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1

Assessing emotional intelligence: reliability and validity of the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined reliability and validity of a new measure of emotional (i.e. non-cognitive) intelligence, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997, in a sample of 243 university students. Results indicated that the EQ-i domain and component scales had good item homogeneity and internal consistency. Scores were not unduly affected by response styles or biases. The EQ-i scales had

Darek Dawda; Stephen D. Hart

2000-01-01

2

The BarOn Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present manuscript is an empirically based theoretical paper that presents, describes, and exami- nes the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI) in deep. First, a description of the Emo- tional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i), which has played an instrumental role in developing the model, is given. The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. It

Reuven Bar-On

2005-01-01

3

Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

2011-01-01

4

Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

2009-01-01

5

Emotional Intelligence and Decisional Conflict Styles: Some Empirical Evidence among Italian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relationship between emotional intelligence and decisional conflict styles. Five hundred and twenty-eight Italian high school students (median age = 18; SD = 0.76) were given the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: short (Bar-On EQ-i:S). The "Intrapersonal" dimension…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Blustein, David L.

2010-01-01

6

A Study of School District Superintendents and the Connection of Emotional Intelligence to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study highlights the lack of studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. There are numerous studies of leadership and several studies about emotional intelligence; however, there are few studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. The study utilized the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) survey and the…

Hansen, Richard A.

2009-01-01

7

Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

2012-01-01

8

Development of Emotional Intelligence in First-Year Undergraduate Students in a Frontier State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as knowing the emotional state of self and others. Its relevance for college student development is only beginning to be researched. In the present research, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was administered to college students at the beginning and end of a semester-long course designed…

Leedy, Gail M.; Smith, James E.

2012-01-01

9

The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the empirical association between the apparently similar constructs of emotional intelligence and alexithymia was examined using latent variable analysis in a large community sample of adults (N=734). The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess alexithymia and emotional intelligence. Results revealed that although the constructs are independent, they

James D. A Parker; Graeme J Taylor; R. Michael Bagby

2001-01-01

10

Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: self-report versus ability-based measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to general press assertions that training emotionally intelligent children will lead to great rewards, this study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement in college students, using both self-report and ability-based measures of EI. Specifically, the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability-based measure) and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i, a self-report

Raymond M O'Connor; Ian S Little

2003-01-01

11

The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

2012-01-01

12

Emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy: a study of Turkish EFL pre-service teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy among 90 English language pre-service teachers from a university in Turkey. Data sources included Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy’s Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale and Reuven Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory. The findings indicated that Turkish EFL pre-service teachers felt more efficacious in managing the class rather than in making the class

Zeynep Koço?lu

2011-01-01

13

Quotients of the Dwork pencil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the geometry of the Dwork pencil in any dimension. More specifically, we study the automorphism group G of the generic fiber of the pencil over the complex projective line, and the quotients of it by various subgroups of G. In particular, we compute the Hodge numbers of these quotients via orbifold cohomology.

Bini, Gilberto; Garbagnati, Alice

2014-01-01

14

Quantum walks on quotient graphs  

SciTech Connect

A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph {gamma} is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A. [Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2007-06-15

15

Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university  

PubMed Central

Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence.

Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

2014-01-01

16

Chow Quotients of Grassmannians II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider Kapranov's Chow quotient compactification of the moduli space of ordered n-tuples of hyperplanes in P^{r-1} in linear general position. For r=2 this is canonically identified with the Grothendieck-Knudsen compactification of M_{0,n} which has among others the nice properties 1) Modular meaning: stable pointed rational curves 2) Canonical description of limits of one parameter degenerations 3) Natural Mori theoretic

Sean Keel; Jenia Tevelev

2004-01-01

17

Emotional intelligence of dental students and patient satisfaction.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the degree of correlation between emotional intelligence of dental students, patient satisfaction and related factors. A total of 123 senior students and their patients participated in the study. Students completed the 133 item Bar-On Standardised Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQI) and patients completed a seven item satisfaction questionnaire. The mean score for EI of female students was 442 and 462 for male students, for an overall average score of 452 for all dental students. Male students significantly scored higher in stress control (P = 0.0), general mood (P = 0.011) and intrapersonal scales (P = 0.024). There was a statistically significant relationship between student gender and average EI score (P = 0.007). Married students scored higher in adaptability (P = 0.019) and general mood scales (P = 0.039). Significant relationships existed between students' gender (P = 0.009), level of patient education (P = 0.0) and patient satisfaction levels. Not recording a significant relationship for the interpersonal scale (r = 0.134), there was a significant relationship amongst intrapersonal, stress control, adaptability, and general mood dimensions of the students and patient satisfaction reports. There was a statistically significant relationship between general emotional intelligence score of the students and patient satisfaction. Patients of the students with high general emotional intelligence scores were significantly more satisfied with treatment than patients of students with low EI. PMID:20646037

Azimi, S; AsgharNejad Farid, A A; Kharazi Fard, M J; Khoei, N

2010-08-01

18

The Quotient Café  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java application helps students understand the partial quotients algorithm of division in the context of dividing food equally. Students select a character and a type of food as well as the quantities of characters (divisor, 1-50) and food (dividend, 1-500) â or have the applet make selections randomly. The applet creates a story problem and leads users through the algorithm one step at a time, using questions related to the meaning of each step, and displays graphics illustrating the steps. Remainders can be expressed as whole numbers or fractions. An online calculator is available to help with calculations.

Penney, Laurie

2012-01-01

19

Self quotient image for face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of facial recognition techniques is often affected by the variation of illumination, such as shadows and illumination direction changes. In this paper, we present a novel framework, called the self-quotient image, for the elimination of the lighting effect in the image. Although this method has a similar invariant form to the quotient image by Shashua etc. (2001), it

Haitao Wang; Stan Z. Li; Yangsheng Wang; Jianjun Zhang

2004-01-01

20

Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

2003-11-24

21

Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

2014-01-01

22

Submanifolds and quotient manifolds in noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and study noncommutative generalizations of submanifolds and quotient manifolds, for the derivation-based differential calculus introduced by M.~Dubois-Violette and P.~Michor. We give examples to illustrate these definitions.

Thierry Masson

1996-01-01

23

Self-Reported Sleep Correlates with Prefrontal-Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Emotional Functioning  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Prior research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with declines in some aspects of emotional intelligence and increased severity on indices of psychological disturbance. Sleep deprivation is also associated with reduced prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity, potentially reflecting impaired top-down modulation of emotion. It remains unknown whether this modified connectivity may be observed in relation to more typical levels of sleep curtailment. We examined whether self-reported sleep duration the night before an assessment would be associated with these effects. Design: Participants documented their hours of sleep from the previous night, completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: Sixty-five healthy adults (33 men, 32 women), ranging in age from 18-45 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Greater self-reported sleep the preceding night was associated with higher scores on all scales of the EQ-i but not the MSCEIT, and with lower symptom severity scores on half of the psychopathology scales of the PAI. Longer sleep was also associated with stronger negative functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Moreover, greater negative connectivity between these regions was associated with higher EQ-i and lower symptom severity on the PAI. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep duration from the preceding night was negatively correlated with prefrontal-amygdala connectivity and the severity of subjective psychological distress, while positively correlated with higher perceived emotional intelligence. More sleep was associated with higher emotional and psychological strength. Citation: Killgore WDS. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1597-1608.

Killgore, William D. S.

2013-01-01

24

Psychometric analysis of the Empathy Quotient (EQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the dimensionality of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) using two statistical approaches: Rasch and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Participants included N=658 with an autism spectrum condition diagnosis (ASC), N=1375 family members of this group, and N=3344 typical controls. Data were applied to the Rasch model (Rating Scale) using WINSTEPS. The Rasch model explained 83% of the variance. Reliability

C. Allison; S. Baron-Cohen; S. J. Wheelwright; M. H. Stone; S. J. Muncer

2011-01-01

25

Convergence of random extremal quotient and product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limit distribution functions are obtained for the extremal quotient, extremal product and the geometric range with random indices under nonrandom centering and normalization. Moreover, this paper considers the conditions under which the cases of random and nonrandom indices give the same asymptotic results. Some illustrative examples are given.

H. M Barakat; E. M Nigm

1999-01-01

26

Incremental maintenance of quotient cube for median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data cube pre-computation is an important concept for supporting OLAP(Online Analytical Processing) and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalence partitions. Such an approach is not only useful for

Cuiping Li; Gao Cong; Anthony K. H. Tung; Shan Wang

2004-01-01

27

A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Emotional intelligence measures vary widely in both their content and in their method of assessment. In particular, emotional intelligence measures tend to use either a self-report personality-based approach, an informant approach, or an ability-based assessment procedure. In this paper, the measurement and psychometric properties of four of the major emotional intelligence measures (Emotional Competence Inventory, Emotional Quotient Inventory, Multifactor

Jeffrey M. Conte

2005-01-01

28

Computing Iceberg Quotient Cubes with Bounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In complex data warehouse applications, high dimensional data cubes can become very big. The quotient cube is attractive in\\u000a that it not only summarizes the original cube but also it keeps the roll-up and drill-down semantics between cube cells. In\\u000a this paper we study the problem of semantic summarization of iceberg cubes, which comprises only cells that satisfy given\\u000a aggregation

Xiuzhen Zhang; Pauline Lienhua Chou; Kotagiri Ramamohanarao

2006-01-01

29

The relationship between emotional intelligence and clinical teaching effectiveness in nursing faculty.  

PubMed

Nursing faculty play an important role in facilitating nursing student learning and shaping student experience in the clinical setting. Emotional intelligence (EI) in clinical nursing faculty may be one avenue to develop teaching effectiveness. This study investigated the relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness of nursing faculty in an undergraduate nursing program. Using a cross-sectional correlation design, data were collected from a convenience sample of nursing faculty (N = 47) using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (EQ-i:S), the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) and a demographic data page. The results indicated a statistically significant positive relationship between the EQ-i:S and the NCTEI total scores (rs = .599, P < .01) and between many subscales of these tools. These findings contribute new knowledge to nursing education, including the following: (a) a significant relationship between EI and clinical teaching effectiveness exists, (b) faculty exhibit effective overall EI functioning with room to enhance competencies, and (c) faculty members see themselves as effective in their clinical teaching. Implications for clinical teaching practice include the need for faculty development and strengthening the faculty-student relationship. Possibilities for future research are discussed. PMID:22818193

Allen, Dianne E; Ploeg, Jenny; Kaasalainen, Sharon

2012-01-01

30

Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

2009-01-01

31

Averaging and Globalising Quotients of Informetric and Scientometric Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of impact factors for "Journal Citation Reports" subject categories focuses on the difference between an average of quotients and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages. Applications in the context of informetrics and scientometrics are given, including journal prices and subject discipline influence scores. (Author/LRW)

Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

1996-01-01

32

Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

33

Averaging and globalising quotients of informetric and scientometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the particular case of the average impact factor of a subfield versus the impact factor of this subfield as a whole, the difference is studied between an average of quotients, denoted as AQ, and a global average, obtained as a quotient of averages, and denoted as GQ. In the case of impact factors, AQ becomes the average impact

Leo Egghe; Ronald Rousseau

1996-01-01

34

The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting  

PubMed Central

Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind?s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children?s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children?s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; p<0.01); but not between parenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother?s total EQ and child?s total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; p<0.05) as well as authoritative parenting style and mother?s EQ (r=0.286; p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between child anxiety and behavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; p<0.01). Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence that the child?s behavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother?s emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style. Key words:Anxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry.

Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

2012-01-01

35

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus*  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (P<0.01) and significantly higher in urban as compared to rural residents (85.1±19.5 versus 77.3±10.8 respectively, P=0.02). Patients with coexisting amblyopia and alternate deviation had lower IQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

2013-01-01

36

Efficient Computation of Iceberg Quotient Cube by Bounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quotient cube is a summary structure for a data cube that preserves its semantics. The iceberg cubing problem is to compute the multidimensional group-by partitions that satisfy given aggregation constraints. As we know, there has been no algorithm that computes iceberg quotient cube for nonantimonotone aggregate functions. In this paper, we propose a new structure hyper-star-tree and an efficient algorithm,

Xinbao Wang; Yongqing Zheng; Chen Luo; Fang Teng

2008-01-01

37

Vocal fold vibration amplitude, open quotient, speed quotient and their variability along glottal length: kymographic data from normal subjects.  

PubMed

Abstract Quantitative knowledge about healthy vocal fold vibration characteristics provides the basis for an objective assessment of vocal fold vibrations. In this study, using high-speed videolaryngoscopy the alterations of the relative vibration amplitudes, open quotients, and speed quotients were analyzed along the glottal length in 30 male and 30 female healthy subjects. The maximum vibration amplitude was identified at 41.1% ± 10.8% and 46.5% ± 18.0% of the visible glottal length in females and males, respectively. The average open quotients decreased in females and males from posterior to anterior, while the speed quotients did not change systematically. The reported normative values can be used to distinguish normal and abnormal vibrations in clinical practice when aiming at quantitative diagnosis of functional voice disorders. PMID:23173880

Lohscheller, Jörg; Svec, Jan G; Döllinger, Michael

2013-12-01

38

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This photograph of the northeast abutment shows cracks and efflorescence which as developed at the edge of the arch entrados. These effects show the thickness of the arch casting as it is contained by the spandrels and abutment. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

39

Emotional regulation and emotional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current neofunctionalist views of emotion underscore the biologically adaptive and psychologically constructive contributions of emotion to organized behavior, but little is known of the development of the emotional regulatory processes by which this is fostered. Emotional regulation refers to the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions. This review provides a developmental outline of emotional

Ross A. Thompson

1991-01-01

40

Emotional Intelligence and Beliefs about Children, Discipline and Classroom Practices among Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research sought to explore how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes the beliefs of pre-service teachers with respect to issues such as classroom management and student behavior. 101 pre-service teachers were recruited from undergraduate and graduate education courses at a private, mid-sized university. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i),…

Flanagan, Maryclare E.

2009-01-01

41

The Children’s Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient: Sex Differences in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) were developed and administered to n = 1,256 parents of typically developing children, aged 4–11 years. Both measures showed good test–retest reliability and\\u000a high internal consistency. As predicted, girls scored significantly higher on the EQ-C, and boys scored significantly higher\\u000a on the SQ-C. A further sample of n = 265 children with Autism Spectrum

Bonnie Auyeung; Sally Wheelwright; Carrie Allison; Matthew Atkinson; Nelum Samarawickrema; Simon Baron-Cohen

2009-01-01

42

Academic achievement in high school: does emotional intelligence matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school was examined. Students (N=667) attending a high school in Huntsville, Alabama completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:YV). At the end of the academic year the EQ-i:YV data was matched with students’ academic records for the year. When EQ-i:YV variables were compared in groups who had achieved very different levels

James D. A. Parker; Ronald E. Creque; David L. Barnhart; Jan Irons Harris; Sarah A. Majeski; Laura M. Wood; Barbara J. Bond; Marjorie J. Hogan

2004-01-01

43

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

44

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, emotional eating can be a real problem, causing serious ...

45

Technical versus Non-Technical Students: Does Emotional Intelligence Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intellectual Quotient (IQ) has long been considered in education as the deciding factor in a person's success but have we overlooked emotional intelligence (EI) in determining one's success in life? In my attempt to reexamine the acceptance of EI, I studied the difference in EI between different groups of undergraduates in Singapore in terms of…

Fatt, James Poon Teng

2004-01-01

46

The Role of EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Their Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between EFL teachers' emotional quotient (EQ) and their pedagogical success in language institutes. In addition, the role played by their years of teaching experience in their EQ and the relationship between their age and EQ were also studied. For this purpose, 89 EFL teachers were chosen from different…

Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Moafian, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

47

Convergent, Discriminant, and Incremental Validity of Competing Measures of Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the convergent, discriminant, and incre- mental validity of one ability test of emotional intelligence (EI)—the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)—and two self-report measures of EI—the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) and the self-report EI test (SREIT). The MSCEIT showed minimal relations to the EQ-i and SREIT, whereas the latter two measures were moderately interrelated. Among EImeasures, the MSCEIT was

Marc A. Brackett; John D. Mayer

2003-01-01

48

The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Spectrum Quotient-Children's Version (AQ-Child) is a parent-report questionnaire that aims to quantify autistic traits in children 4-11 years old. The range of scores on the AQ-Child is 0-150. It was administered to children with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) (n = 540) and a general population sample (n = 1,225). Results showed a…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie

2008-01-01

49

Families of G-constellations over resolutions of quotient singularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a finite subgroup of GL_n(C). A study is made of the ways in which resolutions of the quotient space C^n \\/ G can parametrise G-constellations, that is, G-regular finite length sheaves. These generalise G-clusters, which are used in the McKay correspondence to construct resolutions of orbifold singularities. A complete classification theorem is achieved, in which all the

Timothy Logvinenko

2003-01-01

50

Quotients, exactness, and nuclearity in the operator system category  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue our study of tensor products in the operator system category. We\\u000adefine operator system quotients and exactness in this setting and refine the\\u000anotion of nuclearity by studying operator systems that preserve various pairs\\u000aof tensor products. One of our main goals is to relate these refinements of\\u000anuclearity to the Kirchberg conjecture. In particular, we prove that

Ali S. Kavruk; Vern I. Paulsen; Ivan G. Todorov; Mark Tomforde

2010-01-01

51

Pressure dependence of the thermoelastic quotient for three glasses  

SciTech Connect

The interrelationship between the mechanical work done on a material in the elastic range and changes in its thermodynamic properties, that is, between stress and strain, on the one hand, and temperature and entropy, on the other, is known as the thermoelastic effect. The phenomenon is exactly adiabatic and is characterized by the thermoelastic quotient commonly referred to as thermo-elastic constant. The thermoelastic effect can be used for stress analysis by monitoring the stress fluctuations by means of infrared radiometry. Also, it can be applied to study the anharmonicity in materials by measuring the temperature changes associated with adiabatic pressure changes. In this paper thermodynamic expressions are derived for the pressure derivative of the thermoelastic quotient under adiabatic as well as isothermal conditions. The derived expressions are applied to investigate the thermoelastic effect for the three glasses, namely, silica glass, soda-lime silica glass, and lead-silica glass. The isothermal pressure derivative of the thermoelastic quotient is evaluated for the three glasses. The isothermal volume derivative of the Gruneisen function is calculated.

Padmaja, A. [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

52

Confined Alumina Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In an earlier study on unconfined alumina bar-on-bar impact measured velocity history (using VISAR) data at an impact velocity of 100 m/s showed that the material response is elastic. At higher impact velocities of 220 m/s and 300 m/s, the data suggested the material behavior is inelastic. This study is extended to confined alumina bars. Alumina bars (12.7-mm diameter) were shrunk fit into 3.17 mm thick steel sleeves to provide confinement stress. Axial velocity histories at the far end of the confined AD998 target bar are measured at nominal impact speeds of 200 m/s, 300 m/s, and 500 m/s. Lateral expansion of the confinement sleeve around the impactor and target bars during impact is photographed using a high-speed (Imacon) camera. Peak axial velocities increase from 0.135 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bars to 0.170 mm/{mu}s for confined bars at a nominal impact velocity of 200 m/s. At an impact velocity of {approx}300 m/s peak axial velocity of confined bar increase to 0.200 mm/{mu}s from 0.170 mm/{mu}s for unconfined bar. At {approx}500 m/s the confinement shatters on impact and peak axial velocity is measured to be almost same as that for {approx}200 m/s. These results show that the confinement provided by a 3.17-mm thick steel sleeve to alumina bar enhances its impact response for impact velocities to {approx}300 m/s and confined alumina behaves as inelastic at the lowest impact velocity of 200 m/s.

Brar, N. S. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Research Institute, University of Dayton, OH 45469-0182 (United States); Rajendran, A. M. [US Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2006-07-28

53

Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport  

SciTech Connect

Today's "grand challenge" neutron transport problems require 3-D meshes with billions of cells, hundreds of energy groups, and accurate quadratures and scattering expansions. Leadership-class computers provide platforms on which high-fidelity fluxes can be calculated. However, appropriate methods are needed that can use these machines effectively. Such methods must be able to use hundreds of thousands of cores and have good convergence properties. Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) is an eigenvalue solver that has been added to the Sn code Denovo to address convergence. Rayleigh quotient iteration is an optimal shifted inverse iteration method that should converge in fewer iterations than the more common power method and other shifted inverse iteration methods for many problems of interest. Denovo's RQI uses a new multigroup Krylov solver for the fixed source solutions inside every iteration that allows parallelization in energy in addition to space and angle. This Krylov solver has been shown to scale successfully to 200,000 cores: for example one test problem scaled from 69,120 cores to 190,080 cores with 98% efficiency. This paper shows that RQI works for some small problems. However, the Krylov method upon which it relies does not always converge because RQI creates ill-conditioned systems. This result leads to the conclusion that preconditioning is needed to allow this method to be applicable to a wider variety of problems.

Slaybaugh, R [University of Wisconsin; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin

2012-01-01

54

Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement  

PubMed Central

Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu?K? radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement.

Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D.; Wagner, Trixie

2013-01-01

55

Emotional maltreatment.  

PubMed

Child abuse is a problem that affects the lives of many American children. The public is often bombarded with information regarding horrific cases of physical and sexual abuse. Emotional maltreatment, however, has been slow to achieve recognition as a serious social problem for a variety of reasons. Compared with physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment is more difficult to identify and define, and good epidemiological data are not available. An erroneous perception also exists that the sequelae of emotional maltreatment are less severe than that of physical and/or sexual abuse. Prompt identification of emotional maltreatment, appropriate intervention and referral, and reporting of concerns to child protective services are essential to the health and well-being of the child. This article will define emotional maltreatment, discuss consequences of emotional maltreatment, and provide implications for pediatric nurse practitioner practice. PMID:23099310

Hornor, Gail

2012-01-01

56

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

57

Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from high school to university was used as the context for examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. During the first month of classes 372 first-year full-time students at a small Ontario university completed the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:Short). At the end of the academic year the EQ-i:Short data was matched with

James D. A. Parker; Laura J. Summerfeldt; Marjorie J. Hogan; Sarah A. Majeski

2004-01-01

58

A simple activity quotient for detecting pollution?induced stress in fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activity quotient (Aq) is described which can be used to detect the stress response of fishes to sublethal concentrations of pollutants. The quotient considers three variables; ventilation frequency (Y), coughing rate (C), and pectoral fin activity (PA), and is represented importance of a respiratory component.(numerator values) and an activity component (denominator value) are indicated and constancy of one variable

A. Dennis Lemly

1983-01-01

59

Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

2010-01-01

60

Expressed emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed emotion (EE) refers to the quality of the emotional climate between a relative and a family member with a serious psychiatric disorder. Well-established, it has proven to be a reliable predictor of the relapse rate of psychiatric patients. In this article, the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), the standard instrument, and 11 alternative EE measures will be presented and discussed

G Van Humbeeck; Ch Van Audenhove; M De Hert; G Pieters; G Storms

2002-01-01

61

Relaxing the reciprocal error needed to achieve a fixed quotient error bound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance arithmetic algorithms are often based on functional iteration and these algorithms do not directly produce a remainder. Without the remainder, rounding often requires additional computation or increased quotient precision. Often multiplicative divide algorithms compute the quotient as the product of the dividend and the reciprocal of the divisor, Q =a x (1/b). Typical rounding techniques require that the quotient error be less than a maximum bound such as 1/2 unit in the last place (ulp). When using normalized floating point numbers the quotient error may be approximately twice as large as the reciprocal error since amax ? 2 and Eq ? 2 x Er. If the rounding algorithm requires |Eq| < 1/2 ulp, then the reciprocal error bound must be |Er| < 1/4 ulp. This work proposes a quantitative method to relax the reciprocal error bound for normalized floating point numbers to achieve a fixed quotient error bound. The proposed error bound of Er < 1/(2 x b) guarantees the quotient error, Eq < 1/2 ulp and the reciprocal error is in the range of 1/4 to 1/2 ulp. Using the relaxed error bound, the reciprocal error may be greater in the region where it is hardest to compute without increasing the quotient error bound.

Liddicoat, Albert A.

2003-12-01

62

White matter microstructure correlates of mathematical giftedness and intelligence quotient.  

PubMed

Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain activation between mathematically gifted adolescents and controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mathematical giftedness, intelligent quotient (IQ), and the microstructure of white matter tracts in a sample composed of math-gifted adolescents and aged-matched controls. Math-gifted subjects were selected through a national program based on detecting enhanced visuospatial abilities and creative thinking. We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure in neuroanatomical connectivity. The processing included voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses of the fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter which is purportedly related to white matter microstructure. In a whole-sample analysis, IQ showed a significant positive correlation with FA, mainly in the corpus callosum, supporting the idea that efficient information transfer between hemispheres is crucial for higher intellectual capabilities. In addition, math-gifted adolescents showed increased FA (adjusted for IQ) in white matter tracts connecting frontal lobes with basal ganglia and parietal regions. The enhanced anatomical connectivity observed in the forceps minor and splenium may underlie the greater fluid reasoning, visuospatial working memory, and creative capabilities of these children. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2619-2631, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24038774

Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Javier; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

2014-06-01

63

Neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotient in autosomal dominant Segawa disease.  

PubMed

Segawa disease is a rare dystonia due to autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (adGTPCH) deficiency, affecting dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Recently, the clinical phenotype was expanded to include psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sleep disturbances. Although cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributable to dopamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuitry, intelligence is considered normal in Segawa disease. Our aim was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotients (IQ) in a series of individuals with adGTPCH deficiency. The assessment included a structured clinical interview following the DSM-IV-TR's guidelines, Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Equivalent tests were applied to pediatric patients as appropriate for their age group. Fourteen patients with adGTPCH deficiency were evaluated (seven adult and seven pediatric patients). Depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not more common than expected in the general population. However, the seven adults showed impulsivity in the BIS-11; nine individuals had an IQ in the range of borderline intellectual functioning to mild mental retardation, and sleep disturbances were found in four individuals. We found no differences between these results and the motor impairment. In conclusion, our findings would suggest that cognitive impairment, and impulsivity in adults, may be associated with Segawa disease. PMID:21556877

López-Laso, Eduardo; Sánchez-Raya, Araceli; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Gual, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Mateos-González, María Elena; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis; Ochoa-Sepúlveda, Juan José; Ormazabal, Aida; Opladen, Thomas; Klein, Christine; Lao-Villadóniga, José Ignacio; Beyer, Katrin; Artuch, Rafael

2011-12-01

64

Experiencing Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests activities for elementary school students that focus on their emotions. Provides a list of picture books that deal with the following: general feelings, anger, embarrassment, fear/anxiety, happiness, hate, jealousy, loneliness, love, pride, and sadness. (AEF)

Brodie, Carolyn S.

1996-01-01

65

THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD? ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

66

Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

2011-01-01

67

Does a self-report measure for emotional intelligence assess something different than general intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the theoretical claims made regarding the concept of emotional intelligence is that it concerns a range of human abilities which are independent of the more familiar concept of intellectual ability. This study was conducted to evaluate the divergent validity of Bar-On's EQ-i as compared to the General Adult Mental Ability scale (GAMA), a measure of fluid intelligence. In

J. J. L. Derksen; Ingrid Kramer; Michael Katzko

2002-01-01

68

[Emotional intelligence: from alexithymia to emotional control].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to gain additional information about the relationship between emotional control and alexithymia, on one hand, and emotional intelligence on the other. The subjects were 251 university students who completed the Emotional Expression and Control Scale (EEC), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). The results show that both constructs explored are significantly related with emotional intelligence: emotional control positively and alexithymia negatively in all its dimensions. These findings revealed that both emotional control and alexithymia are significantly related to emotional intelligence. Thus confirming that emotional intelligence and alexithymia are inverse but strongly overlapping constructs; albeit also consistent with previous reports that alexithymic individuals lack the regulation by cognitively processing inherent to emotional control, and necessarily also to emotional intelligence while recognizable as one of its characteristics. PMID:15631852

Veríssimo, Ramiro

2003-01-01

69

Oxytocin attenuates feelings of hostility depending on emotional context and individuals' characteristics  

PubMed Central

In humans, oxytocin (OT) enhances prosocial behaviour. However, it is still unclear how the prosocial effects of OT are modulated by emotional features and/or individuals' characteristics. In a placebo-controlled design, we tested 20 healthy male volunteers to investigate these behavioural and neurophysiological modulations using magnetoencephalography. As an index of the individuals' characteristics, we used the empathy quotient (EQ), the autism spectrum quotient (AQ), and the systemising quotient (SQ). Only during the perception of another person's angry face was a higher SQ a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial change, both in the behavioural and neurophysiological indicators. In addition, a lower EQ was only a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial changes in the neurophysiological indicators during the perception of angry faces. Both on the behavioural and the neurophysiological level, the effects of OT were specific for anger and correlated with a higher SQ.

Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Higashida, Haruhiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Ueno, Sanae; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Hideo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Minabe, Yoshio

2012-01-01

70

Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the relationship between emo- tional intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were ex- pected to be two distinct sets of abilities. Intercorrelations and confirma-

Zorana Ivcevic; Marc A. Brackett; John D. Mayer

2007-01-01

71

Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood  

PubMed Central

This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation and the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect. Emotion regulation was assessed in terms of individuals’ likelihood of maintaining adaptive emotion states. There were no age differences in adults’ co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions. In contrast to theories suggesting age would be associated with greater emotion complexity, the findings revealed that older adults had lower differentiation scores than younger adults. Age was also associated with more adaptive patterns of emotion regulation. Specifically, older adults persisted in low negative states and moved out of high negative states more readily than younger adults. Finally, neuroticism, self-concept incoherence, mean daily stress, and emotion complexity were associated with emotion regulation. Notably, adults who reported a greater mix of positive and negative affect moved out of high negative affect states more rapidly than adults with lower co-occurrence scores. This finding is in keeping with a growing body of work suggesting that positive affect promotes recovery from negative affect. Overall, the findings suggest that although emotion complexity is associated with emotion regulation, it does not appear to be a key factor underlying age differences in emotion regulation.

Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

2011-01-01

72

Peripheral nervous control of cold-induced reduction in the respiratory quotient of the rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-exposed rats show a reduction in the respiratory quotient which is indicative of a relative shift from carbohydrates to lipids as substrates for oxidative metabolism. In the present study, the effects of food deprivation and cold exposure on the respiratory quotient were observed. In addition, the involvement of the three main branches of the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic) was investigated by means of synaptic blockade with propranolol, atropine, and quinine, respectively. Both propranolol and quinine blocked the cold-induced decrease in respiratory quotient and increase in heat production, whereas atropine had only minor and very brief effects. It is concluded that both the sympathetic and somatic branches are involved in the metabolic changes associated with cold-induced thermogenesis and that the increase in metabolic heat production involves a shift from carbohydrate to lipid utilization irrespective of which of the two branches is activated.

Refinetti, Roberto

1990-03-01

73

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

74

Emotion is for influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional approaches to emotion are rapidly gaining in popularity. Thus far the functions of emotions have been conceptualised and studied mainly at the intrapersonal level of analysis, the key question being how individuals are influenced by the emotions they experience. Relatively little is known about the interpersonal effects of emotions; that is, how one person's emotions influence other people's cognitions,

Gerben A. Van Kleef; Evert A. Van Doorn; Marc W. Heerdink; Lukas F. Koning

2012-01-01

75

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

76

Recursive Double-Size Modular Multiplications without Extra Cost for Their Quotients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for computing the quotient (ë<\\/font\\u000a>ab\\/n û<\\/font\\u000a>\\\\lfloor ab\\/n \\\\rfloor) of Euclidean divisions from the difference of two remainders (ab mod n -<\\/font\\u000a> ab mod n+1)(ab \\\\pmod{n} - ab \\\\pmod{n+1}) was proposed by Fischer and Seifert. The technique allows a 2?-bit modular multiplication to work on most ?-bit modular multipliers.\\u000a However, the cost of the quotient computation

Masayuki Yoshino; Katsuyuki Okeya; Camille Vuillaume

2009-01-01

77

Binary Threshold Sequences Derived from Carmichael Quotients with Even Numbers Modulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a family of 2e+1-periodic binary threshold sequences and a family of p2-periodic binary threshold sequences by using Carmichael quotients modulo 2e(e>2) and 2p (p is an odd prime), respectively. These are extensions of the construction derived from Fermat quotients modulo an odd prime in our earlier work. We determine exact values of the linear complexity, which are larger than half of the period. For cryptographic purpose, the linear complexities of the sequences in this letter are of desired values.

Wu, Chenhuang; Chen, Zhixiong; Du, Xiaoni

78

Emotional eating: eating when emotional or emotional about eating?  

PubMed

This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to habit strength in snack consumption, employing 7-day snack diaries. Both studies demonstrated that snack consumption was not predicted by emotional eating but depended on the habit of unhealthy snacking and on restraint eating. As emotional eating was not a significant predictor of snack intake, Study 3 addressed the alternative hypothesis of emotional eating being an expression of concerns about eating behaviour. Results from this cross-sectional survey (N = 134) showed that emotional eating was significantly associated with several concerns. Together, these studies show that snack intake is better predicted by habit strength and restraint eating than by emotional eating. Additionally, the results suggest that in normal-weight women the concept of emotional eating may not capture the tendency to eat under emotional conditions, but rather reflects beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating. PMID:20204980

Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine

2011-01-01

79

Emotions and Emotional Communication in Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews important advances in the study of emotions in infants and the nature of emotional communication between infants and adults. Discusses the relationship of this communication system to children's development. (Author/BJV)

Tronick, Edward Z.

1989-01-01

80

Stability and Change in Children's Intelligence Quotient Scores: A Comparison of Two Socioeconomically Disparate Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors estimated the influence of familial factors and community disadvantage on changes in children's intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from age 6 years to age 11 years. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of low birth weight in two socioeconomically disparate, geographically defined communities in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area. Representative samples of low birth

Naomi Breslau; Howard D. Chilcoat; Ezra S. Susser; Thomas Matte; Kung-Yee Liang

81

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

2013-01-01

82

Evaluation of the factor structure of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report scale developed as a screener for Autism Spectrum Disorders and also to measure autistic traits found in the general population. Research has examined its factor structure, resulting in several different measurement models. The current study empirically tested previous models of the AQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with data from 522 university students.

Patricia H. Kloosterman; Kateryna V. Keefer; Elizabeth A. Kelley; Laura J. Summerfeldt; James D. A. Parker

2011-01-01

83

Reliability and Validity of Ratio Developmental Quotients from the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test-retest reliability and predictive validity of developmental quotients (DQs) derived from the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale was assessed with 83 children with mental retardation, age 30 months or more. Scores were impressively stable on retest. DQs derived from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were superior to Cattell DQs in…

Atkinson, Leslie

1990-01-01

84

Effect of sewage sludge on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and soil enzymatic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring soil quality by means of biological indices can be of help for the management and sustainability of soils that received sewage sludge application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term and continued application of sewage sludge rates on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and enzymatic activity of a Dark Red Dystroferric Latosol under

Silvana Aparecida Pavan Fernandes; Wagner Bettiol; Carlos Clementi Cerri

2005-01-01

85

[Analysis on layout of traditional Chinese medicine industry based on location quotient].  

PubMed

To observe the layout and evolution of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) medical industry, classify the industry by region and conduct a preliminary study on its professional advantages, competitiveness and possible cause by using the theory of location quotient in regional economics, in order to provide suggestions for the layout of the TCM medical industry. PMID:22693891

Chen, Cong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao

2012-03-01

86

Intelligence Quotient as a Predictor of Creativity among Some Nigerian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how Intelligence Quotient predicts general level of creativity and different components of creativity; fluency, originality, flexibility and creativity motivation among secondary school students in Oyo State. A total of four hundred and sixty (460) students were randomly selected from twenty (20) secondary schools in the…

Olatoye, R. A.; Oyundoyin, J. O.

2007-01-01

87

Optimal Design of Structure Using Relative Diffrence Quotient Algorithm and Improved Genetic Agorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization design of structure with discrete variables is generally a combinatorial optimization problem. Being simple genetic algorithm has the defects of premature phenomenon, slow convergence speed and poor stability, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with structure optimization based on relative difference quotient method and improved genetic algorithm. The advantages of genetic algorithm in global optimization and

Sun Guofu; Ge Yanhui

2010-01-01

88

Perturbation-magnitude control for difference-quotient estimation of derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for adjusting perturbation magnitude for accurate difference-quotient estimation of derivatives is described. The process is intended to be carried out sequentially, alternating with iterations of a parameter-optimization algorithm. A more complex and computationally-expensive scheme for occasional auxiliary use is also described.

Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.; Johnson, I. L., Jr.

1980-01-01

89

Workgroup emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3

Peter J. Jordan; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Charmine E. J. Härtel; Gregory S. Hooper

2002-01-01

90

Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accu- rate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find

John D. Mayer; Richard D. Roberts; Sigal G. Barsade

2008-01-01

91

How Emotions Affect Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

Sylwester, Robert

1994-01-01

92

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

93

Emotional control in adulthood.  

PubMed

Although it is widely believed that emotions vary with age, there is a dearth of information on emotional experiences in later adulthood. Several researchers think that older adults experience less emotional intensity than younger people while others have suggested that aging is accompanied by a decrease in positive affect and an increase in negative emotions. Sex similarities and differences in emotionality have also been documented. This study focuses on age and sex similarities and differences in emotional control. Three hundred and twenty seven men and women aged 19 to 92 years were administered two emotion measures. The results support previous research which suggests that the control of emotions increases with age. In evaluating sex differences in emotional control, women scored as more emotionally expressive than men, a finding which is consistent with previous research. Results are discussed in relation to socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:9129369

McConatha, J T; Leone, F M; Armstrong, J M

1997-04-01

94

Bodily maps of emotions  

PubMed Central

Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

2014-01-01

95

Effects of Music Interventions on Emotional States and Running Performance  

PubMed Central

The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key points Listening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance. Beliefs on the effectiveness of music intended to alter emotions were associated with high scores on the BMRI-2. Runners seeking to use music as an emotion regulating strategy should consider using the BMRI-2 as an effective means by which to identify potentially motivating tracks.

Lane, Andrew M.; Davis, Paul A.; Devonport, Tracey J.

2011-01-01

96

Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students  

PubMed Central

Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.

Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

2014-01-01

97

Classification of intelligence quotient via brainwave sub-band power ratio features and artificial neural network.  

PubMed

This paper elaborates on the novel intelligence assessment method using the brainwave sub-band power ratio features. The study focuses only on the left hemisphere brainwave in its relaxed state. Distinct intelligence quotient groups have been established earlier from the score of the Raven Progressive Matrices. Sub-band power ratios are calculated from energy spectral density of theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Synthetic data have been generated to increase dataset from 50 to 120. The features are used as input to the artificial neural network. Subsequently, the brain behaviour model has been developed using an artificial neural network that is trained with optimized learning rate, momentum constant and hidden nodes. Findings indicate that the distinct intelligence quotient groups can be classified from the brainwave sub-band power ratios with 100% training and 88.89% testing accuracies. PMID:24560277

Jahidin, A H; Megat Ali, M S A; Taib, M N; Tahir, N Md; Yassin, I M; Lias, S

2014-04-01

98

The Empathy Quotient: A cross-cultural comparison of the Italian version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The Empathy Quotient (EQ) is a self-report questionnaire that was developed to measure the cognitive, affective, and behavioural aspects of empathy. We evaluated its cross-cultural validity in an Italian sample.Methods. A sample of 18- to 30-year-old undergraduate students of both sexes (N=256, males=118) were invited to fill in the Italian version of the EQ, as well as other measures

Antonio Preti; Marcello Vellante; Simon Baron-Cohen; Giulia Zucca; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2011-01-01

99

Bounds on Annihilator Lengths in Families of Quotients of Noetherian Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study lengths of annihilators of m-primary ideals, J, in quotients of finitely generated modules, M, over local rings, (R,m), modulo m-primary ideals generated by a sequence of ring elements each raised to a power, IN=(fN1,…,fNs), as a function of this power. The motivation for studying these lengths arose initially from tight closure theory. However, the function

C. A. Yackel

2000-01-01

100

Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD.  

PubMed

Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%??calories from carbohydrates/100) + (0.70×%??calories from lipids/100) + (0.81×%??calories from proteins/100). The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5%?±?25.5 [10-90], correlated with their energy intake (1993?±?597?kcal/d, r = 0.41, P < 0.05) and food quotient (0.85?±?0.02, r = 0.42, P < 0.05), which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (r = 0.51, P < 0.05). For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863?±?503 versus others: 2382?±?733?kcal/d, P < 0.05), and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories. PMID:23737773

Gonzalez, Concepcion; de Ledinghen, Victor; Vergniol, Julien; Foucher, Juliette; Le Bail, Brigitte; Carlier, Sabrina; Maury, Elisa; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent

2013-01-01

101

Emotion regulation mediates age differences in emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study aimed at testing the proposition of socioemotional selectivity theory whether older people would use more antecedent-focused emotion regulatory strategies like cognitive reappraisal but fewer response-focused strategies like suppression. It also aimed at investigating the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between age and emotions.Method: The sample consisted of 654 younger and older adults aged between

Dannii Y. Yeung; Carmen K. M. Wong; David P. P. Lok

2011-01-01

102

Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion

Jennifer M. George

2000-01-01

103

COPD Emotional Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Dept. of Medicine View full profile COPD: Emotional Management In most cases, COPD completely changes a person's ... Depression Sleep Intimacy NEXT: Common Feelings More Emotional Management Information Anxiety Common Feelings Depression Intimacy Sleep Back ...

104

Emotion, Learning and Organizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.

2002-01-01

105

Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with individual differences in the ability to connect thoughts to emotions. People who are good at connecting thoughts to feelings may better “hear” the emotional implications of their own thoughts, as well as understand the feelings of others from what they say. We had 321 participants read the writings of a target group of people and

John D. Mayer; Glenn Geher

1996-01-01

106

Emotion Regulation and Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the similarities and differences between emotion regulation and stress coping and reviews research that\\u000a suggests that the association between emotion regulation and stress may be explained by the common neural structures. Developmental\\u000a changes related to emotion regulation and stress are also discussed. Overall, the research suggests that individuals vary\\u000a in their ability to regulate emotions and cope

Manjie Wang; Kimberly J. Saudino

2011-01-01

107

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

108

Emotion-regulation choice.  

PubMed

Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesized that in low-intensity negative situations, people would show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by engagement reappraisal, which allows emotional processing. However, we expected people in high-intensity negative situations to show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by disengagement distraction, which blocks emotional processing at an early stage before it gathers force. In three experiments, we created emotional contexts that varied in intensity, using either emotional pictures (Experiments 1 and 2) or unpredictable electric stimulation (Experiment 3). In response to these emotional contexts, participants chose between using either reappraisal or distraction as an emotion-regulation strategy. Results in all experiments supported our hypothesis. This pattern in the choice of emotion-regulation strategies has important implications for the understanding of healthy adaptation. PMID:21960251

Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

2011-11-01

109

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

110

The laws of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that emotions are lawful phe- nomena and thus can be described in terms of a set of laws of emotion. These laws result from the operation of emotion mechanisms that are accessible to intentional control to only a limited extent. The law of situational meaning, the law of concern, the law of reality, the laws of change,

Nico H. Frijda

1988-01-01

111

Three dimensions of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author contends that the activation theory of emotions is the most adequate to date for conceptualizing the intensitive dimension of emotion, and that electrical skin conductance is a good measure of the extent of activation present. For other dimensions of emotion, however, he feels that other measurement approaches are necessary and discusses facial expressions as one of these. Evidence

Harold Schlosberg

1954-01-01

112

Music, memory and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either\\u000a about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Lutz Jäncke

2008-01-01

113

Teaching Emotional Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

Bump, Jerome

114

Up with Emotional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

Pool, Carolyn R.

1997-01-01

115

Influence of a simple magnetic bar on buoyancy-driven fingering of traveling autocatalytic reaction fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields have been shown experimentally to modify convective dynamics developing around traveling chemical fronts in presence of unfavorable density gradients. To understand the conditions in which such magnetic fields affect autocatalytic fronts, we study theoretically the influence of a simple magnetic bar on buoyancy-driven density fingering of a chemical front by numerical simulations of a reaction-diffusion-convection system. The model couples Darcy's law for the flow velocity to an evolution equation for the concentration of the autocatalytic product, which affects both the density of the solution and the magnetic force. The solutions of both products and reactants are assumed to be diamagnetic (i.e., negative magnetic susceptibility) and the magnetization is oriented perpendicularly to the plane in which the front travels. We show that, when aligned along the direction of front propagation, the magnetic force is able to suppress or enhance the convective instability depending on the value of the magnetic Rayleigh number of the problem. If the magnetic force is oriented transversely to the front propagation direction, tilted drifting convective patterns are obtained.

Mishra, M.; Thess, A.; De Wit, A.

2012-12-01

116

Best approximation in quotient spaces with application to the finishing of optical surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finishing of axisymmetric optical surfaces relies upon the use of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines. Porsching and Hall developed a mathematical model for a general class of such machines, which can be used to generate material removal rates. These removal rates give the amount of material removed at each radial point on the workpiece per unit time. In this thesis, we use these material removal rates to generate two different material removal strategies for Operator Controlled (OC) finishing. Given an initial error profile which is an element of the quotient space C[a, b]IK where K is the space of constant functions, we seek a best approximation to this error profile by elements of a closed convex set. Some other nonstandard features of this best approximation problem are nonnegativity constraints on the variables, the nondifferentiability of the approximating functions, and the fact that the approximating functions do not form a Haar space. We explore best approximation on a quotient space and show that many of the standard existence and uniqueness theorems can be extended. For the first removal strategy, we solve the best approximation problem using the L2-norm, which leads to a quadratic programming problem (QPP). This QPP is solved after first using a modified Gram-Schmidt process to obtain a set of orthogonal removal rates. Our second strategy employs best minimax approximation. Since we do not have a Haar space, the standard characterizations theorems do not apply, although similar theorems are established. Using two definitions of the infinity norm on the quotient space C[a, b]IK, the problem can be reformulated as both a semi-infinite programming problem and as a convex programming problem. Computer programs which implement the least squares algorithm and two minimax algorithms which solve the related convex programming problems are described. Finally, we generate and discuss numerical examples which illustrate the theory and simulate the OC finishing process.

Bennett, Therese Lynn

117

Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:24834060

Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

2014-01-01

118

Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective  

PubMed Central

Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan.

Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

2014-01-01

119

The emotionally competent leader.  

PubMed

Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

Goleman, D

1998-01-01

120

How Emotions Change Time  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention, or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share.

Schirmer, Annett

2011-01-01

121

Equivalences Between GIT Quotients of Landau-Ginzburg B-Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the category of B-branes in a (not necessarily affine) Landau-Ginzburg B-model, incorporating the notion of R-charge. Our definition is a direct generalization of the category of perfect complexes. We then consider pairs of Landau-Ginzburg B-models that arise as different GIT quotients of a vector space by a one-dimensional torus, and show that for each such pair the two categories of B-branes are quasi-equivalent. In fact we produce a whole set of quasi-equivalences indexed by the integers, and show that the resulting auto-equivalences are all spherical twists.

Segal, Ed

2011-06-01

122

Flops of G-Hilb and equivalences of derived categories by variation of GIT quotient  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a finite subgroup G?SL(3,?), Bridgeland,\\u000aKing, and Reid [BKR] proved that the moduli space\\u000aof G-clusters is a crepant resolution of the quotient\\u000a?3<\\/sup>\\/G . This paper considers the moduli spaces\\u000a$\\\\mathcal{M}$ ?<\\/sub>, introduced by Kronheimer and further\\u000astudied by Sardo Infirri, which coincide with G-Hilb for a\\u000aparticular choice of geometric invariant theory (GIT) parameter\\u000a?. For G

Alastair Craw; Akira Ishii

123

Relationships between spiritual quotient and marital satisfaction level of men, women and couples referred to consultancy centers of bandar abbas.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples' scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples' understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples' spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.-More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644499

Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

2013-01-01

124

[Neuroarchitecture of musical emotions].  

PubMed

The emotional response to music, or musical emotion, is a universal response that draws on diverse psychological processes implemented in a large array of neural structures and mechanisms. Studies using electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance, lesions and individuals with extent musical training have begun to elucidate some of these mechanisms. The objective of this article is reviewing the most relevant studies that have tried to identify the neural correlates of musical emotion from the more automatic to the more complex processes, and to understand how these correlates interact in the brain. The article describes how the presentation of music perceived as emotional is associated with a rapid autonomic response in thalamic and subthalamic structures, accompanied by changes in the electrodermal and endocrine responses. It also explains how musical emotion processing activates auditory cortex, as well as a series of limbic and paralimbic structures, such as the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex or the hippocampus, demonstrating the relevant contribution of the limbic system to musical emotion. Further, it is detailed how musical emotion depends to a great extent on semantic and syntactic process carried out in temporal and parietofrontal areas, respectively. Some of the recent works demonstrating that musical emotion highly relies on emotional simulation are also mentioned. Finally, a summary of these studies, their limitations, and suggestions for further research on the neuroarchitecture of musical emotion are given. PMID:23440757

Sel, Alejandra; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

2013-03-01

125

Emotions: from brain to robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to improve human-computer interaction. In this article we analyze what it would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields a deepening understanding of inter- acting brain structures and

Michael A. Arbib; Jean-Marc Fellous

2004-01-01

126

What's Basic About Basic Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widespread assumption in theories of emotion is that there exists a small set of basic emotions. From a biological perspective, this idea is manifested in the belief that there might be neurophysiological and anatomical substrates corresponding to the basic emotions. From a psychological perspective, basic emotions are often held to be the primitive building blocks of other, nonbasic emotions.

Andrew Ortony; Terence J. Turner

1990-01-01

127

Emotion and Autobiographical Memory  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

128

Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia.

Herbener, Ellen S.

2008-01-01

129

Emotional intelligence is…?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four tertiary students completed questionnaires measuring emotional intelligence (EI), personality, affiliation, abstract reasoning ability, emotional knowledge, and task orientation. Among personality variables, extraversion and agreeableness correlated moderately with total Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) (p<0.01), and weakly (p<0.05) with openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. TMMS was also correlated with emotional knowledge (p<0.01) but not with abstract reasoning or interest in affiliation. Results

Janette Warwick; Ted Nettelbeck

2004-01-01

130

Music emotion ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content-based retrieval has emerged as a promising approach to information access. In this paper, we propose an approach to music emotion ranking. Specifically, we rank music in terms of arousal and valence and represent each song as a point in the 2D emotion space. Novel ranking-based methods for annotation, learning, and evaluation of music emotion recognition are developed and tested

Yi-Hsuan Yang; Homer H. Chen

2009-01-01

131

Positive emotion regulation in emotional disorders: a theoretical review.  

PubMed

Conceptualizations of emotion regulation have led to the identification of cognitive and behavioral regulatory abnormalities that contribute to the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. However, existing research on emotion regulation in anxiety and mood disorders has primarily focused on the regulation of negative emotions rather than positive emotions. Recent findings indicate that disturbances in positive emotion regulation occur across emotional disorders, and may be a generative target for treatment research. The aims of this paper are to: 1. Present a transdiagnostic model of positive emotion disturbances in emotional disorders; 2. Review evidence for disturbances in positive emotion regulation in emotional disorders across categories of emotion regulation; and 3. Propose treatment strategies that may address these disturbances. PMID:23399829

Carl, Jenna R; Soskin, David P; Kerns, Caroline; Barlow, David H

2013-04-01

132

Emotions Beyond Regulation: Backgrounded Emotions in Science and Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are understood sociologically as experiences of involvement. Emotion regulation influences the type, incidence, and expression of emotions. Regulation occurs through physical processes prior to an emotions episode, through social interaction in which a person’s emotions are modified due to the reactions of others to them, and by a person’s self-modification or management of emotions which they are consciously aware

Jack Barbalet

2011-01-01

133

Technical report: precisely fitting bars on implants in five steps-a CAD/CAM concept for the edentulous mandible.  

PubMed

Various treatment concepts have been presented for the edentulous mandible. Manufacturing tension-free and precisely fitting bars on dental implants was previously a great challenge in prosthetic dentistry and required great effort. Modern computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing technology in combination with some clinical modifications of the established workflow enables the clinician to achieve precise results in a very efficient way. The innovative five-step concept is presented in a clinical case. PMID:24417790

Beuer, Florian; Schweiger, Josef; Huber, Martin; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael

2014-06-01

134

Emotions in uniform: How nurses regulate emotion at work via emotional boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of emotions at work has been conceptualized in terms of its association with emotional inauthenticity and dissonance. In contrast, we integrate the idea of emotion regulation at work with basic strategic and adaptive functions of emotion, offering a new way of understanding how emotions can be harnessed for task achievement and personal development. Through a content analysis of

Renae Maree Hayward; Michelle Rae Tuckey

2011-01-01

135

Emotion dysregulation in schizophrenia: Reduced amplification of emotional expression is associated with emotional blunting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent emotional disturbance in schizophrenia is clinically evident in blunted affect, often observed as reduced emotional expressivity alongside the individual's report of normal or heightened emotional experience. It has been suggested that this disjunction between the experience and expression of emotion may reflect problems with the regulation of emotional expression. The present study thus set out to examine the

Julie D. Henry; Melissa J. Green; Amber de Lucia; Corinne Restuccia; Skye McDonald; Maryanne O'Donnell

2007-01-01

136

The uncharted waters of emotion: Ethnicity, trait emotion and emotion expression in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are central to contemporary theories of health, and a growingbody of psychological research has shown emotion and emotion regulatorystyles to be predictive of health outcomes. Yet despite these clear links andthe fact that patterns of emotion and expression are partially a product ofculture, there is a meager literature on the emotional characteristics ofdifferent ethnic groups. Even where ethnicity has

Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2002-01-01

137

A Novel Method Testing the Ability to Imitate Composite Emotional Expressions Reveals an Association with Empathy  

PubMed Central

Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants’ attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ), were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression.

Williams, Justin H. G.; Nicolson, Andrew T. A.; Clephan, Katie J.; de Grauw, Haro; Perrett, David I.

2013-01-01

138

Emotional Autonomy and Adolescent Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations among maternal depression, family dysfunction, emotional autonomy, and early adolescent adjustment. Found that among offspring of depressed mothers, higher emotional autonomy predicted increased internalizing and externalizing problems; among offspring of nondepressed mothers, higher emotional autonomy predicted decreases in…

Garber, Judy; Little, Stephanie A.

2001-01-01

139

Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool.

Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

2010-01-01

140

Quotient-difference type generalizations of the power method and their analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recursion relations that were proposed by W. F. Ford and A. Sidi (Appl. Numer. Math, 4 (1988), pp. 477-489) for implementing vector extrapolation methods are used for devising generalizations of the power method for linear operators. These generalizations are shown to produce approximations to largest eigenvalues of a linear operator under certain conditions. They are similar in form to the quotient-difference algorithm and share similar convergence properties with the latter. These convergence properties also resemble those obtained for the basic LR and QR algorithms. Finally, it is shown that the convergence rate produced by one fo these generalizations is twice as fast for normal operators as it is for nonnormal operators.

Sidi, Avram; Ford, William F.

1989-01-01

141

Understanding emotional abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits

C A Rees

2010-01-01

142

Conflict management and emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The five studies included in this special issue focus on emotions and conflict management. These studies highlight how conflict management research can help managers, employees, and organizations more effectively manage the emotional aspects of conflict. This paper aims to summarize these studies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Five studies were selected and combined in this single issue so that researchers could

Richard A. Posthuma

2012-01-01

143

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

144

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

145

Emotions and Golf Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

2006-01-01

146

Emotional Response Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional theories of categorization in which categories are assumed to be grounded in perceptual similarity or theories ignore an important basis of conceptual structure: the emotion that a stimulus elicits in a perceiver. This article discusses the nature of, constraints on, and conditions of use of emotional response categories. Experiments in which participants sorted triads of concepts that shared both

Paula M. Niedenthal; Jamin B. Halberstadt; Åse H. Innes-Ker

1999-01-01

147

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

148

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872\\/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This

Ursula Hess; Pascal Thibault

2009-01-01

149

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

150

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

151

Emotion and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The more neuroscientists explore how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information, the more evident is the connection between emotion and reason. Scientists have discovered that the same areas of the brain that are involved in processing emotion are involved in processing memory. (Author/JOW)

Weiss, Palumbo Ruth

2000-01-01

152

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

153

Emotionally Harmful Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

2007-01-01

154

An Emotional Control Card for Inappropriate and Appropriate Emotions in Using Rational-Emotive Imagery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the emotional control card techniques developed by Sklare, Taylor, and Hyland (1985) to help clients more effectively use the rational-emotive imagery technique of Ellis (1974). Suggests a revision of the emotional control card technique. (NB)

Ellis, Albert

1986-01-01

155

Quality measurement in the shunt treatment of hydrocephalus: analysis and risk adjustment of the Revision Quotient.  

PubMed

Object The Revision Quotient (RQ) has been defined as the ratio of the number of CSF shunt revisions to the number of new shunt insertions for a particular neurosurgical practice in a unit of time. The RQ has been proposed as a quality measure in the treatment of childhood hydrocephalus. The authors examined the construct validity of the RQ and explored the feasibility of risk stratification under this metric. Methods The Kids' Inpatient Database for 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009 was queried for admissions with diagnostic codes for hydrocephalus and procedural codes for CSF shunt insertion or revision. Revision quotients were calculated for hospitals that performed 12 or more shunt insertions annually. The univariate associations of hospital RQs with a variety of institutional descriptors were analyzed, and a generalized linear model of the RQ was constructed. Results There were 12,244 admissions (34%) during which new shunts were inserted, and there were 23,349 admissions (66%) for shunt revision. Three hundred thirty-four annual RQs were calculated for 152 different hospitals. Analysis of variance in hospital RQs over the 5 years of study data supports the construct validity of the metric. The following factors were incorporated into a generalized linear model that accounted for 41% of the variance of the measured RQs: degree of pediatric specialization, proportion of initial case mix in the infant age group, and proportion with neoplastic hydrocephalus. Conclusions The RQ has construct validity. Risk adjustment is feasible, but the risk factors that were identified relate predominantly to patterns of patient flow through the health care system. Possible advantages of an alternative metric, the Surgical Activity Ratio, are discussed. PMID:24766308

Piatt, Joseph H; Freibott, Christina E

2014-07-01

156

The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2004-01-01

157

Developmental quotient at 24 months and fatty acid composition of diet in early infancy: a follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMA follow up study of developmental quotient (DQ) at 24 months of toddlers whose diets in early infancy differed in fatty acid composition, and in whom an association between diet and DQ was observed at 4 months.METHODS81 toddlers were distributed among three groups according to early type of diet: standard infant formula (SFo, n = 30); long chain polyunsaturated fatty

Carlo Agostoni; Sabina Trojan; Roberto Bellù; Enrica Riva; Maria Grazia Bruzzese; Marcello Giovannini

1997-01-01

158

Comparing ecological risks of pesticides: the utility of a Risk Quotient ranking approach across refinements of exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental risk assessment of pesticides and other chemicals often uses the Risk Quotient (RQ) method to characterize risk quantitatively. An RQ is calculated by dividing an environmental exposure value by a toxicity end-point value. Tier 1 RQs, which are characterized by highly conservative toxicity and exposure assumptions, are used primarily for screening out negligible risks in regulatory decision making. It

Robert KD Peterson

2006-01-01

159

Large-scale matrix diagonalization methods by direct optimization of Taylor expansion of Rayleigh Ritz quotient up to third order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale matrix diagonalization methods by direct optimization of Taylor expansion of Rayleigh-Ritz quotient up to third order are presented. Some applications of the quadratic and cubic algorithms, focused in lowest, higher and degenerate roots are discussed and analyzed. The performances of the methods are similar to the Lagrange-Newton-Raphson diagonalization method.

Bofill, Josep Maria; Ribeiro Moreira, Ibério de Pinho; Anglada, Josep Maria; Illas, Francesc

2000-10-01

160

Emotional mimicry as social regulation.  

PubMed

Emotional mimicry is the imitation of the emotional expressions of others. According to the classic view on emotional mimicry (the Matched Motor Hypothesis), people mimic the specific facial movements that comprise a discrete emotional expression. However, little evidence exists for the mimicry of discrete emotions; rather, the extant evidence supports only valence-based mimicry. We propose an alternative Emotion Mimicry in Context view according to which emotional mimicry is not based on mere perception but rather on the interpretation of signals as emotional intentions in a specific context. We present evidence for the idea that people mimic contextualized emotions rather than simply expressive muscle movements. Our model postulates that (implicit or explicit) contextual information is needed for emotional mimicry to take place. It takes into account the relationship between observer and expresser, and suggests that emotional mimicry depends on this relationship and functions as a social regulator. PMID:23348982

Hess, Ursula; Fischer, Agneta

2013-05-01

161

Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.  

PubMed

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

2013-01-01

162

Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut  

PubMed Central

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate.

Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

2013-01-01

163

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

164

Emotional labour and emotional exhaustion: Interpersonal and intrapersonal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some occupations, particularly in the service sector, dealing with patients or clients may require an employee to pretend to have emotions that they do not really have, or to actually experience required emotions. The regulation of emotion can be either automatic or controlled. This study extends research on the consequences and processes of emotional labour in two ways. First,

David Martínez-Iñigo; Peter Totterdell; Carlos M. Alcover; David Holman

2007-01-01

165

Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional

Bierema, Laura L.

2008-01-01

166

Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict.

Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

2013-01-01

167

The Experience of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

2007-01-01

168

Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

2001-01-01

169

Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory. Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a brain structure that directly mediates aspects of emotional learning and facilitates memory operations in other regions, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Emotion–memory interactions occur at various stages

Roberto Cabeza; Kevin S LaBar

2006-01-01

170

An argument for basic emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish

Paul Ekman

1992-01-01

171

Emotion in Mentally Retarded People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of emotion in mentally retarded people is considered. Recent research and theory suggest that two approaches are applicable to the study of mental retardation: the behavioral tradition, particularly conditioned emotional responding as well as emotional expression and recognition; and recent investigations of emotional development in…

Strongman, K. T.

1985-01-01

172

Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

173

Emotional scripts of sex panics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the emotional dynamics of local sex panics over sex education. It argues that local sex panics are not\\u000a spontaneous eruptions of community outrage; they are political events with a strikingly scripted quality. Sex panics are fueled\\u000a by emotional scripts—rhetoric strategically crafted to produce volatile emotional responses. In turn, these emotional scripts\\u000a produce heated emotions—anger and disgust—displayed in

Janice M. Irvine

2006-01-01

174

Changing time and emotions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework.

Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stephane

2010-01-01

175

Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

176

Postpartum Period: Emotions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

177

RETHINKING THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN  

PubMed Central

I propose a re-conceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion — those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings, but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life.

LeDoux, Joseph

2013-01-01

178

Teaching Emotion Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of this research was to assess whether it is possible to help children develop their general understanding of emotions. Thirty-six nine-year-old children divided in two groups were examined using a pre-test/train/post-test design. The emotion understanding of the two groups was measured in the pre- and post-test phases using the Test…

Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Doudin, Pierre-Andre

2002-01-01

179

Emotional Responses to Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object contains software, a sample music file, and supporting documents to conduct experiments on self-reported emotional responses to music. It includes LabVIEW-based software for Windows 2000 or later or MacOS 10.3 or later, notes for professors, a laboratory assignment, instructions for participants, an evaluation instrument for the assignment, and a post-experiment questionnaire. The package is intended as an exercise for courses concerned with emotion.

Dwight Krehbiel (Bethel College;); Jeff Janzen (Bethel College;)

2007-03-08

180

Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district.  

PubMed

This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean's fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect. PMID:21911949

Shivaprakash, P K; Ohri, Kushagra; Noorani, Hina

2011-01-01

181

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation.

Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

2013-01-01

182

Emotion regulation and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

Cisler, Josh M; Olatunji, Bunmi O

2012-06-01

183

Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

Challacombe, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

184

Double Self Quotient Image Based Image Flattening for Defect Detection in Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of using self quotient image (SQI) to flatten the background region of a thin film transistor liquid crystal display image. To overcome an inherent shortcoming of SQI method, namely the halo effect in thin film transistor liquid crystal display images, double SQI method is introduced. Experimental results demonstrate that SQI can be used effectively to eliminate a non-uniformity of the background region in a test image.

Young-Chul Song,; Se-Yun Kim,; Kil-Houm Park,

2010-03-01

185

Albumin quotient, IgG concentration, and IgG index determinations in cerebrospinal fluid of neonatal foals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total protein (TP), albumin, and IgG concentrations were measured in CSF from the atlanto-occipital (AO) and lumbosacral (LS) sites and in serum of 15 clinically normal neonatal foals 10 days old (mean 7 days). The albumin quotient (AQ; CSF albumin\\/serum albumin * 100) and IgG index ([CSF IgG\\/serum IgG] * [serum albumin\\/CSF albumin]), indicators of blood-brain barrier permeability and intrathecal

F. M. Andrews; Geiser Dennis R. DVM; C. S. Sommardahl; E. M. Green; M. Provenza

1994-01-01

186

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements  

PubMed Central

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions.

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2014-01-01

187

Empathy and emotion recognition in people with autism, first-degree relatives, and controls.  

PubMed

Empathy is the lens through which we view others' emotion expressions, and respond to them. In this study, empathy and facial emotion recognition were investigated in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC; N=314), parents of a child with ASC (N=297) and IQ-matched controls (N=184). Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy (the Empathy Quotient [EQ]) and a modified version of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Task (KDEF) using an online test interface. Results showed that mean scores on the EQ were significantly lower in fathers (p<0.05) but not mothers (p>0.05) of children with ASC compared to controls, whilst both males and females with ASC obtained significantly lower EQ scores (p<0.001) than controls. On the KDEF, statistical analyses revealed poorer overall performance by adults with ASC (p<0.001) compared to the control group. When the 6 distinct basic emotions were analysed separately, the ASC group showed impaired performance across five out of six expressions (happy, sad, angry, afraid and disgusted). Parents of a child with ASC were not significantly worse than controls at recognising any of the basic emotions, after controlling for age and non-verbal IQ (all p>0.05). Finally, results indicated significant differences between males and females with ASC for emotion recognition performance (p<0.05) but not for self-reported empathy (p>0.05). These findings suggest that self-reported empathy deficits in fathers of autistic probands are part of the 'broader autism phenotype'. This study also reports new findings of sex differences amongst people with ASC in emotion recognition, as well as replicating previous work demonstrating empathy difficulties in adults with ASC. The use of empathy measures as quantitative endophenotypes for ASC is discussed. PMID:23174401

Sucksmith, E; Allison, C; Baron-Cohen, S; Chakrabarti, B; Hoekstra, R A

2013-01-01

188

Socialization of emotion: Pathway to preschoolers' emotional and social competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of 47 preschoolers'emotional competence—their patterns of emotional expressiveness and reactions to others' emotion displays—were observed in two settings, with mother and with peers, and their general social competence was rated by their preschool teachers. Intrapersonal and interpersonal (i.e., socialization correlates of children's emotional competence were identified, and a causal model incorporating direct and indirect influences on social competence was

Susanne A. Denham; Leslie Grout

1993-01-01

189

Resilience and Positive Emotions: Examining the Role of Emotional Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience has been frequently associated with positive emo- tions, especially when experienced during taxing events. However, the psy- chological processes that might allow resilient individuals to self-generate those positive emotions have been mostly overlooked. In line with recent advances in memory research, we propose that emotional memories play an important role in the self-generation of positive emotions. The present re-

Frederick L. Philippe; Serge Lecours; Geneviève Beaulieu-Pelletier

2009-01-01

190

When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

2012-08-01

191

Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

2012-01-01

192

Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion  

PubMed Central

Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

2013-01-01

193

IQdb: an intelligence quotient score-associated gene resource for human intelligence.  

PubMed

Intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most widely used phenotype to characterize human cognitive abilities. Recent advances in studies on human intelligence have identified many new susceptibility genes. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in IQ score and the relationship between IQ score and the risk of mental disorders have won little attention. To address the genetic complexity of IQ score, we have developed IQdb (http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn), a publicly available database for exploring IQ-associated human genes. In total, we collected 158 experimental verified genes from literature as a core dataset in IQdb. In addition, 46 genomic regions related to IQ score have been curated from literature. Based on the core dataset and 46 confirmed linked genomic regions, more than 6932 potential IQ-related genes are expanded using data of protein-protein interactions. A systematic gene ranking approach was applied to all the collected and expanded genes to represent the relative importance of all the 7090 genes in IQdb. Our further systematic pathway analysis reveals that IQ-associated genes are significantly enriched in multiple signal events, especially related to cognitive systems. Of the 158 genes in the core dataset, 81 are involved in various psychotic and mental disorders. This comprehensive gene resource illustrates the importance of IQdb to our understanding on human intelligence, and highlights the utility of IQdb for elucidating the functions of IQ-associated genes and the cross-talk mechanisms among cognition-related pathways in some mental disorders for community. Database URL: http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn. PMID:24030781

Kong, Lei; Cheng, Lu; Fan, Li-ya; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

2013-01-01

194

Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

195

Intelligence quotient in children with congenital hypothyroidism: The effect of diagnostic and treatment variables  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the high prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in Isfahan, the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children with CH and the effect of diagnostic and treatment variables on it were investigated during the CH screening program. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children in three studied groups were studied in this comparative study the IQ score, in three subsets of verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ, of children diagnosed with transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) and permanent congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) was measured using revised Wechsler pre-school and primary scale of intelligence and compared with the control group. The relation between IQ score with time of treatment initiation and screening thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was evaluated in all studied groups. Results: Mean of verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full scale IQ score was significantly higher in the control group than CH patients (both permanent and transient) In PCH patients though it was not significant, there was a negative relationship between verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ and screening TSH and age of treatment initiation. In TCH patients, there was negative and significant relationship between verbal IQ (r = ?0.40) and full scale IQ (r = ?0.38) and age of treatment initiation (r = ?0.46). Conclusion: Mean IQ score in both PCH and TCH patients were lower than the control group, which correlates negatively with treatment initiation time. Though CH screening and early treatment has improved the prognosis of patients, but early and high dose of treatment in children with CH is recommended.

Najmi, Seyed Badredin; Hashemipour, Mahin; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Hovsepian, Silva; Ghasemi, Mahmood

2013-01-01

196

Simultaneous CDMA and error correction schemes based on wavelet filters in integer quotient rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, wavelet filters have been widely applied to signal processing. In effect, wavelet filters are perfect reconstruction filter banks (PRFBs). However, in most researches, the filterbanks and wavelets operate on real- valued or complex-valued signals. In this paper, PRFBs operating over integer quotient rings (IQRs) are introduced. We denote an IQR as Z/(q). Algorithms for constructing such filter banks are proposed. The PRFB design can be carried out either in the time or the frequency domain. We demonstrate that some classical or well known filter tap coefficients can even be transformed into values over Z/(q) in a simple and straightforward way. Here we emphasize that to achieve perfect reconstruction (PR), the filters need not to work on elements in fields. In fact, operating on elements in IQRs can achieve PR with proper choices of a ring and filter tap coefficients. The designed filter banks can be orthogonal or biorthogonal. Based ona PRFB over an IQR, to which we refer as an IQR-PRFB, a perfect reconstruction transmultiplexer (PRTM), to which we refer as an IQR-PRTM, can be derived. Through the utilization of the IQR-PRTM multiplexing and multiple access in a multi-user digital communication system can be realized. The IQR-PRTM effectively decomposes the communication signal space into several orthogonal subspaces, where each multiplexed user sends his message in one of them. If some of the orthogonal subspaces are preserved for parity check, then error correction at the receiving end can be performed. In the proposed schemes, the data to be transmitted must be represented with elements of Z/(q), which can be done easily. A modulation and demodulation/detection scheme, in conjunction with the IQR-PRTM is proposed.

Lay, Kuen-Tsair; Kong, Lin-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Horng

2000-04-01

197

Magnitude and regulation of bacterioplankton respiratory quotient across freshwater environmental gradients  

PubMed Central

Bacterioplankton respiration (BR) may represent the largest single sink of organic carbon in the biosphere and constitutes an important driver of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from freshwaters. Complete understanding of BR is precluded by the fact that most studies need to assume a respiratory quotient (RQ; mole of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed) to calculate rates of BR. Many studies have, without clear support, assumed a fixed RQ around 1. Here we present 72 direct measurements of bacterioplankton RQ that we carried out in epilimnetic samples of 52 freshwater sites in Québec (Canada), using O2 and CO2 optic sensors. The RQs tended to converge around 1.2, but showed large variability (s.d.=0.45) and significant correlations with major gradients of ecosystem-level, substrate-level and bacterial community-level characteristics. Experiments with natural bacterioplankton using different single substrates suggested that RQ is intimately linked to the elemental composition of the respired compounds. RQs were on average low in net autotrophic systems, where bacteria likely were utilizing mainly reduced substrates, whereas we found evidence that the dominance of highly oxidized substrates, for example, organic acids formed by photo-chemical processes, led to high RQ in the more heterotrophic systems. Further, we suggest that BR contributes to a substantially larger share of freshwater CO2 emissions than presently believed based on the assumption that RQ is ?1. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton RQ is not only a practical aspect of BR determination, but also a major ecosystem state variable that provides unique information about aquatic ecosystem functioning.

Berggren, Martin; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; del Giorgio, Paul A

2012-01-01

198

Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

Patients with cirrhosis have increased gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation that may contribute to a low respiratory quotient (RQ), and this may be linked to sarcopenia and metabolic decompensation when these patients are hospitalized. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to measure RQ and its impact on skeletal muscle mass, survival, and related complications in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Fasting RQ and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined by indirect calorimetry in cirrhotic patients (n = 25), and age, sex, and weight-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Abdominal muscle area was quantified by computed tomography scanning. In cirrhotic patients we also examined the impact of RQ on mortality, repeat hospitalizations, and liver transplantation. Mean RQ in patients with cirrhosis (0.63 ± 0.05) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than healthy matched controls (0.84 ± 0.06). Psoas muscle area in cirrhosis (24.0 ± 6.6 cm(2)) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in controls (35.9 ± 9.5 cm(2)). RQ correlated with the reduction in psoas muscle area (r(2) = 0.41; P = 0.01). However, in patients with cirrhosis a reduced RQ did not predict short-term survival or risk of developing complications. When REE was normalized to psoas area, energy expenditure was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis (66.7 ± 17.8 kcal/cm(2)) compared with controls (47.7 ± 7.9 kcal/cm(2)). We conclude that hospitalized patients with cirrhosis have RQs well below the traditional lowest physiological value of 0.69, and this metabolic state is accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle area. Although low RQ does not predict short-term mortality in these patients, it may reflect a decompensated metabolic state that requires careful nutritional management with appropriate consideration for preservation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:23288550

Glass, Cathy; Hipskind, Peggy; Tsien, Cynthia; Malin, Steven K; Kasumov, Takhar; Shah, Shetal N; Kirwan, John P; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

2013-03-01

199

Satiety quotient linked to food intake and changes in anthropometry during menopause: a MONET Study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives It is unknown whether the satiety quotient (SQ) differs across the menopausal transition, and whether changes in SQ are related to changes in anthropometric/body composition variables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in SQ and its association with energy intake and changes in anthropometric/body composition variables across the menopausal transition. Methods At baseline, 102 premenopausal women (aged 49.9 ± 1.9 years, body mass index 23.3 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) took part in a 5-year observational, longitudinal study. Body composition (DXA), appetite (visual analog scales), energy and macronutrient intakes (ad libitum lunch and 7-day food diary) were assessed annually. The SQ (mm/100 kcal) was calculated at 60 and 180 min post-breakfast consumption. Results Overall, the SQ increased at years 3 and 4 (p = 0.01-0.0001), despite no significant differences between menopausal status groups. Lower fullness, prospective food consumption and mean SQ values predicted overall increases in lunch energy and macronutrient intakes (p = 0.04-0.01), whereas only prospective food consumption and fullness SQ predicted energy intake and carbohydrate intake, respectively, when assessed with food diaries (p = 0.01). Delta SQs were negatively correlated with changes in waist circumference (p = 0.03-0.02), whereas delta SQs were positively (p = 0.04) and negatively (p = 0.02) associated with delta fat mass between years 1 and 5, and years 4 and 5, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that variations in SQ across the menopausal transition are related to energy and macronutrient intakes and coincide with changes in body composition and waist circumference. PMID:24559300

McNeil, J; Prud'homme, D; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Brochu, M; Lavoie, J-M; Doucet, E

2014-08-01

200

Effect of bone quality and implant surgical technique on implant stability quotient (ISQ) value  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study investigated the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) value. In addition, the influence of interfacial bone quality, directly surrounding the implant fixture, on the resonance frequency of the structure was also evaluated by the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two different types of bone (type 1 and type 2) were extracted and trimmed from pig rib bone. In each type of bone, the same implants were installed in three different ways: (1) Compaction, (2) Self-tapping, and (3) Tapping. The ISQ value was measured and analyzed to evaluate the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant primary stability. For finite element analysis, a three dimensional implant fixture-bone structure was designed and the fundamental resonance frequency of the structure was measured with three different density of interfacial bone surrounding the implant fixture. RESULTS In each group, the ISQ values were higher in type 1 bone than those in type 2 bone. Among three different insertion methods, the Tapping group showed the lowest ISQ value in both type 1 and type 2 bones. In both bone types, the Compaction groups showed slightly higher mean ISQ values than the Self-tapping groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. Increased interfacial bone density raised the resonance frequency value in the finite element analysis. CONCLUSION Both bone quality and surgical technique have influence on the implant primary stability, and resonance frequency has a positive relation with the density of implant fixture-surrounding bone.

Yoon, Hong-Gi; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun

2011-01-01

201

Emotion recognition from physiological signals.  

PubMed

Emotion recognition is one of the great challenges in human-human and human-computer interaction. Accurate emotion recognition would allow computers to recognize human emotions and therefore react accordingly. In this paper, an approach for emotion recognition based on physiological signals is proposed. Six basic emotions: joy, sadness, fear, disgust, neutrality and amusement are analysed using physiological signals. These emotions are induced through the presentation of International Affecting Picture System (IAPS) pictures to the subjects. The physiological signals of interest in this analysis are: electromyogram signal (EMG), respiratory volume (RV), skin temperature (SKT), skin conductance (SKC), blood volume pulse (BVP) and heart rate (HR). These are selected to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the emotions. The SVM (support vector machine) technique is used for classifying these parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology provides in general a recognition rate of 85% for different emotional states. PMID:21936746

Gouizi, K; Bereksi Reguig, F; Maaoui, C

2011-01-01

202

Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

203

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

204

Early Interactive Emotional Development  

PubMed Central

Early infant emotional development concerns the interactive emergence of emotional states that motivate approach and withdrawal. These are indexed by different patterns of infant facial expressions, vocalization, and gazing that emerge within parent-infant interactions in the first 10 months of life. Specifically, the interface of a limited number of interactive parameters creates complex real-time patterns which change over developmental time. These phenomena are described below using techniques from our laboratory such as statistical simulations, continuous ratings, and computer vision modeling.

Messinger, Daniel S.; Mahoor, Mohammad H.; Cadavid, Steven; Chow, Sy-Miin; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

2010-01-01

205

Précis of The brain and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics treated in The Brain and Emotion include the definition, nature and functions of emotion (Chapter 3), the neural bases of emotion (Chapter 4), reward, punishment and emotion in brain design (Chapter 10), a theory of consciousness and its application to under- standing emotion and pleasure (Chapter 9), and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that

Edmund T. Rolls

2000-01-01

206

A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

Liu, Zhen

2008-11-01

207

Emotional Intelligence and the Career Choice Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey consists of perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thoughts, understanding emotions, and managing emotions to enhance personal growth. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale has proven a valid and reliable measure that can be used to explore the implications of…

Emmerling, Robert J.; Cherniss, Cary

2003-01-01

208

Music emotion annotation by machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music emotion annotation is a task of attaching emotional terms to musical works. As volume of online musical contents expands rapidly in recent years, demands for retrieval by emotion are emerging. Currently, literature on music retrieval using emotional terms is rare. Emotion annotated data are scarce in existing music databases because annotation is still a manual task. Automating music emotion

Wai Ling Cheung; Guojun Lu

2008-01-01

209

Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7 studies, the authors examined the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. In Studies 1 and 2, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for empathic perspective taking and self-monitoring in social situations. In Study 3, the participants with higher scores for emotional intelligence had higher scores for social skills. In Study 4, the

Nicola S. Schutte; John M. Malouff; Chad Bobik; Tracie D. Coston; Cyndy Greeson; Christina Jedlicka; Emily Rhodes; Greta Wendorf

2001-01-01

210

Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta

2001-01-01

211

Fuzzy logic based emotion classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions affect many aspects of our daily lives including decision making, reasoning and physical wellbeing. Researchers have therefore addressed the detection of emotion from individuals' heart rate, skin conductance, pupil dilation, tone of voice, facial expression and electroencephalogram (EEG). This paper presents an algorithm for classifying positive and negative emotions from EEG. Unlike other algorithms that extract fuzzy rules from

Joseph W. Matiko; Stephen P. Beeby; John Tudor

2014-01-01

212

When Emotion Intensifies Memory Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of our most vivid memories are of emotional events; in research studies, emotional events or items are often more likely to be remembered than neutral events or items. However, as pointed out in this chapter, the same character- istics that make emotional information memorable can also make it more subject to interference effects in memory. Thus: (1) being reminded

Mara Mather

213

Emotional Intelligence: A Stable Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and overall success in life. Yet few professional curricula adequately address this subject. The results of this study indicate that the potential for enhanced emotional intelligence…

Goroshit, Marina; Hen, Meirav

2012-01-01

214

Emotional Face Processing and Emotion Regulation in Children: An ERP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion regulation is a critical component of healthy development, yet few studies examine neural correlates of emotion regulation in childhood. In the present study, we assessed whether children's neurophysiological responses to salient and socially significant emotional distracters—emotional faces—were related to broader emotion regulation capacities. Emotion regulation was measured as attention performance following emotional distracters and as maternal report of child

Tracy A. Dennis; Melville M. Malone; Chao-Cheng Chen

2009-01-01

215

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and Adaptation Among 5- to 8YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated relations between emotionality, emotion regulation, and children's behavioral adaptation in a longitudinal design. Mothers rated emotionality and emotion regulation related to anger, fear, and positive emotions–exuberance for 151 children at age 5 and later at age 6 years 6 months. Emotionality and emotion regulation measures were modestly related. Preschool ratings at age 6 (n = 125), maternal

Ann-Margret Rydell; Lisa Berlin; Gunilla Bohlin

2003-01-01

216

Emotion in mystical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a critique of three assumptions that have significantly shaped the neuropsychological study of mystical experience: (a) intense positive emotion, especially ecstasy, is the defining feature of mystical experience; (b) abnormal temporolimbic activity, particularly epileptiform activity, is the central mediating factor or cause of mystical experience; and (c) mystical experience resembles and is possibly the same as the

David T. Bradford

2012-01-01

217

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

Cox, Edward P.

2009-01-01

218

Interaction on Emotions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the addition of an emotion dialogue to the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) system. The goal of the MRE system is to provide an immersive learning environment for army officer recruits. The user can engage in conversation with severa...

A. Hartholt T. J. Muller

2004-01-01

219

Immunity, Emotions and Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a variety of sources supports the notion that stress and emotional distress may relate to dysfunction and hypofunction of the immunologic system. We have experimental evidence that some forms of stress reduce primary and secondary antibody response to low dose antigen stimulation in rats and that adult immunologic responsivity may be altered by early infantile experience. Mixed-sex group

George F. Solomon; Alfred A. Amkraut; Phyllis Kasper

1974-01-01

220

Expressed emotion across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 40 years ago, Brown and his colleagues believed that ordinary aspects of family life were crucial to an understanding of how families interact with patients in their midst (Brown, 1985). The concept and measurement of the 'expressed emotion' within families were developed in the 1960s, initially for use in schizophrenia. They were subsequently used for a number of physical

Dinesh Bhugra; Kwame McKenzie

2003-01-01

221

Emotionality and perceptual defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition thresholds and galvanic skin responses during the prerecognition period were measured for sixteen observers presented tachistoscopically with eleven neutral and seven emotionally-toned words, randomly ordered. The observers reacted with GSR's of significantly greater magnitude during the pre-recognition presentation of the critical words than they did before recognizing the neutral words. In addition, the observers displayed significantly higher thresholds of

Elliott McGinnies

1949-01-01

222

Personalized music emotion recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a dramatic proliferation of research on information retrieval based on highly subjective concepts such as emotion, preference and aesthetic. Such retrieval methods are fascinating but challenging since it is difficult to built a general retrieval model that performs equally well to everyone. In this paper, we propose two novel methods, bag-of-users model and residual

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Homer H. Chen

2009-01-01

223

Emotional Subjects for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

Micciche, Laura R.

224

Emotions and calls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Birds use different calls to understand each other. Birds can give distress calls and other calls to let other birds know how they feel. Similarly, humans can detect how other humans feel by the tone of voice they use. They can use their hearing abilities to assess the emotions and moods of others.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-10-08

225

Emotional intelligence: a theoretical and empirical review of its first 15 years of history.  

PubMed

The term Emotional Intelligence (EI) was first introduced in the scientific literature in 1990. Since then, the development of models of EI and research in this field has increased substantially. In this manuscript, a theoretical and empirical review of the first 15 years of history of EI is presented. First, the broad interest on this concept is shown through qualitative and quantitative indexes. Then, current theoretical models of EI: the mental ability model; the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence; and Goleman's model of EI are described in depth. Finally, authors give relevant keys about future considerations for research on EI. Specifically, authors 1) propose some ideas concerning the measurement of the construct and the use of ability and self-reported measures; 2) discuss the learning, development, and training potential of EI; and 3) consider the cross-cultural validity of EI. PMID:17295952

Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Extremera, Natalio

2006-01-01

226

Sad music induces pleasant emotion  

PubMed Central

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

227

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network.  

PubMed

ACCOUNTS OF THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION ON BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AND CURRENT MODELS OF EMOTION REGULATION ARE BASED ON TWO OPPOSED BUT INTERACTING PROCESSES: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with "bottom-up" attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control. PMID:24223546

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

228

Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network  

PubMed Central

Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom-up/top-down dichotomy of attentional control.

Viviani, Roberto

2013-01-01

229

Situating emotional experience  

PubMed Central

Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

230

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

231

Emotion metaphors and emotional labor in science teaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the importance of metaphors and beliefs in the development of teachers' practical knowledge has already been explored in science education research. However, the significance of emotion metaphors and the consequences of emotional labor as part of being a science teacher have been little addressed. This study describes the findings from a 3-year ethnographic case study of an elementary-school teacher who participated in a research project investigating the role of teacher emotion in science teaching and student learning. This research demonstrates how the performance of emotional labor is an important aspect of reality in science teaching. The teacher in this study is willing to do the emotional labor that involves some suffering because the emotional rewards are gratifying. A perspective on emotion in science education may focus, at least in part, on the functions of emotion in creating inspiring emotional cultures in science teaching and learning. Recognizing that teachers and students are agents in constructing such cultures, educators, teachers, and administrators are more likely to grasp the complexities and possibilities of emotional labor in the context of science education.

Zembylas, Michalinos

2004-05-01

232

Perceived emotional intelligence, alexithymia, coping and emotional regulation.  

PubMed

This study examined the different facets of perceived emotional intelligence (EI), alexithymia and how these facets were related to coping and affect regulation, using as indexes social support, perceived stress, depression and affect balance. Participants were 593 introductory psychology students. The results clarified and confirmed that emotional intelligence and alexithymia scales (TMMS-48 and TAS-20) converged in a clarity and regulation of emotion factor, that showed criterion validity with self-reports of mental health, affect balance and social adjustment and simultaneously to an adaptative profile of coping with stress, that mediated and explained how emotional clarity, capacity to identify feelings, ability to express and repair mood and feelings, help to emotional regulation. Attention to emotion and low external oriented thinking did not show criterion validity with mental health or with adaptive coping. PMID:17295963

Velasco, Carmen; Fernández, Itziar; Páez, Darío; Campos, Miryam

2006-01-01

233

Personality and Expressed Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed emotion (EE) is an established psychosocial predictor of relapse in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders; however, nothing is currently known about the personality characteristics of high- and low-EE relatives. A total of 45 relatives of schizophrenia patients completed the California Psychological Inventory, a widely used measure of common personality traits. Compared with low-EE relatives, high-EE relatives were more

Jill M. Hooley; Jordan B. Hiller

2000-01-01

234

Hamburger hazards and emotions.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. PMID:24656947

Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim

2014-07-01

235

Emotional gestures in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study about the gestures of athletes while reporting emotions. The study was aimed at singling out possible\\u000a differences in gestural activity of athletes during the telling of their best and worst performances. To analyse the gestures\\u000a a manual annotation scheme was adopted that classifies each gesture in terms of handshape, motoric structure, meaning, goal,\\u000a and type.

Giorgio Merola

2007-01-01

236

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

237

Interpersonal emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain. PMID:24098929

Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

2013-10-01

238

[Update on "expressed emotions"].  

PubMed

The present article is meant to sum up the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to the concept of "Emotional Expression" and its very implementation in the clinical and therapeutical field which are well-known in anglo-saxon countries but very little applied and known in France. "Emotional Expression" (EE), which came out of research and studies undertaken by Brown (1959) and later on, Vaughn and Leff (1976), defines interaction between a schizophrenic patient and his close environment according to 3 criterium: judgmental comments and criticism, hostility, emotional over-involvement. Family surroundings are characterized by strong EE or weak EE according to the frequency and the quantity of the measures during a typical standard family-interview: the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). A strong EE is considered as being a non-specific factor. "Emotional Expression" proves to be a predictable indication for relapse in terms of psychiatric affluence (positive symptoms), hospitalization rate and psycho-social adjustment process. The possibilities of forecasting do not concern specifically schizophrenia as the relation between family climate and relapse can be observed in other mental pathology as well. The psycho-educational approach which is induced by this research trend is based on a concept of a partnership between the patients's family and the patient. The purpose in fact is to bring about changes within the relationship of the patient and his environment so as to reduce judgmental criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement (information programs concerning etiology, therapeutical strategies in view of improving understanding of the illness and to reorganize proper family relationship). The advantage of such a concept which is well-known lies in the fact that it helps to find out those family surroundings with strong EE who represent factors of relapse for psychiatric patients and to suggest therefore therapeutical treatment, the purpose of which should be defined together with all those concerned namely, the patient, the family, the therapeutist so as to intervene during the evolution of the illness. The literary bibliographical review which we have made lead us to find the existence of a wide field of research with results showing clearly the predictable aspects of EE in the illness process. In this way, new approaches in the "intake" of schizophrenic patients and their families are clearly defined. PMID:10951910

Abaoub, A; Vidon, G

2000-01-01

239

Using the Perturbation of the Contact Quotient of the EGG Waveform to Analyze Age Differences in Adult Speech.  

PubMed

This study examines electroglottographic (EGG) recordings for 15 young and 14 old male speakers of New Zealand English. Analysis was performed on the sustained vowels /i:/ and /a:/ at three target levels for both pitch and loudness. Jitter was greater for older speakers, and the contact quotient (Qx) was significantly lower for older speakers. The greater jitter for older speakers indicates a decrease in the stability of the vocal production mechanism of the older speakers. The jitter is an acoustic measure, so to examine the stability at a physiological level, a perturbation measure of the Qx is developed and applied to the EGG recordings. The contact quotient perturbation (CQP) showed a significant increase for older speakers (1.55% and 3.54% for young and old, respectively), and this demonstrated more about the variability than the jitter data alone. When loudness is also considered, the Qx was significantly greater for louder vowels, whereas its perturbation was significantly lower for louder vowels. This relationship combined with the age effect, with the CQP for all three loudness levels being greater for the older speakers. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of vocal fold models that account for aging. PMID:24495426

Bier, Stephen D; Watson, Catherine I; McCann, Clare M

2014-05-01

240

A probabilistic analysis reveals fundamental limitations with the environmental impact quotient and similar systems for rating pesticide risks  

PubMed Central

Comparing risks among pesticides has substantial utility for decision makers. However, if rating schemes to compare risks are to be used, they must be conceptually and mathematically sound. We address limitations with pesticide risk rating schemes by examining in particular the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) using, for the first time, a probabilistic analytic technique. To demonstrate the consequences of mapping discrete risk ratings to probabilities, adjusted EIQs were calculated for a group of 20 insecticides in four chemical classes. Using Monte Carlo simulation, adjusted EIQs were determined under different hypothetical scenarios by incorporating probability ranges. The analysis revealed that pesticides that have different EIQs, and therefore different putative environmental effects, actually may be no different when incorporating uncertainty. The EIQ equation cannot take into account uncertainty the way that it is structured and provide reliable quotients of pesticide impact. The EIQ also is inconsistent with the accepted notion of risk as a joint probability of toxicity and exposure. Therefore, our results suggest that the EIQ and other similar schemes be discontinued in favor of conceptually sound schemes to estimate risk that rely on proper integration of toxicity and exposure information.

Schleier, Jerome J.

2014-01-01

241

Incongruence effects in crossmodal emotional integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions are often encountered in a multimodal fashion. Consequently, contextual framing by other modalities can alter the way that an emotional facial expression is perceived and lead to emotional conflict. Whole brain fMRI data was collected when 35 healthy subjects judged emotional expressions in faces while concurrently being exposed to emotional (scream, laughter) or neutral (yawning) sounds. The behavioral results

Veronika I. Müller; Ute Habel; Birgit Derntl; Frank Schneider; Karl Zilles; Bruce I. Turetsky; Simon B. Eickhoff

2011-01-01

242

Emotions in Dream and Waking Event Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty participants hand-wrote reports of their dreams and reports of waking life events, and used an extensive lexicon of emotion words and types to rate the emotions experienced in each scene of each report. From these ratings, the incidence and intensity of 22 different emotion categories specified by a cognitive model of emotions was assessed. Emotions were found to be

Tore A. Nielsen; Daniel Deslauriers; George W. Baylor

1991-01-01

243

TEAM EMOTION RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady

244

Psychological associations with emotionalism after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological associations with emotionalism were examined, 1 month after stroke, in 448 stroke survivors who met inclusion criteria for a randomised trial of psychological treatment. One hundred and one (21.5%) patients had emotionalism. Thirty eight (38%) of those with emotionalism had a clinically significant mood disorder, compared with 64 of 347 (18%) of those without emotionalism. Emotionalism was associated

Tig Calvert; Peter Knapp; Allan House

1998-01-01

245

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

246

Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation.  

PubMed

Research on the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness training applied in psychotherapy is still in its infancy (Erisman & Roemer, 2010). For instance, little is known about the extent and processes through which mindfulness practice improves emotion regulation. This experience sampling study assessed the relationship between mindfulness, emotion differentiation, emotion lability, and emotional difficulties. Young adult participants reported their current emotional experiences 6 times per day during 1 week on a PalmPilot device. Based on these reports of emotions, indices of emotional differentiation and emotion lability were composed for negative and positive emotions. Mindfulness was associated with greater emotion differentiation and less emotional difficulties (i.e., emotion lability and self-reported emotion dysregulation). Mediational models indicated that the relationship between mindfulness and emotion lability was mediated by emotion differentiation. Furthermore, emotion regulation mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both negative emotion lability and positive emotion differentiation. This experience sampling study indicates that self-reported levels of mindfulness are related to higher levels of differentiation of one's discrete emotional experiences in a manner reflective of effective emotion regulation. PMID:22148996

Hill, Christina L M; Updegraff, John A

2012-02-01

247

Processing orientation and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

There is evidence that some emotional expressions are characterized by diagnostic cues from individual face features. For example, an upturned mouth is indicative of happiness, whereas a furrowed brow is associated with anger. The current investigation explored whether motivating people to perceive stimuli in a local (i.e., feature-based) rather than global (i.e., holistic) processing orientation was advantageous for recognizing emotional facial expressions. Participants classified emotional faces while primed with local and global processing orientations, via a Navon letter task. Contrary to previous findings for identity recognition, the current findings are indicative of a modest advantage for face emotion recognition under conditions of local processing orientation. When primed with a local processing orientation, participants performed both significantly faster and more accurately on an emotion recognition task than when they were primed with a global processing orientation. The impacts of this finding for theories of emotion recognition and face processing are considered. PMID:21842989

Martin, Douglas; Slessor, Gillian; Allen, Roy; Phillips, Louise H; Darling, Stephen

2012-02-01

248

Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can emotional intelligence (EI) be reliably and validly measured in adolescents? One-hundred and thirty-one students (aged 13 to 15) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence (SEI) [Schutte, N., Malouff, J., Hall, L., Haggerty, D., Cooper, J., Golden, C., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.] and a

Joseph Ciarrochi; Amy Y. C. Chan; Jane Bajgar

2001-01-01

249

Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities\\u000a for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused\\u000a emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced sadness. At the end of each film,

Osnat Argaman

2010-01-01

250

Emotional intelligence in panic disorder.  

PubMed

Panic attacks are psychopathological phenomena with a strong emotional activation that often induces subsequent anticipatory anxiety and phobic avoidance. Impairment in emotional processing in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) has been hypothesized. Emotional Intelligence (EI) involves the individual abilities to perceive, understand and manage emotions in order to cope with changes in internal and external environment. We examined EI in 42 patients with PD with Agoraphobia compared to 49 healthy controls and investigated if clinical severity of Agoraphobia is related to EI performance. We assessed EI by Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and Agoraphobia by Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia. Patients with PD and Agoraphobia showed lower Strategic EI ability than healthy controls, in both Understanding and Managing emotion abilities, and a general propensity to attribute negative emotional valence to different stimuli. These preliminary results suggest that impaired mechanisms of understanding and integrating emotions may be involved in the phenomenology of PD. These features might be the target of psychological interventions in PD. On the contrary, Emotional Intelligence did not appear to affect the clinical severity of Agoraphobia. PMID:21265440

Perna, Giampaolo; Menotti, Roberta; Borriello, Giulia; Cavedini, Paolo; Bellodi, Laura; Caldirola, Daniela

2010-01-01

251

Regional brain function, emotion and disorders of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the neural substrates of emotion and its disorders. Neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize the circuitry underlying disorders of emotion. Particular emphasis has been placed on the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and the amygdala as critical components of the circuitry that may be dysfunctional in both depression and

Richard J Davidson; Heather Abercrombie; Jack B Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

1999-01-01

252

Emotion: Moving Toward the Utilization of Artificial Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During human-human interaction, emotion plays a vital role in structuring dialogue. Emotional content drives features such as topic shift, lexicalisation change and timing; it affects the delicate balance between goals related to the task at hand and those of social interaction; and it represents one type of feedback on the effect that utterances are having. These various facets are so

Michael A. Gilbert; Chris Reed

253

Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

Kramer, Laurie

2014-01-01

254

Prospective Effects of Emotion-Regulation Skills on Emotional Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in emotion-regulation skills have widely been shown to be associated with poor emotional adjustment. However, it is still unclear whether these deficits are a cause or a consequence of poor adjustment. The purpose of the present research was to clarify the reciprocal effects between these 2 concepts. In 2 studies (Ns = 446 and 635),…

Berking, Matthias; Orth, Ulrich; Wupperman, Peggilee; Meier, Laurenz L.; Caspar, Franz

2008-01-01

255

Emotional influences on singing  

Microsoft Academic Search

national grants in 9 years. She is the author of over 50 research papers, abstracts, chapters and edited books, and has presented research results at 43 conferences and been,keynote,or invited speaker,at 13 international,conferences.,Her research,interests include the neural control of voice and breathing, respiratory and laryngeal control during speech,and,singing,and,emotional,influences,on voice. She has,supervised,several,PhD and Masters,research,students,and,is currently supervising,a number,of postgraduate,students at the National,Voice

Pamela Davis

256

Grounding emotion in situated conceptualization.  

PubMed

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2011-04-01

257

The Sociology of Emotional Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers are expected to manage their feelings in accordance with organizationally defined rules and guidelines. Hochschild's (1983) The Managed Heart introduced this concept and inspired an outpouring of research on this topic. This article reviews theory and research on emotional labor with a particular focus on its contributions to sociological understandings of

Amy S. Wharton

2009-01-01

258

Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. To determine the nature of this relationship, personality constructs known to predict life satisfaction were also assessed (positive and negative affect). Emotional intelligence was assessed in 107 participants using a modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS; Salovey, P, Mayer, J., Goldman, S., Turvey, C. & Palfai, T.1995.

Benjamin Palmer; Catherine Donaldson; Con Stough

2002-01-01

259

Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.  

PubMed

Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

Pixley, Jocelyn

2002-03-01

260

Emotive Qualities in Robot Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the expression of emotion in synthesized speech for an anthropomorphic robot. We have adapted several key emotional correlates of human speech to the robot's speech synthesizer to allow the robot to speak in either an angry, calm, disg...

C. Breazeal

2000-01-01

261

Emotional facial expressions capture attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the emotional significance of stimuli can influence spatial attention. BACKGROUND: Motivational and emotional factors may affect attention toward stimuli. However, this has never been examined in brain-damaged patients who present with unilateral inattention due to left spatial neglect. METHODS: The authors studied three patients with chronic left neglect and visual extinction after right parietal stroke. Shapes

Patrik Vuilleumier; Sophie Schwartz

2001-01-01

262

Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

Pickover, Sheri

2010-01-01

263

Musical Emotions: Functions, Origins, Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origi...

L. Perlovsky

2010-01-01

264

Emotion and sociable humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

Cynthia Breazeal

2003-01-01

265

Measures of emotion: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems.

Iris B. Mauss; Michael D. Robinson

2009-01-01

266

Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

Steinberg, Carola

2008-01-01

267

On the Nature of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that humans are capable of a large number of affect states; a distinction should be made among acute emotions, chronic moods, and temperamental vulnerabilities to a particular emotion state; and research on human effects will profit from a return to, and reinterpretation of, Sigmund Freud's suggestion of unconscious affect…

Kagan, Jerome

1994-01-01

268

Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

2002-01-01

269

Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization  

PubMed Central

According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically.

Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

2011-01-01

270

WHY ROBOTS WILL HAVE EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions involve complex processes produced by interactions between motives, beliefs, percepts, etc. E.g. real or imagined fulfilment or violation of a motive, or triggering of a 'motive- generator ', can disturb processes produced by other motives. T ou nderstand emotions, therefore, we need to understand motives and the types of processes they can produce. This leads to a study of

Aaron Sloman; Monica Croucher

1987-01-01

271

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has

Leonid Perlovsky

2010-01-01

272

Music Emotion Identification from Lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very large online music databases have recently been created by vendors, but they generally lack content-based retrieval methods. One exception is Allmusic.com which offers browsing by musical emotion, using human experts to classify several thousand songs into 183 moods. In this paper, machine learning techniques are used instead of human experts to extract emotions in Music. The classification is based

Dan Yang; Won-Sook Lee

2009-01-01

273

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

274

Contradictions of emotion in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers contradictory features of emotional or affective experience and expression in schizophrenia in light of the “Kretschmerian paradox”—the fact that schizophrenia-spectrum patients can simultaneously experience both exaggerated and diminished levels of affective response. An attempt is made to explain the paradox and explore its implications. Recent research on emotion in schizophrenia is reviewed, including subjective reports, psychophysiological measures

Louis Sass

2007-01-01

275

Stereotype associations and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Study 2) expression displays. Stereotype consistent expressions were more quickly decoded than stereotype inconsistent expression on Moroccan and White male faces. Importantly, we found consistent and novel evidence that participants' associations between ethnicities and emotions, as measured with a newly developed emotion Implicit Association Test (eIAT), predicted the strength of their ethnicity-based stereotype biases in expression recognition. In both studies, as perceivers' level of Moroccan-anger and Dutch-sadness associations (compared with the opposite) increased, so did perceivers' tendency to decode anger more readily on Moroccan faces and sadness on White faces. The observed stereotype effect seemed to be independent of implicit prejudice (Study 2), suggesting dissociable effects of prejudices and stereotypes in expression perception. PMID:24523297

Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

2014-05-01

276

Emotional distraction unbalances visual processing.  

PubMed

Brain mechanisms used to control nonemotional aspects of cognition may be distinct from those regulating responses to emotional stimuli, with activity of the latter being detrimental to the former. Previous studies have shown that suppression of irrelevant emotional stimuli produces a largely right-lateralized pattern of frontal brain activation, thus predicting that emotional stimuli may invoke temporary, lateralized costs to performance on nonemotional cognitive tasks. To test this, we briefly (85 ms) presented a central, irrelevant, expressive (angry, happy, sad, or fearful) or neutral face 100 ms prior to a letter search task. The presentation of emotional versus neutral faces slowed subsequent search for targets appearing in the left, but not the right, hemifield, supporting the notion of a right-lateralized, emotional response mechanism that competes for control with nonemotional cognitive processes. Presentation of neutral, scrambled, or inverted neutral faces produced no such laterality effects on visual search response times. PMID:22227946

Gupta, Rashmi; Raymond, Jane E

2012-04-01

277

Showing and telling about emotions: Interrelations between facets of emotional competence and associations with classroom adjustment in Head Start preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of low income preschoolers (N?=? 60), we examined relations between three facets of emotional competence: emotion knowledge, level of negative emotion expression, and emotion regulation; and their associations with indicators of classroom adjustment. Emotion knowledge was positively related to positive emotion regulation but was not related to negative emotion expression or negative dysregulation. Negative emotion expression related

Alison L. Miller; Sarah E. Fine; Kathleen Kiely Gouley; Ronald Seifer; Susan Dickstein; Ann Shields

2006-01-01

278

The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism  

PubMed Central

Background Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child’s sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. Methods A total of 359 adults with (n?=?196) and without (n?=?163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Results Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P?

2014-01-01

279

Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

2009-01-01

280

Structural Validation of the Abridged Autism Spectrum Quotient-Short Form in a Clinical Sample of People with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this article was to provide a structural validation of the 28-item Autism Spectrum Quotient-Short Form questionnaire in a sample of adults with clinically diagnosed autism spectrum disorders ("n" = 148). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the proposed structure, comprising a second-order Social Skills…

Kuenssberg, Renate; Murray, Aja L.; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen

2014-01-01

281

Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

282

Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2008-01-01

283

Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior  

PubMed Central

Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced “self-conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or “collective” experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy.

Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J.

2011-01-01

284

Moral emotions and moral behavior.  

PubMed

Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy. PMID:16953797

Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

2007-01-01

285

Preschool Emotional Competence: Pathway to Social Competence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed preschoolers' patterns of emotional expressiveness, emotion regulation, and emotion knowledge. Used latent variable modeling to identify their contributions to social competence, evidenced by sociometric liability and teacher ratings. Found that emotional competence assessed at 3 to 4 years of age contributed to both concurrent and…

Denham, Susanne A.; Blair, Kimberly A.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Levitas, Jennifer; Sawyer, Katherine; Auerbach-Major, Sharon

2003-01-01

286

Emotional Coherence in Primary School Headship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on emotion and leadership. It views emotions as the language of relationships, because it is through the language and experience of emotion that we contextualize not only our individuality but also our sense of belonging in a group. The article argues that emotion is inherent to the practice of leadership rather than separate…

Crawford, Megan

2007-01-01

287

Collective indexing of emotions in videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The object of this empirical research study is emotion, as depicted and aroused in videos. This paper seeks to answer the questions: Are users able to index such emotions consistently? Are the users' votes usable for emotional video retrieval? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors worked with a controlled vocabulary for nine basic emotions (love, happiness, fun, surprise, desire, sadness,

Kathrin Knautz; Wolfgang G. Stock

2011-01-01

288

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

289

Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

2013-01-01

290

Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

2012-01-01

291

Music Emotion Classification: A Regression Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical music emotion classification (MEC) approaches categorize emotions and apply pattern recognition methods to train a classifier. However, categorized emotions are too ambiguous for efficient music retrieval. In this paper, we model emotions as continuous variables composed of arousal and valence values (AV values), and formulate MEC as a regression problem. The multiple linear regression, support vector regression, and AdaBoost.RT

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Ya-fan Su; Homer H. Chen

2007-01-01

292

User-adaptive music emotion recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music can arouse profound and deep emotional reactions and the automatic emotion recognition of music is useful for music information retrieval, human-computer interaction and affective computing Picard R.W. (1997). However, the nature of music is very complex and users' emotion responses vary from individual to individual. In this paper, we present an adaptive scheme to recognize the emotional meaning of

Wang Muyuan; Zhang Naiyao; Zhu Hancheng

2004-01-01

293

Managing Emotions in Teaching: Toward an Understanding of Emotion Displays and Caring as Nonprescribed Role Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has sought to investigate emotions and forms of emotion management among teachers worldwide, including the connection between educational change and teacher emotion; the association between the culture of teaching and teachers' emotional experience within parent-teacher interactions; the link between teacher emotion and…

Oplatka, Izhar

2007-01-01

294

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music--an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life--can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework--referred to as BRECVEMA--includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-09-01

295

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a ‘paradox’, namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both ‘everyday emotions’ and ‘aesthetic emotions’. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a ‘musical event’ (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical ‘appreciation emotions’ such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either ‘everyday emotions’ or ‘aesthetic emotions’.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

296

Clinical judgement and the emotions.  

PubMed

The basic emotions are more important in decision making than we think. So we need to be aware of them and look not just for rationality in our clinical judgements but rational judgements that 'feel' right. PMID:25041774

Boyd, G

2014-07-01

297

Emotionality and Reactions to Disaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Men exposed to the death and dismemberment occasioned by the crash of a commerical airplane were questioned about their behavior after the experience. Men independently designated as emotionally nonresponsive increased communicative behaviors as a functio...

B. Latane L. Wheeler

1966-01-01

298

Emotional Issues and Bathroom Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

299

Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective…

Pellitteri, John; Dealy, Michael; Fasano, Charles; Kugler, John

2006-01-01

300

Sociological Theories of Human Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Over the past three decades, five general theoretical approaches to un- derstanding,the dynamics,of human,emotions,have emerged,in sociology: dramatur- gical theories, symbolic interactionist theories, interaction ritual theories, power and status theories, and exchange theories. We review each of these approaches. Despite the progress made by these theories, several issues remain unresolved: the nature of emotions, feeling, and affect; the degree

Jonathan H. Turner; Jan E. Stets

2006-01-01

301

Finding emotion in image descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we approach the problem of classifying emotion in image descriptions. A method is proposed to perform 6-way emotion classification and is tested against two labeled datasets: a corpus of blog posts mined from LiveJournal and a corpus of descriptive texts of computer generated scenes. We perform feature selection using the mRMR technique and then use a multi-class

Morgan Ulinski; Victor Soto; Julia Hirschberg

2012-01-01

302

Cognition and Motivation in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cognition—and to some extent motivation—in emotion, the ways meaning is generated, unconscious appraising, and the implications of this way of thinking for life-span development are addressed. It is argued that appraisal is a necessary as well as sufficient cause of emotion and that knowledge is necessary but not sufficient. This position is examined in light of what

Richard S. Lazarus

1991-01-01

303

Temperament, emotion, and childhood stuttering.  

PubMed

Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and attention, and self-regulation refers to the ability to moderate those tendencies. The traitlike nature of temperament makes it potentially salient to our understanding of the onset and development of stuttering because temperamental tendencies may result in greater reactivity or difficulty in coping. Emotions, which are more statelike and variable, may influence the variation of stuttering commonly observed both within and between speaking situations. Temperament and emotion may serve as a causal contributor to developmental stuttering, with empirical findings indicating that preschool-aged children who stutter (CWS) exhibit differences in temperament and emotion when compared with children who do not stutter. Given that empirical study of temperament in preschool-aged CWS is nascent, extensive discussion of clinical implications is challenging. With that caution, we present some early possibilities, including matching treatment approaches with the child's temperamental profile and using temperament as a predictor of treatment outcome. PMID:24782274

Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

2014-05-01

304

Selective visual attention to emotion.  

PubMed

Visual attention can be voluntarily directed toward stimuli and is attracted by stimuli that are emotionally significant. The present study explored the case when both processes coincide and attention is directed to emotional stimuli. Participants viewed a rapid and continuous stream of high-arousing erotica and mutilation stimuli as well as low-arousing control images. Each of the three stimulus categories served in separate runs as target or nontarget category. Event-related brain potential measures revealed that the interaction of attention and emotion varied for specific processing stages. The effects of attention and emotional significance operated additively during perceptual encoding indexed by negative-going potentials over posterior regions (approximately 200-350 ms after stimulus onset). In contrast, thought to reflect the process of stimulus evaluation, P3 target effects (approximately 400-600 ms after stimulus onset) were markedly augmented when erotica and mutilation compared with control stimuli were the focus of attention. Thus, emotion potentiated attention effects specifically during later stages of processing. These findings suggest to specify the interaction of attention and emotion in distinct processing stages. PMID:17267562

Schupp, Harald T; Stockburger, Jessica; Codispoti, Maurizio; Junghöfer, Markus; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

2007-01-31

305

Emotion and the motivational brain  

PubMed Central

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain’s motivational circuits that determine human emotion.

Lang, Peter J.; Bradley, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

306

Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. PMID:21232566

Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

2011-04-01

307

An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy with the emotion specific empathy questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed.

Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver

2014-01-01

308

A performance comparison of the transform domain Rayleigh quotient quadratic correlation filter (TDRQQCF) approach to the regularized RQQCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rayleigh Quotient Quadratic Correlation Filter (RQQCF) has been used to achieve very good performance for Automatic Target Detection/Recognition. The filter coefficients are obtained as the solution that maximizes a class separation metric, thus resulting in optimal performance. Recently, a transform domain approach was presented for ATR using the RQQCF called the Transform Domain RQQCF (TDRQQCF). The TDRQQCF considerably reduced the computational complexity and storage requirements, by compressing the target and clutter data used in designing the QCF. In addition, the TDRQQCF approach was able to produce larger responses when the filter was correlated with target and clutter images. This was achieved while maintaining the excellent recognition accuracy of the original spatial domain RQQCF algorithm. The computation of the RQQCF and the TDRQQCF involve the inverse of the term A I = R x + R y where R x and R y are the sample autocorrelation matrices for targets and clutter respectively. It can be conjectured that the TDRQQCF approach is equivalent to regularizing A I. A common regularization approach involves performing the Eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD) of A I, setting some small eigenvalues to zero, and then reconstructing A I, which is now expected to be better conditioned. In this paper, this regularization approach is investigated, and compared to the TDRQQCF.

Ragothaman, P.; Mahalanobis, A.; Muise, R.; Mikhael, W. B.

2008-05-01

309

Respiratory quotient evolution during normal pregnancy: what nutritional or clinical information can we get out of it?  

PubMed

Food intake increases to a varying extent during pregnancy to provide extra energy for the growing fetus. Measuring the respiratory quotient (RQ) during the course of pregnancy (by quantifying O2 consumption and CO2 production with indirect calorimetry) could be potentially useful since it gives an insight into the evolution of the proportion of carbohydrate vs. fat oxidized during pregnancy and thus allows recommendations on macronutrients for achieving a balanced (or slightly positive) substrate intake. A systematic search of the literature for papers reporting RQ changes during normal pregnancy identified 10 papers reporting original research. The existing evidence supports an increased RQ of varying magnitude in the third trimester of pregnancy, while the discrepant results reported for the first and second trimesters (i.e. no increase in RQ), explained by limited statistical power (small sample size) or fragmentary data, preclude safe conclusions about the evolution of RQ during early pregnancy. From a clinical point of view, measuring RQ during pregnancy requires not only sophisticated and costly indirect calorimeters but appears of limited value outside pure research projects, because of several confounding variables: (1) spontaneous changes in food intake and food composition during the course of pregnancy (which influence RQ); (2) inter-individual differences in weight gain and composition of tissue growth; (3) technical factors, notwithstanding the relatively small contribution of fetal metabolism per se (RQ close to 1.0) to overall metabolism of the pregnant mother. PMID:24613151

Melzer, Katarina; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves

2014-05-01

310

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

311

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures.  

PubMed

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

Gerdes, Antje B M; Wieser, Matthias J; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M; Alpers, Georg W

2013-01-01

312

Emotion through Locomotion: Gender Impact  

PubMed Central

Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition.

Kruger, Samuel; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Enck, Paul; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Pavlova, Marina A.

2013-01-01

313

Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2009-01-01

314

Effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin administration on insulin resistance and respiratory quotient in aged dyslipidemic non-insulin dependent diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and ninety-five aged (mean age: 67±4.8 years), non-insulin dependent diabetic patients underwent a randomised single-blind study for investigating the effect of statin administration on insulin resistance and respiratory quotient. After 4 weeks run-in period, all patients were randomised in three groups: placebo (n=67), simvastatin (10 mg\\/day) (n=61) and atorvastatin (5 mg\\/day) (n=67). Each treatment period lasted 8 weeks.

Giuseppe Paolisso; Mara Barbagallo; Giuseppina Petrella; Emilia Ragno; Michelangela Barbieri; Mauro Giordano; Michele Varricchio

2000-01-01

315

Effects of dietary carnitine and protein energy: non-protein energy ratios on growth, ammonia excretion and respiratory quotient in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell) juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two separate feeding experiments were carried out to determine the effects of dietary carnitine supplements on growth rates, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion and respiratory quotient rates (RQ) in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), juveniles fed various diets differing in protein energy:nonprotein energy ratio (PE:NPE). In Experiment 1, 540 fish (20.9 ± 1.0 g) were evenly distributed into six

R. O. A. Ozorio; Eekeren van T. H. B; E. A. Huisman; J. A. J. Verreth

2001-01-01

316

Low birthweight infants and total parenteral nutrition immediately after birth. I. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient of ventilated and non-ventilated infants.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) of ventilated and non-ventilated low birthweight infants during the first five days of life, in order to determine optimal feeding regimens. Eighty six infants, of birthweight less than 1750 g, were grouped according to whether they were artificially ventilated or breathing air spontaneously, and whether they were parenterally or enterally fed at the time of study. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured during days 1-5 and the relation of energy expenditure to several explanatory variables was investigated using multiple regression analysis. The energy expenditure of ventilated infants was less than that of spontaneously breathing infants; the differences were significant on days 1-3. The respiratory quotient (mean (SE)) was greater in intravenously fed infants compared with milk-fed--0.99 (0.03) v 0.92 (0.01) (P < 0.05), with 42% of studies of infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) producing an RQ of > 1.0 compared with 16.6% of milk-fed infants (P < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between glucose intake and RQ (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). The activity scores were measured during 75 studies and scores were significantly higher in spontaneously breathing milk-fed infants compared with ventilated parenterally fed infants. Factors independently related to energy expenditure were: postnatal age (P < 0.01); milk feeds (P < 0.01); and physical activity (P < 0.05). A mix of carbohydrate and fat from day 1 may not only meet energy needs but may also reduce respiratory quotient.

Forsyth, J. S.; Crighton, A.

1995-01-01

317

Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?  

PubMed Central

Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value.

Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

2014-01-01

318

Principles of Emotional Development and Children's Pretend Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the links between emotional development and pretend play in young children using basic foundations of psychoanalytic and learning theories. Explains emotional development and pretend play through interactive levels of expression, control and modeling of emotion, and emotional intelligence. (JPB)

Kwon, Jeong Yoon; Yawkey, Thomas D.

2000-01-01

319

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

320

The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

2012-01-01

321

Musical emotions: functions, origins, evolution.  

PubMed

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed. PMID:20374916

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

322

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

323

Identification of Youngsters with Emotional Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clarification of the identification process for emotionally disturbed children is presented. Traditional definitions of emotional disturbance (ED) are explored and four behavioral clusters within traditional definitions are presented. The four are withdrawal from social interaction (autism), unsatisfactory interpersonal relationships,…

Smith, Carl R.

324

Sleep and the processing of emotions.  

PubMed

How emotions interact with cognitive processes has been a topic of growing interest in the last decades, as well as studies investigating the role of sleep in cognition. We review here evidence showing that sleep and emotions entertain privileged relationships. The literature indicates that exposure to stressful and emotional experiences can induce changes in the post-exposure sleep architecture, whereas emotional disturbances are likely to develop following sleep alterations. In addition, post-training sleep appears particularly beneficial for the consolidation of intrinsically emotional memories, suggesting that emotions modulate the off-line brain activity patterns subtending memory consolidation processes. Conversely, sleep contributes unbinding core memories from their affective blanket and removing the latter, eventually participating to habituation processes and reducing aversive reactions to stressful stimuli. Taken together, these data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the regulation and processing of emotions, which highlight its crucial influence on human's abilities to manage and respond to emotional information. PMID:24449011

Deliens, Gaétane; Gilson, Médhi; Peigneux, Philippe

2014-05-01

325

Are emotional intelligent workers also more empathic?  

PubMed

This paper analyzes whether emotional intelligence and self-monitoring are related to empathy among a sample of workers in both the public and private employment sectors. Two hundred and forty-two employees (42.5% men and 57.5% women) with a mean age of 35.21 years (SD = 10.07, range 18-61) completed a questionnaire that measured the variables of interest. The results showed that emotion regulation, a dimension of emotional intelligence, accounts for most of the variance of empathy, followed by the ability to understand emotions and the management of others' emotions. Furthermore, gender did not yield any moderator effect on the relations among emotional intelligence, self-monitoring and empathy. We conclude that the intrapersonal aspects of emotional intelligence, in particular, emotion regulation, help explain the empathy of workers. The implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:23786638

Martos, Maria Pilar Berrios; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Augusto, José María

2013-10-01

326

Beyond Describing Affect: Reconceptualizing Emotions in Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several research that examine emotions as a way to diagnose and treat pediatric depression are discussed. The growing research into this field may one day elevate emotion to be included in the standard diagnostic and clinical interview.

Horner, Michelle S.

2009-01-01

327

Modeling and Evaluating Emotions Impact on Cognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to make advances in modeling the relationship between emotion and cognition. The researchers proposed to use computational models to concretize psychological theories concerning the relationship between emotion, cognition...

J. Gratch S. Marsella

2000-01-01

328

Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

Gabrielsson, Alf

1999-01-01

329

Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Methods Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). Results Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p<.001), whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=?.39, p<.001). Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=?.20, p<.01). Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. Conclusions The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector.

2012-01-01

330

Emotion Regulation in Customer Service Roles: Testing a Model of Emotional Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study used a time-sampling method to test aspects of A. Grandey's (2000) emotion regulation model of emotional labor. Eighteen customer service employees from a call center recorded data on pocket computers every 2 hr at work for 2 weeks. Participants completed ratings of emotion regulation, events, expressed and felt emotions, well-being, and performance on 537 occasions and completed questionnaires

Peter Totterdell; David Holman

2003-01-01

331

Regulating emotion expression and regulating emotion experience: divergent associations with dimensions of attachment among older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult attachment research does not systematically distinguish between experiential and expressive forms of regulation. Drawing insights from developmental-functionalism – a lifespan theory of emotion and emotion regulation – the current report examined the relations among attachment, trait emotion, and expressive emotion regulation in a large (N = 1204) sample of older women. Although both preoccupation and fearful-avoidance predicted more anxiety and anger,

Nathan S. Consedine; Katherine L. Fiori; Carol Magai

2012-01-01

332

Comparison of Human and Automatic Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the problem of human facial emotions and emotion intensity levels recognition using active appearance models (AAM) and support vector machines (SVM). AAM are used for appropriate feature extraction and SVM for convenient facial emotion and emotion level classification. Problems related to proper selection of data retrieved from AAM and SVM learning parameters settings are discussed

M. Beszedes; P. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

333

Bottom-up and top-down emotion generation: implications for emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the 'bottom-up' (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or 'top-down' (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865

McRae, Kateri; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K; Pereira, Sean C; Gross, James J

2012-03-01

334

Exploring the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Objective Socio-Emotional Outcomes in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies. This paper examines the validity of this construct, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form…

Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian

2009-01-01

335

Developing Emotionally Competent Teachers: Emotional Intelligence and Pre-Service Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classrooms are emotional places, filled at different times with enjoyment, excitement, anger, hurt and boredom. The teacher's skill in working with emotional information and in regulating their own and their pupils' emotion impacts upon what and how pupils learn. But what emotional competence do teachers need? Can they learn this in pre-service…

Corcoran, Roisin P.; Tormey, Roland

2012-01-01

336

Emotion as a Thermostat: Representing Emotion Regulation Using a Damped Oscillator Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present in this study a damped oscillator model that provides a direct mathematical basis for testing the notion of emotion as a self-regulatory thermostat. Parameters from this model reflect individual differences in emotional lability and the ability to regulate emotion. The authors discuss concepts such as intensity, rate of change, and acceleration in the context of emotion, and

Sy-Miin Chow; Nilam Ram; Steven M. Boker; Frank Fujita; Gerald Clore

2005-01-01

337

Emotional Dilution of the Stroop Effect: A New Tool for Assessing Attention Under Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gauge in a precise fashion the capture of attention by emotional stimuli, we developed a new tool that imports the classic Stroop effect into the realm of emotion. Strooping the typical emotion tasks enabled the derivation of a pure intraitem measure of attention under emotion. The results of two experiments showed that the classic Stroop effects were

Eran Chajut; Asi Schupak; Daniel Algom

2010-01-01

338

Emotional Episodes at Work: An Experiential Exercise in Feeling and Expressing Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise explores how organizations affect individuals' feelings and expressions of emotion. Although recent attention by management theorists suggests that emotions are an important aspect of organizational life, people's actual experience of emotions at work often do not reflect this emphasis: Work-place emotions remain, in large part,…

Gibson, Donald E.

2006-01-01

339

Family Expressiveness and Parental Emotion Coaching: Their Role in Children's Emotion Regulation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored the relations between positive and negative family expressiveness, parental emotion coaching, child emotion regulation, and child aggression. The sample included 120 fourth-grade children and their mothers. Mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist, the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, and a portion of the meta-emotion interview to assess their awareness and acceptance of, and instruction in managing their

Sally R. Ramsden; Julie A. Hubbard

2002-01-01

340

The Development of Emotional Competence. The Guilford Series on Social and Emotional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of emotional competence entails resilience, self-efficacy, and acting in accord with one's sense of moral character. This suggests argues that emotional competence is demonstrated by the self-efficacy in emotion-eliciting encounters and identifies eight key emotional skills that support its acquisition in interpersonal contexts. The…

Saarni, Carolyn

341

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers' self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers' emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

342

The Quest to Control Emotion(s): A Critical Integral Fearanalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although emotion(s) have been of long interest to humans, they have particularly captivated the attention of many people and scholarly disciplines in the last 20 years. This paper critiques mainstream psychology of emotions and in particular, what Daniel Goleman has labeled the "collective emotional crisis" of our times and its relationship with…

Fisher, R. Michael

2009-01-01

343

Temporal dynamics of emotional responding: amygdala recovery predicts emotional traits.  

PubMed

An individual's affective style is influenced by many things, including the manner in which an individual responds to an emotional challenge. Emotional response is composed of a number of factors, two of which are the initial reactivity to an emotional stimulus and the subsequent recovery once the stimulus terminates or ceases to be relevant. However, most neuroimaging studies examining emotional processing in humans focus on the magnitude of initial reactivity to a stimulus rather than the prolonged response. In this study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the time course of amygdala activity in healthy adults in response to presentation of negative images. We split the amygdala time course into an initial reactivity period and a recovery period beginning after the offset of the stimulus. We find that initial reactivity in the amygdala does not predict trait measures of affective style. Conversely, amygdala recovery shows predictive power such that slower amygdala recovery from negative images predicts greater trait neuroticism, in addition to lower levels of likability of a set of social stimuli (neutral faces). These data underscore the importance of taking into account temporal dynamics when studying affective processing using neuroimaging. PMID:23160815

Schuyler, Brianna S; Kral, Tammi R A; Jacquart, Jolene; Burghy, Cory A; Weng, Helen Y; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Maccoon, Donal G; van Reekum, Carien M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J

2014-02-01

344

Theory of emotional awareness and brain processing of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative affect that is not experienced or expressed may be the most pathogenic response to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to provide a way of understanding this phenomenon from a psychological and physiological perspective. A cognitive–developmental model of emotional awareness is presented that holds that the ability to become consciously aware of one's own feelings is a

2006-01-01

345

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

346

Facial Emotions and Emotion Intensity Levels Classification and Classification Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the problem of human facial emotion and emo- tion intensity levels recognition and resulting classification accuracy evalua- tion. Final testing set classification accuracy value is usually taken as a quan- tifier of method quality. However, this value is often strongly affected by the testing set parameters such as number, age and gender of subjects or

Marian Beszédes; Phil F. Culverhouse

2007-01-01

347

Building a Personalized Music Emotion Prediction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of multimedia technology, research on music is getting more and more popular. Nowadays researchers focus\\u000a on studying the relationship between music and listeners’ emotions but they didn’t consider users’ differences. Therefore,\\u000a we propose a Personalized Music Emotion Prediction (P-MEP) System to assist predicting listeners’ music emotion concerning\\u000a with users’ differences. To analyze listeners’ emotional response to music,

Chan-chang Yeh; Shian-shyong Tseng; Pei-chin Tsai; Jui-feng Weng

2006-01-01

348

Parental Contributions to Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Direct and Indirect Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the contributions of (1) parental socialization of emotion and preschoolers' emotional interaction with parents to their emotional competence, and (2) parental socialization and child emotional competence to their general social competence. Both observational and self-report techniques were used to measure emotion socialization, emotional competence, and social competence of preschoolers (average age = 49.8 months) from 60

Susanne A. Denham; Jennifer Mitchell-Copeland; Katherine Strandberg; Sharon Auerbach; Kimberly Blair

1997-01-01

349

Mixed emotions: teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the conceptual framework, methodology, and some results from a project on the Emotions of Teaching and Educational Change. It introduces the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional understanding and emotional geographies. Drawing on interviews with 53 teachers in 15 schools, the paper then describes key differences in the emotional geographies of elementary and secondary teaching. Elementary

Andy Hargreaves

2000-01-01

350

Preschoolers' Emotional Competence: Links to Pretend and Physical Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations between preschoolers' play and emotional competence with peers. Found that emotion regulation and emotion understanding made unique contributions to teacher ratings of children's emotional competence with peers. High pretend play levels related to high emotion understanding for both boys and girls, and high emotion regulation…

Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.

2003-01-01

351

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Work: Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

This contribution links psychological models of emotion regulation to sociological accounts of emotion work to demonstrate the extent to which emotion regulation is systematically shaped by culture and society. I first discuss a well-established two-factor process model of emotion regulation and argue that a substantial proportion of emotion regulatory goals are derived from emotion norms. In contrast to universal emotion values and hedonic preferences, emotion norms are highly specific to social situations and institutional contexts. This specificity is determined by social cognitive processes of categorization and guided by framing rules. Second, I argue that the possibilities for antecedent-focused regulation, in particular situation selection and modification, are not arbitrarily available to individuals. Instead, they depend on economic, cultural, and social resources. I suggest that the systematic and unequal distribution of these resources in society leads to discernible patterns of emotion and emotion regulation across groups of individuals.

von Scheve, Christian

2012-01-01

352

Emotional Development in the First Two Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerning the issues of emotional development, general agreement can only be reached on the definition of "emotional" behavior. Behavior is emotional when it varies from an individual's behavioral baseline by the addition of three components: (1) an action component, (2) an arousal component, and (3) a subjective "feeling" component. In all areas…

Ricciuti, Henry N.

353

Emotional context modulates subsequent memory effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions have been shown to modulate memory processes. However, the neuronal substrate underlying these modulatory effects is largely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the context of emotional encoding modulates brain activation predictive for subsequent recall of emotionally neutral material. While inferior frontal activation predicted recall in general, our data show that in a positive

Susanne Erk; Markus Kiefer; J. o Grothe; Arthur P Wunderlich; Manfred Spitzer; Henrik Walter

2003-01-01

354

Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Legitimacy and Charismatic Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, the subject of emotional intelligence has received ample attention in management and leadership literature. The literature contains a plethora of information about emotional intelligence and its effect on transformational leadership. Much less is written on the relationship between charismatic leadership and emotional intelligence. This paper examines the relationship between the two concepts and their effects

David B. Carmichael; Maxim Sytch

355

Emotional regulation goals and strategies of teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses two questions: what goals do teachers have for their own emotional regulation, and what strategies do teachers report they use to regulate their own emotions. Data were collected from middle school teachers in North East Ohio, USA through a semi-structured interview. All but one of the teachers reported regulating their emotions and there were no gender or

Rosemary E. Sutton

2004-01-01

356

Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI

John D. Mayer; Peter Salovey; David R. Caruso

2008-01-01

357

PETEEI: a PET with evolving emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of what is now called 'emotional inte lligence' has revealed yet another aspect of human intelligence. Emotions have been shown to have a major impact on many of our everyday functions, including decision-making, planning, communication, and behavior. AI researchers have recently acknowle dged this major role that emotions play, and thus have began to incorporate models for simulating

Magy Seif El-Nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen

1999-01-01

358

Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become a fashionable topic in the popular press, and has been heralded as an effective predictor of successful performance. However, little empirical evidence has borne out these claims. The present study was conducted in order to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and personality with academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the EQ-i (total

Shaun Newsome; Arla L. Day; Victor M. Catano

2000-01-01

359

Color Based Bags-of-Emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

360

Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2012-01-01

361

Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

2011-01-01

362

Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias  

PubMed Central

Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

363

Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

Arnold, Cath

2010-01-01

364

Bullying Reconsidered: Educating for Emotional Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional literacy has an important place in the English curriculum because emotions cannot be separated from reading, writing, and thinking critically with language. Teachers can use the study of literature, writing, and language to reframe emotion from being something that creates victims and victimizers into feelings that can be critically…

Mack, Nancy, Ed.

2012-01-01

365

Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Where We Are Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence has been defined as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions" (P. Salovey and J. Mayer, 1990). As a subset of social intelligence and of personal intelligences (H. Gardner, 1983), emotional intelligence…

Finegan, Jane E.

366

Dreams, emotions, and social sharing of dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current life emotional experiences have been demonstrated to elicit a process called social sharing of emotion, consisting of repetitive talking about these experiences in conversations with relevant others. Like many diurnal experiences, dreams are generally loaded with emotional elements, and empirical evidence has suggested that individuals share their dreams with others mainly belonging to the circle of intimates. The present

Antonietta Curci; Bernard Rimé

2008-01-01

367

How Emotional Development Unfolds Starting at Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ross Thompson, PhD, responds to questions about the capacity of infants and toddlers to experience complex emotions and about how parents and caregivers can support early social and emotional development. He underscores the importance of allowing children to experience a wide range of emotions--including frustration and anger--as vital to their…

Thompson, Ross

2012-01-01

368

Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

2005-01-01

369

"Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

Wang, Hongyu

2008-01-01

370

Emotional Intelligence and Education: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years there has been an increased interest in the role of emotional intelligence in both the academic success of students and their emotional adjustment in school. However, promotion of emotional intelligence in schools has proven a controversial pursuit, challenging as it does traditional "rationalist" views of education. Furthermore,…

Humphrey, Neil; Curran, Andrew; Morris, Elisabeth; Farrell, Peter; Woods, Kevin

2007-01-01

371

Emotional Development, Intellectual Ability, and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K. Dabrowski's Theory of Emotional Development was used to compare 41 gifted adults (mean age 37) and 42 graduate students (mean age 29). Greater overexcitability scores by the gifted adults suggested substantially greater potential for emotional development, but no significant differences between groups were found for actual level of emotional

Miller, Nancy B.; And Others

1994-01-01

372

Facial expression recognition using emotion avatar image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing facial expression recognition techniques analyze the spatial and temporal information for every single frame in a human emotion video. On the contrary, we create the Emotion Avatar Image (EAI) as a single good representation for each video or image sequence for emotion recognition. In this paper, we adopt the recently introduced SIFT flow algorithm to register every frame with

Songfan Yang; Bir Bhanu

2011-01-01

373

Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

2008-01-01

374

Higher Education Emotions: A Scale Development Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion experienced in the classroom has been shown to influence subject-level satisfaction and loyalty to the institution. To date, a valid and reliable scale to measure higher-education satisfaction emotions does not exist and this study aims to rectify this shortfall. After a qualitative and quantitative investigation, 14 emotions that formed…

White, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

375

Research on Virtual Emotional Human System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual emotional human system (VEHS) can be widely applied in game role and computer interface performance enhancement. Artificial emotion, as a branch of AI, is aimed at endowing robot with various emotions such as sorrow and happiness. So it becomes a more and more attractive research field than before and will be an advanced stage for AI. The research frame

Li Peng; Xuewei Wang; Sasa Zhu; Xuejing Gu

2007-01-01

376

Stereotypical Portrayals of Emotionality in News Photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research content analyzed the news photographs of a major U.S. daily newspaper to examine the emotional portrayals of individuals in different gender, age, and ethnic subgroups. A multidimensional measure of emotion (pleasure, arousal, dominance) was used. A total of 1,595 individuals were coded. The results demonstrate that emotionality was stereotyped to some degree, particularly in relation to women, ethnic

Shelly Rodgers; Linda Jean Kenix; Esther Thorson

2007-01-01

377

Emotion, spiritual experience and education: a reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, informed especially by the work of the philosopher John Macmurray, focuses on two personal anecdotes in order to explore the relationship and distinctions between emotional and spiritual experience. Despite being unique to the individual, emotional experience requires relationship, and thus appreciation of the feelings of others is possible through empathy. Emotional development may be a pre-requisite for spiritual

Ron Best

2011-01-01

378

Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion

Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

2009-01-01

379

INFERENCE MODEL OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND EMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions an inference model of facial expressions and emotion from the viewpoint that non-verbal information as well as verbal information is useful in human computer interaction, and that especially, facial expressions are useful since they reflect human emotion well. First this paper considers the inference model of human emotion from only facial expressions. Next this paper considers the

Sachiko KITAZAKI; Takehisa ONISAWA

380

Music: A Link Between Cognition and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognition and emotion are closely linked in music. The interplay between expectations and the sounded events is hypothesized to play a central role in creating musical tension and relaxation. The research summarized here is part of an ongoing program investigating how this dynamic aspect of musical emotion relates to the cognition of musical structure. Musical emotions change over time in

Carol L. Krumhansl

2002-01-01

381

Toward Multi-modal Music Emotion Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of categorical music emotion classification that divides emotion into classes and uses audio features alone for emo- tion classification has reached a limit due to the presence of a semantic gap between the object feature level and the human cognitive level of emotion perception. Motivated by the fact that lyrics carry rich seman- tic information of a song,

Yi-hsuan Yang; Yu-ching Lin; Heng-Tze Cheng; I-bin Liao; Yeh-chin Ho; Homer H. Chen

2008-01-01

382

Music emotion classification: a fuzzy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the subjective nature of human perception, classification of the emotion of music is a challenging problem. Simply assigning an emotion class to a song segment in a deterministic way does not work well because not all people share the same feeling for a song. In this paper, we consider a different approach to music emotion classification. For each

Yi-hsuan Yang; Chia-Chu Liu; Homer H. Chen

2006-01-01

383

Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

2008-01-01

384

State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions

Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

2007-01-01

385

Affective Medicine: Technology with Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time people have kept emotions out of the deliberate tools of medicine and science; scientists, physicians, and patients have often felt and sometimes expressed emotion, but no tools could sense, measure, and respond to their affective information. A series of recent studies indicates that emotions, particul arly stress, anger, and depression, are important factors with serious and

Rosalind W. Picard

2002-01-01

386

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

387

Pedagogical Possibilities: Engaging Cultural Rules of Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Teaching, leading, and learning are inextricably connected to emotions. Yet, the significance of emotions is rarely addressed in educational settings, and when it is, the relationship between emotions and curricula is most often framed by of an overly individualistic behavior model that focuses on the management and regulation…

Knight-Diop, Michelle; Oesterreich, Heather A.

2009-01-01

388

Discourse Comprehension and Simulation of Positive Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that emotional sentences are understood by constructing an emotion simulation of the events being described. The present study aims to investigate whether emotion simulation is also involved in online and offline comprehension of larger language segments such as discourse. Participants read a target text describing…

Horchak, Oleksandr V.; Giger, Jean-Christophe; Pochwatko, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

389

EMOTION RECOGNITION IN SPEECH USING FUZZY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses LPC analysis to extract emotion features from speech. From this analysis, 18 features namely pitch, jitter, energy, duration and 14 LPC coefficients are extracted from each voice sample to represent the emotion features of six basic emotions; happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. These 18 features extracted from different samples give rise to 18 fuzzy sets.

Mohd Hafizuddin Mohd Yusof; Ryoichi Komiya

390

The Emotional Life of the Toddler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parenting a toddler can be both exhilarating and frustrating, this book draws on lifelong research into children's emotional development to provide parents with a better understanding of toddlers' emotional range and how it affects toddler behavior. The 10 chapters and the conclusion cover the following areas: (1) the emotional

Lieberman, Alicia F.

391

Emotional effects of dynamic textures.  

PubMed

This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval. PMID:23145257

Toet, Alexander; Henselmans, Menno; Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo

2011-01-01

392

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of…

Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

2006-01-01

393

The INTERSPEECH 2009 emotion challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a substantial body of literature on the recognition of emotion from speech. However, in comparison to related speech processing tasks such as Automatic Speech and Speaker Recognition, practically no standardised corpora and test-conditions exist to compare performances under exactly the same conditions. Instead a multiplicity of evaluation strategies employed - such as cross-validation or percentage

Björn Schuller; Stefan Steidl; Anton Batliner

2009-01-01

394

The Importance of Emotional Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver…

Shih, Yi-Hsuen; Liu, Min

2008-01-01

395

Emotion Circuits in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of neuroscience has, after a long period of looking the other way, again embraced emotion as an important research area. Much of the progress has come from studies of fear, and especially fear conditioning. This work has pin- pointed the amygdala as an important component of the system involved in the acqui- sition, storage, and expression of fear

Joseph E. LeDoux

2000-01-01

396

Zen, Emotion, and Social Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some common conceptions of Buddhist meditative practice emphasize the elimi- nation of emotion and desire in the interest of attaining tranquility and spiritual per- fection. But to place too strong an emphasis on this is to miss an important social element emphasized by major figures in the Mahayana and Chan-Zen Buddhist tra- ditions who are sharply critical of these quietistic

Robert Feleppa

2009-01-01

397

Emotional Intelligence and Medical Professionalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that IQ alone does not contribute to the professional success of medical professionals. Professionals who are trained to be clinically competent, but have inadequate social skills for practice have proved to be less successful in their profession. Emotional intelligence (EI), which has already proved to be a key attribute for…

Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

398

State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

2013-01-01

399

Alcohol, Emotions, Stress and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey is given of the history of alcohol consumption and of the effects of alcohol on stress, the emotions, and performance. It is concluded, based on the experience accumulated from Canadian and American pilots, that treatment and rehabilitation of al...

L. G. Polevoy L. L. Stazhadze

1987-01-01

400

Attentional bias in emotional disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has suggested that anxiety may be associated with processing biases that favor the encoding of emotionally threatening information. However, the available data can be accommodated by alternative explanations, including response bias accounts. The current study introduces a novel paradigm that circumvents such interpretative problems by requiring subjects to make a neutral response (button press) to a neutral stimulus

Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews; Philip Tata

1986-01-01

401

Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

Maulding, Wanda S.

402

How does emotional content affect lexical processing?  

PubMed Central

Even single words in isolation can evoke emotional reactions, but the mechanisms by which emotion is involved in automatic lexical processing are unclear. Previous studies using extremely similar materials and methods have yielded apparently incompatible patterns of results. In much previous work, however, words' emotional content is entangled with other non-emotional characteristics such as frequency of occurrence, familiarity and age of acquisition, all of which have potential consequences for lexical processing themselves. In the present study, the authors compare different models of emotion using the British Lexicon Project, a large-scale freely available lexical decision database. After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of non-emotional variables, a variety of statistical approaches revealed that emotional words, whether positive or negative, are processed faster than neutral words. This effect appears to be categorical rather than graded; is not modulated by emotional arousal; and is not limited to words explicitly referring to emotions. The authors suggest that emotional connotations facilitate processing due to the grounding of words' meanings in emotional experience.

Ponari, Marta; Vigliocco, Gabriella

2013-01-01

403

Emotion Recognition following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Analysis of Emotional Prosody and Facial Emotion Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was…

Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D.; Levin, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

404

An exploration of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI).  

PubMed

The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as part of their admissions procedure at the Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences. Three types of analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the two tools: reliability analyses, correlational analyses, and a t-test. The tools were found to be moderately reliable. No significant relationships were found between the MMI and the EQ-i at the total or subscale level. The ability of the EQ-i to discriminate between accepted and not-accepted students was also not supported. These findings do not support the use of the EQ-i as a potential pre-screening tool for the MMI, but rather highlight the need to exercise caution when using emotional intelligence instruments for high-stakes admissions purposes. PMID:20535634

Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

2011-03-01

405

Emotion regulation patterns in adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: comparison to typically developing adolescents and association with psychiatric symptoms.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with poor emotional control and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Emotion regulation (ER) is a potential contributing factor, but there has been limited research on ER and its role in comorbid psychopathology in ASD. In this study, we compared self-reported ER with self- and parent reports of psychopathology in 25 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 23 age- and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)-matched typically developing controls. Contrary to expectations, both groups reported similar levels of adaptive, voluntary forms of ER (problem solving, acceptance, etc.). However, the ASD group reported significantly greater use of involuntary forms of ER that are typically maladaptive, including remaining focused on the stressor (e.g. rumination and emotional arousal) and shutting down (e.g. emotional numbing and being unable to think or act). Associations between ER and psychopathology were generally more robust using self-report rather than parent report. For both groups, greater endorsement of involuntary ER strategies was associated with higher ratings of psychopathology, whereas voluntary ER strategies focused on changing or adapting to the situation were significantly associated with lower levels of psychopathology. The magnitude and direction of association between ER types and psychopathology were similar for measures of depression and anxiety. These findings can help guide the development of psychosocial treatments targeting dysfunctional ER in adolescents with ASD. Interventions focused on ER as a transdiagnostic process may be a more robust method to improve emotional control and decrease emotional distress in ASD than disorder-specific interventions. Autism Res 2014, 7: 344-354. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24610869

Mazefsky, Carla A; Borue, Xenia; Day, Taylor N; Minshew, Nancy J

2014-06-01

406

Relations among Teachers' Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices, and Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

PubMed Central

Research Findings Utilizing a three-part model of emotion socialization that includes Modeling, Contingent Responding, and Teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers’ self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers’ emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multi-level analyses revealed that the majority of the variance in the children’s emotion knowledge scores and observed emotional behavior was predicted by factors within, rather than between, classrooms. Teachers’ use of all three emotion socialization techniques did contribute to the prediction of the children’s scores; however, the nature of these associations differed by children’s age and gender. Practice or Policy The development of children’s emotional competence is a complex, multi-faceted process in which many interaction partners play a role; early childhood teachers act as emotion socialization agents for the children in their care by modeling emotions, responding either supportively or punitively to children’s expressions of emotions, and engaging in direct instruction regarding emotional experience. This research may provide a basis for potential future interventions designed to assist teachers in developing their own emotion socialization skills so that they can be more effective emotion socialization agents for the children in their care.

Morris, Carol A.S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

2013-01-01

407

Strategic automation of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed. PMID:19210061

Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M

2009-01-01

408

Early Environmental Correlates of Maternal Emotion Talk  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective The primary goal of this study was to examine contextual, child, and maternal factors that are associated with mothers’ early emotion talk in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample. Design Emotion talk (positive and negative labels) was coded for 1111 mothers while engaged with their 7-month-olds in viewing an emotion-faces picture book. Infant attention during the interaction was also coded. Mothers’ parenting style (positive engagement and negative intrusiveness) was coded during a dyadic free-play interaction. Demographic information was obtained, as well as maternal ratings of child temperament and mother’s knowledge of infant development. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that social context and maternal qualities are significant predictors of mothers’ early positive and negative emotion talk. In particular, mothers who were African American, had higher income, and who showed more positive engagement when interacting with their infants demonstrated increased rates of positive and negative emotion talk with their infants. For negative emotion talk, social context variables moderated other predictors. Specifically, infant attention was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for African American mothers, and knowledge of infant development was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for non-African American mothers. The positive association between maternal positive engagement and negative emotion talk was greater for lower-income families than for higher-income families. Conclusions Mothers’ emotion language with infants is not sensitive to child factors but is associated with social contextual factors and characteristics of the mothers themselves.

Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Adkins, Daniel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

2009-01-01

409

Immediate Spontaneous Shape Correction Using Expantile Zigzag Craniectomy in Infantile Scaphocephaly -Is There an Improvement in the Developmental Quotient Following Surgery?-  

PubMed Central

There is still debate over which method of the surgery is the most appropriate for the treatment of scaphocephalic infants. In addition, change in psychomotor development following these procedures is a very complex issue that has not yet been resolved. In this paper, the authors describe a surgical technique for immediate spontaneous shape correction of infantile scaphocephaly. There were significant differences between pre- and postoperative cephalic index. We also describe an improvement in the developmental quotient following surgery. Therefore, this expantile zigzag craniectomy should be recommended to correct for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis in infants.

Kim, Sang-Dae

2011-01-01

410

Asymmetric effects of emotion on mnemonic interference.  

PubMed

Emotional experiences can strengthen memories so that they can be used to guide future behavior. Emotional arousal, mediated by the amygdala, is thought to modulate storage by the hippocampus, which may encode unique episodic memories via pattern separation - the process by which similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations. While prior work has examined mnemonic interference due to similarity and emotional modulation of memory independently, examining the mechanisms by which emotion influences mnemonic interference has not been previously accomplished in humans. To this end, we developed an emotional memory task where emotional content and stimulus similarity were varied to examine the effect of emotion on fine mnemonic discrimination (a putative behavioral correlate of hippocampal pattern separation). When tested immediately after encoding, discrimination was reduced for similar emotional items compared to similar neutral items, consistent with a reduced bias towards pattern separation. After 24h, recognition of emotional target items was preserved compared to neutral items, whereas similar emotional item discrimination was further diminished. This suggests a potential mechanism for the emotional modulation of memory with a selective remembering of gist, as well as a selective forgetting of detail, indicating an emotion-induced reduction in pattern separation. This can potentially increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio in any given situation to promote survival. Furthermore, we found that individuals with depressive symptoms hyper-discriminate negative items, which correlated with their symptom severity. This suggests that utilizing mnemonic discrimination paradigms allows us to tease apart the nuances of disorders with aberrant emotional mnemonic processing. PMID:24607286

Leal, Stephanie L; Tighe, Sarah K; Yassa, Michael A

2014-05-01

411

Strategic Automation of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively,

Inge Schweiger Gallo; Andreas Keil; Kathleen C. McCulloch; Brigitte Rockstroh; Peter M. Gollwitzer

2009-01-01

412

Expressed emotion and social function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether expressed emotion (EE) influenced the social functioning of schizophrenia. Twenty-nine subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of ICD-9 or DSM-III-R participated in the study. The Camberwell Family Interview was conducted to evaluate EE, and subjects were divided into high EE and low EE groups. The subjects had been followed up for 9 months and their social functioning was

Shimpei Inoue; Shuichi Tanaka; Shinji Shimodera; Yoshio Mino

1997-01-01

413

Value Maps, Drives, and Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses value maps, drives, and emotions through the modeling of decision making, judgment, and choice. Ever\\u000a the since the seminal work of Amos Tversky and Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman (Tversky and Kahneman 1974, 1981), it has been\\u000a known that decision models based on rational maximization of expected utility do not capture the typical choices that people\\u000a or nonhuman

Daniel S. Levine

414

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the effect of training some aspects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and productivity of employees. The results can help organizations to realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by paying more attention to psychological issues. We used a quasi-experimental method using a pre-test and a post-test designed with control group and

Simin Hosseinian; Seyedeh-Monavar Yazdi; Shaghayegh Zahraie; Ali Fathi-Ashtiani

2008-01-01

415

3D Emotional Agent Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents architecture to design emotional agents evolving in an artificial 3D environment. The agent behavior\\u000a and environment emulator are independent of implementation. To achieve this, a Language of Interface for Animations in 3D\\u000a called LIA-3D, is presented. The agent and environment simulator uses LIA to establish communication with each other.

Félix F. Ramos; Luis Razo; Alma V. Martinez; Fabiel Zúñiga; H. Ivan Piza

2005-01-01

416

Children's Emotional Associations with Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study children's emotional associations with colors were investigated. Sixty children (30 girls, 30 boys), equally divided into groups of 5-year-olds and 6 1\\/2-year-olds, were asked their favorite color and were then shown nine different colors, one at a time and in a random order. For each color, children were asked, “How does (the color) make you feel?” All

Chris J. Boyatzis; Reenu Varghese

1994-01-01

417

Attachment and the emotional unit.  

PubMed

Until recently, the mother-child relationship was assumed to be the primary relationship affecting the outcome of an individual. This resulted in the mother-child dyad being seen and studied as separate from the family system in which it is embedded. This article asserts that, in order to understand this dyad adequately, one must understand "how" the family functions as an emotional unit that is guided by processes found in evolution and in relationships between living things. It goes beyond describing the family as a system of influence and seeks to account for the universal processes that occur in natural systems. It posits that the triangle is the basic building block of the emotional unit, and proposes a new theoretical dimension for understanding how attachment extends beyond dyads (such as parent-child) to include the emotional unit as a whole. Through triangles, the parent-child relationship is continually influenced by relationship forces operating within the system as a whole. PMID:8319797

Donley, M G

1993-03-01

418

Motor Action and Emotional Memory  

PubMed Central

Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction of movement was congruent with the valence of the memory (upward for positive, downward for negative memories). Given neutral-valence prompts in Experiment 2, participants retrieved more positive memories when instructed to move marbles up, and more negative memories when instructed to move them down, demonstrating a causal link from motion to emotion. Results suggest that positive and negative life experiences are implicitly associated with schematic representations of upward and downward motion, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Beyond influencing the efficiency of memory retrieval, the direction of irrelevant, repetitive motor actions can also partly determine the emotional content of the memories people retrieve: moving marbles upward (an ostensibly meaningless action) can cause people to think more positive thoughts.

Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

2009-01-01

419

Elaborative encoding during REM dreaming as prospective emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming results in "emotionally intelligent encoding," according to the target article. Building on this, we argue that elaborative encoding alters emotional processing of upcoming events and thereby functions as prospective emotion regulation. After elaborative encoding, future events are appraised differently and result in a redirected emotional response. Disturbed elaborative encoding might be relevant for emotional dysregulation in psychopathology. PMID:24304773

Westermann, Stefan; Paulus, Frieder M; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

2013-12-01

420

Affective Understanding in Young Preschoolers and Reactions to Peers' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age, specific emotion, and linguistic modality (verbal vs. non-verbal) were predicted to affect knowledge of emotion in young preschoolers (N = 45, mean age = 40.7 mos). Prosocial response to emotion and knowledge of emotion were also predicted to be related, given naturalistic observation and the use of contextually valid emotion knowledge…

Denham, Susanne A.

421

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

422

Emotional responses to music: The need to consider underlying mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard

Patrik N. Juslin; Daniel Västfjäll

2008-01-01

423

Reflections on Investigating Emotion in Educational Activity Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents our current reflections on our approach to inquiry on emotions in education. Our views reflect an eclectic blend of, educational, psychological, and social historical approaches to inquiry on emotion and emotional regulation. In an effort to explicate our approach, we address our working definitions of emotion and emotional

Schutz, Paul A.; Hong, Ji Y.; Cross, Dionne I.; Osbon, Jennifer N.

2006-01-01

424

Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognitionemotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience

Klaus R. Scherer

1993-01-01

425

Identification of the optimal emotion recognition algorithm using physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human-computer interaction researches, emotion recognition systems based on physiological signals have introduced. This study was to identify the optimal emotion recognition algorithm for classification of seven emotional states (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and stress) using physiological signals. 12 college students participated in this experiment over 10 times. To induce each emotion, 10 emotional stimuli sets which had

E.-H. Jang; B.-J. Park; S.-H. Kim; Y. Eum; J.-H. Sohn

2011-01-01

426

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

427

Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions.  

PubMed

In the two decades since contemporary psychologists produced strong evidence confirming Darwin's century-old hypothesis of the innateness and universality of certain facial expressions of emotions, research on expressive behavior has become well established in developmental, social, and personality psychology and in psychophysiology. There are also signs of increased interest in emotions in clinical psychology and the neurosciences. Despite the success of the work on emotion expression and the upward trend of interest in emotions in general, the fundamental issue of the relation between emotion expression and emotion experience or feeling state remains controversial. A new developmental model of expression-feeling relations provides a framework for reevaluating previous research and for understanding the conditions under which expressions are effective in activating and regulating feeling states. The model has implications for research, socialization practices, and psychotherapy. PMID:2182826

Izard, C E

1990-03-01

428

Emotion and ocular responses in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Previous studies reported reduced skin conductance responses in PD patients, compared to healthy older adults when viewing emotionally arousing pictures. Attenuated skin conductance changes in PD may reflect peripheral autonomic dysfunction (e.g., reduced nerve endings at the sweat gland) or, alternatively, a more central emotional deficit. The aim of the current study was to investigate a second measure of sympathetic arousal—change in pupil dilation. Eye movements, a motor-based correlate of emotional processing, were also assessed. Results indicated that pupil dilation was significantly greater when viewing emotional, compared to neutral pictures for both PD patients and controls. On the other hand, PD patients made fewer fixations with shorter scan paths, particularly when viewing pleasant pictures. These results suggest that PD patients show normal sympathetic arousal to affective stimuli (indexed by pupil diameter), but differences in motor correlates of emotion (eye movements.)

Dietz, J.; Bradley, M.M.; Okun, M.S.; Bowers, D.

2012-01-01

429

Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners  

PubMed Central

Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

2014-01-01

430

Modeling emotional dynamics : currency versus field.  

SciTech Connect

Randall Collins has introduced a simplified model of emotional dynamics in which emotional energy, heightened and focused by interaction rituals, serves as a common denominator for social exchange: a generic form of currency, except that it is active in a far broader range of social transactions. While the scope of this theory is attractive, the specifics of the model remain unconvincing. After a critical assessment of the currency theory of emotion, a field model of emotion is introduced that adds expressiveness by locating emotional valence within its cognitive context, thereby creating an integrated orientation field. The result is a model which claims less in the way of motivational specificity, but is more satisfactory in modeling the dynamic interaction between cognitive and emotional orientations at both individual and social levels.

Sallach, D .L.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

2008-08-01

431

Emotional persistence in online chatting communities  

PubMed Central

How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional “tone” of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

2012-01-01

432

Auditory emotional cues enhance visual perception.  

PubMed

Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by emotional cues as compared to neutral cues. When the cue was presented visually we replicated the emotion-induced impairment found in other studies. Our results suggest emotional stimuli have a twofold effect on perception. They impair perception by reflexively attracting attention at the expense of competing stimuli. However, emotional stimuli also induce a nonspecific perceptual enhancement that carries over onto other stimuli when competition is reduced, for example, by presenting stimuli in different modalities. PMID:20096407

Zeelenberg, René; Bocanegra, Bruno R

2010-04-01

433

Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects  

PubMed Central

One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, on how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multi-channel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.

Dan-Glauser, Elise S.; Gross, James J.

2014-01-01

434

Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2005-01-01

435

Emotional stress and reversible myocardial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of clinical and experimental literature supports a strong association between emotional stress and adverse\\u000a outcomes from CVD. Effects of emotional stress on coronary blood flow and cardiac arrhythmias provide only a partial explanation.\\u000a A direct impact of emotional stress on myocardial function has recently received attention as a result of reports of patients\\u000a presenting with new onset

Deepak Khanna; Hong Kan; Conard Failinger; Abnash C. Jain; Mitchell S. Finkel

2006-01-01

436

Emotional behavior in long-term marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction.

Laura L. Carstensen; John M. Gottman; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

437

Grief as a social emotion: theoretical perspectives.  

PubMed

The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of grief as a social emotion. The article concludes by presenting a cognitive-structural model of grief that integrates the different theoretical elements. PMID:24563936

Jakoby, Nina R

2012-09-01

438

EBDI: an architecture for emotional agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research on multiagent systems has focused on the develop- ment of rational utility-maximizing agents. However, research shows that emotions have a strong eect on peoples' physical states, motivations, be- liefs, and desires. In artificial intelligence research, emotions have begun to receive more attention, more prominently in human-robot\\/computer interaction with a focus on expressing or sensing emotions. A

Hong Jiang; José M. Vidal; Michael N. Huhns

2007-01-01

439

Separating subjective emotion from the perception of emotion-inducing stimuli: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

fMRI was used to dissociate neural responses temporally associated with the subjective experience of emotion from those associated with the perception of emotion-inducing stimuli in order to better define the emotion-related functions of the amygdala, lateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and hippocampus. Subjects viewed aversive pictures followed by an extended post-stimulus period of sustained subjective emotion. Brain regions showing activation

Amy S. Garrett; Richard J. Maddock

2006-01-01

440

The Assessment of Emotion Regulation in Cognitive Context: The Emotion Amplification and Reduction Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide initial psychometric evidence for the reliability and validity of The Emotion Amplification\\u000a and Reduction Scales (TEARS), a questionnaire designed to assess perceived ability to change the trajectory of an emotional\\u000a response. Items were formulated to assess perceived ability to amplify an emotionally response by either prolonging or intensifying an existing emotion. Additional

Nancy A. Hamilton; Paul Karoly; Matt Gallagher; Natalie Stevens; Cynthia Karlson; Danyale McCurdy

2009-01-01

441

Child and Adolescent Emotion Regulation: The Role of Parental Emotion Regulation and Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and child emotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory\\u000a skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths\\u000a and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future research are proposed. First,\\u000a it is argued that consistency in the measurement of emotion regulation is

Emily Bariola; Eleonora Gullone; Elizabeth K. Hughes

2011-01-01

442

Multimodal Emotion Recognition Based on the Decoupling of Emotion and Speaker Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The standard features used in emotion recognition carry, besides the emotion related information, also cues about the speaker.\\u000a This is expected, since the nature of emotionally colored speech is similar to the variations in the speech signal, caused\\u000a by different speakers. Therefore, we present a gradient descent derived transformation for the decoupling of emotion and speaker\\u000a information contained in the

Rok Gajsek; Vitomir Struc; France Mihelic

2010-01-01

443

Factor Structure of Emotional Intelligence in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Social cognition, which includes emotional intelligence, is impaired in schizophrenia. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a widely-used assessment of emotional intelligence, with a four-factor structure in healthy individual. However, a recent factor analysis in schizophrenia patients revealed a two-factor structure of the MSCEIT. The current study aimed to replicate this finding in a larger, more diverse, schizophrenia sample (n = 194). Our findings revealed an identical two-factor structure as in the previously-reported study, indicating that emotional intelligence is organized in a different manner in schizophrenia than it is in healthy controls.

Lin, Yu-chung; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

444

Rational Emotive Theory Applied to Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students participated in five weeks of education/discussion based on rational emotive theory. The results indicated increased rational thinking, decreased anxiety, and fewer reported problems. (Author)

Jacobs, Edward; Croake, James W.

1976-01-01

445

Oversimplification in the study of emotional memory.  

PubMed

This Short Review critically evaluates three hypotheses about the effects of emotion on memory: First, emotion usually enhances memory. Second, when emotion does not enhance memory, this can be understood by the magnitude of physiological arousal elicited, with arousal benefiting memory to a point but then having a detrimental influence. Third, when emotion facilitates the processing of information, this also facilitates the retention of that same information. For each of these hypotheses, we summarize the evidence consistent with it, present counter-evidence suggesting boundary conditions for the effect, and discuss the implications for future research. PMID:24007950

Bennion, Kelly A; Ford, Jaclyn H; Murray, Brendan D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

2013-10-01

446

Adolescents' emotional reactivity across relationship contexts.  

PubMed

Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with adolescents' reactivity to conflict in friendships and romantic relationships during middle adolescence. Close friendship reactivity partially explained the prospective association between reactivity to interparental conflict and romantic relationship reactivity. The association between perceived emotional reactivity and relationship conflict was stronger for girls than boys. Results have important developmental implications regarding adolescents' emotional reactivity across salient interpersonal contexts during adolescence. PMID:22545839

Cook, Emily C; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L

2013-02-01

447

Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Encodes Emotional Value  

PubMed Central

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a critical role in processing appetitive stimuli. Recent investigations have shown that reward value signals in the vmPFC can be altered by emotion regulation processes; however, to what extent the processing of positive emotion relies on neural regions implicated in reward processing is unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of emotion regulation on the valuation of emotionally evocative images. Two independent experimental samples of human participants performed a cognitive reappraisal task while undergoing fMRI. The experience of positive emotions activated the vmPFC, whereas the regulation of positive emotions led to relative decreases in vmPFC activation. During the experience of positive emotions, vmPFC activation tracked participants' own subjective ratings of the valence of stimuli. Furthermore, vmPFC activation also tracked normative valence ratings of the stimuli when participants were asked to experience their emotions, but not when asked to regulate them. A separate analysis of the predictive power of vmPFC on behavior indicated that even after accounting for normative stimulus ratings and condition, increased signal in the vmPFC was associated with more positive valence ratings. These results suggest that the vmPFC encodes a domain-general value signal that tracks the value of not only external rewards, but also emotional stimuli.

Winecoff, Amy; Clithero, John A.; Carter, R. McKell; Bergman, Sara R.; Wang, Lihong

2013-01-01

448

Increased negative emotional responses in PROP supertasters.  

PubMed

Based on animal data it has been suggested that an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes is linked with increased emotional reactivity. The present study examined for the first time in humans whether the intensity of experimentally induced negative emotional responses is related to sensitivity to the bitter tasting compound PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). Normal-weight participants (61 men, 57 women) with a mean age of 24 years were classified into PROP non-tasters (n=54), medium tasters (n=25), or supertasters (n=39), and were shown two film clips to induce negative emotional response patterns: one pattern predominated by anger and tension, and another predominated by sadness and depressed mood. A third film clip was emotionally neutral. Before and after film clip viewing, self-rated emotional responses were obtained. PROP supertasters showed more intense responses than non-tasters or medium tasters after the anger-inducing film clip (increased anger, tension, sadness and fear as well as decreased mood and joy). Significant correlations were found between emotional responses and a continuos measure of PROP sensitivity. Group differences and correlations could not be attributed to personality measures, trait affectivity, or gender. For emotional responses after the sadness-inducing film clip, no differences between taster groups could be detected. PROP sensitivity appears to be related to arousability of emotions, in particular those emotions that are associated with an increased readiness to respond actively to stimuli from the environment, e.g. anger, disgust and fear. PMID:17141813

Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

2007-02-28

449

Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

2009-01-01

450

Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

2007-01-01

451

Emotions and feelings in learning process: understanding emotional learning experiences of postgraduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning is social, cognitive and emotional. Understanding the emotional effect and affect allows us to understand and support adult learning and learning process at postgraduate level at the university. Emotions and feelings are generally recognized as important, but they remain under-explored in terms of the learning experiences of adult students, especially in learning at university. The study explored the questions

Larissa Jõgi; Marin Gross; Kristiina Krabi

452

On the Validity of the Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task for Emotion Induction  

PubMed Central

The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed.

Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

2014-01-01

453

Selective Attention to Emotional Stimuli: What IQ and Openness Do, and Emotional Intelligence Does Not  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence--measured as an ability using the MSCEIT--predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on…

Fiori, Marina; Antonakis, John

2012-01-01

454

Metacognitive Emotion Regulation: Children's Awareness That Changing Thoughts and Goals Can Alleviate Negative Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In

Elizabeth L. Davis; Linda J. Levine; Heather C. Lench; Jodi A. Quas

2010-01-01

455

Maternal Emotion-Related Socialization and Preschoolers' Developing Emotion Self-Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' ability to demonstrate awareness of their own emotion is an important socio-emotional competence which has received increasing attention in the developmental literature. The present study examined emotion self-awareness of happiness, sadness, and anger in response to a delay of gratification task in 78 preschool children. Maternal…

Warren, Heather K.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

2008-01-01

456

The emotion slider: A self-report device for the continuous measurement of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotion slider is a device developed to collect self-reports of the valence of users' experiences with interactive systems based on recent theories on the embodiment of emotion and basic approach\\/avoidance behavioral tendencies. To test it, participants (N = 51) watched 10 positive and 10 negative slides from the International affective picture system while using the emotion slider in two

Gaël Laurans; P. Desmet; P. Hekkert

2009-01-01

457

Improving Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Self-Efficacy through a Teaching Intervention for University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in…

Pool, Lorraine Dacre; Qualter, Pamela

2012-01-01

458

Measured Effects of Provocation and Emotional Mastery Techniques in Fostering Emotional Intelligence among Nigerian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study investigated the effects of provocation and emotional mastery programmes at fostering emotional intelligence of Nigerian adolescents. The study also aimed to establish whether gender will moderate the effects of the two techniques on emotional intelligence skills of adolescents. Method: The study employed a…

Ogunyemi, Ajibola Olusoga

2008-01-01

459

Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.  

PubMed

This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction. PMID:17295975

Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

2006-01-01

460

The Components of Young Children's Emotion Knowledge: Which Are Enhanced by Adult Emotion Talk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks were…

Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily

2013-01-01

461

Emotion and adherence to treatment in people with asthma: An application of the emotional Stroop paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether an emotional Stroop paradigm might represent an appropriate means of assessing individuals' emotional representations of asthma. In addition, the opportunity was taken to investigate whether emotional representations of asthma, as assessed by this method, were associated with adherence to inhaled preventative medication. An asthma Stroop task was devised which comprised three sets of stimuli: asthma symptom

Donna C. Jessop; D. R. Rutter; Dinkar Sharma; Ian P. Albery

2004-01-01

462

Emotional Contagion in the Classroom: An Examination of How Teacher and Student Emotions Are Related.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine emotional contagion in the classroom. The theory of emotional contagion predicts that people automatically mimic and synchronize expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with others and consequently converge emotionally as a result of the activation and/or feedback from such mimicry (Hatfield,…

Mottet, Timothy P.; Beebe, Steven A.

463

Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

2008-01-01

464

Theory and Methodology in Researching Emotions in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differing theoretical approaches to the study of emotions are presented: emotions as private (psychodynamic approaches); emotions as sociocultural phenomena (social constructionist approaches); and a third perspective (interactionist approaches) transcending these two. These approaches have important methodological implications in studying…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2007-01-01

465

Building embodied agents that experience and express emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we presented Obie, an embodied agent that experiences and expresses emotions. Obie has an adaptive, quantitative and domain-independent emotion component which\\u000aappraises events to trigger emotions. Obie’s emotions are expressed via his utterances or his facial expressions. The expression via utterances is done by a simple mapping from emotions to text fragments. The mapping from emotions to

T. D. Bui; D. K. J. Heylen; A. Nijholt; N. Magnenat-Thalmann; C. Joslin; H. S. Kim

2004-01-01

466

Longitudinal assessment of trait emotional intelligence: measurement invariance and construct continuity from late childhood to adolescence.  

PubMed

Amid the growing efforts to promote positive youth development, trait emotional intelligence (TEI) has emerged as an important protective factor in the processes of resilience and adaptation. The inclusion of a brief form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version (EQi:YV-Brief) in the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) presents a unique opportunity to study the developmental dynamics of TEI during the transition from childhood to adolescence. However, before drawing any inferences about construct continuity and change, researchers must establish that the EQi:YV-Brief functions equivalently over time. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and residual measurement invariance of the EQi:YV-Brief over a 6-year period from late childhood (age 10-11) to adolescence (age 16-17). Longitudinal mean and covariance structures models were fitted to the data from 773 NLSCY participants (51% girls) who completed the EQi:YV-Brief at 4 biennial cycles. Three of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales were found to be fully invariant at ages 12-13 through 17-18 and partially invariant at age 10-11. Controlling for partial noninvariance, we also investigated patterns of rank-order stability and mean-level change in TEI. These exploratory analyses showed that individual differences in TEI became increasingly more stable with age and that changes in mean TEI levels followed a complex nonlinear pattern over time. The results supported the longitudinal utility of 3 of the 4 EQi:YV-Brief subscales used in the NLSCY, supporting their further use in research on the developmental dynamics of TEI. PMID:23914954

Keefer, Kateryna V; Holden, Ronald R; Parker, James D A

2013-12-01

467

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination.

Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

2012-01-01

468

Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity  

PubMed Central

A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities.

Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

2013-01-01

469

Emotional Responding in Depression: Distinctions in the Time Course of Emotion  

PubMed Central

The current studies were designed to investigate if the Emotion Context Insensitivity (ECI; Rottenberg & Gottlib, 2004) hypothesis is applicable across the time course of emotion. Recent affective science research has pointed to the importance of considering anticipation and maintenance of emotion. In the current studies, we assessed emotion responses among college students with depression symptoms in anticipation of, during, and after an emotional picture using the emotion modulated startle paradigm. People with and without depression symptoms did not differ in blink magnitude in anticipation of emotional pictures suggesting that some anticipatory processes may not be impaired in with depression symptoms. In contrast, individuals with depression symptoms did not exhibit blink magnitudes that varied by valence, either during viewing or after the pictures were removed from view. These findings suggest that ECI is relevant not only for those diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder, but also for people with depression symptoms that may not cross the diagnostic threshold. These data point also point to the importance of considering the time course of emotion to better understand emotional deficits in individuals with differing levels of depression symptoms. Identifying where emotion goes awry across the time course of emotion can help inform treatment development.

Moran, Erin K.; Mehta, Neera; Kring, Ann M.

2014-01-01

470

Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vicarious emotional responses of macho and less macho males, as measured by the Hypermasculinity Inventory, were examined among 107 college males, who reported their emotions on arrival for the study and in response to viewing three videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Subjects then completed the Hypermasculinity Inventory and the Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, macho

STEVEN R. GOLD; JIM FULTZ; CATHY H. BURKE; ANDREW G. PRISCO; JOHN A. WILLETT

1992-01-01

471

Surveying Emotional Prosody in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has long supported a pivotal right hemisphere contribution to the decoding of emotional prosody, although a broader network of cortical and subcortical structures is now thought to support different components of this functional system during input processing. This paper highlights important work implicating the basal ganglia in emotional prosody decoding, especially in reinforcing key affective stimulus properties necessary for

Marc D. Pell

2002-01-01

472

University Students' Value Priorities and Emotional Empathy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a comparison of the Schwartz typology of values and the Spranger-Allport-Vernon typology. Investigates the differences among students in business, social science, and technology in emotional empathy and the relationships of value priorities and emotional empathy in different fields. Includes references. (CMK)

Myyry, Liisa; Helkama, Klaus

2001-01-01

473

Gender and Preschoolers' Perception of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine how a person's gender influences the emotion children attribute to that person, 80 preschoolers were asked to name the emotion of either a boy (Judd) or girl (Suzy), given identical stories and pictures with identical facial expressions. Boys labeled Judd more often than Suzy as being disgusted. Girls labeled Suzy more often than Judd…

Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

2002-01-01

474

On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of the self-report emotional intelligence (EI) measured by Schutte et al. (1998) [Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177] are scrutinized and several weaknesses are identified. It

K. V. Petrides; Adrian Furnham

2000-01-01

475

The Emotional Impact of Leaders' Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse MBA students' actual experiences of both good and bad leadership and the resulting emotional responses; to determine which emotionally intelligent competencies, if any, have greater importance in times of change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper follows a deductive approach: moving from the…

Fowlie, Julie; Wood, Matthew

2009-01-01

476

Adolescents' Emotional Reactivity across Relationship Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents' emotional reactivity in family, close friendships, and romantic relationships was examined in a community-based sample of 416 two-parent families. Six waves of annual data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Emotional reactivity to interparental conflict during early adolescence was associated prospectively with…

Cook, Emily C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Blair, Bethany L.

2013-01-01

477

Customer Emotional Needs in Product Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on product design have focused on customer needs concerning functionality and utility. Rarely has the issue of customer emotions been investigated. Traditional cognitive approaches to product usability tend to underestimate the importance of customer emotions in design. Not surprisingly, the success of a product in the marketplace may be determined by its aesthetic appeal, the pleasure it creates,

H. M. Khalid; M. G. Helander

2006-01-01

478

Social and Emotional Learning for Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To succeed, educational leaders must be able to forge working relationships with many people and be mediators and mentors, negotiators and networkers. Administrators must be self-confident, be able to modulate emotions, be unusually persuasive, cultivate positive relationships, and continually develop their emotional intelligence. The right kind…

Cherniss, Cary

1998-01-01

479

Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

2010-01-01

480

How Can Music Seem to Be Emotional?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within music heard, there are two distinguishable factors. The first is the relation of the music to its seeming emotionality-the relation, for example, of the wedding march to its joyfulness. The second is that seeming emotionality itself-the sorrowfulness, for example, of the second movement of the Chopin Sonata. The author looks for an answer…

Price, Kingsley

2004-01-01

481

Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

2011-01-01

482

Emotion, Spiritual Experience and Education: A Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, informed especially by the work of the philosopher John Macmurray, focuses on two personal anecdotes in order to explore the relationship and distinctions between emotional and spiritual experience. Despite being unique to the individual, emotional experience requires relationship, and thus appreciation of the feelings of others is…

Best, Ron

2011-01-01

483

Transnationalism, Migration and Emotions: Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with the emotional dynamics of transnationalism and migration and the impact on education. This impact is discussed in terms of how the movement of people involves complex emotional processes that have important consequences for educational policy, practice and research. The purpose of the author is to theorise how…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

484

The emotion paradox in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews age differences in emotion processing and how they may relate to age-related changes in the brain. Compared with younger adults, older adults react less to negative situations, ignore irrelevant negative stimuli better, and remember relatively more positive than negative information. Older adults’ ability to insulate their thoughts and emotional reactions from negative situations is likely due to a number of factors, such as being less influenced by interoceptive cues, selecting different emotion regulation strategies, having less age-related decline in prefrontal regions associated with emotional control than in other prefrontal regions, and engaging in emotion regulation strategies as a default mode in their everyday lives. Healthy older adults’ avoidance of processing negative stimuli may contribute to their well-maintained emotional well-being. However, when cardiovascular disease leads to additional prefrontal white matter damage, older adults have fewer cognitive control mechanisms available to regulate their emotions, making them more vulnerable to depression. In general, while age-related changes in the brain help shape emotional experience, shifts in preferred strategies and goal priorities are also important influences.

Mather, Mara

2012-01-01

485

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

486

Emotions in product reviews -- Empirics and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities provide Internet users with means to overcome some information barriers and constraints, such as the difficulty to gather independent information about products and firms. Product review communities allow customers to share their opinions and emotions after the purchase of a product. We introduce a new dataset of product reviews from Amazon.com, with emotional information extracted by sentiment detection

David Garcia; Frank Schweitzer

2011-01-01

487

The Emotional Foundations of High Moral Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral intelligence is grounded in emotion and reason. Neuroscientific and clinical research illustrate how early life co-regulation with caregivers influences emotion, cognition, and moral character. Triune ethics theory (Narvaez, 2008) integrates neuroscientific, evolutionary, and developmental findings to explain differences in moral…

Narvaez, Darcia

2010-01-01

488