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Sample records for bar-on emotional quotient

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Bernadette; Urban, Robert; Paksi, Borbala; Csobor, Lujza Vargane; Olah, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only…

  2. Examining Teacher Burnout Using Emotional Intelligence Quotients: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern if there are significant differences in a teacher's level of burnout based on his or her emotional intelligence quotient. This quantitative study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, an emotional quotient inventory, and a burnout inventory to find significant relationships…

  3. Examining Teacher Burnout Using Emotional Intelligence Quotients: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern if there are significant differences in a teacher's level of burnout based on his or her emotional intelligence quotient. This quantitative study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, an emotional quotient inventory, and a burnout inventory to find significant relationships

  4. The Relationship between Principal's Emotional Intelligence Quotient, School Culture, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between secondary school principal's emotional intelligence quotient, school culture, and student achievement. Partial correlation was conducted to examine the degree of relationships between principal's emotional intelligence quotient and school culture controlling for the effect

  5. The Relationship between Principal's Emotional Intelligence Quotient, School Culture, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between secondary school principal's emotional intelligence quotient, school culture, and student achievement. Partial correlation was conducted to examine the degree of relationships between principal's emotional intelligence quotient and school culture controlling for the effect…

  6. An Analytical Model / Emotional Intelligence Quotient and QOL in Mothers with Infants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Junko; Katsura, Toshiki; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence quotient and health-related quality of life using structural equation modeling. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,911 mothers who visited the Health Center for an infant medical examination. A hypothetical model was constructed using variables of the emotional intelligence quotient, social support, coping, parenting stress, and perceived health competence. Result: There were a total of 1,104 valid responses (57.8%). Significant standardized estimates were obtained, confirming the goodness of fit issues with the model. The emotional intelligence quotient had a strong impact on physical and psychological quality of life, and showed the greatest association with coping. This study differed from previous studies in that, due to the inclusion of social support and explanatory variables in coping, an increase in coping strategies was more highly associated with emotional intelligence quotient levels than with social support. Conclusion: An enhanced emotional intelligence quotient should be considered a primary objective to promote the health of mothers with infant children. PMID:25649222

  7. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  8. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Vanessa C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success in middle school students with learning disabilities. Emotional Intelligence (EI) was measured using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV). The results of the BarOn EQ-i: YV was then compared to…

  9. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Student Teacher Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether student teacher performance is associated with emotional intelligence. The results indicate that emotional intelligence (as assessed by the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory) and college supervisors' assessments of student teacher performance are related. While total emotional quotient scores…

  10. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  11. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes.

    PubMed

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  12. Influences of Moral, Emotional and Adversity Quotient on Good Citizenship of Rajabhat University's Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siphai, Sunan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of moral, emotional and adversity quotient on good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in Northeastern Region of Thailand. The samples included 1,087 undergraduate students from 8 different Rajabhat universities. Data analysis was conducted in descriptive statistics and…

  13. Toward a brief multidimensional assessment of emotional intelligence: psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Wood, Laura M

    2011-09-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by the inventory, psychometric properties of the EQ-i:S scores have not yet been systematically evaluated. Such an evaluation was the main goal of the present investigation. Using data from 2,508 undergraduates, the authors conducted 2 studies involving factor structure, internal reliability, 6-month temporal stability, and construct validity of the EQ-i:S responses, both for the total EQ scale and for each constituent dimension. The results supported the multidimensional measurement structure of the EQ-i:S, with each dimension producing internally consistent, temporally stable, and theoretically meaningful responses. Scores on the EQ-i:S were associated more strongly with performance on an ability test of EI and with a conceptually similar construct of alexithymia than with the broader dimensions of basic personality and explained nontrivial amounts of incremental variance in the criterion symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Moreover, scores on each EQ-i:S dimension exhibited unique patterns of associations with the validation variables. The discussion highlights the advantages of the multidimensional approach in the assessment and study of EI. PMID:21500919

  14. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  15. Emotional Intelligence of Malaysian Academia towards Work Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngah, Rohana; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Rahman, Zanariah Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted in relating to emotional intelligence of university staff to work attitude. The Emotional Intelligence (EI) Scale devised by Schutte et al. (1998) is used in this study, which is more suitable compared to BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory. Beside their experiences, knowledge and skills, emotion play an…

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Decisional Conflict Styles: Some Empirical Evidence among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Blustein, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between emotional intelligence and decisional conflict styles. Five hundred and twenty-eight Italian high school students (median age = 18; SD = 0.76) were given the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: short (Bar-On EQ-i:S). The "Intrapersonal" dimension…

  17. A Study of School District Superintendents and the Connection of Emotional Intelligence to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study highlights the lack of studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. There are numerous studies of leadership and several studies about emotional intelligence; however, there are few studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. The study utilized the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) survey and the…

  18. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence

  19. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  20. Development of Emotional Intelligence in First-Year Undergraduate Students in a Frontier State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leedy, Gail M.; Smith, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as knowing the emotional state of self and others. Its relevance for college student development is only beginning to be researched. In the present research, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was administered to college students at the beginning and end of a semester-long course designed

  1. Development of Emotional Intelligence in First-Year Undergraduate Students in a Frontier State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leedy, Gail M.; Smith, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as knowing the emotional state of self and others. Its relevance for college student development is only beginning to be researched. In the present research, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was administered to college students at the beginning and end of a semester-long course designed…

  2. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Selection to Administrative Chief Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Charlie C.; Doyle, Peter D.; Reichman, Eric F.; Chohan, Lubna; Uthman, Margaret O.; Orejuela, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine whether emotional intelligence, as measured by the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is associated with selection to administrative chief resident. Method: Authors invited senior-year residents at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston to participate in an observational…

  4. Emotional Intelligence, Career Decision Difficulties, and Student Retention: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiljanen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), career decision making difficulties, and student retention. The participants included freshmen students (N = 98) in a private Midwestern university. This quantitative study compared the scores on an assessment of EI, the Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-i), with the…

  5. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness among Sponsored Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ventez Derrell

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of emotional intelligence, as perceived by senior level university sponsored research administration professionals and their perceived leadership effectiveness, as measured by the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory and the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) for Self.…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Turkish EFL Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocoglu, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy among 90 English language pre-service teachers from a university in Turkey. Data sources included Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy's Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and Reuven Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory. The findings indicated that Turkish EFL…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  8. The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties

  9. The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

  10. What's Your Literature Quotient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouzts, Dan T.

    Because a teacher who demonstrates a love of literature and reading is a valuable model for children, a study determined the knowledge of children's and adolescent literature of students enrolled in a graduate reading methods course. A questionnaire entitled "What's Your Literature Quotient?" was administered to 72 teachers concerning knowledge of…

  11. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. PMID:25400166

  12. Validity Evidence based on Internal Structure of Scores of the Emotional Quotient-Inventory: Youth Version Short (EQ-i: YV-S) in a Spanish Sample.

    PubMed

    Esnaola, Igor; Freeman, John; Sarasa, Marta; Fernández-Zabala, Arantza; Axpe, Inge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of EQ-i: YV-S in Spanish adolescents. The total sample was comprised of 508 participants from Grades 7 to 12, 241 males (47.4%) and 267 females (52.6%), each of whom completed the questionnaires on two separate occasions. Three [intrapersonal (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .86), stress management (α = .83, CR = .86, and McDonald Omega = .85) and adaptability (α = .82, CR = .85, and McDonald Omega = .85)] of the four scales had acceptable internal consistency. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used with FACTOR and EQS version 6.1 software to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the EQ-i: YV-S, supporting the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. Three models were tested; the best fit to the data was the hierarchical model (S-Bχ2 / df = 2.11, CFI = .93 and RMSEA = .047), which hypothesized that the four specific factors (interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, and adaptability) were explained with a second-order factor, Emotional-Social-Intelligence (ESI). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between general self-concept and EQ-i: YV-S [interpersonal (r = .153, p < .001), intrapersonal (r = .235, p < .001), stress management (r = .145, p < .001), adaptability (r = .311, p < .001) and ESI (r = .360, p < .001)]; ESI showed significant direct power prediction of the general self-concept (.52) as demonstrated through structural equation modeling. PMID:26972848

  13. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  14. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-15

    A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph {gamma} is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

  15. Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar [14] offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full

  16. Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar [14] offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…

  17. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Emotional Intelligence of the Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh A.; Ghahari, Sharbanoo; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has a major role in mental health and life skills training, and could be viewed as a bridge relating to emotional intelligence and mental health. Aim: The present study is aimed at determining the effect of life skills training on the emotional intelligence among the first year students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the subjects were selected by random sampling and allocated into two groups: Case group (n=20) and control group (n=19); they matched for gender, experience of stressful life events in the past six months, level of interest in the field of study, and level of emotional intelligence. The two groups responded to Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory before starting the experiment. Subsequently, the case group underwent life skills training. After the training, Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory was responded by the case and control groups again. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including Chi-square test, paired and independent t-tests, using SPSS software version 15. Results and Conclusion: In the case group, the scores of emotional intelligence after life skills training were significantly improved (t=11.703 df=19 P=0.001), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (t=0.683 df =18 P=0.503). By performing programs such as life skills training, the levels of emotional intelligence of the students could be increased, which itself could lead to academic success, reduced substance abuse, and increased stress tolerance in the students. PMID:23723543

  18. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success. PMID:26753453

  19. What is your hospitality quotient?

    PubMed

    DeSilets, Lyn

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the behind-the-scenes work involved with planning and implementing continuing nursing education activities, there are additional ways we can enhance the learner's experience. This article presents ideas on how to improve your hospitality quotient. PMID:25723328

  20. The role of cognitive versus emotional intelligence in Iowa Gambling Task performance: What’s emotion got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christian A.; DelDonno, Sophie; Killgore, William D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Debate persists regarding the relative role of cognitive versus emotional processes in driving successful performance on the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). From the time of its initial development, patterns of IGT performance were commonly interpreted as primarily reflecting implicit, emotion-based processes. Surprisingly, little research has tried to directly compare the extent to which measures tapping relevant cognitive versus emotional competencies predict IGT performance in the same study. The current investigation attempts to address this question by comparing patterns of associations between IGT performance, cognitive intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WASI) and three commonly employed measures of emotional intelligence (EI; Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, EQ-i; Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, SREIS). Results indicated that IGT performance was more strongly associated with cognitive, than emotional, intelligence. To the extent that the IGT indeed mimics “real-world” decision-making, our findings, coupled with the results of existing research, may highlight the role of deliberate, cognitive capacities over implicit, emotional processes in contributing to at least some domains of decision-making relevant to everyday life. PMID:25635149

  1. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  2. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  3. Nursing students' leadership and emotional intelligence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duygulu, Sergul; Hicdurmaz, Duygu; Akyar, Imatullah

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine nursing students' leadership and emotional intelligence. The study was conducted as a descriptive study in a nursing school in 2008. The sample comprised 69 junior and 85 senior nursing students and was based on voluntary participation. Data were collected through a data sheet, a leadership style questionnaire, and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory. There were no statistically significant differences in leadership orientations and emotional intelligence between junior and senior students (p > 0.05). Although there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and task-oriented leadership (r = 0.427, p = 0.001), there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and people-oriented leadership (r = 0.076, p = 0.367). Students' emotional intelligence score was average, and their people-oriented leadership score was approximately half of the total score. It is recommended to develop strategies for improving nursing students' people-oriented leadership skills during their nursing education. PMID:21323258

  4. Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients

    SciTech Connect

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-11-24

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  5. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial observations, another hypothesis was proposed; that is, we feel first, and then have physical responses. These two hypotheses seem contradictory to each other, but detailed examination on these hypotheses waited for the development of new analytical tools.

  6. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  7. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  9. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  10. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration General § 9701.305 Bar on...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification General § 9701.205 Bar on collective bargaining....

  13. The impact of stroke on emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is important for personal, social and career success and has been linked to the frontal anterior cingulate, insula and amygdala regions. Aim To ascertain which stroke lesion sites impair emotional intelligence and relation to current frontal assessment measurements. Methods One hundred consecutive, non aphasic, independently functioning patients post stroke were evaluated with the Bar-On emotional intelligence test, "known as the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)" and frontal tests that included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Frontal Systems Behavioral Inventory (FRSBE) for correlational validity. The results of a screening, bedside frontal network syndrome test (FNS) and NIHSS to document neurological deficit were also recorded. Lesion location was determined by the Cerefy digital, coxial brain atlas. Results After exclusions (n = 8), patients tested (n = 92, mean age 50.1, CI: 52.9, 47.3 years) revealed that EQ-i scores were correlated (negatively) with all FRSBE T sub-scores (apathy, disinhibition, executive, total), with self-reported scores correlating better than family reported scores. Regression analysis revealed age and FRSBE total scores as the most influential variables. The WCST error percentage T score did not correlate with the EQ-i scores. Based on ANOVA, there were significant differences among the lesion sites with the lowest mean EQ-i scores associated with temporal (71.5) and frontal (87.3) lesions followed by subtentorial (91.7), subcortical gray (92.6) and white (95.2) matter, and the highest scores associated with parieto-occipital lesions (113.1). Conclusions 1) Stroke impairs EI and is associated with apathy, disinhibition and executive functioning. 2) EI is associated with frontal, temporal, subcortical and subtentorial stroke syndromes. PMID:21029468

  14. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  15. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with

  16. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  17. Quantity quotient reporting. Comparison of various models.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Postma, Theo

    2015-11-01

    Quantity quotient (QQ) reporting has been proposed by several authors to improve or support the present situation of presenting quantitative laboratory results. This proposal is based on a concept (symmetrical model) known from the intelligence quotient, which was developed to make intelligence tests comparable. In laboratory medicine, however, most measurands follow a non-symmetrical (skewed) distribution, leading to a compression of the QQ values at the lower end of the reference interval. This effect can be avoided by several alternatives. Three models considering non-symmetrical distributions are compared with the symmetrical model in the present study. The corresponding algorithms can be easily handled on the Excel platform. Graphical presentation of the QQ allows a quick overview of test results if they occur in a large number. PMID:26536582

  18. Self-Reported Sleep Correlates with Prefrontal-Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Emotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608. PMID:24179291

  19. 1. View looking east from sand bar on west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking east from sand bar on west side of bridge, upstream in the bed of Sugar Creek. West elevation of the bridge - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  20. 9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  1. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.205 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.205 Section 9701.205 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.305 - Bar on collective bargaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bar on collective bargaining. 9701.305 Section 9701.305 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  5. Trajectories of adolescent emotional and cognitive development: effects of sex and risk for drug use.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M; Tzilos, Golfo K; Pimentel, Patricia J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2004-06-01

    Adolescence has been widely accepted as a time for notable alterations in brain functioning. The objective of this longitudinal study was to compare trajectories of emotional and cognitive development in adolescent girls and boys with low- versus high-risk for future drug use. Nineteen healthy adolescents (aged 13.9 +/- 2.0 years; 10 girls), stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on family history of drug abuse, were examined at baseline and after one year. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The neurocognitive test battery was designed to evaluate academic achievement, executive function, verbal memory and learning, and included the Wide Range Achievement Test, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Improvements in academic achievement, executive function, and working memory were observed at the one-year follow-up. Notable sex differences also were evident in emotional intelligence, academic achievement, and memory. Interestingly, these sex-related differences interacted with risk status; improvement in cognitive performance in boys and low-risk girls was generally superior to high-risk girls, who tended to show modest, if any, improvement at the one-year follow-up. These preliminary findings provide evidence of sex differences in emotion intelligence and cognitive function. Furthermore, these data also suggest that history of familial drug abuse may have a more pronounced impact on emotional and cognitive development in adolescent girls than boys. PMID:15251911

  6. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z₃ x Z₃ fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  7. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z? x Z? fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Khler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  8. 10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This photograph of the northeast abutment shows cracks and efflorescence which as developed at the edge of the arch entrados. These effects show the thickness of the arch casting as it is contained by the spandrels and abutment. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  9. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  10. Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores. (Author/LRW)

  11. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  12. The Children's Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Atkinson, Matthew; Samarawickrema, Nelum; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Children's versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4-11 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored…

  13. QUADRO: A SUPERVISED DIMENSION REDUCTION METHOD VIA RAYLEIGH QUOTIENT OPTIMIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Ke, Zheng Tracy; Liu, Han; Xia, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel Rayleigh quotient based sparse quadratic dimension reduction method—named QUADRO (Quadratic Dimension Reduction via Rayleigh Optimization)—for analyzing high-dimensional data. Unlike in the linear setting where Rayleigh quotient optimization coincides with classification, these two problems are very different under nonlinear settings. In this paper, we clarify this difference and show that Rayleigh quotient optimization may be of independent scientific interests. One major challenge of Rayleigh quotient optimization is that the variance of quadratic statistics involves all fourth cross-moments of predictors, which are infeasible to compute for high-dimensional applications and may accumulate too many stochastic errors. This issue is resolved by considering a family of elliptical models. Moreover, for heavy-tail distributions, robust estimates of mean vectors and covariance matrices are employed to guarantee uniform convergence in estimating non-polynomially many parameters, even though only the fourth moments are assumed. Methodologically, QUADRO is based on elliptical models which allow us to formulate the Rayleigh quotient maximization as a convex optimization problem. Computationally, we propose an efficient linearized augmented Lagrangian method to solve the constrained optimization problem. Theoretically, we provide explicit rates of convergence in terms of Rayleigh quotient under both Gaussian and general elliptical models. Thorough numerical results on both synthetic and real datasets are also provided to back up our theoretical results. PMID:26778864

  14. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    PubMed Central

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children�s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; p<0.01); but not between parenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother�s total EQ and child�s total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; p<0.05) as well as authoritative parenting style and mother�s EQ (r=0.286; p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between child anxiety and behavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; p<0.01). Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence that the child�s behavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother�s emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style. Key words:Anxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry. PMID:22926462

  15. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities

  16. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  17. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence…

  18. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence

  19. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)--Adolescent Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Wheelwright, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) quantifies autistic traits in adults. This paper adapted the AQ for children (age 9.8-15.4 years). Three groups of participants were assessed: Group 1: n=52 adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: n=79 adolescents with classic autism; and Group 3, n=50 controls. The…

  20. Influence of College Experience on Intelligence Quotients of Negro Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buszek, Beatrice R.; Mitchell, Blythe C.

    This study was designed to determine what happens to the intelligence quotient of freshman students during their enrollment at a private Negro college. The Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Test, Gamma Em, was administered to 822 students from a population of approximately 2,000 in their freshman year at Hampton Institue, Hampton, Virginia. The…

  1. Acoustic and EGG analyses of emotional utterances.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Kankare, Elina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the glottal and filter variables of emotional expressions vary by emotion and valence expressed. Prolonged emotional vowels (n = 96) were produced by professional actors and actresses (n = 4) expressing joy, surprise, interest, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and a neutral emotional state. Acoustic parameters and the contact quotient from the electroglottographic signal (CQEGG) were calculated. Statistics were calculated for the parameters. Vocal fold contact time differed significantly between the emotional expressions reflecting differences in phonation types. It was concluded that CQEGG may vary simultaneously and inversely with F3 and F4 in emotional expressions of positive emotions. Changes in the lower pharynx and larynx may affect the higher formant frequencies. PMID:22587654

  2. Geometry of the ergodic quotient reveals coherent structures in flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budišić, Marko; Mezić, Igor

    2012-08-01

    Dynamical systems that exhibit diverse behaviors can rarely be completely understood using a single approach. However, by identifying coherent structures in their state spaces, i.e., regions of uniform and simpler behavior, we could hope to study each of the structures separately and then form the understanding of the system as a whole. The method we present in this paper uses trajectory averages of scalar functions on the state space to: (a) identify invariant sets in the state space, and (b) to form coherent structures by aggregating invariant sets that are similar across multiple spatial scales. First, we construct the ergodic quotient, the object obtained by mapping trajectories to the space of the trajectory averages of a function basis on the state space. Second, we endow the ergodic quotient with a metric structure that successfully captures how similar the invariant sets are in the state space. Finally, we parametrize the ergodic quotient using intrinsic diffusion modes on it. By segmenting the ergodic quotient based on the diffusion modes, we extract coherent features in the state space of the dynamical system. The algorithm is validated by analyzing the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress flow, which was the test-bed for alternative approaches: the Ulam’s approximation of the transfer operator and the computation of Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Furthermore, we explain how the method extends the Poincaré map analysis for periodic flows. As a demonstration, we apply the method to a periodically-driven three-dimensional Hill’s vortex flow, discovering unknown coherent structures in its state space. Finally, we discuss differences between the ergodic quotient and alternatives, propose a generalization to analysis of (quasi-)periodic structures, and lay out future research directions.

  3. Encephalization quotients and life-history traits in the Sirenia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Reep, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Relative brain size in the Sirenia is unusually small. Encephalization quotients are 0.27 for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) and 0.38 for dugongs (Dugong dugon). Estimates for Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) range from 0.12 to 0.19. These values are among the lowest known for Recent mammals, and seemingly have changed little since the Eocene. A body plan specialized for the aquatic environment does not account for low encephalization quotients; values are substantially less than predicted based on cetacean or pinniped allometry. Life-history, ecological, and behavioral traits of the Sirenia are typical of relatively large-brained species. Low quality food and a low metabolic rate, however, are characteristic of the Sirenia and other small-brained mammals. Acting through prolonged postnatal growth, selection also likely favored large body size in the Sirenia without a correlated increase in brain size.

  4. Pressure dependence of the thermoelastic quotient for three glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaja, A.

    1996-05-01

    The interrelationship between the mechanical work done on a material in the elastic range and changes in its thermodynamic properties, that is, between stress and strain, on the one hand, and temperature and entropy, on the other, is known as the thermoelastic effect. The phenomenon is exactly adiabatic and is characterized by the thermoelastic quotient commonly referred to as thermo-elastic constant. The thermoelastic effect can be used for stress analysis by monitoring the stress fluctuations by means of infrared radiometry. Also, it can be applied to study the anharmonicity in materials by measuring the temperature changes associated with adiabatic pressure changes. In this paper thermodynamic expressions are derived for the pressure derivative of the thermoelastic quotient under adiabatic as well as isothermal conditions. The derived expressions are applied to investigate the thermoelastic effect for the three glasses, namely, silica glass, soda-lime silica glass, and lead-silica glass. The isothermal pressure derivative of the thermoelastic quotient is evaluated for the three glasses. The isothermal volume derivative of the Gruneisen function is calculated.

  5. The Relation of LD and Gender with Emotional Intelligence in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Henry B.; Hatzes, Nanette M.; Bramel, Michael H.; Gibbon, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relation of learning disabilities (LD) and gender with emotional intelligence (as measured by the Emotional Quotient Inventory) in 128 college students. Analyses indicated significant differences between students with and without LD on stress management and adaptability, between men and women students on interpersonal…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Beliefs about Children, Discipline and Classroom Practices among Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Maryclare E.

    2009-01-01

    This research sought to explore how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes the beliefs of pre-service teachers with respect to issues such as classroom management and student behavior. 101 pre-service teachers were recruited from undergraduate and graduate education courses at a private, mid-sized university. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i),…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The EQ Relationship for Deans of U.S. Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine if a positive relationship existed between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction for deans of business schools. A secondary purpose was to determine which Emotional Quotient (EQ) competencies were most important for satisfied deans and how these competencies assisted processes related to…

  8. The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient: The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability.

    PubMed

    Groen, Y; Fuermaier, A B M; Den Heijer, A E; Tucha, O; Althaus, M

    2015-09-01

    The 'Empathy Quotient' (EQ) and 'Systemizing Quotient' (SQ) are used worldwide to measure people's empathizing and systemizing cognitive styles. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Dutch EQ and SQ in healthy participants (n = 685), and high functioning males with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). Factor analysis provided support for three subscales of the abridged 28-item EQ: Cognitive Empathy, Emotional Empathy and Social Skills. Overall, the Dutch EQ and SQ appeared reliable and valid tools to assess empathizing and systemizing cognitive style in healthy adults and high functioning adults with autism. The literature showed good cross-cultural stability of the SQ and EQ in Western countries, but in Asian countries EQ is less stable and less sensitive to sex differences. PMID:25911303

  9. A Sequential Mixed Methods Study: An Exploration of the Use of Emotional Intelligence by Senior Student Affairs Officers in Managing Critical Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is a relatively new academic discipline that began forming in the early 1990s. Currently, emotional intelligence is used in academia and in business as a new intelligence quotient. This research study investigates how Senior Student Affairs Officers' use their emotional intelligence ability during critical incidents. The…

  10. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life. PMID:27099213

  11. The Role of EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Their Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Moafian, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between EFL teachers' emotional quotient (EQ) and their pedagogical success in language institutes. In addition, the role played by their years of teaching experience in their EQ and the relationship between their age and EQ were also studied. For this purpose, 89 EFL teachers were chosen from different…

  12. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-01-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  13. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  14. Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Slaybaugh, R; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Today's "grand challenge" neutron transport problems require 3-D meshes with billions of cells, hundreds of energy groups, and accurate quadratures and scattering expansions. Leadership-class computers provide platforms on which high-fidelity fluxes can be calculated. However, appropriate methods are needed that can use these machines effectively. Such methods must be able to use hundreds of thousands of cores and have good convergence properties. Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) is an eigenvalue solver that has been added to the Sn code Denovo to address convergence. Rayleigh quotient iteration is an optimal shifted inverse iteration method that should converge in fewer iterations than the more common power method and other shifted inverse iteration methods for many problems of interest. Denovo's RQI uses a new multigroup Krylov solver for the fixed source solutions inside every iteration that allows parallelization in energy in addition to space and angle. This Krylov solver has been shown to scale successfully to 200,000 cores: for example one test problem scaled from 69,120 cores to 190,080 cores with 98% efficiency. This paper shows that RQI works for some small problems. However, the Krylov method upon which it relies does not always converge because RQI creates ill-conditioned systems. This result leads to the conclusion that preconditioning is needed to allow this method to be applicable to a wider variety of problems.

  15. Effects of therapeutic recreation on the brain quotient in the elderly dementia patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Suk; Cho, Byung-Jun; Min, Gyung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated how participation in a recreation program influences electroencephalogram changes in the demented elderly. [Subjects] Fourteen patients were included in the experimental group and 18 in the control group. [Methods] They had no regular exercise habits, and walked independently, and scored 11–23 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination, and thus had no apraxia and could communicate. To empirically verify changes in electroencephalograms of the demented elderly for depression, sleep disorder, and life quality through their participation in the therapeutic recreation program, male and female citizens >65 years old at a geriatric hospital were included. The experimental group attended therapeutic recreation programs regularly for 3 months and control group did not. [Results] Electroencephalogram values were higher in the experimental than in the control group, demonstrating that the therapeutic recreation program enhances electroencephalogram values. However, post-program electroencephalograms between the two groups showed minor differences for all variables, except for the anti-stress index and brain quotient. [Conclusion] The therapeutic recreation program caused changes in brain activation, and this method revealed the relation between the activity program and emotion via the anti-stress index. PMID:26180346

  16. Study of emotional intelligence and empathy in medical postgraduates

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Abhijeet; Kalra, Gurvinder; Swamy, Rajeev; Shukla, Aniket; Subramanyam, Alka; Kamath, Ravindra

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The important domains of emotional intelligence (EI) are self-awareness and control of emotions, motivating oneself, and empathy. These are necessary to handle any relationship. This study aims to (i) assess emotional intelligence focusing specifically on empathy; (ii) to study the level of anger; and (iii) correlating level of anger with (a) EI and (b) empathy in medical postgraduates. Materials and Methods: Subjects were assessed randomly after obtaining informed consent, through semi-structured proforma and various scales, including Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale, and Clinical Anger Scale. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis with analysis of covariance test. Results: On Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment checklist, more than 70% had poor emotional intelligence. Married males in the study were more confident and empathizing. Those with some major problem at home were more aware of their own emotions and other's feelings. Residents who had voluntarily chosen their specialty postgraduation training course (eg, medicine, surgery, and others), those who had less work load, those who had time for recreational activities, and exercise had scored high on EI. Good control of emotions in self was associated with good relationship with superiors and colleagues. Score on Clinical anger was moderate to severe in 10.6% of the subjects. EI and clinical anger correlated negatively. PMID:21772646

  17. The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adilogullari, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,

  18. The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adilogullari, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

  19. Hypercommutative Operad as a Homotopy Quotient of BV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, A.; Markarian, N.; Shadrin, S.

    2013-09-01

    We give an explicit formula for a quasi-isomorphism between the operads Hycomm (the homology of the moduli space of stable genus 0 curves) and BV/Δ (the homotopy quotient of Batalin-Vilkovisky operad by the BV-operator). In other words we derive an equivalence of Hycomm-algebras and BV-algebras enhanced with a homotopy that trivializes the BV-operator. These formulas are given in terms of the Givental graphs, and are proved in two different ways. One proof uses the Givental group action, and the other proof goes through a chain of explicit formulas on resolutions of Hycomm and BV. The second approach gives, in particular, a homological explanation of the Givental group action on Hycomm-algebras.

  20. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  1. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  2. Glottal open quotient in singing: Measurements and correlation with laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Castellengo, Michèle

    2005-03-01

    This article presents the results of glottal open-quotient measurements in the case of singing voice production. It explores the relationship between open quotient and laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency. The audio and electroglottographic signals of 18 classically trained male and female singers were recorded and analyzed with regard to vocal intensity, fundamental frequency, and open quotient. Fundamental frequency and open quotient are derived from the differentiated electroglottographic signal, using the DECOM (DEgg Correlation-based Open quotient Measurement) method. As male and female phonation may differ in respect to vocal-fold vibratory properties, a distinction is made between two different glottal configurations, which are called laryngeal mechanisms: mechanism 1 (related to chest, modal, and male head register) and mechanism 2 (related to falsetto for male and head register for female). The results show that open quotient depends on the laryngeal mechanisms. It ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 in mechanism 1 and from 0.5 to 0.95 in mechanism 2. The open quotient is strongly related to vocal intensity in mechanism 1 and to fundamental frequency in mechanism 2. .

  3. Peripheral ghrelin reduces food intake and respiratory quotient in chicken.

    PubMed

    Geelissen, S M E; Swennen, Q; Geyten, S Van der; Kühn, E R; Kaiya, H; Kangawa, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Darras, V M

    2006-02-01

    Ghrelin injection, either centrally or peripherally strongly stimulates feeding in human and rodents. In contrast, centrally injected ghrelin inhibits food intake in neonatal chickens. No information is available about the mechanism and its relationship with energy homeostasis in chicken. Since ghrelin is predominantly produced in the stomach, we investigated the effect of peripherally injected ghrelin (1 nmol/100g body weight) on food intake and energy expenditure as measured in respiratory cells by indirect calorimetry for 24h in one-week-old chickens. Plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acids, total protein and T(3) were measured in a separate experiment until 60 min after injection. Food intake decreased until at least 1h after intravenous ghrelin administration. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in ghrelin-injected chickens was reduced until 14 h after administration whereas plasma glucose and triglycerides concentrations were not altered. Free fatty acids and total protein levels also remained unchanged. Ghrelin did not influence heat production and this was supported by the absence of changes in plasma T(3) levels when compared to the control values. In conclusion, peripheral ghrelin reduces food intake as well as RQ and might influence the type of substrate (macronutrient) that is used as metabolic fuel. PMID:16054797

  4. [The terminal latency quotient in patients with compressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bedenić, B; Jusić, A

    1989-01-01

    In our investigation 119 patients suffering from carpal tunnel syndrome, and 45 suffering from cubital tunnel syndrome have been analyzed. The above mentioned syndromes belong to compressive mononeuropathies and are the result of the narrowing of the anatomical channel, through which the nerve passes, causing direct or indirect pressure on the nerve and difficulties in the flow of particles and nerve impulses towards the periphery. The aim of our work was to study the influence of the compressive lesion, primarily on the distal motor and sensory latencies. To achieve a better precision, the distal motor latency is expressed as a quotient of terminal latency. It is obtained by dividing the distance between the stimulation and the recording point in centimeters with the latency of response expressed in miliseconds. Sensory latencies are obtained by orthodromic stimulation of the finger and the detection of the neural potential at the wrist. According to our results, the proximal pathological process, besides causing the localized slowing down of conduction velocity, affects the conduction velocity of the distal sensory fibers in a higher degree than of the distal motor fibers. In any case the distal motor latencies are in a higher percentage prolonged by the distal lesion, such as carpal channel syndrome, in comparison with the proximal lesion (cubital tunnel syndrome). The less pronounced prolongation of the distal latencies, especially of sensory ones, must not be proclaimed as a consequence of a local compression without additional plurisegmental analysis. PMID:2702327

  5. White matter microstructure correlates of mathematical giftedness and intelligence quotient.

    PubMed

    Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Javier; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain activation between mathematically gifted adolescents and controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mathematical giftedness, intelligent quotient (IQ), and the microstructure of white matter tracts in a sample composed of math-gifted adolescents and aged-matched controls. Math-gifted subjects were selected through a national program based on detecting enhanced visuospatial abilities and creative thinking. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure in neuroanatomical connectivity. The processing included voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses of the fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter which is purportedly related to white matter microstructure. In a whole-sample analysis, IQ showed a significant positive correlation with FA, mainly in the corpus callosum, supporting the idea that efficient information transfer between hemispheres is crucial for higher intellectual capabilities. In addition, math-gifted adolescents showed increased FA (adjusted for IQ) in white matter tracts connecting frontal lobes with basal ganglia and parietal regions. The enhanced anatomical connectivity observed in the forceps minor and splenium may underlie the greater fluid reasoning, visuospatial working memory, and creative capabilities of these children. PMID:24038774

  6. Deterministic hazard quotients (HQs): Heading down the wrong road

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, L.; Hunter, C.; Simpson, J.

    1995-12-31

    The use of deterministic hazard quotients (HQs) in ecological risk assessment is common as a screening method in remediation of brownfield sites dominated by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. An HQ {ge} 1 indicates further risk evaluation is needed, but an HQ {le} 1 generally excludes a site from further evaluation. Is the predicted hazard known with such certainty that differences of 10% (0.1) do not affect the ability to exclude or include a site from further evaluation? Current screening methods do not quantify uncertainty associated with HQs. To account for uncertainty in the HQ, exposure point concentrations (EPCs) or ecological benchmark values (EBVs) are conservatively biased. To increase understanding of the uncertainty associated with HQs, EPCs (measured and modeled) and toxicity EBVs were evaluated using a conservative deterministic HQ method. The evaluation was then repeated using a probabilistic (stochastic) method. The probabilistic method used data distributions for EPCs and EBVs to generate HQs with measurements of associated uncertainty. Sensitivity analyses were used to identify the most important factors significantly influencing risk determination. Understanding uncertainty associated with HQ methods gives risk managers a more powerful tool than deterministic approaches.

  7. Study of the Effect of Education and Academic Environment on Emotional Intelligence on Accounting Students in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mahdi; Zadeh, Mohammadreza Abbas; Ghaderi, Alireza; Tabasi, Alaleh Zhian

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the relation between education and academic environment on emotional intelligence of accounting students in state and non-state universities in Iran. In order to collecting data Bar-on emotional intelligence test and SCL 90 questionnaire administrated among 476 students in different subjects including…

  8. Use of risk quotient and probabilistic approaches to assess risks of pesticides to birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting ecological risk assessments for pesticides, the United States Environmental Protection Agency typically relies upon the risk quotient (RQ). This approach is intended to be conservative in nature, making assumptions related to exposure and effects that are intended...

  9. Classification of PolSAR image based on quotient space theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhihui; Yu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomeng; Liu, Limin; Jiao, Shuai; Zhu, Teng; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the classification accuracy, quotient space theory was applied in the classification of polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) image. Firstly, Yamaguchi decomposition method is adopted, which can get the polarimetric characteristic of the image. At the same time, Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Gabor wavelet are used to get texture feature, respectively. Secondly, combined with texture feature and polarimetric characteristic, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for initial classification to establish different granularity spaces. Finally, according to the quotient space granularity synthetic theory, we merge and reason the different quotient spaces to get the comprehensive classification result. Method proposed in this paper is tested with L-band AIRSAR of San Francisco bay. The result shows that the comprehensive classification result based on the theory of quotient space is superior to the classification result of single granularity space.

  10. Maximization of Sums of Quotients of Quadratic Forms and Some Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiers, Henk A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Monotonically convergent algorithms are described for maximizing sums of quotients of quadratic forms. Six (constrained) functions are investigated. The general formulation of the functions and the algorithms allow for application of the algorithms in various situations in multivariate analysis. (SLD)

  11. Estimated intelligence quotient in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesised that people with anorexia nervosa have a higher intelligence quotient (IQ) level than the general population. The purpose of this review was to systematically appraise the research into reported IQ levels in people with anorexia nervosa. Methods A search using the terms intelligence quotient, IQ, intelligence, cognition, eating disorders and anorexia was conducted in electronic databases only. Results In all, 30 peer-reviewed studies written in English that used well established measures of intelligence quotient (the National Adult Reading Test and Wechsler Intelligence Scales) were identified. This review established that people with anorexia nervosa score 10.8 units and 5.9 units above the average intelligence quotient of the normative population on the National Adult Reading Test and Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively. An association was found between Body Mass Index and intelligence quotient, as measured by the National Adult Reading Test. Conclusions More studies including other eating disorder categories and recovered people are needed to explore important questions regarding the role of the intelligence quotient in treatment response. PMID:21182794

  12. Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

  13. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  14. Anomalies in gauge theory and gerbes over quotient stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tähtinen, Vesa

    2008-09-01

    In Yang-Mills theory one is interested in lifting the action of the gauge transformation group G=G(P) on the space of connection one-forms A=A(P), where P⟶M is a principal G-bundle over a compact Riemannian spin manifold M, to the total space of the Fock bundle F⟶A in a consistent way with the second quantized Dirac operators Dˆ, A∈A. In general, there is an obstruction to this called the Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly, and to overcome this one has to introduce a Lie group extension Gˆ, not necessarily central, of G that acts in the Fock bundle. The Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly is then essentially the class of the Lie group extension Gˆ. When M=S1 and P is the trivial G-bundle, we are dealing with S1-central extensions of loop groups LG as in [A. Pressley, G. Segal, Loop groups, in: Oxford Mathematical Monographs, Clarendon Press, 1986]. However, it was first noticed in the pioneering works of Mickelsson [J. Mickelsson, Chiral anomalies in even and odd dimensions, Comm. Math. Phys. 97 (1985)] and Faddeev, [L. Faddeev, Operator anomaly for the Gauss law, Phys. Lett. 145B (1984)] that when dimM>1 the group multiplication in Gˆ depends also on the elements A∈A and hence is no longer an S1-central extension of Lie groups. We give a new interpretation of certain noncommutative versions of the Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly (see for example [S.G. Rajeev, Universal gauge theory, Phys. Rev. D, 42 (8) (1990); E. Langmann, J. Mickelsson, S. Rydh, Anomalies and Schwinger terms in NCG field theory models, J. Math. Phys. 42 (10) (2001) 4779-4801; J. Arnlind, J. Mickelsson, Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles, Lett. Math. Phys. 62 (2002) 101-110]) and show that the analogous Lie group extensions Gˆ can be replaced with a Lie groupoid extension of the action Lie groupoid A⋊G, where A is now some relevant abstract analog of the space of connection one-forms. Then at the level of Lie groupoids, this extension proves out to be an S1- central extension and hence one may apply the general theory of these extensions developed by Behrend and Xu in [K. Behrend, P. Xu, Differentiable stacks and gerbes. arXiv:math.DG/0605694]. This makes it possible to consider the Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly as the class of this Lie groupoid extension or equivalently as the class of a certain differentiable S1-gerbe over the quotient stack [A/G]. We also give examples from noncommutative gauge theory where our construction can be applied. The construction may also be used to give a geometric interpretation of the (classical) Faddeev-Mickelsson anomaly in Yang-Mills theory when dimM=3.

  15. Emotional intelligence and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ)

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Race, Mary-Clare; Rosen, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the Bar-on EQ-I and the Occupational Personality Questionnaire OPQ32i to determine if there is a link between self- and other-reported Emotional Intelligence and personality traits. Data was obtained from 329 managers working in the IT and Finance sectors and included multi-source (360°) measures of Emotional Intelligence. Results indicated construct overlap and correlations between some elements of Emotional Intelligence and the OPQ32i with a stronger relationship between 360 measures of Emotional Intelligence and personality. On both the self-report measure of EQ-I and the 360 measure the mood scale showed a strongest link with personality factors. Measures of Emotional Intelligence which include a 360 component may thus provide a more useful indicator of an individual's ability to manage their own feelings and those of others. PMID:25309468

  16. On the Construction and the Structure of Off-Shell Supermultiplet Quotients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübsch, Tristan; Katona, Gregory A.

    2012-11-01

    Recent efforts to classify representations of supersymmetry with no central charge [C. F. Doran et al., Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.15, 1909 (2011)] have focused on supermultiplets that are aptly depicted by Adinkras, wherein every supersymmetry generator transforms each component field into precisely one other component field or its derivative. Herein, we study gauge-quotients of direct sums of Adinkras by a supersymmetric image of another Adinkra and thus solve a puzzle in the paper by Doran et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. A22, 869 (2007): such (gauge-)quotients are not Adinkras but more general types of supermultiplets, each depicted as a connected network of Adinkras. Iterating this gauge-quotient construction then yields an indefinite sequence of ever larger supermultiplets, reminiscent of Weyl's construction that is known to produce all finite-dimensional unitary representations in Lie algebras.

  17. Peripheral nervous control of cold-induced reduction in the respiratory quotient of the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refinetti, Roberto

    1990-03-01

    Cold-exposed rats show a reduction in the respiratory quotient which is indicative of a relative shift from carbohydrates to lipids as substrates for oxidative metabolism. In the present study, the effects of food deprivation and cold exposure on the respiratory quotient were observed. In addition, the involvement of the three main branches of the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic) was investigated by means of synaptic blockade with propranolol, atropine, and quinine, respectively. Both propranolol and quinine blocked the cold-induced decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in heat production, whereas atropine had only minor and very brief effects. It is concluded that both the sympathetic and somatic branches are involved in the metabolic changes associated with cold-induced thermogenesis and that the increase in metabolic heat production involves a shift from carbohydrate to lipid utilization irrespective of which of the two branches is activated.

  18. Binary Threshold Sequences Derived from Carmichael Quotients with Even Numbers Modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenhuang; Chen, Zhixiong; Du, Xiaoni

    We define a family of 2e+1-periodic binary threshold sequences and a family of p2-periodic binary threshold sequences by using Carmichael quotients modulo 2e(e>2) and 2p (p is an odd prime), respectively. These are extensions of the construction derived from Fermat quotients modulo an odd prime in our earlier work. We determine exact values of the linear complexity, which are larger than half of the period. For cryptographic purpose, the linear complexities of the sequences in this letter are of desired values.

  19. An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

  20. The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Decisional Styles among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and styles of decision making. Two hundred and six Italian high school students completed two measures of EI, the Bar-On EI Inventory, based on a mixed model of EI, and the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test, based on an ability-based model of EI, in addition to the General…

  1. The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Decisional Styles among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and styles of decision making. Two hundred and six Italian high school students completed two measures of EI, the Bar-On EI Inventory, based on a mixed model of EI, and the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test, based on an ability-based model of EI, in addition to the General

  2. The Role of Individual Differences in Field Dependence as a Factor in Learning to Label Facial Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Pellegreno, Dominick

    1986-01-01

    Examined ability of Field-dependent/Field-independent high school students (N=56) to label correctly nonverbal stimuli of facial affect utilizing the Group Embedded Figures test and Pictures of Facial Affect. Treatment subjects identified and practiced facial expressions of emotions. When Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was controlled for, the…

  3. Reduced Accuracy and Sensitivity in the Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Individuals with High Autism Spectrum Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poljac, Ervin; Poljac, Edita; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is among other things characterized by specific impairments in emotion processing. It is not clear, however, to what extent the typical decline in affective functioning is related to the specific autistic traits. We employed "The Autism Spectrum-Quotient" (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 500…

  4. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people. PMID:26300147

  5. Lexical Effects on Children's Speech Processing: Individual Differences Reflected in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Stewart, Mary E.; Petrou, Alexandra M.; Dickie, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to examine whether children exhibit the same relationship that adults show between lexical influence on phoneme identification and individual variation on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Method: Data from 62 4- to 7-year-olds with no diagnosis of autism were analyzed. The main task involved identification of…

  6. Lexical Effects on Children's Speech Processing: Individual Differences Reflected in the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Stewart, Mary E.; Petrou, Alexandra M.; Dickie, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to examine whether children exhibit the same relationship that adults show between lexical influence on phoneme identification and individual variation on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Method: Data from 62 4- to 7-year-olds with no diagnosis of autism were analyzed. The main task involved identification of

  7. MediaQuotient[TM]: National Survey of Family Media Habits, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.

    This study examined family media habits, including the use of television, movies, videos, computer and video games, the Internet, music, and print media. The study was conducted by mail with telephone follow-ups, surveying a national random sample of 527 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds who completed MediaQuotient questionnaires. Findings were…

  8. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of a High Intellectual Quotient/Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the…

  9. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  10. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  11. Intelligence Quotient as a Predictor of Creativity among Some Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Oyundoyin, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how Intelligence Quotient predicts general level of creativity and different components of creativity; fluency, originality, flexibility and creativity motivation among secondary school students in Oyo State. A total of four hundred and sixty (460) students were randomly selected from twenty (20) secondary schools in the

  12. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

  14. Intelligence Quotient as a Predictor of Creativity among Some Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Oyundoyin, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how Intelligence Quotient predicts general level of creativity and different components of creativity; fluency, originality, flexibility and creativity motivation among secondary school students in Oyo State. A total of four hundred and sixty (460) students were randomly selected from twenty (20) secondary schools in the…

  15. Oxytocin attenuates feelings of hostility depending on emotional context and individuals' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Higashida, Haruhiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Ueno, Sanae; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Hideo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Minabe, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    In humans, oxytocin (OT) enhances prosocial behaviour. However, it is still unclear how the prosocial effects of OT are modulated by emotional features and/or individuals' characteristics. In a placebo-controlled design, we tested 20 healthy male volunteers to investigate these behavioural and neurophysiological modulations using magnetoencephalography. As an index of the individuals' characteristics, we used the empathy quotient (EQ), the autism spectrum quotient (AQ), and the systemising quotient (SQ). Only during the perception of another person's angry face was a higher SQ a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial change, both in the behavioural and neurophysiological indicators. In addition, a lower EQ was only a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial changes in the neurophysiological indicators during the perception of angry faces. Both on the behavioural and the neurophysiological level, the effects of OT were specific for anger and correlated with a higher SQ. PMID:22540030

  16. Emotional Disturbance

    MedlinePlus

    ... these difficulties. ( 7 ) Back to top Help for School-Aged Children IDEA requires that special education and ... of counseling). ( 25 ) Back to top More about School As mentioned, emotional disturbance is one of the ...

  17. Emotional Intelligence: Directing a Child's Emotional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg, Melanie; Fletcher, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Describes the domains of emotional intelligence and proposes that there may be a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and life success. Provides examples of knowing one's emotions, managing emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in others, and handling relationships. Applies the theory to the case conceptualization

  18. Kernel TV-Based Quotient Image Employing Gabor Analysis and Its Application to Face Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Gaoyun; Wu, Jiying; Ruan, Qiuqi

    In order to overcome the drawback of TVQI and to utilize the property of dimensionality increasing techniques, a novel model for Kernel TV-based Quotient Image employing Gabor analysis is proposed and applied to face recognition with only one sample per subject. To deal with illumination outliers, an enhanced TV-based quotient image (ETVQI) model is first adopted. Then for preprocessed images by ETVQI, a bank of Gabor filters is built to extract features at specified scales and orientations. Lastly, KPCA is introduced to extract final high-order and nonlinear features of extracted Gabor features. According to experiments on the CAS-PEAL face database, our model could outperform Gabor-based KPCA, TVQI and Gabor-based TVQI when they face most outliers (illumination, expression, masking etc.).

  19. Classification of intelligence quotient via brainwave sub-band power ratio features and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jahidin, A H; Megat Ali, M S A; Taib, M N; Tahir, N Md; Yassin, I M; Lias, S

    2014-04-01

    This paper elaborates on the novel intelligence assessment method using the brainwave sub-band power ratio features. The study focuses only on the left hemisphere brainwave in its relaxed state. Distinct intelligence quotient groups have been established earlier from the score of the Raven Progressive Matrices. Sub-band power ratios are calculated from energy spectral density of theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Synthetic data have been generated to increase dataset from 50 to 120. The features are used as input to the artificial neural network. Subsequently, the brain behaviour model has been developed using an artificial neural network that is trained with optimized learning rate, momentum constant and hidden nodes. Findings indicate that the distinct intelligence quotient groups can be classified from the brainwave sub-band power ratios with 100% training and 88.89% testing accuracies. PMID:24560277

  20. Poincar polynomials for Abelian symplectic quotients of pure r-qubits via wall-crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molladavoudi, Saeid; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we compute a recursive wall-crossing formula for the Poincar polynomials and Euler characteristics of Abelian symplectic quotients of a complex projective manifold under a special effective action of a torus with non-trivial characters. An analogy can be made with the space of pure states of a composite quantum system containing r-quantum bits under action of the maximal torus of Local Unitary operations.

  1. Topological features in crystal structures: a quotient graph assisted analysis of underlying nets and their embeddings.

    PubMed

    Eon, Jean Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties of crystal structures may be analysed at different levels, depending on the representation and the topology that has been assigned to the crystal. Considered here is the combinatorial or bond topology of the structure, which is independent of its realization in space. Periodic nets representing one-dimensional complexes, or the associated graphs, characterize the skeleton of chemical bonds within the crystal. Since periodic nets can be faithfully represented by their labelled quotient graphs, it may be inferred that their topological features can be recovered by a direct analysis of the labelled quotient graph. Evidence is given for ring analysis and structure decomposition into building units and building networks. An algebraic treatment is developed for ring analysis and thoroughly applied to a description of coesite. Building units can be finite or infinite, corresponding to 1-, 2- or even 3-periodic subnets. The list of infinite units includes linear chains or sheets of corner- or edge-sharing polyhedra. Decomposing periodic nets into their building units relies on graph-theoretical methods classified as surgery techniques. The most relevant operations are edge subdivision, vertex identification, edge contraction and decoration. Instead, these operations can be performed on labelled quotient graphs, evidencing in almost a mechanical way the nature and connection mode of building units in the derived net. Various examples are discussed, ranging from finite building blocks to 3-periodic subnets. Among others, the structures of strontium oxychloride, spinel, lithiophilite and garnet are addressed. PMID:27126104

  2. Beyond Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of emotion and perceptual and cognitive processes interact dynamically and continually. The concepts and techniques that promote emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and emotion utilization have proved effective in promoting favorable behavioral outcomes in both emotion-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions. In this paper, we suggest that current conceptualizations of emotion regulation need to be extended to take these interactions into account. PMID:19956781

  3. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their

  4. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  5. Comparing closed quotient in children singers' voices as measured by high-speed-imaging, electroglottography, and inverse filtering.

    PubMed

    Mecke, Ann-Christine; Sundberg, Johan; Granqvist, Svante; Echternach, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The closed quotient, i.e., the ratio between the closed phase and the period, is commonly studied in voice research. However, the term may refer to measures derived from different methods, such as inverse filtering, electroglottography or high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). This investigation compares closed quotient data measured by these three methods in two boy singers. Each singer produced sustained tones on two different pitches and a glissando. Audio, electroglottographic signal (EGG), and HSDI were recorded simultaneously. The audio signal was inverse filtered by means of the decap program; the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the flow glottogram. Glottal area was automatically measured in the high speed images by the built-in camera software, and the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the area-signal. The EGG-signal was analyzed in four different ways using the matlab open quotient interface. The closed quotient data taken from the EGG were found to be considerably higher than those obtained from inverse filtering. Also, substantial differences were found between the closed quotient derived from HSDI and those derived from inverse filtering. The findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing between these quotients. PMID:22280605

  6. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:25893214

  7. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  8. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  9. Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Concepcion; de Ledinghen, Victor; Vergniol, Julien; Foucher, Juliette; Le Bail, Brigitte; Carlier, Sabrina; Maury, Elisa; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%  calories from carbohydrates/100) + (0.70×%  calories from lipids/100) + (0.81×%  calories from proteins/100). The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5% ± 25.5 [10–90], correlated with their energy intake (1993 ± 597 kcal/d, r = 0.41, P < 0.05) and food quotient (0.85 ± 0.02, r = 0.42, P < 0.05), which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (r = 0.51, P < 0.05). For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863 ± 503 versus others: 2382 ± 733 kcal/d, P < 0.05), and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories. PMID:23737773

  10. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the context of a high intellectual quotient/giftedness.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the validity of ADHD in the high IQ/giftedness population are discussed with comparisons made to average IQ ADHD. Educational implications of having ADHD in thecontext of a high IQ/giftedness are presented. PMID:19072757

  11. Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hay, Elizabeth L; Diehl, Manfred

    2011-09-01

    This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation and the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect. Emotion regulation was assessed in terms of individuals' likelihood of maintaining adaptive emotion states. There were no age differences in adults' co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions. In contrast to theories suggesting age would be associated with greater emotion complexity, the findings revealed that older adults had lower differentiation scores than younger adults. Age was also associated with more adaptive patterns of emotion regulation. Specifically, older adults persisted in low negative states and moved out of high negative states more readily than younger adults. Finally, neuroticism, self-concept incoherence, mean daily stress, and emotion complexity were associated with emotion regulation. Notably, adults who reported a greater mix of positive and negative affect moved out of high negative affect states more rapidly than adults with lower co-occurrence scores. This finding is in keeping with a growing body of work suggesting that positive affect promotes recovery from negative affect. Overall, the findings suggest that although emotion complexity is associated with emotion regulation, it does not appear to be a key factor underlying age differences in emotion regulation. PMID:21941465

  12. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  13. Relationships Between Spiritual Quotient and Marital Satisfaction Level of Men, Women and Couples Referred to Consultancy Centers of Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples’ scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples’ understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples’ spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.–More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None PMID:24644499

  14. Emotional intelligence and emotional creativity.

    PubMed

    Ivcevic, Zorana; Brackett, Marc A; Mayer, John D

    2007-04-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were expected to be two distinct sets of abilities. Intercorrelations and confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesis. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that EC, but not EI, would correlate with behavioral creativity. Self-report measures of EC significantly correlated with laboratory and self-reported creativity measures in both studies, while ability measures of EC only correlated with self-reported artistic activity. EI was uncorrelated with creative behavior. PMID:17359237

  15. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement. PMID:21764459

  16. Hepcidin/Ferritin Quotient Helps to Predict Spontaneous Recovery from Iron Loss following Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Ramin; Kroll, Christine; Plonné, Dietmar; Jahrsdörfer, Bernd; Schrezenmeier, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Iron supplementation is generally recommended for blood donors even though there are inter-individual differences in iron homeostasis. Methods Ferritin levels of repeat donors were compared with first-time donors, retrospectively. Prospectively, we tested 27 male repeat donors for the following parameters at the day of blood donation as well as 1, 3, 7, 10, and 56 days thereafter: ferritin, hepcidin, transferrin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, hemoglobin in reticulocyte, twisted gastrulation protein homolog 1, and growth differentiation factor-15. Results 56 days after blood donation, donors' average ferritin dropped to 55% (range 30-100%) compared to the initial value. Of all tested parameters hepcidin showed the highest and most significant changes beginning 1 day after donation and lasting for the whole period of 56 days. Along with ferritin, there was a high variation in hepcidin levels indicating inter-individual differences in hepcidin response to iron loss. Donors with a hepcidin/ferritin quotient < 0.3 regained 60% of their initial ferritin after 56 days, while those with a quotient ≥ 0.3 reached less than 50%. Conclusion As hepcidin appears to integrate erythropoietic and iron-loading signals, clinical measurement of hepcidin (together with the hepcidin-ferritin ratio) may become a useful indicator of erythropoiesis and iron kinetics. PMID:26733771

  17. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT CALIBRATION AND ASSOCIATION WITH POSTMENOPAUSAL BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ross L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Pettinger, Mary; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Qi, Lihong; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background The respiratory quotient (RQ), defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide exhaled to oxygen uptake, reflects substrate utilization when energy is expended. Fat and alcohol have RQ values of about 0.7, compared to 1.0 for carbohydrate, and about 0.8 for protein. Here, the association between RQ and postmenopausal breast cancer risk is studied. Methods Paired RQ measurements were obtained, separated by about 6 months, for women in the reliability subset of a Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study. Linear regression of the average of the paired log RQ assessments on a corresponding log food quotient (FQ) average and other study subject characteristics, including age, body mass index, race, and education, yielded calibration equations for predicting RQ. Results Calibration equations, using any of food frequency, food record, or dietary recall data, explained an appreciable fraction of measured log RQ variation, and these were used to compute calibrated RQ estimates throughout WHI cohorts. Calibrated RQ estimates using four-day food record data related inversely (P=0.004) to (invasive) breast cancer risk in the WHI Dietary Modification trial comparison group, and corresponding RQ estimates using food frequency data related inversely (P=0.002) to breast cancer incidence in this cohort combined with the larger WHI Observational Study. Conclusion Though preliminary, these analyses suggest a substantially higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk among women having relatively low RQ. Impact RQ elevation could provide a novel target for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:24108790

  18. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... type? Don't worry. Everyone can develop the skill of responding well when emotions run high. It ... might do next time. continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react ...

  19. Emotions and Emotional Communication in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, Edward Z.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews important advances in the study of emotions in infants and the nature of emotional communication between infants and adults. Discusses the relationship of this communication system to children's development. (Author/BJV)

  20. Effects of Music Interventions on Emotional States and Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Davis, Paul A.; Devonport, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key points Listening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance. Beliefs on the effectiveness of music intended to alter emotions were associated with high scores on the BMRI-2. Runners seeking to use music as an emotion regulating strategy should consider using the BMRI-2 as an effective means by which to identify potentially motivating tracks. PMID:24149889

  1. Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules.

    PubMed

    Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module ℱ over the polynomial algebra [Formula: see text] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring [Formula: see text] of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module [Formula: see text] and of quotient behaviors [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text]-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior ensures the absence of impulsive solutions in the continuous case, and that of the compensator enables its realization by Kalman state space equations or elementary building blocks. We note that every behavior admits an IO decomposition with proper transfer matrix, but that most of these decompositions do not have this property, and therefore we do not assume the properness of the plant. (4) The new technique can also be applied to more general control interconnections according to Willems, in particular to two-parameter feedback compensators and to the recent tracking framework of Fiaz/Takaba/Trentelman. In contrast to these authors, however, we pay special attention to the properness of all constructed transfer matrices which requires more subtle algorithms. PMID:22389529

  2. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD, though the difference was not statistically significant. The second finding was that preschoolers with larger VIQ>PIQ discrepancy had worse motor competence in visual-motor integration and body-movement coordination. Professionals should pay attention to the motor development of children with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy and evaluate children’s IQD along with their motor competence. PMID:27013876

  3. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  4. Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

  5. Overall brain size, and not encephalization quotient, best predicts cognitive ability across non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Deaner, Robert O; Isler, Karin; Burkart, Judith; van Schaik, Carel

    2007-01-01

    For over a century, various neuroanatomical measures have been employed as assays of cognitive ability in comparative studies. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive ability. A recent meta-analysis of cognitive performance of a broad set of primate species has made it possible to provide a quantitative estimate of general cognitive ability across primates. We find that this estimate is not strongly correlated with neuroanatomical measures that statistically control for a possible effect of body size, such as encephalization quotient or brain size residuals. Instead, absolute brain size measures were the best predictors of primate cognitive ability. Moreover, there was no indication that neocortex-based measures were superior to measures based on the whole brain. The results of previous comparative studies on the evolution of intelligence must be reviewed with this conclusion in mind. PMID:17510549

  6. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

  7. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals. PMID:24077740

  8. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

  9. Target hazard quotient evaluation of cadmium and lead in fish from Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Khoshnood, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals are being increasingly released into the natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distributions of several heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were investigated in muscle and liver of three different fish species seasonally collected from Caspian Sea (autumn 2011-summer 2012). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The target hazard quotient (THQ) index for fish was calculated. Estimation of THQ calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQ values of Pb and Cd for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively, and for children were 0.08 and 0.05 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively. PMID:24081633

  10. Relationship between respiratory quotient, nitrification, and nitrous oxide emissions in a forced aerated composting process.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Taku; Inoue, Daisuke; Ito, Ryusei; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the relationship between respiratory quotient (RQ) and nitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in forced aerated composting using lab-scale reactors. Relatively high RQ values from degradation of readily degradable organics initially occurred. RQ then stabilized at slightly lower values, then decreased. Continuous emission of N2O was observed during the RQ decrease. Correlation between nitrification and N2O emission shows that the latter was triggered by nitrification. Mass balances demonstrated that the O2 consumption of nitrification (∼24.8mmol) was slightly higher than that of CO2 emission (∼20.0mmol), indicating that the RQ decrease was caused by the occurrence of nitrification. Results indicate that RQ is a useful index, which not only reflects the bioavailability of organics but also predicts the occurrence of nitrification and N2O emission in forced aerated composting. PMID:25987285

  11. Quotient-difference type generalizations of the power method and their analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Ford, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The recursion relations that were proposed by W. F. Ford and A. Sidi (Appl. Numer. Math, 4 (1988), pp. 477-489) for implementing vector extrapolation methods are used for devising generalizations of the power method for linear operators. These generalizations are shown to produce approximations to largest eigenvalues of a linear operator under certain conditions. They are similar in form to the quotient-difference algorithm and share similar convergence properties with the latter. These convergence properties also resemble those obtained for the basic LR and QR algorithms. Finally, it is shown that the convergence rate produced by one fo these generalizations is twice as fast for normal operators as it is for nonnormal operators.

  12. Changes in glottal contact quotient during resonance tube phonation and phonation with vibrato.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Marco; Rubin, Adam; Muñoz, Daniel; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    Phonating into narrow hard-walled tubes of varying diameters and length as an extension of the vocal tract is considered a semioccluded vocal tract exercise. Semioccluded vocal tract postures have been postulated to have a therapeutic effect during the treatment of the dysphonic patient. They appear to affect at least two components of the voice source (1) glottal flow pulse and (2) vibrational characteristics of the vocal folds. Vibrato also has been described as a possible therapeutic tool and may decrease phonatory hyperfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of resonance tubes and phonation with vibrato on the closed quotient. Thirty-six adult classical singers were recruited for this study. Subjects were asked to produce four phonatory tasks at comfortable pitch and loudness: sustained vowel [a:] without vibrato, sustained vowel [a:] with vibrato, sustained phonation into a straw without vibrato, and sustained phonation into a straw with vibrato. Computer analysis of the contact quotient (CQ) was performed for each type of phonation in every participant. An increase in CQ variability was observed during tube phonation when compared with vowel phonation. Although there was a decrease in the mean CQ values when comparing vowel phonation without vibrato with the other three phonatory tasks, the difference was not statistically significant. Intrasubject analysis demonstrated a decrease in the CQ during tube and vibrato phonation in most of the participants. Although a causal relationship is not proven, this finding suggests that the use of straws and vibrato during phonation may have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:23490123

  13. The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient: The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Y.; Fuermaier, A. B. M.; Den Heijer, A. E.; Tucha, O.; Althaus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The "Empathy Quotient" (EQ) and "Systemizing Quotient" (SQ) are used worldwide to measure people's empathizing and systemizing cognitive styles. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Dutch EQ and SQ in healthy participants (n = 685), and high functioning males with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). Factor…

  14. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelu; Prakash, Om; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Singh, Amool R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI) may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII). The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intrapersonal management (own emotions) and interpersonal management (others emotions), and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions. PMID:26257484

  15. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  16. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  17. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  18. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  19. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (FHP) and respiratory quotient (RQ), and compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). The experiment used 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) under controlled temp...

  20. The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ [greater than or…

  1. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  2. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample.…

  3. The Construction and Validation of an Abridged Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Wheelwright, Sally; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Posthuma, Danielle; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the development and validation of an abridged version of the 50-item Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure of autistic traits. We aimed to reduce the number of items whilst retaining high validity and a meaningful factor structure. The item reduction procedure was performed on data from 1,263 Dutch students and…

  4. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic

  5. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the amygdala, in combination with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, plays an important role in the retrieval of memories for emotional events. The neural regions necessary for online emotional processing also influence emotional memory retrieval, perhaps through the reexperience of emotion during the retrieval process. PMID:17723029

  6. Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 μg per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 μg/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as μg/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

  7. Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 μg per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 μg/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as μg/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

  8. The Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Instable Personality in Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Haj Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh Zare Anari, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Substance dependence has recently turned into one of the most important social problems. Clinical findings have shown personality traits, social relations, attitudes and values, along with emotional intelligence factors such as emotions, feelings, emotions management, challenging with problems, problem solving, tolerating psychological pressure, impulse control, self esteem and interpersonal relations, to affect substance dependence. Consequently, understanding the meaning and developing tools for assessment of emotional intelligence are significantly vital in human psychological health. This study aimed to investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and instable personality in substance abusers. Methods The present correlational study selected 80 male addicts through available sampling. The subjects referred to the Therapeutic Community Center and Kimia, Yas, and Aban Clinics in Yazd, Iran. Their emotional intelligence and personality were evaluated by BarOn questionnaire and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) for adults, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations between different factors. Findings There was a negative significant correlation (P = 0.050) between emotional intelligence and instable personality in substance abusers. Problem solving and optimism (P = 0.001), interpersonal relation (P = 0.010), self esteem (P = 0.013), and realities (P = 0.017) had significant effects on instable personality. Conclusion Based on our findings, emotional intelligence was significantly correlated with instable personality in substance abusers. However, using more accurate tools in order to assess all aspects of personality can give better results. PMID:24494128

  9. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations. There were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but no significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. PMID:22738323

  10. Some comments on respiratory quotient (RQ) determination from the analysis of exit gas from a fermentor.

    PubMed

    Aiba, S; Furuse, H

    1990-08-20

    Recently, the respiratory quotient (RQ) of microbes measured in situ in a fermentor by exit-gas analysis has been used successfully, for instance, in a fed-batch culture of baker's yeast as a criterion to control the feeding rate.(1-3) It is significant here to keep RQ values close to unity throughout; any deviations of RQ from unity give rise to deterioration of the cell growth yield.However easy it might be to keep RQ values around unity by controlling the feeding rate, the question of whether or not RQ values determined by gas analysis at the fermentor exit could generally represent those in vivo deserves attention. Indeed, for a fermentation carried out at an alkaline side, gas analysis would give RQ values that differ remarkably from true values because of the medium's "storage" of CO(2) released from microbes. The purpose of this communication is to make clear those factors that would affect true RQ values in the analysis of exit gas from a fermentor. PMID:18595110

  11. A clinical study of alveolar bone quality using the fractal dimension and the implant stability quotient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hyun; Rhyu, In-Chul; Hong, Jeong-Ug; Lee, Cheol-Woo; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose It has been suggested that primary implant stability plays an essential role in successful osseointegration. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is widely used to measure the initial stability of implants because it provides superior reproducibility and non-invasiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the fractal dimension from the panoramic radiograph is related to the primary stability of the implant as represented by RFA. Methods This study included 22 patients who underwent dental implant installation at the Department of Periodontology of Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Morphometric analysis and fractal analysis of the bone trabecular pattern were performed using panoramic radiographs, and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were measured after implant installation using RFA. The radiographs of 52 implant sites were analyzed, and the ISQ values were compared with the results from the morphometric analysis and fractal analysis. Results The Pearson correlation showed a linear correlation between the ISQ values of RFA and the parameters of morphometric analysis but not of statistical significance. The fractal dimension had a linear correlation that was statistically significant. The correlation was more pronounced in the mandible. Conclusions In conclusion, we suggest that the fractal dimension acquired from the panoramic radiograph may be a useful predictor of the initial stability of dental implants. PMID:20498755

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Empathy Quotient Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JuHee

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Empathy Quotient (EQ) is a self-reported test developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (2004) to measure the cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean version of EQ and to establish its psychometric properties based on a representative Korean sample. Methods The Korean version of EQ and its correspondence with another popular measure of empathy, the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), were evaluated in a sample of 478 volunteers (156 men, 322 women; mean age, 27.2 years). A test-retest study was conducted at 1 month on a selected sample of 20 subjects from the original sample. Correlation and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Results The test-retest reliability was good, and the internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha=0.78). Positive correlations were found between the EQ and three subfactors of the IRI, perspective taking, empathic concern, and fantasy, and the total EQ score was negatively correlated with the personal distress subscale. The confirmatory analyses suggested that the three-factor structure offered a good fit to the data. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the EQ. PMID:20396429

  13. Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B; Fischl, Bruce R; Quinn, Brian T; Chong, Wui K; Gadian, David G; Lucas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Although observational findings linking breast milk to higher scores on cognitive tests may be confounded by factors associated with mothers' choice to breastfeed, it has been suggested that one or more constituents of breast milk facilitate cognitive development, particularly in preterms. Because cognitive scores are related to head size, we hypothesized that breast milk mediates cognitive effects by affecting brain growth. We used detailed data from a randomized feeding trial to calculate percentage of expressed maternal breast milk (%EBM) in the infant diet of 50 adolescents. MRI scans were obtained (mean age=15 y 9 mo), allowing volumes of total brain (TBV) and white and gray matter (WMV, GMV) to be calculated. In the total group, %EBM correlated significantly with verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ); in boys, with all IQ scores, TBV and WMV. VIQ was, in turn, correlated with WMV and, in boys only, additionally with TBV. No significant relationships were seen in girls or with gray matter. These data support the hypothesis that breast milk promotes brain development, particularly white matter growth. The selective effect in males accords with animal and human evidence regarding gender effects of early diet. Our data have important neurobiological and public health implications and identify areas for future mechanistic study. PMID:20035247

  14. Relationship between respiratory quotient, nitrification, and nitrous oxide emissions in a forced aerated composting process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Taku; Inoue, Daisuke; Ito, Ryusei; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • RQ can be an indicator of N{sub 2}O emission in forced aerated composting process. • Emission of N{sub 2}O with nitrification was observed with RQ decrease. • Mass balances demonstrated the RQ decrease was caused by nitrification. • Conversion ratio of oxidized ammonia and total N to N{sub 2}O were ∼2.7%. - Abstract: We assessed the relationship between respiratory quotient (RQ) and nitrification and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emission in forced aerated composting using lab-scale reactors. Relatively high RQ values from degradation of readily degradable organics initially occurred. RQ then stabilized at slightly lower values, then decreased. Continuous emission of N{sub 2}O was observed during the RQ decrease. Correlation between nitrification and N{sub 2}O emission shows that the latter was triggered by nitrification. Mass balances demonstrated that the O{sub 2} consumption of nitrification (∼24.8 mmol) was slightly higher than that of CO{sub 2} emission (∼20.0 mmol), indicating that the RQ decrease was caused by the occurrence of nitrification. Results indicate that RQ is a useful index, which not only reflects the bioavailability of organics but also predicts the occurrence of nitrification and N{sub 2}O emission in forced aerated composting.

  15. Development of a glottal area index that integrates glottal gap size and open quotient

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.; Neubauer, Juergen; Shue, Yen-Liang; Alwan, Abeer

    2013-01-01

    Because voice signals result from vocal fold vibration, perceptually meaningful vibratory measures should quantify those aspects of vibration that correspond to differences in voice quality. In this study, glottal area waveforms were extracted from high-speed videoendoscopy of the vocal folds. Principal component analysis was applied to these waveforms to investigate the factors that vary with voice quality. Results showed that the first principal component derived from tokens without glottal gaps was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with the open quotient (OQ). The alternating-current (AC) measure had a significant effect (p < 0.01) on the first principal component among tokens exhibiting glottal gaps. A measure AC/OQ, defined as the ratio of AC to OQ, was proposed to combine both amplitude and temporal characteristics of the glottal area waveform for both complete and incomplete glottal closures. Analyses of “glide” phonations in which quality varied continuously from breathy to pressed showed that the AC/OQ measure was able to characterize the corresponding continuum of glottal area waveform variation, regardless of the presence or absence of glottal gaps. PMID:23464035

  16. Gender-specific modulation of neural mechanisms underlying social reward processing by Autism Quotient.

    PubMed

    Barman, Adriana; Richter, Sylvia; Soch, Joram; Deibele, Anna; Richter, Anni; Assmann, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Walter, Henrik; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder refers to a neurodevelopmental condition primarily characterized by deficits in social cognition and behavior. Subclinically, autistic features are supposed to be present in healthy humans and can be quantified using the Autism Quotient (AQ). Here, we investigated a potential relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social and monetary reward processing, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in young, healthy participants. In an incentive delay task with either monetary or social reward, reward anticipation elicited increased ventral striatal activation, which was more pronounced during monetary reward anticipation. Anticipation of social reward elicited activation in the default mode network (DMN), a network previously implicated in social processing. Social reward feedback was associated with bilateral amygdala and fusiform face area activation. The relationship between AQ and neural correlates of social reward processing varied in a gender-dependent manner. In women and, to a lesser extent in men, higher AQ was associated with increased posterior DMN activation during social reward anticipation. During feedback, we observed a negative correlation of AQ and right amygdala activation in men only. Our results suggest that social reward processing might constitute an endophenotype for autism-related traits in healthy humans that manifests in a gender-specific way. PMID:25944965

  17. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People

    PubMed Central

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Smith, Paula; Musto, Henry; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a ‘big data’ sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71), slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94) This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19). As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82) scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52), and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92) scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48). Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits. PMID:26488477

  18. Intellectual quotient of juveniles evaluated in a forensic psychiatry clinic after committing a violent crime.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Leon, Manuel; Rosner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate if there is a difference between the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 27 adolescent defendants referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Forensic Psychiatry Clinic after committing violent crimes, and those adolescents in the same age group in the general population of the United States, as defined by the norms of the psychometric testing instrument Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). The IQ scores and sub-scores were compared to IQ scores of the general population (mean = 100, SD = 15) using a Z-test. The mean for the Full Scale IQ was 82.93. The means for the subtests which include Processing Speed Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Verbal Comprehension Index, and Working Memory Index, were: 78.48, 87.78, 86.70 (p < 0.05), and 90.78 (p = 0.09) respectively. There is a statistically significant difference in the IQ scores of the violent juveniles studied when compared to the general population. PMID:20015167

  19. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Smith, Paula; Musto, Henry; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a 'big data' sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71), slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94) This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19). As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82) scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52), and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92) scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48). Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits. PMID:26488477

  20. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what

  1. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  2. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and maintenance of emotion processing deficits involving reduced attention to others' eyes. PMID:25705318

  3. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  4. Coping With Your Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Making informed treatment decisions Coping with your emotions The best prescription is knowledge. – C. Everett Koop, ... you can do to help deal with your emotions: Ask for support from family, friends, and others. ...

  5. Emotion, Learning and Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.

    2002-01-01

    Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  6. Two-step phase retrieval algorithm based on the quotient of inner products of phase-shifting interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Wenhu; Zhong, Liyun; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2015-08-01

    Based on the quotient of inner products, a simple and rapid algorithm is proposed to retrieve the measured phase from two-frame phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase shifts. Firstly, we filtered the background of interferograms by a Gaussian high-pass filter. Secondly, we calculated the inner products of the background-filtered interferograms. Thirdly, we extracted the phase shifts by the quotient of the inner products then calculated the measured phase by an arctangent function. Finally, we tested the performance of the proposed algorithm by the simulation calculation and the experimental research for a vortex phase plate. Both the simulation calculation and the experimental result showed that the phase shifts and the measured phase with high accuracy can be obtained by the proposed algorithm rapidly and conveniently.

  7. Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Matt

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

  8. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  9. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  10. Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    Children develop emotional intelligence during the early years of life, and according to some experts, emotional intelligence is a more reliable predictor of academic achievement than is IQ. However, today's children appear to be low on emotional well-being. This has potentially negative consequences, not only for academic achievement but also for…

  11. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

  12. Teaching Emotional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Jerome

    In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

  13. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  14. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  15. Effect of the application of a metatarsal bar on pressure in the metatarsal bones of the foot

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of application of a metatarsal bar on the pressure in the metatarsal bones of the foot using a foot analysis system (pressure on the forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot). [Subjects and Methods] Forty female university students in their twenties were selected for this study, and an experiment was conducted with them as the subjects, before and after application of a metatarsal bar. The static foot regions were divided into the forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot, and then the maximum, average, and low pressures exerted at each region were measured, along with the static foot pressure distribution ratio. 1) Static foot pressure: The tips of both feet were aligned to match the vertical and horizontal lines of the foot pressure measuring plate. The subjects were told to look toward the front and not to wear shoes. 2) Distribution ratio: The distribution ratio was measured in four regions (front, back, left, and right) using the same method as used for static foot pressure measurement. [Results] The results of this study showed that the maximum, average, and minimum static pressures in the forefoot were significantly decreased. The minimum static pressure in the midfoot was significantly increased, and the pressure in the other parts was significantly decreased. The maximum and average static pressures in the rearfoot were also significantly decreased. [Conclusion] As reduction of foot pressure with a metatarsal bar results in lowering of the arch and an increased contact surface, the foot pressure was dispersed. These results suggest that wearing shoes with a bar that can decrease the foot pressure is therapeutically helpful for patients with a diabetic foot lesion or rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26311941

  16. The BaLROG project - I. Quantifying the influence of bars on the kinematics of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M. K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Díaz-García, S.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Knapen, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    We present the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample of 16 morphologically distinct barred spirals to characterize observationally the influence of bars on nearby galaxies. Each galaxy is a mosaic of several pointings observed with the integral-field unit (IFU) SAURON leading to a tenfold sharper spatial resolution (˜100 pc) compared to ongoing IFU surveys. In this paper we focus on the kinematic properties. We calculate the bar strength Q__b from classical torque analysis using 3.6-μm Spitzer (S4G) images, but also develop a new method based solely on the kinematics. A correlation between the two measurements is found and backed up by N-body simulations, verifying the measurement of Q__b. We find that bar strengths from ionized gas kinematics are ˜2.5 larger than those measured from stellar kinematics and that stronger bars have enhanced influence on inner kinematic features. We detect that stellar angular momentum `dips' at 0.2 ± 0.1 bar lengths and half of our sample exhibits an anticorrelation of h3-stellar velocity (v/σ) in these central parts. An increased flattening of the stellar σ gradient with increasing bar strength supports the notion of bar-induced orbit mixing. These measurements set important constraints on the spatial scales, namely an increasing influence in the central regions (0.1-0.5 bar lengths), revealed by kinematic signatures due to bar-driven secular evolution in present-day galaxies.

  17. Neurons, psychons, and emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    1995-04-01

    It is proposed by Eccles that (1) The mental world consists of mental units called psychons; (2) The brain world consists of nerve units called dendrons; (3) In mind-brain interaction, psychons and dendrons are linked through quantum physics. In this note, we formalize the above ideas. Emotions are represented by emotion state vectors. The motion of emotion (emotion state vector) depends on the previous psychon state vector, the previous emotion and brain state. The brain state is in turn stimulated by outside stimuli and influenced by psychon state vectors. In this paper, we specify the mind-brain interaction by several operators. A complete theory is presented in this paper.

  18. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  19. The operator's emotional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  20. Higher 24-h respiratory quotient and higher spontaneous physical activity in nighttime eaters.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Marci E; Venti, Colleen A; Salbe, Arline D; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    We have previously shown that a higher 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) predicts greater ad-libitum food intake and that nighttime eaters (NE) ingested more calories during an in-patient food intake study and gained more weight over time. We investigated whether 24-h RQ was higher in individuals who exhibited nighttime eating behavior. Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (PI; n = 97, 54 male/43 female) and whites (W; n = 32, 22 male/10 female) were admitted to our Clinical Research Unit. After 3 days of a weight maintaining diet, 24-h energy expenditure (24-h EE), 24-h RQ, rates of carbohydrate (CHOX) and lipid oxidation (LIPOX), and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were measured in a metabolic chamber whereas volunteers were in energy balance and unable to consume excess calories. Individuals subsequently ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine for 3 days with amount and timing of food intake recorded. Fifty-five individuals (36%; 39 PI, 16 W) were NE, who ate between 11 PM and 5 AM on at least one of the 3 days on the vending machines. There were no differences in BMI or percentage body fat between NE and non-NE. After adjusting for age, sex, race, fat-free mass, fat mass, and energy balance, NE had a higher 24-h RQ (P = 0.01), higher CHOX (P = 0.009), and lower LIPOX (P = 0.03) and higher 24-h SPA (P = 0.04) compared to non-NE. There were no differences in adjusted 24-h EE or sleep RQ between the groups. Individuals with nighttime eating behavior have higher 24-h RQ, higher CHOX and lower LIPOX, a phenotype associated with increased food intake and weight gain. PMID:20864947

  1. To transfer or not to transfer? Kinematics and laterality quotient predict interlimb transfer of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Lefumat, Hannah Z; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Miall, R Chris; Cole, Jonathan; Buloup, Frank; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Sarlegna, Fabrice R

    2015-11-01

    Humans can remarkably adapt their motor behavior to novel environmental conditions, yet it remains unclear which factors enable us to transfer what we have learned with one limb to the other. Here we tested the hypothesis that interlimb transfer of sensorimotor adaptation is determined by environmental conditions but also by individual characteristics. We specifically examined the adaptation of unconstrained reaching movements to a novel Coriolis, velocity-dependent force field. Right-handed subjects sat at the center of a rotating platform and performed forward reaching movements with the upper limb toward flashed visual targets in prerotation, per-rotation (i.e., adaptation), and postrotation tests. Here only the dominant arm was used during adaptation and interlimb transfer was assessed by comparing performance of the nondominant arm before and after dominant-arm adaptation. Vision and no-vision conditions did not significantly influence interlimb transfer of trajectory adaptation, which on average was significant but limited. We uncovered a substantial heterogeneity of interlimb transfer across subjects and found that interlimb transfer can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted for each healthy young individual. A classifier showed that in our study, interlimb transfer could be predicted based on the subject's task performance, most notably motor variability during learning, and his or her laterality quotient. Positive correlations suggested that variability of motor performance and lateralization of arm movement control facilitate interlimb transfer. We further show that these individual characteristics can predict the presence and the magnitude of interlimb transfer of left-handers. Overall, this study suggests that individual characteristics shape the way the nervous system can generalize motor learning. PMID:26334018

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) for Comparing Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Kniss, Andrew R.; Coburn, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    Various indicators of pesticide environmental risk have been proposed, and one of the most widely known and used is the environmental impact quotient (EIQ). The EIQ has been criticized by others in the past, but it continues to be used regularly in the weed science literature. The EIQ is typically considered an improvement over simply comparing the amount of herbicides applied by weight. Herbicides are treated differently compared to other pesticide groups when calculating the EIQ, and therefore, it is important to understand how different risk factors affect the EIQ for herbicides. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the EIQ as an environmental indicator for herbicides. Simulation analysis was conducted to quantify relative sensitivity of the EIQ to changes in risk factors, and actual herbicide EIQ values were used to quantify the impact of herbicide application rate on the EIQ Field Use Rating. Herbicide use rate was highly correlated with the EIQ Field Use Rating (Spearman’s rho >0.96, P-value <0.001) for two herbicide datasets. Two important risk factors for herbicides, leaching and surface runoff potential, are included in the EIQ calculation but explain less than 1% of total variation in the EIQ. Plant surface half-life was the risk factor with the greatest relative influence on herbicide EIQ, explaining 26 to 28% of the total variation in EIQ for actual and simulated EIQ values, respectively. For herbicides, the plant surface half-life risk factor is assigned values without any supporting quantitative data, and can result in EIQ estimates that are contrary to quantitative risk estimates for some herbicides. In its current form, the EIQ is a poor measure of herbicide environmental impact. PMID:26121252

  3. Regular breakfast consumption associated with high intelligence quotient: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad; Bilal, Azfar; Anam, Tayyeba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find the frequency of regular breakfast consumption among Pakistani teenagers while the other objective was to find out the association between breakfast consumers (BC) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Methods: This comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 102 students of a Public School Rawalpindi from August 2013 to January 2014. Participants were categorised into two groups i.e. regular breakfast consumers (RBC) and irregular breakfast consumers (IBC) according to their breakfast habits. A standardized questionnaire of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Childrenwas used for IQ assessment. Data was then entered and analysed in SPSS version 20. Result: Out of the 102 individuals with mean age 17.17 ± 0.631, 58(56.9%) were females and 44 (43.1%) were males. There were 63 (61.8%) RBC while 39 (38.2%) were IBC. Among RBC there were 7 (6.9%) in challenged, 5 (4.9%) were below average, 33 (32.4%) in average group, 14(13.7%) in above average and 4 (3.9%) in gifted group. While among IBC, there was 1 (1%) among the severely challenged, 3 (2.9%) in challenged, 8 (7.8%) in below average, 22 (21.6%) in average group, 4 (3.9%) in above average and 1 (1%) in gifted group. There was no significant association found between breakfast intake and IQ level among students (p=0.98). Conclusion: More than half of the students were having regular breakfast. There was no significant association found among breakfast consumers and IQ. However the IQ score was more among RBC as compared to IBC. PMID:26648991

  4. Short sleep duration is associated with a lower mean satiety quotient in overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    McNeil, J; Drapeau, V; Gallant, A R; Tremblay, A; Doucet, E; Chaput, J-P

    2013-12-01

    We examined satiety quotient (SQ) and energy intake (EI) according to sleep duration, quality and timing. Seventy-five overweight/obese men (age: 41.1±5.8 years; body mass index: 33.6±2.9 kg/m(2)) completed visual analogue scales for appetite sensations before, immediately after and every 10 minutes for 1 hour following a standardized breakfast. The mean SQ (primary outcome of the study) was calculated from four appetite sensations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index identified short-duration (<7 h/night) and 'recommended sleep duration' (7 h/night) sleepers, poor (score 5)- and good (score <5)-quality sleepers and late (midpoint of sleep >0230 hours) and early (midpoint of sleep 0230 hours) sleepers. A 3-day food record and buffet-style meal assessed the EI. Short-duration sleepers had a lower mean SQ compared with recommended sleep duration sleepers (6.5±4.9 vs 8.8±4.3 mm/100 kcal; P=0.04). The mean SQ between poor and good (6.9±4.6 vs 8.7±4.6 mm/100 kcal; P=0.11) and that between early and late (8.99±5.10 vs 9.32±4.02 mm/100 kcal; P=0.78) sleepers were not significantly different. EI did not differ between the sleep groups. Thus, short-duration sleepers had a lower mean SQ compared with recommended sleep duration sleepers. However, this did not coincide with an increased EI. PMID:24129360

  5. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Bueter, Marco; Sjöström, Lars; Lönroth, Hans; Wallenius, Ville; Stenlöf, Kaj; le Roux, Carel W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE) may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE. Design Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA) using high sensitivity accelerometers. Results Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8) at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3) after 20 months (p<0.05). Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3) to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9) kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6) to 27 (range 12-34.3) kg (both p<0.05). PA over 24h did not change after surgery whereas 24h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05). After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient) had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24h and after food intake (p<0.05). Conclusion RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24h when corrected for total tissue. PMID:26098889

  6. [Intelligent quotient of obese children and adolescents by the Weschler scale].

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Sigulem, D M; Moraes, D E; Escrivão, A M; Fisberg, M

    1996-02-01

    The intellectual characteristics of 65 obese children and adolescents (weight for height > or = 140%), aged 8 to 13 years and 11 months, were compared to those of 35 eutrophic children and adolescents (weight for height between 90 and 110%; and stature for age > 95%) of the same age group, utilizing the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--WISC. Children and adolescents of the two groups were paired according to age groups, schooling level and socioeconomic condition. The obese group was composed of new patients assisted at the Department of Pediatrics of the Federal University of S. Paulo (Escola Paulista de Medicina), Brazil. The control group was made up of children from public primary schools, from the same geographical area as those studied. The eutrophic group presented significantly better performance in the intelligence test (Intelligence Quotient--IQ) than the obese group (average IQ--91 x 85; p < 0.05). Eutrophic children and adolescents revealed a wider range of interests, better capacity for social adaptability as well as greater speed and dexterity. Although weak, there was a positive correlation between income level, weight/stature relation (W/S) and IQ. There was no correlation between IQ and level of schooling. The eutrophic boys from higher income levels showed better perceptual and spacial organizing ability and a wider range of interests than those from the lower income groups. In spite of the fact that all the average IQ results presented consistently favored the eutrophic in relation to the obese, it is not possible to confirm one group's superiority over the other, due to the wide range of intervenient factors involved in the intelligence process. PMID:9008926

  7. Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Cathy; Hipskind, Peggy; Tsien, Cynthia; Malin, Steven K.; Kasumov, Takhar; Shah, Shetal N.; Kirwan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have increased gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation that may contribute to a low respiratory quotient (RQ), and this may be linked to sarcopenia and metabolic decompensation when these patients are hospitalized. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to measure RQ and its impact on skeletal muscle mass, survival, and related complications in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Fasting RQ and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined by indirect calorimetry in cirrhotic patients (n = 25), and age, sex, and weight-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Abdominal muscle area was quantified by computed tomography scanning. In cirrhotic patients we also examined the impact of RQ on mortality, repeat hospitalizations, and liver transplantation. Mean RQ in patients with cirrhosis (0.63 ± 0.05) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than healthy matched controls (0.84 ± 0.06). Psoas muscle area in cirrhosis (24.0 ± 6.6 cm2) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in controls (35.9 ± 9.5 cm2). RQ correlated with the reduction in psoas muscle area (r2 = 0.41; P = 0.01). However, in patients with cirrhosis a reduced RQ did not predict short-term survival or risk of developing complications. When REE was normalized to psoas area, energy expenditure was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis (66.7 ± 17.8 kcal/cm2) compared with controls (47.7 ± 7.9 kcal/cm2). We conclude that hospitalized patients with cirrhosis have RQs well below the traditional lowest physiological value of 0.69, and this metabolic state is accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle area. Although low RQ does not predict short-term mortality in these patients, it may reflect a decompensated metabolic state that requires careful nutritional management with appropriate consideration for preservation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:23288550

  8. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  9. Effects of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on the glottal closed quotient in untrained male voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskill, Christopher Somers

    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique has remained poorly understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a / vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, followed by a minute of repeated phonation into a hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. The tube parameters and tube phonation task criteria were selected according to theoretical calculations predicting an increase in the acoustic load such that phonation would occur under conditions of near-maximum inertive reactance. Following tube phonation, each participant repeated a similar series of spoken /a/ vowels. Electroglottography (EGG) was used to measure the glottal closed quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design with direct replication across subjects was used to identify any changes in CQ across the phases of the experiment. Single-subject analysis using the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

  10. Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Theresa; Petroczi, Andrea; Andrews, Paul LR; Barker, James; Naughton, Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Background Considerable research has been directed towards the roles of metal ions in nutrition with metal ion toxicity attracting particular attention. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of metal ions found in selected beverages (red wine, stout and apple juice) and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) for 250 mL daily consumption. Results The levels (mean ± SEM) and diversity of metals determined by ICP-MS were highest for red wine samples (30 metals totalling 5620.54 ± 123.86 ppb) followed by apple juice (15 metals totalling 1339.87 ± 10.84 ppb) and stout (14 metals totalling 464.85 ± 46.74 ppb). The combined THQ values were determined based upon levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb which gave red wine samples the highest value (5100.96 ± 118.93 ppb) followed by apple juice (666.44 ± 7.67 ppb) and stout (328.41 ± 42.36 ppb). The THQ values were as follows: apple juice (male 3.11, female 3.87), stout (male 1.84, female 2.19), red wine (male 126.52, female 157.22) and ultra-filtered red wine (male 110.48, female 137.29). Conclusion This study reports relatively high levels of metal ions in red wine, which give a very high THQ value suggesting potential hazardous exposure over a lifetime for those who consume at least 250 mL daily. In addition to the known hazardous metals (e.g. Pb), many metals (e.g. Rb) have not had their biological effects systematically investigated and hence the impact of sustained ingestion is not known. PMID:18578877

  11. Magnitude and regulation of bacterioplankton respiratory quotient across freshwater environmental gradients

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Martin; Lapierre, Jean-François; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterioplankton respiration (BR) may represent the largest single sink of organic carbon in the biosphere and constitutes an important driver of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from freshwaters. Complete understanding of BR is precluded by the fact that most studies need to assume a respiratory quotient (RQ; mole of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed) to calculate rates of BR. Many studies have, without clear support, assumed a fixed RQ around 1. Here we present 72 direct measurements of bacterioplankton RQ that we carried out in epilimnetic samples of 52 freshwater sites in Québec (Canada), using O2 and CO2 optic sensors. The RQs tended to converge around 1.2, but showed large variability (s.d.=0.45) and significant correlations with major gradients of ecosystem-level, substrate-level and bacterial community-level characteristics. Experiments with natural bacterioplankton using different single substrates suggested that RQ is intimately linked to the elemental composition of the respired compounds. RQs were on average low in net autotrophic systems, where bacteria likely were utilizing mainly reduced substrates, whereas we found evidence that the dominance of highly oxidized substrates, for example, organic acids formed by photo-chemical processes, led to high RQ in the more heterotrophic systems. Further, we suggest that BR contributes to a substantially larger share of freshwater CO2 emissions than presently believed based on the assumption that RQ is ∼1. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton RQ is not only a practical aspect of BR determination, but also a major ecosystem state variable that provides unique information about aquatic ecosystem functioning. PMID:22094347

  12. Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveal health risks

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Declan P; Petróczi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Background Metal ions such as iron and copper are among the key nutrients that must be provided by dietary sources. Numerous foodstuffs have been evaluated for their contributions to the recommended daily allowance both to guide for satisfactory intake and also to prevent over exposure. In the case of heavy metal ions, the focus is often on exposure to potentially toxic levels of ions such as lead and mercury. The aim of this study is to determine target hazard quotients (THQ) from literature reports giving empirical levels of metal ions in table wines using the reference upper safe limit value. Contributions to the THQ value were calculated for seven metal ions along with total values for each wine. Results The THQ values were determined as ranges from previously reported ranges of metal ion concentrations and were frequently concerningly high. Apart from the wines selected from Italy, Brazil and Argentina, all other wines exhibited THQ values significantly greater than one indicating levels of risk. The levels of vanadium, copper and manganese had the highest impact on THQ measures. Typical potential maximum THQ values ranged from 50 to 200 with Hungarian and Slovakian wines reaching 300. THQ values for a sample of red and white wines were high for both having values ranging from 30 to 80 for females based on a 250 mL glass per day. Conclusion The THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ<1. It is notable that in the absence of upper safe limits, THQ values cannot be calculated for most metal ions, suggesting that further unaccountable risks are associated with intake of these wines. PMID:18973648

  13. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

  14. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  15. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

  16. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions. PMID:24998780

  17. Dissociating emotional and cognitive empathy in pre-clinical and clinical Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Maurage, Pierre; Lahaye, Magali; Grynberg, Delphine; Jeanjean, Anne; Guettat, Lamia; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Halkin, Stéphane; Heeren, Alexandre; Billieux, Joël; Constant, Eric

    2016-03-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is centrally characterized by motor, neurocognitive and psychiatric symptoms, but impaired emotional decoding abilities have also been reported. However, more complex affective abilities are still to be explored, and particularly empathy, which is essential for social relations and is impaired in various psychiatric conditions. This study evaluates empathic abilities and social skills in pre-clinical and clinical HD, and explores the distinction between two empathy sub-components (emotional-cognitive). Thirty-six HD patients (17 pre-clinical) and 36 matched controls filled in the Empathy Quotient Scale, while controlling for psychopathological comorbidities. At the clinical stage of HD, no global empathy impairment was observed but rather a specific deficit for the cognitive sub-component, while emotional empathy was preserved. A deficit was also observed for social skills. Pre-clinical HD was not associated with any empathy deficit. Emotional deficits in clinical HD are thus not limited to basic emotion decoding but extend towards complex interpersonal abilities. The dissociation between impaired cognitive and preserved emotional empathy in clinical HD reinforces the proposal that empathy subtypes are sustained by distinct processes. Finally, these results underline the extent of distinct affective and social impairments in HD and the need to grasp them in clinical contexts. PMID:26869362

  18. A Novel Method Testing the Ability to Imitate Composite Emotional Expressions Reveals an Association with Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Nicolson, Andrew T. A.; Clephan, Katie J.; de Grauw, Haro; Perrett, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants’ attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ), were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression. PMID:23626756

  19. Emotions: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to understand emotions and the affect from Indian traditional point of view. In the Indian philosophical texts’ detailed descriptions of emotions are not available nor are dealt with as a separate concept. This view of emotions lays emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals. They are seen as modification of desire and attachment. The desires are seen as arising from the contact and attachment of the ego or ahamkara with the external world and are caused by a sense of imperfection, incompleteness or non-fulfillment. Ego or ahamkara is differentiated from the true Self or atman. Emotions are viewed as springs of action and are bipolar in nature. According to Patanjali's Yoga Shastra, suffering is due to ignorance about one's true “self” (avidya). Hence, suffering or dukha arises from within and not from the outside world. Bhagvadgita traces all emotional experiences to the gunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. Works of Bharathmuni have contributed to the understanding of emotional experiences. Concept of rasa or aesthetic relish is central to this approach to understanding affective experiences as dealt with in the Natyashastra of Bharathamuni. These views underline the recommended path for self-transformation. Regulating emotions, both emotional experience and emotional expression, is an integral part of the recommended “principles of living.” PMID:23858247

  20. Supramodal representation of emotions.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

    2011-09-21

    Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

  1. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and

  2. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  3. Effects of altered soil moisture on respiratory quotient in the Edwards Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, M. A.; Hawkes, C.; Breecker, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns around the world. The impacts of altered precipitation on ecosystem function will be partly controlled by soil microbes because of their primary role in soil carbon cycling. However, microbial responses to drought remain poorly understood, particularly local responses that might partly reflect specialization based on historical conditions. Here, we investigated the respiratory response of microbial communities originating from historically wetter and drier sites to both low and high soil moistures. We focused on the respiratory quotient (RQ= moles of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed), which varies with the oxidation state of organic carbon being respired and/or the compounds being synthesized by soil microbes. We hypothesized that there would be a shift in RQ across the gradient of soil moisture. Soils were collected from 13 sites across a steep precipitation gradient on the Edwards plateau in central Texas, air-dried, rewet at low or high soil moisture (6% or 24% gravimetric, respectively), and incubated in an atmosphere of 21% O2, 1% Ar, and balance He. After eight weeks, CO2, O2 and Ar in the headspace of incubation vials were measured by gas chromatography after separation of Ar and O2 at subambient temperature. Because of the high calcite content in soils on the Edwards plateau, we corrected the RQ values by assuming pH was buffered at 8 and then adding the calculated amount of CO2 dissolved in water in the incubations vials to the measured CO2 in the headspace. We found that uncorrected RQ values were slightly less than one and increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation. In contrast, corrected RQ values were greater than one and decreased with increasing mean annual precipitation. In both cases, we see a shift in RQ across the gradient, suggesting that differences in substrate utilization may vary based on origin across the gradient and with current level of soil moisture. This could provide insight into how microbial communities respond physiologically to shifts in environmental conditions, such as precipitation.

  4. Sleep and emotional functions.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review studies investigating the role of sleep in emotional functions. In particular, evidence has recently accumulated to show that brain regions involved in the processing of emotional and reward-related information are activated during sleep. We suggest that such activation of emotional and reward systems during sleep underlies the reprocessing and consolidation of memories with a high affective and motivational relevance for the organism. We also propose that these mechanisms occurring during sleep promote adapted cognitive and emotional responses in the waking state, including overnight performance improvement, creativity, and sexual functions. Activation across emotional-limbic circuits during sleep also appears to promote emotional maturation and the emergence of consciousness in the developing brain. PMID:24385222

  5. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. PMID:26263224

  6. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  7. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  8. Emotion Management: Assessing Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLin, Arthur, Jr.

    This study was designed to identify the percent of 12-14-year-old male students' emotion management scores that demonstrated an at-risk level of emotion management functioning. The Juvenile Emotion Management Scale was administered to male middle school students to assess their emotion management ability in responding to emotional arousal.…

  9. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  10. Emotional Intelligence and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is the cornerstone of every decision a principal makes; solving problems and making judgments are part of a leader's system of values and beliefs. Mayer and Salovney (1997) described emotionally intelligent leaders as those who are able to perceive and understand emotions and to regulate emotions to foster emotional and…

  11. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we

  12. Basic Emotions: A Rejoinder

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    A principal theme of our article is that emotions, including what are called basic emotions, cannot be exhaustively categorized as “innate” or “acquired.” Instead, we argue that basic emotions are more realistically viewed as emergent phenomena, the result of complex interrelations of environmental and organismic factors at all levels of organization. While the commentators apparently accepted the proposed developmental paradigm, they took exception to aspects of our treatment of basic emotions and made a number of helpful comments, to which we respond below.

  13. Brain mechanisms of emotions.

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1997-01-01

    At the 23rd International Congress of Physiology Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment led us to the conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is, to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion, and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrates. Activation through the hypothalamic motivatiogenic structures of the frontal parts of the neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which are typical for the emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams, the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons, while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons were involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance or positive or negative emotions depends on these informational (cognitive) functions. PMID:9252998

  14. Cortical influences in emotion.

    PubMed

    Heilman, K M; Gilmore, R L

    1998-09-01

    Emotions may be classified into two major divisions: experience and behavior. Because the brain is critical for mediating emotional experience and behavior, diseases of the brain may induce changes in emotional behavior and experience. Disorders of almost all portions of the cerebral hemisphere, including the cortex, limbic system, and basal ganglia, have been associated with changes of emotional experience and behavior. Dysfunction of the cerebral cortex may be associated with disorders of emotional communication. Whereas deficits of the left hemisphere appear to impair the comprehension and expression of propositional language, deficits of the right hemisphere may be associated with an impaired ability to comprehend and express emotional gestures such as facial expression and emotional prosody. Some patients have either prosodic or facial emotional deficits. Some have only expressive or receptive deficits. However, others may be globally impaired, either within or across modalities. The posterior portions of the neocortex appear to be important for comprehension and the anterior for expression of both emotional prosody and faces. Injury and dysfunction of the limbic system may also alter emotional communication and experience. For example, damage to the amygdala may be associated with an impaired ability to recognized emotional faces and a reduction of affect, especially anger, rage, and fear. In contrast, lesions of the septal region may be associated with increased ragelike behaviors. Seizures frequently emanate from the limbic system, and seizures that start in the amygdala can induce fear and perhaps even rage. Disorders of the basal ganglia may also be associated with defects of emotional communication and experience. Patients with Parkinson's disease not only may be impaired at communicating emotions with both expressive and receptive deficits but also are often depressed and anxious. Patients with Huntington's disease may have emotional comprehension deficits with an impaired ability to recognize emotional faces and prosody. Patients with Huntington's disease may have mood changes even before motor dysfunction becomes manifest. Many of the defects in emotional experience may be related to the associated changes in neurotransmitter systems. Unfortunately, how alteration of neurotransmitters induce mood changes remains unknown. In this chapter we review the feedback and central theories of emotional experience. Although we argue against the postulates that feedback is critical to the experience of emotions, we do suspect that feedback may influence emotions. Emotions may be conditioned and may use thalamic-limbic circuits, as proposed by LeDoux. However, most emotional behaviors and experiences are induced by complex stimuli that an isolated thalamus could not interpret. The cerebral cortex of humans has complex modular systems that analyze stimuli, develop percepts, and interpret meaning. We discuss the proposal that the experience of emotions is dimensional. Almost all primary emotions can be described with two or three factors, including valence, arousal, and motor activation. PMID:9821068

  15. Emotional intelligence correlates with functional responses to dynamic changes in facial trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Webb, Christian A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Rauch, Scott L; Weber, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a constellation of traits, competencies, or abilities that allow individuals to understand emotional information and successfully navigate and solve social/emotional problems. While little is known about the neurobiological substrates that underlie EI, some evidence suggests that these capacities may involve a core neurocircuitry involved in emotional decision-making that includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and amygdala. In a sample of 39 healthy volunteers (22 men; 17 women), scores on the Bar-On EQ-i (a trait/mixed model of EI) and Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; an ability model of EI) were correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during brief presentations of moving facial expressions that changed in the level of perceived trustworthiness. Core emotion neurocircuitry was responsive to dynamic changes in facial features, regardless of whether they reflected increases or decreases in apparent trustworthiness. In response to facial movements indicating decreasing trustworthiness, MSCEIT correlated positively with functional responses of the vmPFC and rostral ACC, whereas the EQ-i was unrelated to regional activation. Systematic differences in EI ability appear to be significantly related to the responsiveness of the vmPFC and rostral ACC to facial movements suggesting potential trustworthiness. PMID:23802123

  16. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  17. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  18. Emotional inertia and psychological maladjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kuppens, Peter; Allen, Nicholas B.; Sheeber, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of emotional inertia to capture a fundamental property of the emotion dynamics that may characterize psychological maladjustment. Emotional inertia simply refers to the degree to which emotional states are resistant to change. As psychological maladjustment has been associated with both emotional underreactivity and ineffective emotion regulation skills, we hypothesized that its overall emotion dynamics would be characterized by high levels of inertia. Using different methods, we provide evidence from two naturalistic studies that the emotional fluctuations of individuals suffering from low self-esteem (Study 1) and depression (Study 2) are indeed characterized by higher levels of emotional inertia in both positive and negative emotions than those of their counterparts. We discuss the usefulness of the concept of emotional inertia as a hallmark feature of maladaptive emotion dynamics. PMID:20501521

  19. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction in Employees of Kashan Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreishi, Fatemeh Sadat; Zahirrodine, Ali Reza; Assarian, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Zare Zadeh Mehrizi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction and emotional intelligence are two important variables in organizational behavioral studies, and are key factors in promoting the efficiency of organizations. Objectives: The present study was conducted in order to determine the job satisfaction and emotional intelligence of employees of Kashan hospitals in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 121 employees of Kashan hospitals who were selected using random stratified method. In this study, Bar-on emotional intelligence and job satisfaction questionnaires were used. The data were analyzed using statistical methods such as odds ratio, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results: The majority of employees (76%) had moderate emotional intelligence while 88.2% of them had moderate job satisfaction. In this study, there were no significant relations between emotional intelligence and variables such as sex, education, and marital and job status (P > 0.05) but significant relations were found between the age and emotional intelligence (P = 0.01). Furthermore, there was no significant relation between job satisfaction and demographic variables. Moreover, no significant relation was found between the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction (P > 0.05). Conclusions: As the majority of the staff had average level of job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and others were lower than average, it seems necessary for authorities to explore the reasons for job dissatisfaction to prevent job burnout, depression and developing a sense of helplessness in the staff. It is also recommended to hold educational workshops for the staff especially who are younger than 40 years to promote their emotional intelligence. PMID:25414889

  1. Basic Emotions, Natural Kinds, Emotion Schemas, and a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Izard, Carroll E

    2007-09-01

    Research on emotion flourishes in many disciplines and specialties, yet experts cannot agree on its definition. Theorists and researchers use the term emotion in ways that imply different processes and meanings. Debate continues about the nature of emotions, their functions, their relations to broad affective dimensions, the processes that activate them, and their role in our daily activities and pursuits. I will address these issues here, specifically in terms of basic emotions as natural kinds, the nature of emotion schemas, the development of emotion-cognition relations that lead to emotion schemas, and discrete emotions in relation to affective dimensions. Finally, I propose a new paradigm that assumes continual emotion as a factor in organizing consciousness and as an influence on mind and behavior. The evidence reviewed suggests that a theory that builds on concepts of both basic emotions and emotion schemas provides a viable research tool and is compatible with more holistic or dimensional approaches. PMID:26151969

  2. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  3. Emotion and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Palumbo Ruth

    2000-01-01

    The more neuroscientists explore how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information, the more evident is the connection between emotion and reason. Scientists have discovered that the same areas of the brain that are involved in processing emotion are involved in processing memory. (Author/JOW)

  4. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  5. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  6. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  7. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of

  8. Quantifying Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Gene J.

    Developed to provide an alternative system for identifying emotional disturbance in students, the manual begins by briefly reviewing problems in current identification approaches. An emotionally disturbed person is defined in the paper as someone who exhibits either too much or too little of a socially significant behavior. An approach is then…

  9. Emotion Vocabulary in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2002-01-01

    Examines five factors that may impact the use of second language emotion vocabulary. Considers the impact of language proficiency, gender, and extroversion on the use of emotion words in the advanced French interlanguage of 29 native Dutch speakers, and examines influence of sociocultural competence, gender, and type of linguistic material on use…

  10. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  11. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  12. Inspection and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

  13. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,

  14. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  15. A probabilistic analysis reveals fundamental limitations with the environmental impact quotient and similar systems for rating pesticide risks

    PubMed Central

    Schleier, Jerome J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparing risks among pesticides has substantial utility for decision makers. However, if rating schemes to compare risks are to be used, they must be conceptually and mathematically sound. We address limitations with pesticide risk rating schemes by examining in particular the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) using, for the first time, a probabilistic analytic technique. To demonstrate the consequences of mapping discrete risk ratings to probabilities, adjusted EIQs were calculated for a group of 20 insecticides in four chemical classes. Using Monte Carlo simulation, adjusted EIQs were determined under different hypothetical scenarios by incorporating probability ranges. The analysis revealed that pesticides that have different EIQs, and therefore different putative environmental effects, actually may be no different when incorporating uncertainty. The EIQ equation cannot take into account uncertainty the way that it is structured and provide reliable quotients of pesticide impact. The EIQ also is inconsistent with the accepted notion of risk as a joint probability of toxicity and exposure. Therefore, our results suggest that the EIQ and other similar schemes be discontinued in favor of conceptually sound schemes to estimate risk that rely on proper integration of toxicity and exposure information. PMID:24795854

  16. Emotion dysregulation in schizophrenia: reduced amplification of emotional expression is associated with emotional blunting.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; Green, Melissa J; de Lucia, Amber; Restuccia, Corinne; McDonald, Skye; O'Donnell, Maryanne

    2007-09-01

    A prominent emotional disturbance in schizophrenia is clinically evident in blunted affect, often observed as reduced emotional expressivity alongside the individual's report of normal or heightened emotional experience. It has been suggested that this disjunction between the experience and expression of emotion may reflect problems with the regulation of emotional expression. The present study thus set out to examine the capacity to engage in particular emotion regulatory strategies, and specifically, the ability to amplify the emotional expression of an experienced emotion ('amplification') or suppress the emotional expression of an experienced emotion ('suppression') whilst watching film clips selected to elicit amusement. Twenty nine participants with schizophrenia and 30 demographically matched non-clinical controls were asked to watch three different amusing film clips, whilst engaging in different regulatory strategies. The results indicate that participants with schizophrenia have difficulties with the amplification (but not suppression) of emotion expressive behavior. These difficulties are significantly correlated with total negative symptoms experienced, particularly emotional blunting. PMID:17630254

  17. Emotional complexity and the neural representation of emotion in motion.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Paula; Barnard, Philip J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant's emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition. PMID:20207691

  18. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  19. Emotional labor in American professors.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kevin T; Buboltz, Walter C; Buckner, John E; Doverspike, Dennis

    2011-10-01

    An online survey was conducted on a national sample of United States professors to examine emotional labor and its relationship to work outcomes. Participants were queried on genuine, faking, and suppressing emotional expression facets of emotional labor, as well as emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and affective commitment. The sample of 598 included 71 instructors, 177 assistant professors, 168 associate professors, and 182 professors. A path analysis was conducted testing two models of emotional labor. Results supported a model indicating significant direct relationships between emotional labor, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Additionally, the relationship between emotional labor and affective commitment was mediated by emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Genuine positive expression was the only emotional labor variable to have significant direct relationships with all outcomes. For U.S. faculty, the experience of emotional labor was related to several work attitudes. PMID:21942819

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

    2011-01-01

    The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

  1. Emotional Communication between Mothers and Preschoolers: Relations with Emotional Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of emotional communication on preschoolers' emotional competence. Found that the regularities in emotional communication between mothers and their preschool children are associated with variations in the children's emotional competence. In particular, children who witnessed higher level maternal sadness or anger, or responded…

  2. Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobin, Christina Ann

    This study was undertaken to examine the acoustical encoding of fear, anger, sadness and joy in voice. Twenty emotion-induction stories were read by 31 subjects who produced a total of 620 emotion-laden standard sentences. Subjects rated their emotions, and the acoustics of each sentence were analyzed. Twelve judges were employed to rate the emotion of each sentence, and their ratings were used to select "prototype" sentences for each emotion. The acoustical characteristics distinguishing each emotion were calculated. Rate, amount of time spent talking and pausing, and number of gaps, in addition to amplitude, frequency and their variances, uniquely distinguished among fear, anger, sadness and joy. Results of past studies were confirmed, and additional differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Judges' confusion matrices were analyzed in order to assess the relationship of detectability and discriminability to acoustic characteristics. It was found that the detectability and/or discriminability of fear, anger, sadness and joy, to varying degrees, paralleled the amount of acoustical overlap among them. A further test of the acoustic findings suggested that mean values of acoustic variables may accurately describe the acoustic cues to sadness and joy, but perhaps not to fear and anger. Thus, additional acoustic parameters, such as the temporal pattern of the acoustic measures, may inform raters. It is suggested that time-based profiles of amplitude and frequency may offer a plausible addition to future research endeavors.

  3. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  4. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

  5. Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

  6. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"

  7. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. PMID:25288043

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Prefrontal Cortex: a Comparative Study Based on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Ahmad; Arefnasab, Zahra; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a set of competencies that enable us to engage in sophisticated information processing of emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide for thinking and behavior. Prefrontal cortexes (PFC) of brain and related regions have an important role in emotion and emotional regulation. Accordingly, we conducted a study to investigate the relation between EI and performance in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (a neuropsychological test, used to evaluate some of the frontal lobe functions). Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 250 volunteers from BS and BA students of universities of Tehran were recruited using available sampling method. Bar-on EI, general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Raven's Progressive Matrices were completed by the participants. They were categorized into two groups; each group contained 40 students with high and low EI, whose performance in WCST were evaluated thereafter individually. Data was analyzed by MANOVA. Results: Our results showed that the high EI group had a better performance in WCST than the low EI group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that people with better EI may have better PFC functions. PMID:24644455

  9. Expressiveness in musical emotions.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate how emotion category, characterized by distinct musical structures (happiness, sadness, threat) and expressiveness (mechanical, expressive) may influence overt and covert behavioral judgments and physiological responses in musically trained and untrained listeners. Mechanical and expressive versions of happy, sad and scary excerpts were presented while physiological measures were recorded. Participants rated the intensity of the emotion they felt. In addition, they monitored excerpts for the presence of brief breaths. Results showed that the emotion categories were rated higher in the expressive than in the mechanical versions and that this effect was larger in musicians. Moreover, expressive excerpts were found to increase skin conductance level more than the mechanical ones, independently of their arousal value, and to slow down response times in the breath detection task relative to the mechanical versions, suggesting enhanced capture of attention by expressiveness. Altogether, the results support the key role of the performer's expression in the listener's emotional response to music. PMID:21761216

  10. Managing emotions at work.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    2015-08-26

    Every nurse is taught during training to put their emotions to one side when making decisions about patient care. Objectivity enables nurses to make evidence-based decisions. However, remaining objective is not easy. PMID:26307323

  11. Beyond Reason: Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simões da Fonseca, J.

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

  12. Rethinking the emotional brain.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph

    2012-02-23

    I propose a reconceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion-those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and toward questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

  13. RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. PMID:22365542

  14. Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

  15. Emotion as morphofunctionality.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos Herrera; Sanz, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We argue for a morphofunctional approach to emotion modeling that can also aid the design of adaptive embodied systems. By morphofunctionality we target the online change in both structure and function of a system, and relate it to the notion of physiology and emotion in animals. Besides the biological intuition that emotions serve the function of preparing the body, we investigate the control requirements that any morphofunctional autonomous system must face. We argue that changes in morphology modify the dynamics of the system, thus forming a variable structure system (VSS). We introduce some of the techniques of control theory to deal with VSSs and derive a twofold hypothesis: first, the loose coupling between two control systems, in charge of action and action readiness, respectively; second, the formation of patterned metacontrol. Emotional phenomena can be seen as emergent from this control setup. PMID:23186348

  16. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion.

  17. Impact of the Usage of a Slotted Collector Bar on Thermoelectric Field in a 300-kA Aluminum Reduction Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wenju; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhaowen; Gao, Bingliang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Cui, Jianzhong

    2015-02-01

    The horizontal current in a metal pad is critical because of its effect on the aluminum reduction cell current efficiency and energy consumption. A type of slotted collector bar was considered to have great potential to reduce the horizontal current. The effects of the slotted collector bar on the horizontal current in the metal pad, current, and temperature distribution in the cathode carbon and collector bar were simulated using the finite-element method. The results show that the maximum current at the middle of the metal pad decreases from 11,940 A m-2 to 9490 A m-2 and the peak of current density (the maximum current density) shifts toward the cell side. Moreover, the maximum horizontal current and average horizontal current at the middle of the metal pad in the cell with slotted collector bar decreases by ~50% and 50.9%, respectively. However, the cathode voltage in the cathode with the slotted collector bar is ~53 mV higher than that in the conventional cell, and the temperature in the slotted collector bar is higher than that in the conventional cathode. The results of this study may provide the database in understanding the effect of the slotted collector bar on cell.

  18. Lead levels in breast milk, blood plasma and intelligence quotient: a health hazard for women and infants.

    PubMed

    Isaac, C Prince Jebadass; Sivakumar, A; Kumar, C Rebecca Prem

    2012-02-01

    Lead levels in human breast milk and blood plasma or serum were analyzed and qualitatively their intelligence quotient (I.Q.) studied. Samples at different stages of lactation, from 5 days to 51 weeks post partum, were collected from 25 healthy breast-feeding mothers in Ranipet Industrial area of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and from 25 lactating mothers in the non-industrial areas of the same district. The samples from mothers in non-industrial area showed lower lead levels ranging from 5 to 25 μg/L whereas samples from mothers in industrial area showed higher lead levels ranging between 15 and 44.5 μg/L. It was generally noticed that the lactating mothers from industrial area have lower I.Q. levels compared to mothers from non-industrial area. PMID:22105937

  19. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show. PMID:26542816

  20. Teaching Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Doudin, Pierre-Andre

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess whether it is possible to help children develop their general understanding of emotions. Thirty-six nine-year-old children divided in two groups were examined using a pre-test/train/post-test design. The emotion understanding of the two groups was measured in the pre- and post-test phases using the Test…

  1. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  2. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P < .001). SPQ scores were correlated with AQ scores both across groups (r = .-38) and within the ASC (r = -.18) and control groups (r = -.15). Principal component analyses conducted separately in both groups indicated that one factor comprising 35 items consistently assesses sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). Conclusions The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension. PMID:24791196

  3. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  4. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  5. Emotions in robot psychology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology. PMID:24677038

  6. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided. PMID:20040686

  7. Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively. PMID:23675363

  8. A Simplified Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment to Evaluate the Effect of the Ionic Strength on the Equilibrium Concentration Quotient of the Bromcresol Green Dye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hernan B.; Mirenda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A modified laboratory experiment for undergraduate students is presented to evaluate the effects of the ionic strength, "I", on the equilibrium concentration quotient, K[subscript c], of the acid-base indicator bromcresol green (BCG). The two-step deprotonation of the acidic form of the dye (sultone form), as it is dissolved in water, yields

  9. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group

  10. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  11. A Simplified Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment to Evaluate the Effect of the Ionic Strength on the Equilibrium Concentration Quotient of the Bromcresol Green Dye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hernan B.; Mirenda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A modified laboratory experiment for undergraduate students is presented to evaluate the effects of the ionic strength, "I", on the equilibrium concentration quotient, K[subscript c], of the acid-base indicator bromcresol green (BCG). The two-step deprotonation of the acidic form of the dye (sultone form), as it is dissolved in water, yields…

  12. Further Evidence on the Factorial Structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for Adults with and without a Clinical Diagnosis of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu Pow; Kelly, Adrian B.; Peterson, Candida Clifford

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic traits however its factor structure has been primarily determined from nonclinic populations. This study aimed to establish an internally coherent and reliable factor structure for the AQ using a sample of 455 Australian adults of whom 141 had autism spectrum disorder…

  13. Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

  14. Further Evidence on the Factorial Structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for Adults with and without a Clinical Diagnosis of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu Pow; Kelly, Adrian B.; Peterson, Candida Clifford

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic traits however its factor structure has been primarily determined from nonclinic populations. This study aimed to establish an internally coherent and reliable factor structure for the AQ using a sample of 455 Australian adults of whom 141 had autism spectrum disorder

  15. Structural Validation of the Abridged Autism Spectrum Quotient-Short Form in a Clinical Sample of People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenssberg, Renate; Murray, Aja L.; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this article was to provide a structural validation of the 28-item Autism Spectrum Quotient-Short Form questionnaire in a sample of adults with clinically diagnosed autism spectrum disorders ("n" = 148). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the proposed structure, comprising a second-order Social Skills…

  16. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

  17. Using Self-Report to Identify the Broad Phenotype in Parents of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Study Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Maybery, Murray; Maley, Alana; Wong, Dana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: The concept of the "broad phenotype" of autism refers to the finding that relatives of people with autism often have mild forms of autistic-like characteristics, such as social and communicative difficulties. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a questionnaire devised to assess features of the broad phenotype in adults,…

  18. Emotional labour: how midwives manage emotion at work.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    Midwifery is inherently emotional work. Midwives care for women at one of the most emotionally intense periods of their lives: they work during moments of birth and death, of joy, sadness and both physical and emotional pain. Yet the emotional experiences of midwives at work are often not spoken about. Midwives often tend to 'get on with the job', but the process of dealing with others' emotions, managing their own and displaying different kinds of emotion can be a challenging part of midwives' work and one for which they're not always adequately supported. PMID:26349324

  19. Emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants and its relationship with empathy and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Carlos; Ibañez, Agustín; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ochoa, John; Trujillo, Natalia; Decety, Jean; Pineda, David

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the neural correlates of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants with different empathy profiles were compared to normal controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Forty ex-combatants and 20 non ex-combatants were recruited for this study. Empathy levels as well as executive functions were measured. Empathy level was used to create three groups. Group 1 (G1) included ex-combatants with normal empathy scores, and Group 2 included ex-combatants with low scores on at least one empathy sub-scales. In control group (Ctrl), participants with no antecedents of being combatants and with normal scores in empathy were included. Age, gender, educational and intelligence quotients level were controlled among groups. event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while individuals performed an affective picture processing task that included positive, neutral and negative emotional stimuli, which elicit an early modulation of emotion categorization (Early Posterior Negativity (EPN)) and late evaluative process (LPP). EPN differences were found among affective categories, but no group effects were observed at this component. LPP showed a main effect of category and group (higher amplitudes in ex-combatants). There was an inverse correlation between empathy and executive functions scores and ERPs. Results are discussed according to the impact of emotional processing on empathy profile. PMID:25302548

  20. Lateralization for Processing Facial Emotions in Gay Men, Heterosexual Men, and Heterosexual Women.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat

    2015-07-01

    This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets. PMID:25564038

  1. Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

  2. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. PMID:26869846

  3. Emotion work: disclosing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Grace J.; Aviv, Caryn; Levine, Ellen G.; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically diverse population. Methods The participants (n=176) selected for this study were African American, Asian American, Latina, and Caucasian women who had been diagnosed with stages 0, I, or II breast cancer within the past 4 years. They completed an in-depth qualitative interview on self-disclosure and social support. Findings The results indicate self-disclosing was done at a time when important decisions about treatment needed to be made. Different strategies for disclosure were used, all of which entailed emotion work. Respondents talked about the various elements of emotion work in the disclosure process including: managing others' worry, protecting and soothing others, and educating and instructing others.. For many respondents, disclosure without calculating emotional management meant opening up to others which meant support and an increase in emotional resources. Conclusions The findings in this paper have implications for women with breast cancer and demonstrate the need for women to be involved in honest disclosure and less emotional management of others' feelings. There is also a need for education about the nature of the cancer experience among people who are not well educated about the treatment and consequences of cancer. This need may be even stronger among racial and ethnic minorities. PMID:19434430

  4. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  5. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  6. Emotion dysregulation and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; Green, Melissa J; Restuccia, Corinne; de Lucia, Amber; Rendell, Peter G; McDonald, Skye; Grisham, Jessica R

    2009-04-30

    In schizophrenia, blunted affect has been argued to reflect difficulties with the amplification of emotion expressive behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ostensibly healthy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia present with similar difficulties. In the first component of the study, 843 non-clinical participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, of which 27 scoring in the upper 15% (high schizotypy group) and 27 scoring in the lower 15% (low schizotypy group) were asked to watch amusing film clips, whilst engaging in different emotion regulatory strategies, and specifically, amplify the expression of an experienced emotion ('amplification') or suppress the expression of an experienced emotion ('suppression'). The results indicate that highly schizotypal participants present with specific difficulties with the amplification (but not suppression) of emotion expressive behavior. These difficulties are significantly correlated with total negative schizotypy, particularly blunted affect. In the second component of the study, an individual differences approach was used to assess the interrelationship between self-reported use of suppression and schizotypy in an independent sample of 204 community volunteers. The results suggest that, although blunted affect is associated with increased use of suppression, it cannot be regarded as the primary mechanism underpinning this disturbance. Implications for understanding blunted affect in schizophrenia and related disorders are discussed. PMID:19264364

  7. [Emotion Regulation and Emotional Vulnerability in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; elik, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework. PMID:26562084

  8. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

  9. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  10. Breathing rhythms and emotions.

    PubMed

    Homma, Ikuo; Masaoka, Yuri

    2008-09-01

    Respiration is primarily regulated for metabolic and homeostatic purposes in the brainstem. However, breathing can also change in response to changes in emotions, such as sadness, happiness, anxiety or fear. Final respiratory output is influenced by a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centres, including the limbic system and cortical structures. Respiration is important in maintaining physiological homeostasis and co-exists with emotions. In this review, we focus on the relationship between respiration and emotions by discussing previous animal and human studies, including studies of olfactory function in relation to respiration and the piriform-amygdala in relation to respiration. In particular, we discuss oscillations of piriform-amygdala complex activity and respiratory rhythm. PMID:18487316

  11. [Emotional stress psychotherapy].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rozhnov VE

    1989-01-01

    The concept of emotional stress psychotherapy (ESP) is based on the theoretical understanding of mental process as a system of cross-potentiating synergism of consciousness and the unconscious. Therefore, one can regard this kind of treatment as an appeal to the spiritual components of personality arousing its need of self-perfectioning. Owing to this, ESP turns the demands and higher interests creating a personality dominant to oppose the illness with ensuing depression and apathy. In a sense, this method is a qualitative contrast to S. Freud's psychoanalysis digging in the dark compartments of the soul. As a result of treatment of thousands of neurotic patients and those with psychosomatic disorders and alcoholism, the following techniques of ESP were elaborated: rational, shaped as a socratic dialogue; hypnosuggestive comprising individual or collective hypnosis, extremely loaded with emotions; autosuggestive like mental self-regulation and autogenic training filled with specific emotions.

  12. Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.; Dasborough, Marie T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the study,…

  13. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants' actions were influenced…

  14. Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

  15. Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

  16. Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2008-01-01

    Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional…

  17. Re-appraisal of negative emotions in cocaine dependence: dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Romn, Juan; Asensio, Samuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Martnez-Gonzlez, Jos M; Verdejo-Garca, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with pronounced elevations of negative affect and deficient regulation of negative emotions. We aimed to investigate the neural substrates of negative emotion regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI), as compared to non-drug-using controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a re-appraisal task. Seventeen CDI abstinent for at least 15 days and without other psychiatric co-morbidities and 18 intelligence quotient-matched non-drug-using controls participated in the study. Participants performed the re-appraisal task during fMRI scanning: they were exposed to 24 blocks of negative affective or neutral pictures that they should Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Suppress (regulate the emotion elicited by negative pictures through previously trained re-appraisal techniques). Task-related activations during two conditions of interest (Maintain>Observe and Suppress>Maintain) were analyzed using the general linear model in SPM8 software. We also performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) seed-based analyses based on one region from each condition: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC-Maintain>Observe) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-Suppress>Maintain). Results showed that cocaine users had increased right dlPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction activations during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased right IFG, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and fusiform gyrus activations during Suppress>Maintain. PPI analyses showed that cocaine users had increased functional coupling between the dlPFC and emotion-related regions during Maintain>Observe, whereas they showed decreased functional coupling between the right IFG and the amygdala during Suppress>Maintain. These findings indicate that CDI have dysfunctional corticolimbic activation and connectivity during negative emotion experience and re-appraisal. PMID:22978709

  18. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  19. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  20. Emotions: from brain to robot.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2004-12-01

    Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to improve human-computer interaction. In this article we analyze what it would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields a deepening understanding of interacting brain structures and neural mechanisms rooted in neuromodulation that underlie emotions in humans and other animals. However, the chemical basis of animal function differs greatly from the mechanics and computations of current machines. We therefore abstract from biology a functional characterization of emotion that does not depend on physical substrate or evolutionary history, and is broad enough to encompass the possible emotions of robots. PMID:15556025

  1. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > The Power of Positive Emotions ...

  2. Emotion recognition from physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Gouizi, K; Bereksi Reguig, F; Maaoui, C

    2011-01-01

    Emotion recognition is one of the great challenges in human-human and human-computer interaction. Accurate emotion recognition would allow computers to recognize human emotions and therefore react accordingly. In this paper, an approach for emotion recognition based on physiological signals is proposed. Six basic emotions: joy, sadness, fear, disgust, neutrality and amusement are analysed using physiological signals. These emotions are induced through the presentation of International Affecting Picture System (IAPS) pictures to the subjects. The physiological signals of interest in this analysis are: electromyogram signal (EMG), respiratory volume (RV), skin temperature (SKT), skin conductance (SKC), blood volume pulse (BVP) and heart rate (HR). These are selected to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the emotions. The SVM (support vector machine) technique is used for classifying these parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology provides in general a recognition rate of 85% for different emotional states. PMID:21936746

  3. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Throughout her second year, ...

  4. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so difficult to ...

  5. Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

    2003-01-01

    Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of

  6. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  7. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. PMID:26473695

  8. Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

  9. Repositioning Emotions in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Kia Jane

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that emotions should be regarded as important components of learning. Focuses on recent trends in composition relating to how the emotions have or have not been included in discussions emphasizing writing instruction. Suggests opportunities for further research that give attention to emotion. (PM)

  10. Building Emotional Competence in Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasler, Jonathan; Hen, Meirav; Nov, Adi Sharabi

    2013-01-01

    The importance of emotion in the process of learning interpersonal communication in educational settings has been well documented. We administered the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (Schutte et al., 1998), the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980), and the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (Kirk et al., 2008) to 50…

  11. Emotion Education without Ontological Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion education is enjoying new-found popularity. This paper explores the "cosy consensus" that seems to have developed in education circles, according to which approaches to emotion education are immune from metaethical considerations such as contrasting rationalist and sentimentalist views about the moral ontology of emotions. I spell out five…

  12. Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaman, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

  13. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  14. Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

  15. Emotional Literacy Training for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A psychotherapist recounts her personal and professional development in concepts of self-esteem. The article considers core conditions for development of healthy self-esteem, the powerful effects wrought by teachers who create healthy emotional environments, emotional intelligence and emotional literacy, current initiatives to develop emotional…

  16. Moral Education and the Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1980-01-01

    This paper argues that the emotions have a central place in moral education. Two types of emotions involved in moral judgment are defined: constitutive and regulative. Fear and guilt are used as paradigms to explain how emotions are learned. A model for education in conscientiousness, compassion, and benevolence is outlined. (Author/SJL)

  17. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  18. Assessment of Emotional Experience and Emotional Recognition in Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Pérez-Marfil, M. N.; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of bias in the processing of emotion in people with complicated grief (CG). Previous studies have tended to assess the expression of emotion in CG, but other aspects of emotion (mainly emotion recognition, and the subjective aspects of emotion) have not been addressed, despite their importance for practicing clinicians. A quasi-experimental design with two matched groups (Complicated Grief, N = 24 and Non-Complicated Grief, N = 20) was carried out. The Facial Expression of Emotion Test (emotion recognition), a set of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (subjective experience of emotion) and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (psychopathology) were employed. The CG group showed lower scores on the dimension of valence for specific conditions on the IAPS, related to the subjective experience of emotion. In addition, they presented higher values of psychopathology. In contrast, statistically significant results were not found for the recognition of emotion. In conclusion, from a neuropsychological point of view, the subjective aspects of emotion and psychopathology seem central in explaining the experience of those with CG. These results are clinically significant for psychotherapists and psychoanalysts working in the field of grief and loss. PMID:26903928

  19. Assessment of Emotional Experience and Emotional Recognition in Complicated Grief.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Alcntara, Manuel; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Prez-Marfil, M N; Catena-Martnez, Andrs; Prez-Garca, Miguel; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of bias in the processing of emotion in people with complicated grief (CG). Previous studies have tended to assess the expression of emotion in CG, but other aspects of emotion (mainly emotion recognition, and the subjective aspects of emotion) have not been addressed, despite their importance for practicing clinicians. A quasi-experimental design with two matched groups (Complicated Grief, N = 24 and Non-Complicated Grief, N = 20) was carried out. The Facial Expression of Emotion Test (emotion recognition), a set of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (subjective experience of emotion) and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (psychopathology) were employed. The CG group showed lower scores on the dimension of valence for specific conditions on the IAPS, related to the subjective experience of emotion. In addition, they presented higher values of psychopathology. In contrast, statistically significant results were not found for the recognition of emotion. In conclusion, from a neuropsychological point of view, the subjective aspects of emotion and psychopathology seem central in explaining the experience of those with CG. These results are clinically significant for psychotherapists and psychoanalysts working in the field of grief and loss. PMID:26903928

  20. Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice. PMID:24611625

  1. Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

  2. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  3. Emotion, Motivation, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nine papers on the interrelationship between emotion, motivation, and learning are presented. Articles focusing on motivation were presented at the Second Conference of the European Association of Learning and Instruction in Tubingin, West Germany. Three other papers focus on anxiety, optimism-pessimism, stress, coping, and social support. (TJH)

  4. Emotional Subjects for Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible

  5. The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

    This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

  6. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN EMOTION

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Basic tendencies to detect and respond to significant events are present in the simplest single cell organisms, and persist throughout all invertebrates and vertebrates. Within vertebrates, the overall brain plan is highly conserved, though differences in size and complexity also exist. The forebrain differs the most between mammals and other vertebrates. The classic notion that the evolution of mammals led to radical changes such that new forebrain structures (limbic system and neocortex) were added has not held up, nor has the idea that so-called limbic areas are primarily involved in emotion. Modern efforts have focused on specific emotion systems, like the fear or defense system, rather than on the search for a general purpose emotion systems. Such studies have found that fear circuits are conserved in mammals, including humans. Animal work has been especially successful in determining how the brain detects and responds to danger. Caution should be exercised when attempting to discuss other aspects of emotion, namely subjective feelings, in animals since there are no scientific ways of verifying and measuring such states except in humans. PMID:22230640

  7. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N = 185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n = 24; DS) and non-depressive (n = 31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. PMID:21432655

  8. Visual-motor association learning in undergraduate students as a function of the autism-spectrum quotient.

    PubMed

    Parkington, Karisa B; Clements, Rebecca J; Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A

    2015-10-01

    We examined how performance on an associative learning task changes in a sample of undergraduate students as a function of their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) score. The participants, without any prior knowledge of the Japanese language, learned to associate hiragana characters with button responses. In the novel condition, 50 participants learned visual-motor associations without any prior exposure to the stimuli's visual attributes. In the familiar condition, a different set of 50 participants completed a session in which they first became familiar with the stimuli's visual appearance prior to completing the visual-motor association learning task. Participants with higher AQ scores had a clear advantage in the novel condition; the amount of training required reaching learning criterion correlated negatively with AQ. In contrast, participants with lower AQ scores had a clear advantage in the familiar condition; the amount of training required to reach learning criterion correlated positively with AQ. An examination of how each of the AQ subscales correlated with these learning patterns revealed that abilities in visual discrimination-which is known to depend on the visual ventral-stream system-may have afforded an advantage in the novel condition for the participants with the higher AQ scores, whereas abilities in attention switching-which are known to require mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex-may have afforded an advantage in the familiar condition for the participants with the lower AQ scores. PMID:26105755

  9. Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.

    PubMed

    Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

  10. Effect of nitrogen amendment on respiration and respiratory quotient (RQ) in three hydrocarbon contaminated soils of different type.

    PubMed

    Aspray, Thomas; Gluszek, Agnieszka; Carvalho, David

    2008-06-01

    Three soil types (sandy gravel, silty clay and sandy loam) from sites historically contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were amended with NH(4)NO(3) at concentrations ranging from 16 to 2133 mg/kg soil(dry weight). Microbial activity was measured as O(2) consumption and CO(2) production in order to assess nitrogen limitation. Although activity was stimulated in all three soils under NH(4)NO(3) amendment (after 72 h), the level of nitrogen required was soil specific. For the sandy gravel and silty clay soils, O(2) consumption and CO(2) production both showed enhanced microbial activity when amended with 16 mg/kg soil(dry weight) NH(4)NO(3), whereas, these two parameters gave differing results for the sandy loam soil. Specifically, CO(2) production and O(2) consumption were stimulated with 66 mg/kg and 133 mg/kg soil(dry weight) of NH(4)NO(3) respectively. In addition, respiratory quotient kinetic analysis suggested different decomposition processes occurring in this soil under different NH(4)NO(3) amendment concentrations. PMID:18462777

  11. Relation of intelligence quotient and body mass index in preschool children: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tabriz, A A; Sohrabi, M-R; Parsay, S; Abadi, A; Kiapour, N; Aliyari, M; Ahmadi, F; Roodaki, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity in children is a global problem. Besides physical effects, obesity has harmful psychological effects on children. Methods: We carried out cross-sectional community-based study to investigate the relation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive functioning in preschool children. Thirteen socioeconomical elements of 1151 children were measured and analyzed based on their intelligence quotient (IQ) test results. Thirteen out of 33 provinces were selected randomly, and schools were selected as clusters in rural and urban areas. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and regression were used when appropriate. Results: Our analysis showed that IQ was associated with household income, place of residence, delivery type, type of infant feeding and father's and mother's education level (P<0.001 for all). Using penalized linear regression for eliminating the impact of confounding factor, our study shows that, living in metropolitan (β=2.411) and urban areas (β=2.761), the level of participants' father's education (β=5.251) was positively and BMI (β=−0.594) was negatively related with IQ test results. Conclusions The findings of the present study showed that a lower IQ score is associated with higher BMI. However, this relation appears to be largely mediated when the socioeconomic status was considered. PMID:26258767

  12. Acquisition of visuomotor abilities and intellectual quotient in children aged 4-10 years: relationship with micronutrient nutritional status.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Malpeli, Agustina; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Lucero, Lucrecia; Romero, Florencia; Lagunas, Carolina; Lailhacar, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement. We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4-10 years). Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ were performed with the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Scale for Measurement of Intelligence for children aged 3-18 years, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry and biochemical assessments, which included serum ferritin, zinc and copper levels, and Hb. The sample was classified as having low or normal VMI scores: 47 children (52.8%, mean age 7 +/- 1.5 years) had low VMI, and 42 (47.2%, mean age 7 +/- 2.06 years) had normal VMI. There were no statistically significant differences in socioeconomic and cultural condition between both groups. We found significantly higher serum copper and ferritin levels in normal as compared to low VMI, but we did not find any differences with zinc. IQ was significantly higher in normal vs low VMI children. The fact that children with abnormal VMI presented low mean serum copper and ferritin concentrations could indicate that copper and iron deficiencies in this sample could be related with visuomotor abilities. PMID:17916959

  13. Postprandial thermogenesis and respiratory quotient in response to galactose: comparison with glucose and fructose in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Charrière, Nathalie; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2016-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that substitution of glucose or sucrose by the low-glycaemic index sugar galactose in the diet may lead to greater thermogenesis and/or fat oxidation. Using ventilated hood indirect calorimetry, we investigated, in twelve overnight-fasted adults, the resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) for 30 min before and 150 min after ingestion of 500 ml of water containing 60 g of glucose, fructose or galactose in a randomised cross-over design. REE increased similarly with all three sugars, reaching peak values after 50-60 min, but its subsequent fall towards baseline values was faster with galactose and glucose than with fructose (P < 0·001). RQ increased with all three sugars, but to a much greater extent with galactose and fructose than with glucose, particularly after 1 h post-ingestion. When ingested as a sugary drink, postprandial thermogenesis and utilisation of fat after galactose are not higher than after glucose or fructose. PMID:26855774

  14. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  15. How group-based emotions are shaped by collective emotions: evidence for emotional transfer and emotional burden.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Saguy, Tamar; Halperin, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Extensive research has established the pivotal role that group-based emotions play in shaping intergroup processes. The underlying implicit assumption in previous work has been that these emotions reflect what the rest of the group feels (i.e., collective emotions). However, one can experience an emotion in the name of her or his group, which is inconsistent with what the collective feels. The current research investigated this phenomenon of emotional nonconformity. Particularly, we proposed that when a certain emotional reaction is perceived as appropriate, but the collective is perceived as not experiencing this emotion, people would experience stronger levels of group-based emotion, placing their emotional experience farther away from that of the collective. We provided evidence for this process across 2 different emotions: group-based guilt and group-based anger (Studies 1 and 2) and across different intergroup contexts (Israeli-Palestinian relations in Israel, and Black-White relations in the United States). In Studies 3 and 4, we demonstrate that this process is moderated by the perceived appropriateness of the collective emotional response. Studies 4 and 5 further provided evidence for the mechanisms underlying this effect, pointing to a process of emotional burden (i.e., feeling responsible for carrying the emotion in the name of the group) and of emotional transfer (i.e., transferring negative feelings one has toward the ingroup, toward the event itself). This work brings to light processes that were yet to be studied regarding the relationship between group members, their perception of their group, and the emotional processes that connect them. PMID:25133721

  16. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  17. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

  18. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life. PMID:24324420

  19. Emotions, Cognitions, and Well-Being: The Role of Perfectionism, Emotional Overexcitability, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…

  20. Emotions, Cognitions, and Well-Being: The Role of Perfectionism, Emotional Overexcitability, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present

  1. Quantification of the push-pull Effect in disubstituted alkynes - Application of occupation quotients π*/π and 13C chemical shift differences ΔδCtbnd C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinpeter, Erich; Klaumünzer, Ute

    2014-09-01

    Structures, 13C chemical shifts, and the occupation quotients of anti-bonding π* and bonding π orbitals of the Ctbnd C triple bond along a series of push-pull alkynes (p)Xsbnd C6H4sbnd C(O)sbnd Ctbnd Csbnd NHsbnd C6H4sbnd Y(p) (X,Y = H, Me, OMe, NMe2, NO2, COMe, COOMe, F, Cl, Br) were computed at the DFT level (B3LYP/6-311G**) of theory. Both the stereochemistry (cis/trans-isomers) by steric twist and the push-pull character by both 13C chemical shift differences (ΔδCtbnd C) and the occupation quotient (π*Ctbnd C/πCtbnd C) were studied; the latter two parameters can be readily employed to precisely quantify the push-pull effect in alkynes.

  2. When is emotional contagion adaptive?

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Empathy plays an important role in animal social behavior. Since emotional contagion forms one of the bases of empathy, here we study conditions for emotional contagion to be adaptive, compared with other behavioral rules such as behavioral mimicry. We consider the situation where the focal individual (=observer) reacts to a behavior of another individual (=demonstrator). By emotional contagion one spontaneously copies the emotional state of the demonstrator and takes a behavior driven by that emotion. By behavioral mimicry, in contrast, one copies the behavior of the demonstrator itself. Through mathematical models we show that emotional contagion is adaptive when the environmental similarity between the demonstrator and the observer is intermediate. The advantage of adopting emotional contagion over behavioral mimicry increases when observing others' behavior is difficult or cognitively demanding. We show that emotional contagion is often a more flexible strategy than behavioral mimicry in order to cope with the living environment. In other words, emotional contagion often works as a better social learning strategy. These results suggest some ecological conditions that would favor the evolution of emotional contagion, and give a part of the explanations of why emotional contagion is frequently observed in group-living animals. PMID:26113192

  3. Neural network modeling of emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Daniel S.

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

  4. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  5. [Emotional labor in nursing praxis].

    PubMed

    Vilelas, José Manuel Da Silva; Diogo, Paula Manuela Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept. PMID:25474853

  6. [Emotional labor in nursing praxis].

    PubMed

    Vilelas, José Manuel Da Silva; Diogo, Paula Manuela Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept. PMID:25508632

  7. What is an animal emotion?

    PubMed

    de Waal, Frans B M

    2011-04-01

    Emotions suffuse much of the language employed by students of animal behavior--from "social bonding" to "alarm calls"--yet are carefully avoided as an explicit topic in scientific discourse. Given the increasing interest in human emotional intelligence and the explicit attention in neuroscience to the emotions, both human and nonhuman, the taboo that has reigned for so long in animal behavior research seems outdated. The present review seeks to recall the history of our field in which emotions and instincts were mentioned in the same breath and in which neither psychologists nor biologists felt that animal emotions were off limits. One of the tenets supporting a renewed interest in this topic is to avoid unanswerable questions and to view emotions as mental and bodily states that potentiate behavior appropriate to environmental challenges. Understanding the emotionally deep structure of behavior will be the next frontier in the study of animal behavior. PMID:21486301

  8. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  9. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions. PMID:26883645

  10. Emotion metaphors and emotional labor in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2004-05-01

    An understanding of the importance of metaphors and beliefs in the development of teachers' practical knowledge has already been explored in science education research. However, the significance of emotion metaphors and the consequences of emotional labor as part of being a science teacher have been little addressed. This study describes the findings from a 3-year ethnographic case study of an elementary-school teacher who participated in a research project investigating the role of teacher emotion in science teaching and student learning. This research demonstrates how the performance of emotional labor is an important aspect of reality in science teaching. The teacher in this study is willing to do the emotional labor that involves some suffering because the emotional rewards are gratifying. A perspective on emotion in science education may focus, at least in part, on the functions of emotion in creating inspiring emotional cultures in science teaching and learning. Recognizing that teachers and students are agents in constructing such cultures, educators, teachers, and administrators are more likely to grasp the complexities and possibilities of emotional labor in the context of science education.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India-a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    NAGARAJAPPA, Ramesh; PUJARA, Piyush; SHARDA, Archana J; ASAWA, Kailash; TAK, Mridula; AAPALIYA, Pankaj; BHANUSHALI, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L) and Bhuj (0.5mg/L) were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis. Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) among children living in Mundra (30.45±4.97) than those living in Bhuj (23.20±6.21). Mean differences at 95% confidence interval for these timings were found to be 7.24, 7.28 and 21.78 respectively. In both the villages, females had lower mean timing scores than males but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient. PMID:26056634

  12. Application of a population-based toxicity quotient approach with field validation to assess potential effects of PCBs to great blue herons

    SciTech Connect

    Shear, N.; Henning, M.; Truchon, S.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment of a river ecosystem contaminated with PCBs, potential effects of PCBs on a population of great blue herons were evaluated using two independent measurement endpoints. The first measurement endpoint was a population-based toxicity quotient, in which predicted dietary intakes of PCBs for herons at six colonies within foraging distance of the river were compared to a literature-based toxicity reference value. While toxicity quotient approaches generally use default exposure factor values to predict potential risks to hypothetical individual organisms, in this application the use of some site-specific exposure characteristics of an actual population yielded an estimate of potential risks to the population as a whole. The second measurement endpoint considered reproductive success as a function of distance of heron colonies from the contaminated river, based on data collected by the state fish and wildlife service since 1979. The results of the two measurement endpoints both indicate that reproductive success is not likely to be adversely affected by the current level of PCBs in the river system. Given the independence of the measurement endpoints, as well as the robustness of the field data set and the site-specificity of the toxicity quotient calculation, uncertainty in this analysis is substantially reduced relative to more traditional screening level risk assessment methods.

  13. Are only Emotional Strengths Emotional? Character Strengths and Disposition to Positive Emotions.

    PubMed

    Gsewell, Angelika; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. A confirmatory factor analysis assuming two latent factors (self-oriented and object/situation specific) was computed on scale level. Results confirmed the existence of these factors, but also indicated that the seven emotions did not split up into two clearly separable families. Correlations between dispositional positive emotions and character strengths were positive and generally low to moderate; a few theoretically meaningful strengths-emotions pairs yielded coefficients>.40. Finally, the link between five character strengths factors (i.e. emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths) and the emotional dispositions was examined. Each of the factors displayed a distinctive "emotional pattern"; emotional strengths evidenced the most numerous and strongest links to emotional dispositions. PMID:26286979

  14. The Process Model of Group-Based Emotion: Integrating Intergroup Emotion and Emotion Regulation Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Amit; Halperin, Eran; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gross, James J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars interested in emotion regulation have documented the different goals and strategies individuals have for regulating their emotions. However, little attention has been paid to the regulation of group-based emotions, which are based on individuals' self-categorization as a group member and occur in response to situations perceived as relevant for that group. We propose a model for examininggroup-based emotion regulationthat integrates intergroup emotions theory and the process model of emotion regulation. This synergy expands intergroup emotion theory by facilitating further investigation of different goals (i.e., hedonic or instrumental) and strategies (e.g., situation selection and modification strategies) used to regulate group-based emotions. It also expands emotion regulation research by emphasizing the role of self-categorization (e.g., as an individual or a group member) in the emotional process. Finally, we discuss the promise of this theoretical synergy and suggest several directions for future research on group-based emotion regulation. PMID:25870386

  15. Emotional Eavesdropping: Infants Selectively Respond to Indirect Emotional Signals

    PubMed Central

    Repacholi, Betty M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 18-month-olds learn from emotions directed to a third party. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects, and an Emoter expressed Anger or Neutral affect toward the adult in response to her actions. The Emoter then became neutral and infants were given access to the objects. Infants’ actions were influenced by their memory of the Emoter’s affect. Moreover, infants’ actions varied as a function of whether they were currently in the Emoter’s visual field. If the previously angry Emoter was absent (Experiment 1) or turned her back (Experiment 2), infants did not use the prior emotion to regulate their behavior. Infants learn from emotional eavesdropping, and their subsequent behavior depends on the Emoter’s orientation toward them. PMID:17381787

  16. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical study on enhancement of Medha (intelligence quotient) in school going children with Yahstimadhu granules

    PubMed Central

    Sheshagiri, Srihari; Patel, Kalpana S.; Rajagopala, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal intelligence is a vital essentiality in day-to-day life, especially in children who have to build up their life in an apt manner. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) is a time tested classical drug indicated for promotion of mental health mentioned in Ayurveda which may also help children to attain optimal intelligence. Aim: To evaluate the role of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) granules in enhancement of Medha (intelligence quotient [IQ]). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on healthy school going children aged 14–16 years. Total 94 children were registered and divided into two groups. Yashtimadhu granules was administered in Group A and Wheat flour in the form of granules in Group B, the duration of treatment was 12 weeks with follow up of additional 12 weeks. Objective parameters included assessment of functional aspects of Buddhi (psychological faculty for reasoning and logic) along with the assessment of IQ, Quality of life parameters and general health condition. Results: Yashtimadhu granules showed statistically highly significant results in improving functional aspects of Buddhi, IQ, several aspects of quality of life parameters and health. The number needed to treat (NNT) with Yashtimadhu granules for children achieving an IQ score of 90 and above was 3.38, suggesting one in every 3.38 patients had achieved this target and for children achieving an IQ score of 110 and above the NNT was 6.66. Conclusion: Yashtimadhu granules was safe throughout the course of study and indeed possessed a significant efficacy in improving Medha (IQ). PMID:26730140

  17. Hazard quotient profiles used as a risk assessment tool for PFOS and PFOA serum levels in three distinctive European populations.

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, Jan K; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Toft, Gunnar; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Heederik, Dick; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) blood levels are commonly used as biomarkers of human environmental exposure to these compounds. Many biomonitoring studies indicate 100% detection for PFOS and PFOA thus justifying a concern of possible risk for the most exposed individuals. This study addresses the predictive value of hazard quotients (HQs) calculated on the basis of serum PFOS and PFOA in male and female populations of reproductive age in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Overall, 2026 results of PFOS and PFOA serum concentrations (589 males, 1437 females) were obtained from the INUENDO database. HQs were calculated from the actual biomonitoring results and literature-based animal data linking toxicological outcomes and critical PFOS/PFOA serum levels. HQs for serum PFOS were calculated based on Points of Departure (PoD) at 13μgmL(-1) (cynomolgus monkeys, 183days, changes in THS and T3) and for PFOA at 7.1μgmL(-1) serum (male rats, 90days, hepatocellular necrosis, increased liver weight). Uncertainty factors were applied to reflect interspecies differences and human variability. Serum HQs were expressed as a ratio relative to the point of departure for each PFOS and PFOA. Only in the three cases of males in Greenland were there serum PFOS levels showing HQ values exceeding 1, so indicating that such serum levels may be of concern. The mean serum concentration of PFOS was significantly higher in male than in female populations. Despite significant differences between HQ profiles for PFOS and PFOA in donors from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, the concentrations of these perfluoroalkylated compounds do not indicate a cause for concern, except for the three aforementioned cases from Greenland. This study demonstrates that the HQ approach can help to interpret human biomonitoring data and thus serve as a valuable tool in further risk assessment priority settings and may also be used as a basis for taking decisions in risk management. PMID:25454227

  18. Albumin quotient, IgG concentration, and IgG index determinations in cerebrospinal fluid of neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F M; Geiser, D R; Sommardahl, C S; Green, E M; Provenza, M

    1994-06-01

    Total protein (TP), albumin, and IgG concentrations were measured in CSF from the atlanto-occipital (AO) and lumbosacral (LS) sites and in serum of 15 clinically normal neonatal foals < or = 10 days old (mean, 7.0 days). The albumin quotient (AQ; CSF albumin/serum albumin x 100) and IgG index ([CSF IgG/serum IgG] x [serum albumin/CSF albumin]), indicators of blood-brain barrier permeability and intrathecal IgG production, respectively, were then calculated. Mean +/- SD values obtained from the foals of this study were: serum albumin, 2,900 +/- 240 mg/dl; serum IgG, 1,325 +/- 686 mg/dl; AO CSF total protein (TP), 82.8 +/- 19.2 mg/dl; LS CSF TP, 83.6 +/- 16.1 mg/dl; AO CSF albumin, 52.0 +/- 8.6 mg/dl; LS CSF albumin, 53.8 +/- 15.7 mg/dl; AO CSF IgG, 10.2 +/- 5.5 mg/dl; LS CSF IgG, 9.9 +/- 5.7 mg/dl; AO AQ, 1.86 +/- 0.29; LS AQ, 1.85 +/- 0.51, AO IgG index, 0.52 +/- 0.28; and LS IgG index, 0.48 +/- 0.27. Significant difference between values for the AO and LS sites was not found. A CSF albumin concentration > 85.2 mg/dl or AQ > 2.4, as determined by mean +/- 2 SD, may indicate increased blood-brain barrier permeability. An IgG index value > 1.0 may indicate intrathecal IgG production. Values obtained for foals of this study should serve as baseline for comparison in the evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability and intrathecal IgG production in neonatal foals with neurologic disease. PMID:7944008

  19. Raising the Bar on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles Dr. Lawrence T. Potter, Allegheny College's first chief diversity officer. Dr. Potter comes from a family that is committed to higher education. As a third generation college graduate, he has mixed his education between Stillman, a historically Black college in Tuscaloosa, AL, where he earned bachelor's degrees in English,…

  20. Raising the Bar on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles Dr. Lawrence T. Potter, Allegheny College's first chief diversity officer. Dr. Potter comes from a family that is committed to higher education. As a third generation college graduate, he has mixed his education between Stillman, a historically Black college in Tuscaloosa, AL, where he earned bachelor's degrees in English,

  1. [Thalamus and Emotion].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazumi

    2015-12-01

    The basolateral limbic circuit (mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, anterior cingulated and prefrontal orbital cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and amygdala), the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus circuit, and part of the frontal-subcortical circuits (anterior cingulate and prefrontal orbital cortex, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus), and the anterior cingulate and prefrontal orbital cortex circuit are crucial systems for forming and expressing emotions. There are reciprocal projections between the hypothalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal orbital cortex, and between the hypothalamus and the amygdale. Therefore, destruction of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and the hypothalamus can cause abnormal expression of emotions. Recently, converging evidence suggests that the pulvinar nucleus in the posterior thalamus mediates emotional visual information processing through the colliculo-pulvino-amygdalar pathway and/or through the colliculo-pulvino-cortical pathways. These pathways seem to contribute to the unconscious and/or conscious fast processing of ecologically relevant stimuli. Therefore, destruction of the pulvinar can cause impaired reaction to visual threats, such as photographs of a cockroach and fearfull facial expressions, if the stimuli are exposed briefly. PMID:26618764

  2. Interpersonal emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain. PMID:24098929

  3. Drug Design and Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

    2007-11-01

    "Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid." The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of "rationality" in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

  4. Patterns of Emotion Experiences as Predictors of Facial Expressions of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Samuel H.; Izard, Carroll E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the relations between emotion and facial expressions of emotion in 8- to 12-year-old male psychiatric patients. Results indicated that patterns or combinations of emotion experiences had an impact on facial expressions of emotion. (Author/BB)

  5. Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion: a two-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Van de Ven, Bart; van den Tooren, Marieke; Vlerick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion, and proposed that this relation is weakened by the availability of emotional job resources. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that this stress-buffer effect of emotional job resources would be stronger for employees high on emotional support seeking (3-way interaction). A 2-wave survey study with a 1-year time lag was conducted among 711 employees in the technology sector. Results showed that emotional job demands are least likely to result in emotional exhaustion when employees are provided with high emotional job resources and score high on emotional support seeking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23276194

  6. Emotional aspects of infertility.

    PubMed

    Seibel, M M; Taymor, M L

    1982-02-01

    The psychologic aspects of infertility in men and women are reviewed, neuroendocrinologic factors thought to affect reproduction physiologically are described, and awareness of the stresses that infertility places on a couple's relationship is encouraged. Studies have found infertile women to be more neurotic, dependent, and anxious than fertile women, experiencing conflict over their femininity and fear associated with reproduction. In contrast to these reports, a double blind study could not determine the difference in the psychologic makeup of women who were infertile because of demonstrated somatic causes and those women in whom no somatic cause could be found and who were considered infertile on an emotional etiologic basis. Other studies have similarly come to negative conclusions regarding the relationship between psychologic factors and infertility. The 1st set of studies failed to consider the stress that infertility itself places on the couple. Emotional factors may negatively affect fertility in the male. Up to 10% of infertile males have had improvement in their semen analysis after cessation of all treatment for a prolonged period of time. The concept that emotional stress might lead to oligospermia was further supported in a report describing testicular biopsies obtained from men awaiting sentencing after raping and impregnating women. A more obvious effect of the emotional stress infertility places on the male is the occurrence of impotence. It has been estimated that up to 10% of infertilty may be partially or completely explained on the basis of male sexual dysfunction. The gradual unraveling of the complexities of neuroendocrinology have permitted increased understanding of the role that stress might play in infertility. Catecholamines, prolactin, adrenal steroids, endorphins, and serotonin all affect ovulation and in turn are all affected by stress. Such stress might result from infertility or habitual abortion. Infertility is frequently perceived by the couple as an enormous emotional strain, and counseling may prove helpful as a part of the initial infertility evaluation, an adjunctive measure during treatment, or a final measure to help patients cope with acceptance of their infertility problem. Although statistical evidence is overwhelmingly against the relationship of adoption and subsequent conception, it does appear that a small percentage of patients do achieve pregnancy following adoption. Possibly this can be explained by a reduction in stress, and subsequently, alterations in the neuroendocrinologic characteristics of the infertile couple. PMID:7037462

  7. Emotional foundations of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515

  8. Attention modulates emotional expression processing.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

  9. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  10. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation

  11. Emotion Management and Strategies for Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Emotion scripts provide children with culturally meaningful emotional experiences and plans of action for managing feelings and the circumstances surrounding emotional experiences. In an effort to understand how developing children acquire these emotion scripts, two studies described here investigated how children deploy emotion scripts to manage…

  12. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  13. Emotional Labor: A Conceptualization and Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glomb, Theresa M.; Tews, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite increased research attention, the emotional labor construct remains without a clear conceptualization and operationalization. This study designed a conceptually grounded, psychometrically sound instrument to measure emotional labor with an emphasis on the experience of discrete emotions-the Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (DEELS).…

  14. Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Notelaers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines emotional experiences as potential mediators between exposure to workplace bullying and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization, respectively. A total of 5,520 respondents participated in the study. Drawing upon affective events theory (AET), the results show that emotions partly mediate these relationships and, hence, support the notion that emotions play a central part in the relationship between bullying and essential occupational outcomes. PMID:22852437

  15. The Slothfulness Quotient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    E-Learning eliminates time and distance barriers, creating universal learning-on-demand opportunities. Cisco Systems has invested over $50 million in the world's largest e-learning laboratory. Starting with 64 academies in 7 U.S. states in 1997, the Networking Academy program now serves 140,000 students in over 5,800 sites in 96 countries. (MLH)

  16. Enhancing Students' Employability Quotient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Dan B.; And Others

    The communication skills believed to be relevant to a successful career in the business world and the organizational communication program in the Department of Communication at Central Missouri State University (CMSU) are the two major focuses of this paper. The first part of the paper discusses the importance of identifying factors that might…

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461486

  18. Informational need of emotional stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, P. V.; Frolov, M. V.

    According to the informational theory of emotions[1], emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need staisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.

  19. Emotional function in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masahiko; Butler, James P; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2014-09-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which can be considered as hyperreactivity of the emotional functioning of dementia, can be alleviated or aggravated by the behavioural and psychological symptoms of the caregiver. Comfortable stimulations of emotional function through sensory stimulations are effective methods for alleviating behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Although cognitive function deteriorates with age, emotional function is often retained even in advanced years. Thus, it is recommended that care in patients with dementia be focused mainly on the stimulation of emotional function (e.g. sympathy and empathy, which are human traits), rather than relying solely on the stimulation of cognitive function. PMID:25250479

  20. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  1. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  2. [The brain mechanisms of emotions].

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1997-01-01

    At the 23rd International Congress of Physiological Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment brought us to a conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrate. Activating by motivatiogenic structures of the hypothalamus the frontal parts of neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which is typical for emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons being involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance of positive or negative emotions depends on this informational (cognitive) functions. PMID:9173736

  3. Relationship between emotion and forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-02-01

    A major determinant of forgetting in memory is the presence of interference in the retrieval context. Previous research has shown that proactive interference has less impact for emotional than neutral study material (Levens & Phelps, 2008). However, it is unclear how emotional content affects the impact of interference in memory. Emotional content could directly affect the buildup of interference, leading to reduced levels of interference. Alternatively, emotional content could affect the controlled processes that resolve interference. The present study employed the response deadline speed-accuracy trade-off procedure to independently test these hypotheses. Participants studied 3-item lists consisting of emotional or neutral images, immediately followed by a recognition probe. Results indicated a slower rate of accrual for interfering material (lures from previous study list) and lower levels of interference for emotional than neutral stimuli, suggesting a direct impact of emotion on the buildup of interference. In contrast to this beneficiary effect, resolution of interference for emotional material was less effective than neutral material. These findings can provide insight into the interactions of emotion and memory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436989

  4. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state.

    PubMed

    Limonero, Joaquín T; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  5. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  6. Emotional intelligence and recovering from induced negative emotional state

    PubMed Central

    Limonero, Joaquín T.; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Soler-Oritja, Jordi; Álvarez-Moleiro, María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and recovering from negative emotions induction, using a performance test to measure EI. Sixty seven undergraduates participated in the procedure, which lasted 75 min and was divided into three stages. At Time 1, subjects answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-S, Profile of Mood States (POMS)-A, and EI was assessed by Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). At Time 2, negative emotions were induced by nine pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and participants were asked to complete a second STAI-S and POMS-B questionnaires. At Time 3 participants were allowed to rest doing a distracting task and participants were asked to complete a third STAI-S and POMS-A questionnaires. Results showed that the branches of the MSCEIT emotional facilitation and emotional understanding are related to previous mood states and mood recovery, but not to mood reactivity. This finding contrasts nicely with studies on which emotional recovery was assessed in relation to EI self-reported measures, highlighting the perception and emotional regulation. PMID:26150794

  7. Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally…

  8. Emotion in voice matters: neural correlates of emotional prosody perception.

    PubMed

    Iredale, Jaimi Marie; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye; Dimoska-Di Marco, Aneta; Swift, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    The ability to perceive emotions is imperative for successful interpersonal functioning. The present study examined the neural characteristics of emotional prosody perception with an exploratory event-related potential analysis. Participants were 59 healthy individuals who completed a discrimination task presenting 120 semantically neutral word pairs from five prosody conditions (happy/happy, angry/angry, neutral/neutral, angry/happy, happy/angry). The task required participants to determine whether words in the pair were spoken in same or different emotional prosody. Reflective of an initial processing stage, the word 1 N1 component was found to have greatest amplitude in parietal regions of the hemispheres, and was largest for emotional compared to neutral stimuli, indicating detection of emotion features. A second processing stage, represented by word 1 P2, showed similar topographic effects; however, amplitude was largest for happy in the left hemisphere while angry was largest in the right, illustrating differentiation of emotions. At the third processing stage, word 1 N3 amplitude was largest in frontal regions, indicating later cognitive processing occurs in the frontal cortex. N3 was largest for happy, which had lowest accuracy compared to angry and neutral. The present results support Schirmer and Kotz's (2006) model of vocal emotion perception because they elucidated the function and ERP components by reflecting three primary stages of emotional prosody perception, controlling for semantic influence. PMID:23830881

  9. Inferring Characters' Emotional States: Can Readers Infer Specific Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gygax, Pascal; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Gygax, Oakhill and Garnham (2003) showed that, contrary to the assumption of earlier research, readers do not infer specific emotions such as "guilt" or "boredom". This paper presents evidence for the non-specificity of emotional inferences regardless of the nature of the stories. In Experiment 1 and 2, Gygax et al.'s stories were made longer. In…

  10. Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words in the Bilingual Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw on recent studies of bilingualism and emotions to argue for three types of modifications to the current models of the bilingual lexicon. The first modification involves word categories: I will show that emotion words need to be considered as a separate class of words in the mental lexicon, represented and

  11. Emotion Metaphors and Emotional Labor in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the importance of metaphors and beliefs in the development of teachers' practical knowledge has already been explored in science education research. However, the significance of "emotion metaphors" and the consequences of "emotional labor" as part of being a science teacher have been little addressed. This study describes the…

  12. Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words in the Bilingual Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to draw on recent studies of bilingualism and emotions to argue for three types of modifications to the current models of the bilingual lexicon. The first modification involves word categories: I will show that emotion words need to be considered as a separate class of words in the mental lexicon, represented and…

  13. Emotion deficits in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kring, Ann M; Elis, Ori

    2013-01-01

    Translational research on emotion in schizophrenia has revealed deficits in emotion perception and expression, as well as intact areas, including emotional experience and brain activation in the presence of emotionally evocative material. Yet, a closer look at emotional experience reveals that all is not well in the experience domain. People with schizophrenia have difficulty anticipating emotional events and maintaining or savoring their emotional experiences, as evidenced in behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging studies. Furthermore, people with schizophrenia have difficulty integrating emotion perception with context and reporting on feelings that are differently valenced than presented emotional stimuli. Differences in brain activation are typically observed in areas tightly coupled with cognitive control, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and thus the latest research on emotion in schizophrenia explicitly integrates emotion and cognition. Translational research holds promise to identify when in the course of the disorder emotion deficits emerge and to develop more effective interventions for schizophrenia. PMID:23245340

  14. Helping Students with Emotional Problems Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Martin; Long, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    The majority of students with emotional problems sit undetected in general education classrooms. This article highlights the warning signs of developing emotional problems, as well as strategies to help students overcome their emotional barriers to learning. (GCP)

  15. Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Arlie Russell

    1979-01-01

    Traces links among social structure, feeling rules, the individual's management of emotion, and emotive experience in order to determine why the emotive experience of normal adults in daily life is as orderly as it is. (Author/KC)

  16. Emotional Intelligence and Simulation.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Sophia K; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2015-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is an established concept in the business literature with evidence that it is an important factor in determining career achievement. There is increasing interest in the role that EI has in medical training, but it is still a nascent field. This article reviews the EI literature most relevant to surgical training and proposes that simulation offers many benefits to the development of EI. Although there are many unanswered questions, it is expected that future research will demonstrate the effectiveness of using simulation to develop EI within surgery. PMID:26210976

  17. Neural Antecedents of Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pritha; Coulston, Carissa M.; Bargh, Danielle M.; Tanious, Michelle; Phan, K. Luan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Malhi, Gin S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Emotional symptoms (ES) emerge forme fruste in adolescence, prior to manifesting as fully-fledged emotional disorders (ED). Studies indicate that subsyndromal ES precede the onset of ED. We hypothesised that adolescents showing subsyndromal ES will show perturbations in the emotion regulatory fronto-limbic network (FLN) during emotion-processing. Methods Fifty-eight female adolescents underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whilst viewing an image-based emotion-processing task. Within this sample 33 (56.9%) displayed emotional symptoms and 25 (43.1%) did not. Clinical measures including assessments of mood and anxiety were administered and participants were allocated to one of two groups based on the presence (ES+) or absence (ES−) of subsyndromal ES. Group comparisons were used to identify differential patterns of neural engagement and their relationship to clinical variables. Results Groups displayed emotion-specific differences in FLN activity with increased frontal activity in ES+ girls during positive emotion-processing and decreased frontal and limbic activity during negative emotion-processing. Trait anxiety was the strongest clinical predictor of group membership (ES+ versus ES−) and displayed a significant negative correlation with hippocampal neural activity during negative emotion-processing. In addition, between the groups the hippocampus displayed a pattern of reverse coupling with the amygdala and insula that was also significantly correlated with trait anxiety. Conclusions There is divergence in the pattern of FLN neural processing in adolescent females determined by emotional symptoms. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings and to underline their implications longitudinally. PMID:23477296

  18. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  19. Investigating the major carbon input to cave-air CO2 and speleothem calcite by using the respiratory quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, S.; Breecker, D.; Carlson, P.; Larson, T.; Banner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Speleothems (cave mineral deposits) are used to reconstruct changes in rainfall, moisture sources, atmospheric temperatures, and vegetation. Soil respiration is generally considered to be one of the major sources of cave-air CO2, and by extension a major source of carbon in speleothem calcite. However, the δ13C values from speleothem calcite are difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study is to investigate the major source of carbon in cave-air CO2 using a novel tracer, and thereby increase the accuracy of δ13C from speleothem calcite as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Potential sources of CO2 in cave-air include (1) soil respiration (primarily from roots and microbes), (2) animal respiration, (3) in-cave decomposition of organic matter, (4) deep magmatic or metamorphic sources, and (5) atmospheric air. Of these potential sources, soil respiration and atmospheric air are currently considered to be most significant in most caves. We use the respiratory quotient (RQ, which is the number of moles of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed, defined here in relation to atmospheric air) to compare cave air and overlying soil gas at two localities in central Texas: Natural Bridge Caverns and Inner Space Cavern. Soil gas samples (RQ = 1.32) follow a trend expected for respiration followed by diffusion whereas cave air samples (RQ = 0.97) follow a trend expected for respiration without subsequent diffusion. We suggest that root and rhizomicrobial respiration below the soil in the epikarst fracture network, where gas transport is dominated by advection rather than diffusion, contributes significantly to cave-air CO2. This is important because 12CO2 preferentially diffuses out of soils, elevating the d13C values of residual soil CO2, whereas no carbon isotope fractionation occurs during advection. Our interpretation of RQ values suggests that the d13C value of cave-air CO2 is not influenced by diffusive loss of CO2. In order to further investigate soil and cave carbon sources and transport, we plan to collect gas samples from fractures in the epikarst by drilling wells into the epikarst. In addition, we plan to incubate roots and root-free soil in order to characterize the RQ and d13C values associated with these two types of respiration.

  20. PYY[3-36] administration decreases the respiratory quotient and reduces adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean H; Lei, Chunli; Jodka, Carolyn M; Nikoulina, Svetlana E; Hoyt, Julie A; Gedulin, Bronislava; Mack, Christine M; Kendall, Eric S

    2006-01-01

    In rodents, weight reduction after peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) administration may be due largely to decreased food consumption. Effects on other processes affecting energy balance (energy expenditure, fuel partitioning, gut nutrient uptake) remain poorly understood. We examined whether s.c. infusion of 1 mg/(kg x d) PYY[3-36] (for up to 7 d) increased metabolic rate, fat combustion, and/or fecal energy loss in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. PYY[3-36] transiently reduced food intake (e.g., 25-43% lower at d 2 relative to pretreatment baseline) and decreased body weight (e.g., 9-10% reduction at d 2 vs. baseline) in 3 separate studies. Mass-specific metabolic rate in kJ/(kg x h) in PYY[3-36]-treated mice did not differ from controls. The dark cycle respiratory quotient (RQ) was transiently decreased. On d 2, it was 0.747 +/- 0.008 compared with 0.786 +/- 0.004 for controls (P < 0.001); light cycle RQ was reduced throughout the study in PYY[3-36]-treated mice (0.730 +/- 0.006) compared with controls (0.750 +/- 0.009; P < 0.001). Epididymal fat pad weight in PYY[3-36]-treated mice was approximately 50% lower than in controls (P < 0.01). Fat pad lipolysis ex vivo was not stimulated by PYY[3-36]. PYY[3-36] decreased basal gallbladder emptying in nonobese mice. Fecal energy loss was negligible ( approximately 2% of ingested energy) and did not differ between PYY[3-36]-treated mice and controls. Thus, negative energy balance after PYY[3-36] administration in diet-induced obese mice results from reduced food intake with a relative maintenance of mass-specific energy expenditure. Fat loss and reduced RQ highlight the potential for PYY[3-36] to drive increased mobilization of fat stores to help meet energy requirements in this model. PMID:16365082

  1. Prediction of gas/particle partition quotients of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in north temperate zone air: an empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Fan; Jia, Hong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning process is an important factor governing the transport and fate of chemicals in the atmosphere. Based on a large dataset of more than 700 pairs of air samples in gaseous and particulate phases with a wide ambient temperature range of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C obtained from our Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program, Phase 2 (China-SAMP-II), we investigated G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) in Chinese air. We derived for the first time empirical equations to predict the values of slopes and intercepts for both subcooled-liquid-vapor-pressure (PL)-based and octanol-air-partition-coefficient (KOA)-based models as functions of temperature, and thus predicted partition quotient (KP) without assuming an equilibrium status and free of artifacts. These equations have been successfully applied to predict the values of KP for PBDEs in air of China and other countries in the north temperate zone (NTZ) and also at an Arctic site in East Greenland, and our results matched the monitoring data well at background, rural, urban, and suburban sites, but not at e-waste sites due to the unpredictable PBDE emissions at these sites. Our equations predicted that the ranges of slopes were 0.02-0.82 for logKP-logKOA plots and -0.82 to -0.02 for logKP-logPL plots at temperatures ranged of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C. Our new KOA-based equation was compared with the Harner-Bidleman equation that was derived at a condition of equilibrium, and the results indicated that our new equation has a better performance than the Harner-Bidleman equation in describing G/P partitioning behavior of PBDEs in air as functions of logKOA. We also found for the first time that the G/P partitioning of PBDE congeners would become saturated in the particulate phase respect to the gas phase if the ambient temperature is low enough. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and nonequilibrium status for PBDEs was also established using logKOA. The study presented in this paper provides a useful tool for environmental scientists in both monitoring and modeling research on G/P partitioning behavior for PBDEs in air. PMID:25042246

  2. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability of CERS for applications in plant ecophysiology. This technology can contribute to significant advances in research on the causes and mechanisms of tree and forest mortality.

  3. Emotion at work: identifying the emotional climate of night nursing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Reva Berman; Brooks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the emotional climate of the workplace and explores how it both shapes and is shaped by the emotions experienced, expressed and redefined by nurses. It extracts emotional aspects of an organizational climate framework developed by Litwin and Stringer and examines these with respect to nurse's experiences. The primary research was carried out at a general hospital NHS Trust in the East Midlands of the UK using a grounded theory methodology. The research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. The themes identified include many of those found by Litwin and Stringer, others which represent variations upon these, and a new set, which, when combined, identify the emotional climate of the organization. The findings have confirmed that the "experiment" of using a 33-year-old positivistic framework to investigate aspects of qualitative research has enabled a robust contribution to the conceptual area of emotional climate. PMID:12463648

  4. Emotion Telepresence: Emotion Augmentation through Affective Haptics and Visual Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetserukou, D.; Neviarouskaya, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper focuses on a novel concept of emotional telepresence. The iFeel_IM! system which is in the vanguard of this technology integrates 3D virtual world Second Life, intelligent component for automatic emotion recognition from text messages, and innovative affective haptic interfaces providing additional nonverbal communication channels through simulation of emotional feedback and social touch (physical co-presence). Users can not only exchange messages but also emotionally and physically feel the presence of the communication partner (e.g., family member, friend, or beloved person). The next prototype of the system will include the tablet computer. The user can realize haptic interaction with avatar, and thus influence its mood and emotion of the partner. The finger gesture language will be designed for communication with avatar. This will bring new level of immersion of on-line communication.

  5. The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Carol May

    Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

  6. Negotiating with emotion.

    PubMed

    Leary, Kimberlyn; Pillemer, Julianna; Wheeler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Some people are practically phobic about going to the bargaining table. If their minimum needs are met, they'll sign on the dotted line just to end the stress of dealing with people who have different agendas and styles. But that can be an expensive aversion, the authors write. When you're facing an important negotiation, rigorous preparation--running the numbers, scouting the marketplace, developing a plan B--is essential. But it's only half the story. The truth is that your passions matter in real-life deal making and dispute resolution. You need to understand, channel, and learn from your emotions in order to adapt to the situation at hand and engage others successfully. The authors studied 20 seasoned negotiators to explore their thoughts and feelings about the process. They invited their participants to find and combine pictures that metaphorically depicted those feelings and to describe in in-depth interviews the collages they'd created. Three reasons for the stressfulness of the negotiation experience emerged: lack of control, unpredictability, and the absence of feedback. This article includes a six-step warm-up exercise to help you prepare emotionally to negotiate effectively. PMID:23390744

  7. Networks of Emotion Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Riitta; Kivel, Mikko; Saramki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/). PMID:22276099

  8. Emotional isolation in BBC Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

  9. Measuring Emotion Socialization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Christy G.; Wallace, Tanner L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how school personnel can best support students' development of communication skills around feelings is critical to long-term health outcomes. The measurement of emotion socialization in schools facilitates future research in this area; we review existing measures of emotion socialization to assess their applicability…

  10. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This

  12. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled

  13. Mapping the Classroom Emotional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…

  14. Emotional dysfunctions in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Leonie A K; Radke, Sina; Morawetz, Carmen; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized primarily by motor signs but are also accompanied by emotional disturbances. Because of the limited knowledge about these dysfunctions, this Review provides an overview of emotional competencies in Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), with a focus on emotion recognition, emotion regulation, and depression. Most studies indicate facial emotion recognition deficits in HD and PD, whereas data for MS are inconsistent. On a neural level, dysfunctions of amygdala and striatum, among others, have been linked to these impairments. These dysfunctions also tap brain regions that are part of the emotion regulation network, suggesting problems in this competency, too. Research points to dysfunctional emotion regulation in MS, whereas findings for PD and HD are missing. The high prevalence of depression in all three disorders emphasizes the need for effective therapies. Research on emotional disturbances might improve treatment, thereby increasing patients' and caregivers' well-being. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1727-1743, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26011035

  15. On the Nature of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

  16. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  17. The importance of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Cheri

    2014-11-27

    Nurse managers who exhibit high emotional intelligence (EI) can elicit higher nurse-retention rates, better patient satisfaction and optimal organisational outcomes, and those who are emotionally intelligent tend consistently to model the positive behaviour that is expected of healthcare staff. PMID:25428315

  18. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  19. Young Preschoolers' Understanding of Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Couchoud, Elizabeth A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of age, response modality, and specific emotion on knowledge of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear in 45 preschoolers of 26-54 months were examined by means of puppet presentations. Results emphasize the emerging but sizable understanding of emotion on the part of young preschoolers. (CB)

  20. Emotional Intelligence: Components and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernet, Michael

    There is no accepted definition and no adequate measure for the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Some of the myriad issues surrounding EI are discussed here. One problem in the consideration of EI is the confusion between the terms "feelings" and "emotions." Differences between the two are examined and a working definition of feelings is…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  2. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  3. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  4. On the Nature of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect

  5. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  6. Emotional Availability: Foster Caregiving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the emotional availability of caregivers is explanatory for successful adolescent foster care placement--from initial placement of an adolescent to age eighteen or emancipation from foster care, as mandated by the state of Colorado. Emotional availability of foster caregivers and the phenomenon's…

  7. Decline in Topsoil Microbial Quotient, Fungal Abundance and C Utilization Efficiency of Rice Paddies under Heavy Metal Pollution across South China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Tong; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Dawen; Zheng, Jinwei; Yu, Xinyan; Pan, Genxing; Hussain, Qaiser; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural soils have been increasingly subject to heavy metal pollution worldwide. However, the impacts on soil microbial community structure and activity of field soils have been not yet well characterized. Topsoil samples were collected from heavy metal polluted (PS) and their background (BGS) fields of rice paddies in four sites across South China in 2009. Changes with metal pollution relative to the BGS in the size and community structure of soil microorganisms were examined with multiple microbiological assays of biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) measurement, plate counting of culturable colonies and phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis along with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene and real-time PCR assay. In addition, a 7-day lab incubation under constantly 25°C was conducted to further track the changes in metabolic activity. While the decrease under metal pollution in MBC and MBN, as well as in culturable population size, total PLFA contents and DGGE band numbers of bacteria were not significantly and consistently seen, a significant reduction was indeed observed under metal pollution in microbial quotient, in culturable fungal population size and in ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs consistently across the sites by an extent ranging from 6% to 74%. Moreover, a consistently significant increase in metabolic quotient was observed by up to 68% under pollution across the sites. These observations supported a shift of microbial community with decline in its abundance, decrease in fungal proportion and thus in C utilization efficiency under pollution in the soils. In addition, ratios of microbial quotient, of fungal to bacterial and qCO2 are proved better indicative of heavy metal impacts on microbial community structure and activity. The potential effects of these changes on C cycling and CO2 production in the polluted rice paddies deserve further field studies. PMID:22701725

  8. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

  9. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  10. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  11. Bowel distress and emotional conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A

    1991-01-01

    A psychodynamic assessment of 60 women with functional bowel disorder seen at St Mark's, a specialist hospital for disorders of the colon and rectum, has shown that most were trapped in severe emotional conflicts with which they were unable to cope. In many the bodily illnesses appeared to be an expression of these conflicts as well as a defence against experiencing them. The illnesses were then partly, or entirely, emotional conflicts that had become medicalized--emotional conflicts in illnesses clothing. The illnesses, usually precipitated by significant life events, often had their roots in emotional conflicts in infancy or childhood at which time a high proportion of the women had experienced a severe life trauma. The study also indicated that the conflicts that appeared to contribute to the illnesses were associated with emotional difficulties in fulfilling themselves as women. PMID:1994012

  12. A decomposition theorem for the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products with complicated dynamics of the quotient map

    SciTech Connect

    Efremova, L S

    2013-11-30

    We use the notions of the Ω-function and functions suitable to it, to give a detailed proof of a decomposition theorem for the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products of interval maps whose quotient maps have complicated dynamics and satisfy the additional condition of Ω-stability with respect to the C{sup 1}-norm. In our theorem, the space of C{sup 1}-smooth skew products is decomposed into a union of four nonempty, pairwise disjoint subspaces. We give examples of maps contained in each of the four subspaces. Bibliography: 46 titles.

  13. The relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Jamshidi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Marriage is known as the most important incident in everyone's life after birth. The most important purpose of marriage is achieving a life followed with love and affection beside the spouse and providing mental comfort and general health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence health and marital satisfaction among married people. Materials and Methods: The research method is descriptive- analytic and its design is comparative, done on 226 people including 114 persons (50 women and 64 men) having marital conflicts, and 112 people (58 women and 54 men) having marital satisfaction, by cluster random sampling from 13 districts of the city of Isfahan. Bar-on (with 90 questions) and Enrich marital satisfaction (115 questions) questionnaires were used for collecting the required information. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including independent t-tests, Pearson correlation, and linear regression analysis, using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results from the research showed that the scores of emotional intelligence in married people group having marriage conflicts who had referred to the administration of justice was 57.3 ± 13.2, and the random sample from the married people in the city of Isfahan as the comparing group had the score of 67.2 ± 9.5, and the difference of the average scores for the emotional intelligence for the two groups was significant (P < 0.001). The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relation between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (P < 0.001, r = 0.529). The results of linear regression also showed that the general emotional intelligence predicts the quality of marital satisfaction. The emotion of the predicting line of the marital satisfaction score (y) is in the form of: y = 14.8 + 0.656x, by using the emotional intelligence score (x). Conclusion: Regarding the close relations between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, education centers such as universities, organizations and family clinics could use this variable in micro- and macro-social plans for improving the quality of the married people relations and promoting health of the families and the society. PMID:24741664

  14. Relationship Between Emotions, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being of Professional Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S

    2016-05-01

    So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. PMID:26092207

  15. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W.; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher’s face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers’ facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  16. Emotion to emotion speech conversion in phoneme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Murtaza; Yildirim, Serdar; Busso, Carlos; Lee, Chul Min; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    Having an ability to synthesize emotional speech can make human-machine interaction more natural in spoken dialogue management. This study investigates the effectiveness of prosodic and spectral modification in phoneme level on emotion-to-emotion speech conversion. The prosody modification is performed with the TD-PSOLA algorithm (Moulines and Charpentier, 1990). We also transform the spectral envelopes of source phonemes to match those of target phonemes using LPC-based spectral transformation approach (Kain, 2001). Prosodic speech parameters (F0, duration, and energy) for target phonemes are estimated from the statistics obtained from the analysis of an emotional speech database of happy, angry, sad, and neutral utterances collected from actors. Listening experiments conducted with native American English speakers indicate that the modification of prosody only or spectrum only is not sufficient to elicit targeted emotions. The simultaneous modification of both prosody and spectrum results in higher acceptance rates of target emotions, suggesting that not only modeling speech prosody but also modeling spectral patterns that reflect underlying speech articulations are equally important to synthesize emotional speech with good quality. We are investigating suprasegmental level modifications for further improvement in speech quality and expressiveness.

  17. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    PubMed

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  18. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  19. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.

  20. Processing emotional category congruency between emotional facial expressions and emotional words.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Samantha; Palermo, Romina; Fox, Allison M

    2011-02-01

    Facial expressions are critical for effective social communication, and as such may be processed by the visual system even when it might be advantageous to ignore them. Previous research has shown that categorising emotional words was impaired when faces of a conflicting valence were simultaneously presented. In the present study, we examined whether emotional word categorisation would also be impaired when faces of the same (negative) valence but different emotional category (either angry, sad or fearful) were simultaneously presented. Behavioural results provided evidence for involuntary processing of basic emotional facial expression category, with slower word categorisation when the face and word categories were incongruent (e.g., angry word and sad face) than congruent (e.g., angry word and angry face). Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the presentation of the word-face pairs also revealed that emotional category congruency effects were evident from approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset. PMID:21432679

  1. The Dark Side of Emotion in the Classroom: Emotional Processes as Mediators of Teacher Communication Behaviors and Student Negative Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; McKenna-Buchanan, Timothy P.; Quinlan, Margaret M.; Titsworth, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Based on emotional response theory (ERT), recent researchers have observed connections between teachers' communication behaviors and students' emotional reactions. In the present study, we further elaborated ERT by exploring the effects of teacher communication behaviors and emotional processes on discrete negative emotions, including…

  2. Extraversion and emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E; Baird, Brendan M

    2004-03-01

    Six mood induction studies and a meta-analysis were conducted to test 2 models of the extraversion-pleasant affect relation. The affect-level model suggests that extraverts should be happier than introverts in both neutral and positive mood conditions. The reactivity model posits that extraverts react particularly strongly to pleasant stimuli and that they should be happier than introverts only in positive conditions. In all studies, extraverts failed to exhibit greater emotional reactivity when pleasantness items were analyzed. When activated positive affect items were analyzed, results were mixed. The meta-analysis confirmed that there is only a slight reactivity effect overall, and this effect emerges only in activated positive affect items. Furthermore, the meta-analysis showed that the correlation in neutral conditions is strong enough to support the affect-level model. PMID:15008650

  3. Analysis of mechanical preparations in extracted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments: value of the safety quotient.

    PubMed

    Blum, J Y; Machtou, P; Ruddle, C; Micallef, J P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Endographe to analyze the vertical forces and torque developed during mechanical preparations in extracted teeth. The data collected in this study may be used to calculate the safety quotient (SQ) as proposed by J.T. McSpadden. The SQ formula is defined as the torque required to break a file at D3 divided by the mean working torque required to cut dentin. The Endographe is a unique force-analyzer device equipped to measure, record, and generate graphs of the vertical forces and torque exerted during root canal preparation. All preparations were performed by endodontists in roots with narrow, more restrictive canals, larger, more open canals, or in roots sectioned in two halves. All canals, including the sectioned canals, were prepared with ProTaper files in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines for use. For narrow canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g.cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 232 (+/- 60) g (F2) and from 80 (+/- 24) g x cm (F1) to 150 (+/- 45) g x cm (S2), respectively. For large canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g x cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 340 (+/- 20) g (F1) and from 31 (+/- 9) g x cm (S2) to 96 (+/- 35) g x cm (SX), respectively. The SQ varied from 0.93 to 7.95 for narrow canals and from 1.58 to 14.50 for large canals. The SQ is intended to provide values that can be analyzed to predict whether a rotary file will have a tendency to break or will work safely during clinical use. However, if the formula is going to provide useful information, it must index the "rotation to failure torque" with the "mean working torque" at a specific location along the cutting blades of a file. Additionally, this mathematical formula does not account for factors such as the concentration of forces, the way the instruments are used, or the wear of the instruments. A precise protocol for canal preparation should emphasize using small flexible stainless steel hand files to create or verify that within any portion of a root canal there is sufficient space for rotary instruments to follow. When there is a confirmed smooth, reproducible glide path, then a "secured" space exists to safely guide the more flexible terminal extent of a rotary NiTi file. Endogrammes provide an innovative approach to the analysis of mechanical preparations and suggest that the ProTaper shaping files are best used with lateral forces to decrease the coronal screwing effect. The ProTaper finishing files should be used with slow penetration and be introduced only into canals that have a confirmed smooth and reproducible glide path. When any part of the overall length of a canal has been secured, then the number of instruments, the time spent utilizing each instrument, and the overall time progressing through a sequence of instruments to shape this region of the canal is reduced. PMID:14503829

  4. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  5. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, C; Quispe-Escudero, D; Mathur, A; Ernst, M

    2015-01-01

    As healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over two separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented neutral and negative pictures, with the instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, but not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotion reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  6. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    PubMed

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120

  7. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  8. Emotion processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, N L; Greve, K W

    1997-09-01

    Emotion processing deficits may have an important effect on the quality of life of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and their families, yet there are few studies in this area and little is known about the cause of such deficits in AD. This study sought to determine if some AD patients have a disruption in a specific right hemisphere emotion processing system, and to determine if the processing of emotional facial expression is more vulnerable to the pathology of AD than is the perception of emotional prosody. It was specifically hypothesized that patients with greater right hemisphere dysfunction (low spatial AD patients) would be impaired on emotion processing tasks relative to those with predominantly left hemisphere dysfunction (low verbal AD patients). Both groups showed impairment on emotion processing tasks but for different reasons. The low verbal patients performed poorly on the affect processing measures because they had difficulty comprehending and/or remembering the task instructions. In contrast, low spatial AD patients have emotion processing deficits that are independent of language and/or memory and may be due to a more general visuoperceptual deficit that affects the perception of static but not dynamic affective stimuli. PMID:9322399

  9. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  10. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  11. Yoga therapy for developing emotional intelligence in mid-life managers

    PubMed Central

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Nagendra, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Business executives’ lives have become a never-ending race against time, technology, and targets. This race creates tension, which leads to dissatisfaction and frustration and eventually manifests itself as psychological and physiological stress with mental and emotional drain. This modern lifestyle intensifies the stress leading to “excessive tension” and consequent deterioration in “executive efficiency”. Objective: To assess emotional intelligent quotient (EQ) in managers undergoing yoga-based Self Management of Excessive Tension (SMET) program. Materials and Methods: 72 managers participated in this study which is of “single group pre-post design.” The EQ test developed by Prof N. K. Chadha from University of Delhi was administered as pre and post the 5 days of SMET program. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. Results: The data analysis showed 72.02% significant increase (P<0.001) in EQ. Conclusion: The results suggest that participation in a SMET program was associated with improvement in EQ and may have implications for “executive efficiency.” PMID:21897736

  12. Emotional Coherence in Primary School Headship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on emotion and leadership. It views emotions as the language of relationships, because it is through the language and experience of emotion that we contextualize not only our individuality but also our sense of belonging in a group. The article argues that emotion is inherent to the practice of leadership rather than separate…

  13. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to

  14. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in

  15. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant

  16. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and

  17. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  18. Emptiness and the Education of the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhist philosophy offers a plausible theory of the education of the emotions. Emotions are analyzed as cognitive feeling events in which the subject is passive. The education of the emotions is possible if and only if it is possible to evaluate one's emotional life (the normative condition) and it is possible to…

  19. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

  20. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),