual appropriation, and suggest that emotional experiences become one of several outcomes of engaging with them. PMID:19884154

Gaver, William

2009-01-01

469

Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1996 with support from the Fetzer Institute, the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence is dedicated to advancing the research and practice related to emotional intelligence in organizations. With 25 current members from a variety of fields ranging from academic appointments to consultants, the Consortium continues to fulfill its mandate to "study all that is known about emotional intelligence in the workplace." First-time visitors seeking to learn about the basic activities of the Consortium will want to spend some time browsing through the Research section of the site, which contains helpful background papers addressing the importance of emotional intelligence and developing standards for the field. The site also contains the detailed and recently updated research agenda of the Consortium, along with profiles of current members. Finally, a detailed reference section contains a detailed bibliography of scholarship that will be of interest to those seeking to read additional material within the discipline.

2003-01-01

470

Emotional Working Memory and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

A number of recent studies have reported that working memory does not seem to show typical age-related deficits in healthy older adults when emotional information is involved. Differently, studies about the short-term ability to encode and actively manipulate emotional information in dementia of Alzheimer's type are few and have yielded mixed results. Here, we review behavioural and neuroimaging evidence that points to a complex interaction between emotion modulation and working memory in Alzheimer's. In fact, depending on the function involved, patients may or may not show an emotional benefit in their working memory performance. In addition, this benefit is not always clearly biased (e.g., towards negative or positive information). We interpret this complex pattern of results as a consequence of the interaction between multiple factors including the severity of Alzheimer's disease, the nature of affective stimuli, and type of working memory task. PMID:24639911

2014-01-01

471

Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... worsen problems with functioning caused by MS. Emotional disorders also can: • ... be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal ...

472

How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions. PMID:20160935

Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

473

Emotional inhibition: a discourse analysis of disclosure.  

PubMed

Evidence generated within the emotional disclosure paradigm (EDP) suggests that talking or writing about emotional experiences produces health benefits, but recent meta-analyses have questioned its efficacy. Studies within the EDP typically rely upon a unidimensional and relatively unsophisticated notion of emotional inhibition, and tend to use quantitative forms of content analysis to identify associations between percentages of word types and positive or negative health outcomes. In this article, we use a case study to show how a qualitative discourse analysis has the potential to identify more of the complexity linking the disclosure practices and styles that may be associated with emotional inhibition. This may illuminate the apparent lack of evidence for efficacy of the EDP by enabling more comprehensive theorisations of the variations within it. PMID:21678182

Ellis, Darren; Cromby, John

2012-01-01

474

A Neurobiological Approach to Emotional Intelligence  

E-print Network

of an emotion might be fear produced by the sound of a rapidly approaching bus, or the sight of an angry such as the death of a loved one. Another example would be relief produced by the omission or termination

Rolls, Edmund T.

475

A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability/Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children  

PubMed Central

The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that, for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a mediator between emotion lability/negativity and internalizing symptomatology, whereas emotion lability/negativity was not a mediator between emotion regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Early maltreatment was associated with high emotion lability/negativity (age 7) that contributed to poor emotion regulation (age 8), which in turn was predictive of increases in internalizing symptomatology (from age 8 to 9). The results imply important roles of emotion regulation in the development of internalizing symptomatology, especially for children with high emotion lability/negativity. PMID:23034132

Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

2013-01-01

476

Simulated Emotion in Affective Embodied Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important strand of research that is often neglected in the field of affective computing is that of how users respond to\\u000a simulated displays of emotion. We present an overview of the few studies that have explicitly investigated this space and\\u000a discuss a number of issues related to simulated emotion research. An overview of our own work in this area

Chris Creed; Russell Beale

2008-01-01

477

Infant Smiling Dynamics and Perceived Positive Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented\\u000a with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling\\u000a and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with\\u000a degree of eye constriction (cheek raising, the Duchenne marker), which

Daniel S. Messinger; Tricia D. Cassel; Susan I. Acosta; Zara Ambadar; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2008-01-01

478

Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions.  

PubMed

Experimental psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions--which we formally represent by comparisons between 'unexpected utilities' and expected ones--the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery. PMID:20026464

Livet, Pierre

2010-01-27

479

"Emotions guide us": behavioral and MEG correlates.  

PubMed

Affectively salient stimuli are capable of capturing attentional resources which allow the brain to change the current course of action in order to respond to potentially advantageous or threatening stimuli. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cerebral impact of peripherally presented affective stimuli on the subsequent processing of foveal information. To this end, we recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms from 12 participants while they made speeded responses to the direction of left- or right-oriented arrows that were presented foveally at fixation. Each arrow was preceded by a peripherally presented pair of pictures, one emotional (unpleasant or pleasant), and one neutral. Paired pictures were presented at 12° of eccentricity to the left and right of a central fixation cross. We observed that the participants responded more quickly when the orientation of the arrow was congruent with the location of the previously presented emotional scene. Results show that non-predictive emotional information in peripheral vision interferes with subsequent responses to foveally presented targets. Importantly, this behavioral effect was correlated with an early (?135 msec) increase of left fronto-central activity for the emotionally congruent combination, whose cerebral sources were notably located in the left orbitofrontal cortex. We therefore suggest that the prior spatial distribution of emotional salience, like physical salience, grabs attentional resources and modifies the performance in the center of the visual field. Thus, these data shed light on the neurobehavioral correlates of the emotional coding of visual space. PMID:23332317

D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Lepore, Franco; Honoré, Jacques; Sequeira, Henrique

2013-10-01

480

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

2014-01-01

481

Crossmodal emotional integration in major depression.  

PubMed

Major depression goes along with affective and social-cognitive deficits. Most research on affective deficits in depression has, however, only focused on unimodal emotion processing, whereas in daily life, emotional perception is often highly dependent on the evaluation of multimodal inputs. We thus investigated emotional audiovisual integration in patients with depression and healthy subjects. Subjects rated the expression of happy, neutral and fearful faces while concurrently being exposed to emotional or neutral sounds. Results demonstrated group differences in left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex when comparing incongruent to congruent happy facial conditions, mainly due to a failure of patients to deactivate these regions in response to congruent stimulus pairs. Moreover, healthy subjects decreased activation in right posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus and midcingulate cortex when an emotional stimulus was paired with a neutral rather than another emotional one. In contrast, patients did not show such deactivation when neutral stimuli were integrated. These results demonstrate aberrant neural response in audiovisual processing in depression, indicated by failure to deactivate regions involved in inhibition and salience processing when congruent and neutral audiovisual stimuli pairs are integrated, providing a possible mechanism of constant arousal and readiness to act in this patient group. PMID:23576809

Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Kellermann, Tanja S; Eickhoff, Simon B

2014-06-01

482

Emotion assessment using the NIH Toolbox  

PubMed Central

One of the goals of the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function was to identify or develop brief measures of emotion for use in prospective epidemiologic and clinical research. Emotional health has significant links to physical health and exerts a powerful effect on perceptions of life quality. Based on an extensive literature review and expert input, the Emotion team identified 4 central subdomains: Negative Affect, Psychological Well-Being, Stress and Self-Efficacy, and Social Relationships. A subsequent psychometric review identified several existing self-report and proxy measures of these subdomains with measurement characteristics that met the NIH Toolbox criteria. In cases where adequate measures did not exist, robust item banks were developed to assess concepts of interest. A population-weighted sample was recruited by an online survey panel to provide initial item calibration and measure validation data. Participants aged 8 to 85 years completed self-report measures whereas parents/guardians responded for children aged 3 to 12 years. Data were analyzed using a combination of classic test theory and item response theory methods, yielding efficient measures of emotional health concepts. An overview of the development of the NIH Toolbox Emotion battery is presented along with preliminary results. Norming activities led to further refinement of the battery, thus enhancing the robustness of emotional health measurement for researchers using the NIH Toolbox. PMID:23479549

Butt, Zeeshan; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Kupst, Mary Jo; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Bode, Rita K.; Choi, Seung W.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Griffith, James W.; Stoney, Catherine M.; Brouwers, Pim; Knox, Sarah S.; Cella, David

2013-01-01

483

Preservice Teachers’ Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations With Teachers’ Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers’ (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in regulating their own emotions provided more supportive responses to children's negative emotions and fewer nonsupportive responses to children's positive emotions.

Rebecca Anne Swartz; Nancy L. McElwain

2012-01-01

484

Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is\\u000a a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes\\u000a an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also\\u000a the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and

Kim L. Gratz; Lizabeth Roemer

2004-01-01

485

Behavioral dissociation between emotional and non-emotional facial expressions in congenital prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have shown that facial recognition and emotional expressions are dissociable. However, it is unknown if a single system supports the processing of emotional and non-emotional facial expressions. We aimed to understand if individuals with impairment in face recognition from birth (congenital prosopagnosia, CP) can use non-emotional facial expressions to recognize a face as an already seen one, and thus, process this facial dimension independently from features (which are impaired in CP), and basic emotional expressions. To this end, we carried out a behavioral study in which we compared the performance of 6 CP individuals to that of typical development individuals, using upright and inverted faces. Four avatar faces with a neutral expression were presented in the initial phase. The target faces presented in the recognition phase, in which a recognition task was requested (2AFC paradigm), could be identical (neutral) to those of the initial phase or present biologically plausible changes to features, non-emotional expressions, or emotional expressions. After this task, a second task was performed, in which the participants had to detect whether or not the recognized face exactly matched the study face or showed any difference. The results confirmed the CPs' impairment in the configural processing of the invariant aspects of the face, but also showed a spared configural processing of non-emotional facial expression (task 1). Interestingly and unlike the non-emotional expressions, the configural processing of emotional expressions was compromised in CPs and did not improve their change detection ability (task 2). These new results have theoretical implications for face perception models since they suggest that, at least in CPs, non-emotional expressions are processed configurally, can be dissociated from other facial dimensions, and may serve as a compensatory strategy to achieve face recognition. PMID:25520643

Daini, Roberta; Comparetti, Chiara M.; Ricciardelli, Paola

2014-01-01

486

Beyond human intentions and emotions  

PubMed Central

Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding. PMID:23543838

Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

2013-01-01

487

Psychopathy and Trait Emotional Intelligence  

PubMed Central

Psychopathic individuals are infamous for their chronic and diverse failures of social adjustment despite their adequate intellectual abilities. Non-cognitive factors, in particular trait emotional intelligence (EI), offer one possible explanation for their lack of success. This study explored the association between psychopathy and EI, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS, Salovey, Mayer, Golman, Turvey & Palfai, 1995). Consistent with the Response Modulation (RM) model of psychopathy (Newman & Lorenz, 2003), low-anxious psychopathic individuals had significantly lower scores on TMMS Repair and Attention compared to controls. Consistent with proposals by Patrick and Lang (1999) regarding PCL-R factors, these EI deficits related to different aspects of the psychopathy construct. Correlations revealed significant inverse associations between PCL-R factor 1 and Attention and PCL-R factor 2 and Repair. We propose that the multi-dimensional EI framework affords a complementary perspective on laboratory-based explanations of psychopathy. PMID:18438451

Malterer, Melanie B.; Glass, Samantha J.; Newman, Joseph P.

2008-01-01

488

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the effect of training some aspects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and productivity of employees. The results can help organizations to realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by paying more attention to psychological issues. We used a quasi-experimental method using a pre-test and a post-test designed with control group and a four-month follow-up. Study population consists of employees of Marine Installations and Construction Company. Considering variables like age, education and job rank, we selected 28 employees who earned the lowest score for EI. They were then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Each employee got job satisfaction and productivity questionnaires and their managers were given employee evaluation questionnaire. Then some aspects of EI were taught to the experimental group once a week for 10 sessions. Four months later, both groups were evaluated by managers. The results show that education did not increase employees` job satisfaction nor did it improve managers` evaluation. However, employees` productivity score after training sessions and managers` evaluation improved in the long run. The results reveal that training EI by further controlling the above-mentioned variables is effective and essential to improve human resources.

Hosseinian, Simin; Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Zahraie, Shaghayegh; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali

489

Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior  

PubMed Central

The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N=88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of emotional competence. Associations were examined for the emotions of sadness and anger concurrently during adolescence, and longitudinally from middle childhood to adolescence. Results suggested that children with poor emotional awareness and regulation had a higher likelihood of using hard drugs. Difficulty regulating emotions was associated with having more sexual partners, and both emotion regulation and expression difficulties were associated with greater behavioral adjustment problems. Results were consistent across the concurrent and longitudinal findings and pointed to anger as an important emotion. Findings suggest that children’s emotional competence may serve as a useful point of intervention to decrease risky behavior in adolescence. PMID:19481247

Hessler, Danielle; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

2009-01-01

490

Cultural regulation of emotion: individual, relational, and structural sources  

PubMed Central

The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships—close others shape people's environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways—and are afforded by structural conditions—people's daily lives “limit” the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules. PMID:23408753

De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja

2013-01-01

491

Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.  

PubMed

Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping. PMID:25356608

Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

2014-10-01

492

Emotional Leadership: How Students Make Meaning of Emotion in Their Undergraduate Leadership Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the ways that students make meaning of emotion in their leadership experiences in order to understand their preparedness in and perspectives on the skills claimed to be needed in the knowledge economy. The researcher developed a Conceptual Model of Emotional Leadership which established a set of…

Frye, David A.

2011-01-01

493

Reeducating Emotions in a Feminist Classroom: Addressing Emotional Resistance from Privileged Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to move privileged students from denial and guilt about feminist issues to constructive anger, educators must first teach them how their own emotional response can cloud their perceptions about oppression. Several classroom techniques used for "re-educating emotions" are described and discussed as they are used to teach third-world…

Krouse, Mary Beth

1996-01-01

494

Affective Science and Health: The Importance of Emotion and Emotion Regulation  

E-print Network

Affective Science and Health: The Importance of Emotion and Emotion Regulation David DeSteno Northeastern University James J. Gross Stanford University Laura Kubzansky Harvard School of Public Health, Ochsner, & Gross, 2007; Davidson, Scherer, & Goldsmith, 2009). We believe that the field of health

Gross, James J.