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1

Assessing emotional intelligence: reliability and validity of the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined reliability and validity of a new measure of emotional (i.e. non-cognitive) intelligence, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997, in a sample of 243 university students. Results indicated that the EQ-i domain and component scales had good item homogeneity and internal consistency. Scores were not unduly affected by response styles or biases. The EQ-i scales had

Darek Dawda; Stephen D. Hart

2000-01-01

2

Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

2011-01-01

3

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success in middle school students with learning disabilities. Emotional Intelligence (EI) was measured using the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i: YV). The results of the BarOn EQ-i: YV was then compared to…

Petersen, Vanessa C.

2010-01-01

4

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Student Teacher Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine whether student teacher performance is associated with emotional intelligence. The results indicate that emotional intelligence (as assessed by the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory) and college supervisors' assessments of student teacher performance are related. While total emotional quotient scores…

Drew, Todd L.

2010-01-01

5

A Study of School District Superintendents and the Connection of Emotional Intelligence to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study highlights the lack of studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. There are numerous studies of leadership and several studies about emotional intelligence; however, there are few studies that connect emotional intelligence to leadership. The study utilized the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) survey and the…

Hansen, Richard A.

2009-01-01

6

Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

2012-01-01

7

Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

2011-01-01

8

Emotional Intelligence and Selection to Administrative Chief Residency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors sought to determine whether emotional intelligence, as measured by the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), is associated with selection to administrative chief resident. Method: Authors invited senior-year residents at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston to participate in an observational…

Kilpatrick, Charlie C.; Doyle, Peter D.; Reichman, Eric F.; Chohan, Lubna; Uthman, Margaret O.; Orejuela, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

9

The Role of Personality Traits, Core Self-Evaluation, and Emotional Intelligence in Career Decision-Making Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N = 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bar-On, Reuven

2012-01-01

10

Problem gambling in adolescence: Relationships with internet misuse, gaming abuse and emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and several addiction-related behaviors (gambling, internet use, and video game playing) in two community-based samples of adolescents: 13–15 year olds (N=209) and 16–18 year olds (N=458). EI was measured using the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), while the addiction-related behaviors were assessed using the Internet Addiction

James D. A. Parker; Robyn N. Taylor; Jennifer M. Eastabrook; Stacey L. Schell; Laura M. Wood

2008-01-01

11

Quotient spaces and statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the widespread occurrence of quotient spaces in statistical work. Quotient spaces are intrinsic to probability distributions, residuals, interaction, test statistics, and incomplete observations. The theme is that explicit recognition of the quotient- space can oer surprising conceptual simplification. The advantages of working directly with the

Peter McCullagh

2000-01-01

12

Partial resolutions of quotient singularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For quotient singularities the irreducible components of the (reduced) base space of the versal deformation are in one to\\u000a one correspondence with certain partial resolutions, calledP-resolutions [1]. In [3] we found allP-resolutions for cyclic quotient singularities. In this note we determine theP-resolutions for the other quotient singularities. A simple lemma allows reduction to the cyclic case; the same technique\\u000a was

Jan Stevens

1993-01-01

13

Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar [14] offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…

Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

2005-01-01

14

Quantum walks on quotient graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph ? is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

2007-06-01

15

Nursing students' leadership and emotional intelligence in Turkey.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine nursing students' leadership and emotional intelligence. The study was conducted as a descriptive study in a nursing school in 2008. The sample comprised 69 junior and 85 senior nursing students and was based on voluntary participation. Data were collected through a data sheet, a leadership style questionnaire, and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory. There were no statistically significant differences in leadership orientations and emotional intelligence between junior and senior students (p > 0.05). Although there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and task-oriented leadership (r = 0.427, p = 0.001), there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and people-oriented leadership (r = 0.076, p = 0.367). Students' emotional intelligence score was average, and their people-oriented leadership score was approximately half of the total score. It is recommended to develop strategies for improving nursing students' people-oriented leadership skills during their nursing education. PMID:21323258

Duygulu, Sergul; Hicdurmaz, Duygu; Akyar, Imatullah

2011-01-31

16

Ceramic Bar-on-Bar Impact Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. The major objective of these experiments is to generate a variety of multi axial deformation states for ...

N. S. Brar

2003-01-01

17

EMOTIONAL \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) model of organizational learning emphasizes the need for face-to-face communication to establish a channel for tacit-to-tacit knowledge exchange between individuals. Within any organization, new concepts are imparted during these tacit exchanges. This paper explores the relevance of emotional unawareness on learning by examining the association between alexithymia and undergraduate computing and business students' GPA. Alexithymia is

JOHN R. LANDRY

2007-01-01

18

The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.|

Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

2011-01-01

19

The Quotient CafĆ©  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java application helps students understand the partial quotients algorithm of division in the context of dividing food equally. Students select a character and a type of food as well as the quantities of characters (divisor, 1-50) and food (dividend, 1-500) ā or have the applet make selections randomly. The applet creates a story problem and leads users through the algorithm one step at a time, using questions related to the meaning of each step, and displays graphics illustrating the steps. Remainders can be expressed as whole numbers or fractions. An online calculator is available to help with calculations.

Penney, Laurie

2012-01-01

20

Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

PubMed

Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

2013-04-06

21

Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

2003-11-24

22

Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.  

PubMed

One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources. PMID:20159912

Paniagua, Jesśs M; Rufo, Montańa; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolķn, Alicia; Pinar, Ivįn

2010-02-16

23

Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts.…

Chen, Zhibo

2012-01-01

24

Incremental maintenance of quotient cube for median  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data cube pre-computation is an important concept for supporting OLAP(Online Analytical Processing) and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalence partitions. Such an approach is not only useful for

Cuiping Li; Gao Cong; Anthony K. H. Tung; Shan Wang

2004-01-01

25

Dealing with Feelings: Characterization of Trait Alexithymia on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Cognitive-Emotional Processing  

PubMed Central

Background Alexithymia, or “no words for feelings”, is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. Method Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing). Results The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. Conclusion Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

Swart, Marte; Kortekaas, Rudie; Aleman, Andre

2009-01-01

26

Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities using the emotional intelligence test MSCEIT, as well as neuroticism, and

Konstantinos Kafetsios; Aikaterini Maridaki-Kassotaki; Vanda L. Zammuner; Leonidas A. Zampetakis; Fotios Vouzas

2009-01-01

27

Automorphisms and forms of toric quotients of homogeneous spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the automorphism group of the quotient of a generalized Grassmannian G/P by the action of a maximal torus of the semisimple group G. We classify the twisted forms of such quotients, that is, varieties isomorphic to these quotients over an algebraic closure of the base field. It is proved that all such forms are unirational. Bibliography: 20 titles.

Skorobogatov, Aleksei N.

2009-10-01

28

Automorphisms and forms of toric quotients of homogeneous spaces  

SciTech Connect

We compute the automorphism group of the quotient of a generalized Grassmannian G/P by the action of a maximal torus of the semisimple group G. We classify the twisted forms of such quotients, that is, varieties isomorphic to these quotients over an algebraic closure of the base field. It is proved that all such forms are unirational. Bibliography: 20 titles.

Skorobogatov, Aleksei N [Imperial College, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-31

29

A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Emotional intelligence measures vary widely in both their content and in their method of assessment. In particular, emotional intelligence measures tend to use either a self-report personality-based approach, an informant approach, or an ability-based assessment procedure. In this paper, the measurement and psychometric properties of four of the major emotional intelligence measures (Emotional Competence Inventory, Emotional Quotient Inventory, Multifactor

Jeffrey M. Conte

2005-01-01

30

Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

{Excerpt} Emotional intelligence describes an ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. The theory is enjoying considerable support in the literature and has had successful applications in many domains.\\u000aThe intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests to

Olivier Serrat

2009-01-01

31

Perturbation theory and the Rayleigh quotient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic frequencies ? of the vibrations of an elastic solid subject to boundary conditions of either zero displacement or zero traction are given by the Rayleigh quotient expressed in terms of the corresponding exact eigenfunctions. In problems that can be analytically expanded in a small parameter ?, it is shown that when an approximate eigenfunction is known with an error O(?N), the Rayleigh quotient gives the frequency with an error O(?2N), a gain of N orders. This result generalizes a well-known theorem for N=1. A non-trivial example is presented for N=4, whereby knowledge of the 3rd-order eigenfunction (error being 4th order) gives the eigenvalue with an error that is 8th order; the 6th-order term thus determined provides an unambiguous derivation of the shear coefficient in Timoshenko beam theory.

Chan, K. T.; Stephen, N. G.; Young, K.

2011-04-01

32

Longitudinal study of emotional intelligence, leadership, and caring in undergraduate nursing students.  

PubMed

This study describes the development of emotional intelligence (EI), leadership, and caring in undergraduate nursing students throughout their educational program. A correlational, repeated measures study design was used. Fifty-two nursing students completed four self-report questionnaires on three occasions (T1, T2, T3): BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (EQ-i:S), Self-Assessment Leadership Instrument (SALI), Caring Ability Inventory (CAI), and Caring Dimensions Inventory (CDI). Mean scores for Total EI did not change significantly over time (T1, 100.1 ± 13.8; T2, 103.1 ± 13.8; T3, 101.6 ± 14.7). However, EI adaptability was higher at T2 (101.6 ± 13.1) and T3 (101.8 ± 14.1) than at T1 (97.0 ± 12.5; p = 0.03), as was CAI Courage (64.2 ± 9.5, 66.7 ± 9.5, 66.9 ± 8.7; p = 0.04) and the CDI (96.8 ± 18.1, 103.0 ± 7.3, 102.0 ± 10.9; p = 0.02). Changes in EI were positively correlated (r > 0.50, p < 0.001) with changes in SALI, CAI Knowing, and CAI Courage. During the undergraduate program, significant increases occurred in caring and EI adaptability but not in overall EI or leadership. PMID:22233159

Benson, Gerry; Martin, Lynn; Ploeg, Jenny; Wessel, Jean

2012-01-13

33

9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. A photograph, looking southwest, from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This image shows the west abutment, including the mold marks which remained from the timber forms. Leaching and cracking are also visible along the arch ring. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

34

Effects of a Sports Nutrition Bar on Endurance Running Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Access bar claims to contain adenosine antagonists and a precise mixture of macronutrients that are purported to improve aerobic performance by increasing fat metabolism and providing sustained exogenous energy. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the Access bar on endurance running performance. Twelve active, healthy run- ners completed 5 sessions: a VO2max test, a

STEPHEN K. OLIVER; MARK S. TREMBLAY

2002-01-01

35

A New Strategy for Incremental Maintenance of Cover Quotient Cube  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By establishing a new strategy for incremental maintenance of cover quotient cube, cover quotient cube is divided into several\\u000a sub-sets, in determining whether to add or modify operation. With this approach, only some subsets of the cover quotient cube\\u000a are accessed when there is an incremental maintenance operation. A new algorithm Update Add New is provided with respect to\\u000a the

Peng Xiang-kai; Chen Fu-qiang

36

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. View looking northwest from the sand bar on the east side of the bridge. This photograph of the northeast abutment shows cracks and efflorescence which as developed at the edge of the arch entrados. These effects show the thickness of the arch casting as it is contained by the spandrels and abutment. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

37

Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

38

Low community photosynthetic quotient in coral reef sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen at the water–sediment interface were measured at eight coral reef stations (Indian Ocean) in summer and winter. The dark fluxes provided the community respiratory quotient (CRQ = dissolved inorganic carbon release \\/ oxygen uptake) and the diurnal fluxes corrected from the dark fluxes gave the community photosynthetic quotient (CPQ = oxygen gross release

Dorothée Taddei; Pascale Cuet; Patrick Frouin; Clémentine Esbelin; Jacques Clavier

2008-01-01

39

Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

2009-01-01

40

Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits. PMID:23364117

Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

2013-02-01

41

Quotients of Banach spaces and surjectively universal spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize those classes $\\\\mathcal{C}$ of separable Banach spaces for which there exists a separable Banach space $Y$ not containing $\\\\ell_1$ and such that every space in the class $\\\\mathcal{C}$ is a quotient of $Y$.

Pandelis Dodos

2010-01-01

42

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus*  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (P<0.01) and significantly higher in urban as compared to rural residents (85.1±19.5 versus 77.3±10.8 respectively, P=0.02). Patients with coexisting amblyopia and alternate deviation had lower IQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

2013-01-01

43

AdS\\/CFT correspondence and quotient space geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a version of the AdSd+1\\/CFTd correspondence, in which the bulk space is taken to be the quotient manifold AdSd+1\\/Gamma with a fairly generic discrete group Gamma acting isometrically on AdSd+1. We address some geometrical issues concerning the holographic principle and the UV\\/IR relations. It is shown that certain singular structures on the quotient boundary Sd\\/Gamma can affect the

Yi-hong Gao

1999-01-01

44

Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute\\u000a a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue\\u000a through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient\\u000a cube for cube compression

Cui-Ping Li; Kum-hoe Tung; Shan Wang

2004-01-01

45

Effects of a sports nutrition bar on endurance running performance.  

PubMed

The Access bar claims to contain adenosine antagonists and a precise mixture of macronutrients that are purported to improve aerobic performance by increasing fat metabolism and providing sustained exogenous energy. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the Access bar on endurance running performance. Twelve active, healthy runners completed 5 sessions: a V(O)2 max test, a 30-minute familiarization session, and 3 experimental sessions. During each experimental session subjects ran a self-paced, simulated race on a treadmill (approximately 55 minutes) until they had completed a set energy expenditure target (0.8368 kJ x 60 minutes x body mass). Fifteen minutes before exercise subjects received either the Access bar and water, Uncle Tobys Peanut Butter Muesli Bar and water, or Crystal Light, using a randomized, double-blind design. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and running speed were measured every minute during testing. Blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were assessed at selected intervals; time to finish was also recorded. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between the 3 treatments in any of the measures. These results do not support the use of the Access Sports Nutrition Bar to enhance endurance running performance of approximately one hour. PMID:11834122

Oliver, Stephen K; Tremblay, Mark S

2002-02-01

46

Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The EQ Relationship for Deans of U.S. Business Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to determine if a positive relationship existed between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction for deans of business schools. A secondary purpose was to determine which Emotional Quotient (EQ) competencies were most important for satisfied deans and how these competencies assisted processes related to…

Coco, Charles M.

2009-01-01

47

Emotional Intelligence and Beliefs about Children, Discipline and Classroom Practices among Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research sought to explore how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes the beliefs of pre-service teachers with respect to issues such as classroom management and student behavior. 101 pre-service teachers were recruited from undergraduate and graduate education courses at a private, mid-sized university. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i),…

Flanagan, Maryclare E.

2009-01-01

48

An Initial Investigation of Emotional Intelligence And Level of Bias among Texas Agricultural Reporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the American culture, the intelligence quotient (IQ) has been the determining factor in how successful someone would become since the 20th century. However, a relatively new concept has emerged as a primary determinant for workplace success — emotional intelligence (Stein & Book, 2001). The purpose of this study is to examine the level of emotional intelligence among agricultural reporters

Cindy Akers; David Doerfert; Chad S. Davis

2005-01-01

49

Respiration Quotient: Estimation During Batch Cultivation in Bicarbonate Buffered Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Respiration Quotient (RQ) is a key metabolic parameter for cell cultures and is usually determined from gas analysis only. In bicarbonate buffered media the carbon dioxide balance is affected by accumulation and hence the RQ can not directly be calculated from gas measurements. A Kalman Filter as software sensor that estimates the CER can cope with these buffering capacities

Ronald Neeleman

2001-01-01

50

Quotient FCMs-a decomposition theory for fuzzy cognitive maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a decomposition theory for fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM). First, we partition the set of vertices of an FCM into blocks according to an equivalence relation, and by regarding these blocks as vertices we construct a quotient FCM. Second, each block induces a natural sectional FCM of the original FCM, which inherits the topological structure as

Jian Ying Zhang; Zhi-Qiang Liu; Sanming Zhou

2003-01-01

51

Difference-quotient turbulence model: The axisymmetric isothermal jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the difference-quotient turbulence model into consideration, the mean velocities and the second-order fluctuation correlations, also called Reynolds stresses, of the axisymmetric isothermal jet in a quiescent surrounding are analytically calculated. Three propositions are stated and proved. They relate a normalized turbulence fluctuation intensity and two turbulent energies on the center line of the jet to its spreading angle. The

Peter W. Egolf; Daniel A. Weiss

1998-01-01

52

Illumination Normalization Based on Different Smoothing Filters Quotient Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The illumination variation problem is still an open question in face recognition in uncontrolled environment. To cope with this problem, many methods are proposed to strengthen illumination compensation and feature enhancement, among which quotient image based methods are reported to be a simple yet practical technique. Recently the SQI, MQI and DMQI are reported to obtain good results in illumination

Yu Cheng; Zhigang Jin; Cunming Hao

2010-01-01

53

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

54

Relationships between Aquatic Hazard Quotients and Probabilistic Risk Estimates: What Is the Significance of a Hazard Quotient >1?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between hazard quotients (HQ) and probabilistic estimates of aquatic ecological risk. Questions addressed included the magnitude at which an HQ equates to significant risk, and the factors influencing the HQ-risk relationship. The analysis was based upon predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) for copper, hypothetical predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) distributions, and measured PNEC data for aquatic species

Joseph S. Volosin; Rick D. Cardwell

2002-01-01

55

The Role of EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Their Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between EFL teachers' emotional quotient (EQ) and their pedagogical success in language institutes. In addition, the role played by their years of teaching experience in their EQ and the relationship between their age and EQ were also studied. For this purpose, 89 EFL teachers were chosen from different…

Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Moafian, Fatemeh

2010-01-01

56

Study of emotional intelligence and empathy in medical postgraduates  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The important domains of emotional intelligence (EI) are self-awareness and control of emotions, motivating oneself, and empathy. These are necessary to handle any relationship. This study aims to (i) assess emotional intelligence focusing specifically on empathy; (ii) to study the level of anger; and (iii) correlating level of anger with (a) EI and (b) empathy in medical postgraduates. Materials and Methods: Subjects were assessed randomly after obtaining informed consent, through semi-structured proforma and various scales, including Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist, Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale, and Clinical Anger Scale. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis with analysis of covariance test. Results: On Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment checklist, more than 70% had poor emotional intelligence. Married males in the study were more confident and empathizing. Those with some major problem at home were more aware of their own emotions and other's feelings. Residents who had voluntarily chosen their specialty postgraduation training course (eg, medicine, surgery, and others), those who had less work load, those who had time for recreational activities, and exercise had scored high on EI. Good control of emotions in self was associated with good relationship with superiors and colleagues. Score on Clinical anger was moderate to severe in 10.6% of the subjects. EI and clinical anger correlated negatively.

Faye, Abhijeet; Kalra, Gurvinder; Swamy, Rajeev; Shukla, Aniket; Subramanyam, Alka; Kamath, Ravindra

2011-01-01

57

The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

Adilogullari, Ilhan

2011-01-01

58

The Teachers Level of Emotional Intelligence Some of the Demographic Variables for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study aims to examine the level of emotional intelligence of some of the demographic variables of the teachers working in the province of Gaziantep. Acar (2002) adapted to Turkish by Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Ability Scale 5-item scale used in grading and answered 87. The study evaluated data; descriptive statistical methods (frequency,…

Adilogullari, Ilhan

2011-01-01

59

On sums of partial quotients in continued fraction expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assume x ? [0, 1) taking on its continued fraction expansion as [a1(x), a2(x), ...]. For any n >= 1, write S_n(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^n a_k(x) . Khintchine (1935 Compos. Math. 1 361-82) proved that Sn(x)/(n log n) converges in measure to 1/log 2 with respect to \\mathcal {L}^1 , where \\mathcal {L}^1 denotes the one-dimensional Lebesgue measure. Philipp (1988 Monatsh. Math. 105 195-206) showed that {an(x), n >= 1} cannot satisfy a strong law of large numbers for any reasonably growing norming sequence. In (Wu and Xu 2008 Preprint), we discussed the sets of continued fractions whose sums of partial quotients tend to infinity with the polynomial growth rate. In this paper, we consider the sets of continued fractions whose sums of partial quotients tend to infinity exponentially and doubly exponentially. The Hausdorff dimensions of such sets are determined.

Xu, Jian

2008-09-01

60

The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Autism Spectrum Quotient-Children's Version (AQ-Child) is a parent-report questionnaire that aims to quantify autistic traits in children 4-11 years old. The range of scores on the AQ-Child is 0-150. It was administered to children with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) (n = 540) and a general population sample (n = 1,225). Results showed a…

Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie

2008-01-01

61

HyperKähler Quotient Construction of BPS Monopole Moduli Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  We use the HyperKhler quotient of flat space to obtain some monopole moduli space metrics in explicit form. Using this new\\u000a description, we discuss their topology, completeness and isometries. We construct the moduli space metrics in the limit when\\u000a some monopoles become massless, which corresponds to non-maximal symmetry breaking of the gauge group. We also introduce a\\u000a new family of

G. W. Gibbons; P. Rychenkova; R. Goto

1997-01-01

62

A Convex Programming Approach to the Trace Quotient Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace quotient problem arises in many applications in pattern clas- sification and computer vision, e.g., manifold learning, low-dimension embed- ding, etc. The task is to solve a optimization problem involving maximizing the ratio of two traces, i.e., maxW Tr(f (W ))\\/Tr(h(W )). This optimization prob- lem itself is non-convex in general, hence it is hard to solve it directly.

Chunhua Shen; Hongdong Li; Michael J. Brooks

2007-01-01

63

A new Rayleigh quotient minimization algorithm based on algebraic multigrid.  

SciTech Connect

Mandel and McCormick [2] introduced the RQMG method, which approximately minimizes the Rayleigh quotient over a sequence of grids. In this talk, we will present an algebraic extension. We replace the geometric mesh information with the algebraic information defined by an AMG preconditioner. At each level, we improve the smoother to accelerate the convergence. With a series of numerical experiments, we assess the efficiency of this new algorithm to compute several eigenpairs.

Lehoucq, Richard B.; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L.

2005-01-01

64

Emotional intelligence and beliefs about children, discipline and classroom practices among pre-service teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research sought to explore how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes the beliefs of pre-service teachers with respect to issues such as classroom management and student behavior. 101 pre-service teachers were recruited from undergraduate and graduate education courses at a private, mid-sized university. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), which assesses emotional intelligence, the Teacher Belief Q-sort (TBQ), which assesses beliefs about

Maryclare E Flanagan

2009-01-01

65

An exploration of emotional intelligence across career arenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This quantitative study seeks to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence scores of leaders in non-profit health and human service agencies and profit businesses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Director-level leaders in the non-profit (n=32) and profit (n=32) business arenas completed an online emotional intelligence self assessment (Bar-On EQ-i). Descriptive statistics were gathered and comparative analyses explored the differences between leaders

Michelle M. Morehouse

2007-01-01

66

Monopitched expression of emotions in different vowels.  

PubMed

Fundamental frequency (F(0)) and intensity are known to be important variables in the communication of emotions in speech. In singing, however, pitch is predetermined and yet the voice should convey emotions. Hence, other vocal parameters are needed to express emotions. This study investigated the role of voice source characteristics and formant frequencies in the communication of emotions in monopitched vowel samples [a:], [i:] and [u:]. Student actors (5 males, 8 females) produced the emotional samples simulating joy, tenderness, sadness, anger and a neutral emotional state. Equivalent sound level (L(eq)), alpha ratio [SPL (1-5 kHz) - SPL (50 Hz-1 kHz)] and formant frequencies F1-F4 were measured. The [a:] samples were inverse filtered and the estimated glottal flows were parameterized with the normalized amplitude quotient [NAQ = f(AC)/(d(peak)T)]. Interrelations of acoustic variables were studied by ANCOVA, considering the valence and psychophysiological activity of the expressions. Forty participants listened to the randomized samples (n = 210) for identification of the emotions. The capacity of monopitched vowels for conveying emotions differed. L(eq) and NAQ differentiated activity levels. NAQ also varied independently of L(eq). In [a:], filter (formant frequencies F1-F4) was related to valence. The interplay between voice source and F1-F4 warrants a synthesis study. PMID:18765945

Waaramaa, Teija; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Alku, Paavo; Väyrynen, Eero

2008-09-02

67

Emotion words shape emotion percepts.  

PubMed

People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-02-06

68

[Determination of the intelligence quotient of pilots with incipient atherosclerosis].  

PubMed

Comprehensive examination, including clinical-functional and psychological testing, was given to 189 essentially healthy civil pilots and 235 pilots with atherosclerosis of aorta and trunks without considerable blood flow disturbance. The total of 835 investigations was performed. Distribution into health groups was conducted on clinical diagnosis. Pilots with cardiovascular pathologies were found to have the intelligence quotient significantly lowered. Associated clinical and psychological tests were effective in revealing and dynamic monitoring of incipient diseases, and taking reasoned disposition regarding pilot's fitness for flight duties. PMID:17405281

Krapivnitskaia, T A

69

Emotional Pathfinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a study of the influence of emotions on the behaviour of an intelligent pathfinding agent. A model of\\u000a pathfinding is proposed that takes into account the emotional state of the agent. Results show that blindly following the\\u000a most urgent emotion can lead to degenerate behaviour, and that cross-exclusion can be used to effectively moderate emotional\\u000a influences. Applications

Toby Donaldson; Andrew Park; I-ling Lin

2004-01-01

70

Primary emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current names for emotional states in psychological literature are little more than literary circumlocutions. Something more than a statistical treatment of emotional stimulus-response situations must be given. Standardization of stimulus does not standardize response. The true receptors for emotions, which must be identically stimulated to produce comparable results, lie in the integrative mechanisms, not in the sense organs at the

W. Marston

1927-01-01

71

Rayleigh Quotient Iteration in 3D, Deterministic Neutron Transport  

SciTech Connect

Today's "grand challenge" neutron transport problems require 3-D meshes with billions of cells, hundreds of energy groups, and accurate quadratures and scattering expansions. Leadership-class computers provide platforms on which high-fidelity fluxes can be calculated. However, appropriate methods are needed that can use these machines effectively. Such methods must be able to use hundreds of thousands of cores and have good convergence properties. Rayleigh quotient iteration (RQI) is an eigenvalue solver that has been added to the Sn code Denovo to address convergence. Rayleigh quotient iteration is an optimal shifted inverse iteration method that should converge in fewer iterations than the more common power method and other shifted inverse iteration methods for many problems of interest. Denovo's RQI uses a new multigroup Krylov solver for the fixed source solutions inside every iteration that allows parallelization in energy in addition to space and angle. This Krylov solver has been shown to scale successfully to 200,000 cores: for example one test problem scaled from 69,120 cores to 190,080 cores with 98% efficiency. This paper shows that RQI works for some small problems. However, the Krylov method upon which it relies does not always converge because RQI creates ill-conditioned systems. This result leads to the conclusion that preconditioning is needed to allow this method to be applicable to a wider variety of problems.

Slaybaugh, R [University of Wisconsin; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin

2012-01-01

72

Emotion Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

73

Emotional Thought or Thoughtful Emotions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical circuits for emotion are straightforward: prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. How- ever, neurophysiologists have not yet uncovered any robust neurophysiological differences among what we perceive to be as radically different emotions. Nevertheless, they be- lieve that someday, they will be able to discover local ana- tomical or physiological differences among our different emotional states. However, it

Valerie Gray Hardcastle

1998-01-01

74

Embodying emotion.  

PubMed

Recent theories of embodied cognition suggest new ways to look at how we process emotional information. The theories suggest that perceiving and thinking about emotion involve perceptual, somatovisceral, and motoric reexperiencing (collectively referred to as "embodiment") of the relevant emotion in one's self. The embodiment of emotion, when induced in human participants by manipulations of facial expression and posture in the laboratory, causally affects how emotional information is processed. Congruence between the recipient's bodily expression of emotion and the sender's emotional tone of language, for instance, facilitates comprehension of the communication, whereas incongruence can impair comprehension. Taken all together, recent findings provide a scientific account of the familiar contention that "when you're smiling, the whole world smiles with you." PMID:17510358

Niedenthal, Paula M

2007-05-18

75

On the versal deformation of cyclic quotient singularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we prove that the reduced base space of the versal deformation of a cyclic quotient singularity of embedding\\u000a dimension e has at most \\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\\\frac1e -<\\/font\\u000a> 2( *20c2( e -<\\/font\\u000a> 3 ) e -<\\/font\\u000a> 3 )\\\\frac{1}{{e - 2}}\\\\left( {\\\\begin{array}{*{20}c}{2\\\\left( {e - 3} \\\\right)} \\\\\\\\{e - 3} \\\\\\\\\\\\end{array} } \\\\right)\\u000a irreducible components. All these components are

Jan Stevens

2009-01-01

76

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

77

Cocaine users manifest impaired prosodic and cross-modal emotion processing.  

PubMed

Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of "emotion recognition" and "prosody recognition" and the subtests "conflicting prosody/meaning - attend to prosody" and "match emotional prosody to emotional face" either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the "affect recognition quotient." Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D; Quednow, Boris B

2013-09-05

78

Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

2010-01-01

79

Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14…

Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

2010-01-01

80

Relation of Ash\\/Moisture Quotients in Some Cheeses to Hydrolysis of ?s- and ?-Casein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bola cheese (made from cows' milk clotted by rennet) ash\\/moisture quotients did not influence the relative proteolysis of the major caseins. The quotients were related inversely in a similar way to the extent of hydrolysis of a s- and 3-casein. In Manchego cheese (made from sheeps' milk clotted by rennet) the ash concen- tration was related inversely to the

A. Marcos; J. Fernįndez-Salguero; M. A. Esteban; F. León

1979-01-01

81

Use of food quotients to predict respiratory quotients for the doubly-labelled water method of measuring energy expenditure.  

PubMed

A method is proposed for estimating the respiratory quotients (RQ) required in the calculation of free-living energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water technique in man. Worked examples show that, in most normal subjects, measured or predicted food quotients (FQ) can be used in place of RQs since energy balance is usually maintained over the 10-20-d periods of double-isotope measurements. Examples of observed FQs in the UK are: omnivorous adults, 0.845 +/- 0.013 (s.d.); vegetarians, vegans and Asian immigrants, 0.860-0.880; breast-fed infants, 0.835 rising to 0.870 as weaning progresses; bottle-fed infants, 0.840-0.880. Alcohol intakes in excess of 2-3 per cent of total energy lower the FQ value. In most communities in the developing world FQs are substantially higher (0.900-0.955) due to the low contribution of fat to overall energy intakes; but FQs decrease progressively as the diet becomes more westernized. In the UK the between- and within-subject coefficients of variation based on 4-d weighed intakes are only 1.5 and 0.7 per cent respectively. A single 4-d measurement of dietary composition can therefore be used to predict a subject's FQ. In subjects in energy imbalance (eg, during growth, illness or when dieting) errors in calculated energy expenditure will rarely exceed 3-5 per cent even if the imbalance is ignored; in practice anabolism or catabolism can be accounted for and the FQ adjusted when converting FQ to RQ. The error incurred due to the substitution of adjusted FQ for RQ in the doubly-labelled water method will usually be negligible and should never exceed +/- 2 per cent. PMID:3771290

Black, A E; Prentice, A M; Coward, W A

1986-09-01

82

Impact of adoption of yoga way of life on the emotional intelligence of managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular perception that a high intelligence quotient (IQ) is not necessarily a good predictor of professional and personal success has led to a growing interest in understanding the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in improving the performance of business managers. This paper studies the impact of the yoga way of life on EI using data collected from 60 managers

Hasmukh Adhia; H. R. Nagendra; B. Mahadevan

2010-01-01

83

Glottal open quotient in singing: Measurements and correlation with laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of glottal open-quotient measurements in the case of singing voice production. It explores the relationship between open quotient and laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency. The audio and electroglottographic signals of 18 classically trained male and female singers were recorded and analyzed with regard to vocal intensity, fundamental frequency, and open quotient. Fundamental frequency and open quotient are derived from the differentiated electroglottographic signal, using the DECOM (DEgg Correlation-based Open quotient Measurement) method. As male and female phonation may differ in respect to vocal-fold vibratory properties, a distinction is made between two different glottal configurations, which are called laryngeal mechanisms: mechanism 1 (related to chest, modal, and male head register) and mechanism 2 (related to falsetto for male and head register for female). The results show that open quotient depends on the laryngeal mechanisms. It ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 in mechanism 1 and from 0.5 to 0.95 in mechanism 2. The open quotient is strongly related to vocal intensity in mechanism 1 and to fundamental frequency in mechanism 2. .

Henrich, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Castellengo, Michčle

2005-03-01

84

An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

2011-01-01

85

The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence to Decisional Styles among Italian High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and styles of decision making. Two hundred and six Italian high school students completed two measures of EI, the Bar-On EI Inventory, based on a mixed model of EI, and the Mayer Salovey Caruso EI Test, based on an ability-based model of EI, in addition to the General…

Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

2012-01-01

86

An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

2011-01-01

87

Emotional reactions to infidelity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to identify emotional reactions to a partner's sexual infidelity and emotional infidelity. In a preliminary study, 53 participants nominated emotional reactions to a partner's sexual and emotional infidelity. In a second study, 655 participants rated each emotion for how likely it was to occur following sexual and emotional infidelity. Principal components analysis revealed 15 emotion components, including Hostile\\/Vengeful,

Todd K. Shackelford; Gregory J. LeBlanc; Elizabeth Drass

2000-01-01

88

The Rate of Photorespiration as Measured by Means of Oxygen Uptake and Its Respiratory Quotient  

PubMed Central

Oxygen recycling inside photosynthesizing leaves was found to amount to less than 0.3% of the oxygen consumed by photorespiration under natural conditions, provided the influence of buildup of oxygen released by photosynthesis into the external air was taken into consideration. When this is related to the amounts of photorespired CO2, which had been previously found to be reabsorbed by photosynthesis, it appears that previous respiratory quotients reported for photorespiration were underestimated. For the same reason the photosynthetic quotient was overestimated. Actually, quotients of photorespiration and of photosynthesis approach the more normal range of respiratory quotients int the dark. The oxygen recycling was calculated according to an electrical analogue to oxygen flow. The determination of photorespiration, when measured by oxygen uptake, can be more accurate than that by CO2 measurement. However, recycling of oxygen occurs in larger amounts at lower oxygen and higher CO2 concentrations, as well as under conditions of high resistance to transpiration.

Samish, Yochai B.

1971-01-01

89

Bass–Tits minimization of automata, quotients of trees and diameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let X be a tree and let G=Aut(X), Bass and Tits have given an algorithm to construct the ‘ultimate quotient’ of X by G starting with any quotient of X, an ‘edge-indexed’ graph. Using a sequence of integers that we compute at consecutive steps of the Bass–Tits (BT) algorithm, we give a lower bound on the diameter of the ultimate

Lisa Carbone; Dennis Clark

2006-01-01

90

Pseudo MV algebra of fractions and maximal pseudo- MV algebra of quotients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to define the notions of pseudo-MV algebra of fractions and maximal pseudo-MV algebra of quotients for a pseudo-MV algebra (taking as a guide-line the elegant construction of complete ring of quotients by partial morphisms introduced by G. Findlay and J. Lambek-see [14], p.36). For some informal explanations of the notion\\u000a of fraction see [14],

Dana Piciu

2004-01-01

91

Dissociation quotients of malonic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 100°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first and second molal dissociation quotients of malonic acid were measured potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The hydrogen ion molality of malonic acid\\/bimalonate solutions was measured relative to a standard aqueous HCl solution from 0 to 100°C over 25° intervals at five ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients

Richard M. Kettler; David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1992-01-01

92

Dissociation quotient of benzoic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 250°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation quotient of benzoic acid was determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The hydrogen ion molality of benzoic acid\\/benzoate solutions was measured relative to a standard aqueous HCl solution at seven temperatures from 5 to 250°C and at seven ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients and selected literature

Richard M. Kettler; David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1995-01-01

93

Dissociation quotients of succinic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 225°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first and second molal dissociation quotients of succinic acid were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode, concentration cell. These measurements were carried out from 0 to 225°C over 25° intervals at five ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The dissociation quotients from this and two other studies were combined and treated with empirical equations to yield the

Richard M. Kettler; Donald A. Palmer; David J. Wesolowski

1995-01-01

94

ON THE RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT OF LUPINUS ALBUS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE  

PubMed Central

The temperature characteristics for the oxygen consumption and CO2-production of the germinating seeds of Lupinus albus were previously found to be different. It was predicted qualitatively that the respiratory quotient of the seed should be a function of temperature. A quantitative treatment is presented here, relating the change of the respiratory quotient with temperature and the temperature characteristics. Experimental results agree satisfactorily with the calculated value.

Tang, Pei-Sung

1932-01-01

95

The dissociation quotients of formic acid in sodium chloride solutions to 200°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation quotients of formic acid were measured potentiometrically from 25 to 200°C in NaCl solutions at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mol-kg-1. The experiments were carried out in a concentration cell with hydrogen electrodes. The resulting molal acid dissociation quotients for formic acid, as well as a set of infinite dilution literature values and a

Julie L. S. Bell; David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1993-01-01

96

Dissociation quotients of oxalic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 175°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first and second molal dissociation quotients of oxalic acid were measured potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The emf of oxalic acid-bioxalate solutions was measured relative to an HCl standard solution from 25 to 125°C over 25o intervals at nine ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients and available literature

Richard M. Kettler; Donald A. Palmer; David J. Wesolowski

1991-01-01

97

Molal dissociation quotients of water in sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The molal dissociation quotients and corresponding thermodynamic quantities for water were determined from potentiometric measurements at 25{degree}C intervals from 25 to 250{degree}C in the presence of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate at six molalities ranging from 0.2 to 6.5. These quantities are compared with published results for the dissociation of water in sodium chloride solutions and an estimate is made of the ion-pair association quotient for HCl.

Palmer, D.A.; Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1988-02-01

98

What is a Quotient Map with Respect to a Closure Operator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that there is no good answer to the question of the title, even if we restrict our attention to Set-based topological categories. Although very closely related, neither the natural notion of c-finality (designed in total analogy to c-initiality) nor the notion of c-quotient (modelled after the behaviour of topological quotient maps) provide universally satisfactory concepts. More dramatically,

Maria Manuel Clementino; Eraldo Giuli; Walter Tholen

2001-01-01

99

Eating behaviours in relation to emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine the abnormal eating attitudes in judoists and the possible relationships between eating attitudes, emotional intelligence, and body dissatisfaction. A total of 20 national judoists and 25 control participants were enrolled in the study. Subjects completed the following questionnaires: The Eating Attitudes Test, The Body Image Assessment Scale-Body Dimensions and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. 30 % of the athletes (n=6) and 20% of the controls (n=5) presented disordered eating attitudes although these subjects were of normal weight. They also presented body dissatisfaction and had lower levels of emotional intelligence in comparison to the groups without disordered eating attitudes, particularly in factors such as intrapersonal (p<0.01), adaptability (p<0.05), stress tolerance (p<0.04) and general mood (p<0.04). The athletes reported using different weight loss methods such as self-induced vomiting (20%), fasting (40%), diuretics (15%), and laxatives (50%). Among disordered eating attitude groups (Controls+Judoists), Global EAT-26 was negatively correlated with stress tolerance (p<0.04: r=-0.64), emotional self-awareness (p<0.05: r=-0.70), general mood (p<0.01: r=-0.74), and positively correlated with body dissatisfaction (p<0.01: r=0.79). Results highlight the role of emotion in disordered eating attitudes, which is an important finding in terms of the prevention and management of disordered eating. PMID:21165809

Filaire, E; Larue, J; Rouveix, M

2010-12-16

100

Archaeological Test Excavation and Evaluation of Three Prehistoric Sites at Swift Bar, on the Lower Snake River, Southeastern Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test excavations and controlled surface collections were conducted at three sites on Swift Bar, on the Lower Snake River in southeastern Washington. All three sites are subject to adverse effects through erosion and habitat restoration activities. Cascade...

R. L. Sappington C. D. Carley

1984-01-01

101

Beyond Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of emotion and perceptual and cognitive processes interact dynamically and continually. The concepts and techniques that promote emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and emotion utilization have proved effective in promoting favorable behavioral outcomes in both emotion-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions. In this paper, we suggest that current conceptualizations of emotion regulation need to be extended to take these interactions into account.

Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

2009-01-01

102

Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

2011-01-01

103

Oxytocin attenuates feelings of hostility depending on emotional context and individuals' characteristics.  

PubMed

In humans, oxytocin (OT) enhances prosocial behaviour. However, it is still unclear how the prosocial effects of OT are modulated by emotional features and/or individuals' characteristics. In a placebo-controlled design, we tested 20 healthy male volunteers to investigate these behavioural and neurophysiological modulations using magnetoencephalography. As an index of the individuals' characteristics, we used the empathy quotient (EQ), the autism spectrum quotient (AQ), and the systemising quotient (SQ). Only during the perception of another person's angry face was a higher SQ a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial change, both in the behavioural and neurophysiological indicators. In addition, a lower EQ was only a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial changes in the neurophysiological indicators during the perception of angry faces. Both on the behavioural and the neurophysiological level, the effects of OT were specific for anger and correlated with a higher SQ. PMID:22540030

Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Higashida, Haruhiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Ueno, Sanae; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Hideo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Minabe, Yoshio

2012-04-26

104

Oxytocin attenuates feelings of hostility depending on emotional context and individuals' characteristics  

PubMed Central

In humans, oxytocin (OT) enhances prosocial behaviour. However, it is still unclear how the prosocial effects of OT are modulated by emotional features and/or individuals' characteristics. In a placebo-controlled design, we tested 20 healthy male volunteers to investigate these behavioural and neurophysiological modulations using magnetoencephalography. As an index of the individuals' characteristics, we used the empathy quotient (EQ), the autism spectrum quotient (AQ), and the systemising quotient (SQ). Only during the perception of another person's angry face was a higher SQ a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial change, both in the behavioural and neurophysiological indicators. In addition, a lower EQ was only a significant predictor of OT-induced prosocial changes in the neurophysiological indicators during the perception of angry faces. Both on the behavioural and the neurophysiological level, the effects of OT were specific for anger and correlated with a higher SQ.

Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Higashida, Haruhiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Ueno, Sanae; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Hideo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Minabe, Yoshio

2012-01-01

105

The semi-chiral quotient, hyperkähler manifolds and T-duality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the construction of generalized Kähler manifolds, described purely in terms of {N} = (2,2) semichiral superfields, by a quotient using the semichiral vector multiplet. Despite the presence of a b-field in these models, we show that the quotient of a hyperkähler manifold is hyperkähler, as in the usual hyperkähler quotient. Thus, quotient manifolds with torsion cannot be constructed by this method. Nonetheless, this method does give a new description of hyperkähler manifolds in terms of two-dimensional {N} = (2, 2) gauged non-linear sigma models involving semichiral superfields and the semichiral vector multiplet. We give two examples: Eguchi-Hanson and Taub-NUT. By T-duality, this gives new gauged linear sigma models describing the T-dual of Eguchi-Hanson and NS5-branes. We also clarify some aspects of T-duality relating these models to {N} = (4, 4) models with chiral/twisted-chiral fields and comment briefly on more general quotients that can give rise to torsion and give an example.

Crichigno, P. Marcos

2012-10-01

106

Emotional and Non-Emotional Persuasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relevant issue in the domain of natural argumentation and persuasion is the interaction (synergic or conflicting) between “rational” or “cognitive” modes of persuasion and “irrational” or “emotional” ones. This work provides a model of general persuasion and emotional persuasion. We examine two basic modes for appealing to emotions, arguing that emotional persuasion does not necessarily coincide with irrational persuasion,

Maria Miceli; Fiorella De Rosis; Isabella Poggi

2006-01-01

107

On the Construction and the Structure of Off-Shell Supermultiplet Quotients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent efforts to classify representations of supersymmetry with no central charge [C. F. Doran et al., Adv. Theor. Math. Phys.15, 1909 (2011)] have focused on supermultiplets that are aptly depicted by Adinkras, wherein every supersymmetry generator transforms each component field into precisely one other component field or its derivative. Herein, we study gauge-quotients of direct sums of Adinkras by a supersymmetric image of another Adinkra and thus solve a puzzle in the paper by Doran et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. A22, 869 (2007): such (gauge-)quotients are not Adinkras but more general types of supermultiplets, each depicted as a connected network of Adinkras. Iterating this gauge-quotient construction then yields an indefinite sequence of ever larger supermultiplets, reminiscent of Weyl's construction that is known to produce all finite-dimensional unitary representations in Lie algebras.

Hübsch, Tristan; Katona, Gregory A.

2012-11-01

108

Emotion complexity and emotion regulation across adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research used data from a study on daily emotional experience in adulthood to examine the associations between age, emotion\\u000a complexity, and emotion regulation. Data were drawn from a study of daily stress that included 239 participants ranging in\\u000a age from 18 to 89 from North Central Florida. Two indicators of emotion complexity were considered: emotion differentiation\\u000a and the co-occurrence

Elizabeth L. Hay; Manfred Diehl

109

SO(2M) and USp(2M) (HYPER)KÄHLER Quotients and Lumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of supersymmetric gauge theories in the Higgs phase at low energies can appropriately be studied by means of a non-linear ? model, which has the target space being Kähler for {N} = 1 supersymmetric models and hyperKähler for {N} = 2 models. By construction of the Kähler and hyperKähler quotients for the gauge theories with SO and USp gauge symmetries, we obtain the explicit metrics on their respective manifolds. Furthermore, we study the lumps in the non-linear ? models and their effective description, using the Kähler quotients.

Gudnason, Sven Bjarke

2008-12-01

110

Dissociation quotients for citric acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 150°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three molal dissociation quotients for citric acid were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode concentration\\u000a cell from 5 to 150C in NaCl solutions at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 1 molal. The molal dissociation quotients\\u000a and available literature data at infinite dilution were fitted by empirical equations in the all-anionic form involving an\\u000a extended Debye-Hckel term and up

Pascale Bénézeth; Donald A. Palmer; David J. Wesolowski

1997-01-01

111

Binary Threshold Sequences Derived from Carmichael Quotients with Even Numbers Modulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a family of 2e+1-periodic binary threshold sequences and a family of p2-periodic binary threshold sequences by using Carmichael quotients modulo 2e(e>2) and 2p (p is an odd prime), respectively. These are extensions of the construction derived from Fermat quotients modulo an odd prime in our earlier work. We determine exact values of the linear complexity, which are larger than half of the period. For cryptographic purpose, the linear complexities of the sequences in this letter are of desired values.

Wu, Chenhuang; Chen, Zhixiong; Du, Xiaoni

112

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

113

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

114

Functional Accounts of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus

James J. Gross

1999-01-01

115

Quantity quotient reporting. A proposal for a standardized presentation of laboratory results.  

PubMed

Laboratory results are reported in different units (despite international recommendations for SI units) together with different reference limits, of which several exist for many quantities. It is proposed to adopt the concept of the intelligence quotient and to report quantitative results as a quantity quotient (QQ) in laboratory medicine. This quotient is essentially the difference (measured result minus mean or mode value of the reference interval) divided by the observed biological variation CV(o). Thus, all quantities are reported in the same unit system with the same reference limits (for convenience shifted to e.g., 80-120). The critical difference can also be included in this standardization concept. In this way the information of reference intervals and the original result are integrated into one combined value, which has the same format for all quantities suited for quotient reporting (QR). The proposal of QR does not interfere with neither the current concepts of traceability, SI units or method standardization. This proposal represents a further step towards harmonization of reporting. It provides simple values which can be interpreted easily by physicians and their patients. PMID:19803808

Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner

2009-01-01

116

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

2013-01-01

117

MediaQuotient[TM]: National Survey of Family Media Habits, Knowledge, and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined family media habits, including the use of television, movies, videos, computer and video games, the Internet, music, and print media. The study was conducted by mail with telephone follow-ups, surveying a national random sample of 527 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds who completed MediaQuotient questionnaires. Findings were…

Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.

118

Stability and Change in Children's Intelligence Quotient Scores: A Comparison of Two Socioeconomically Disparate Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors estimated the influence of familial factors and community disadvantage on changes in children's intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from age 6 years to age 11 years. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of low birth weight in two socioeconomically disparate, geographically defined communities in the Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area. Representative samples of low birth

Naomi Breslau; Howard D. Chilcoat; Ezra S. Susser; Thomas Matte; Kung-Yee Liang

119

Intelligence Quotient Pattern over Age: Comparisons among Siblings and Parent-Child Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons between sibling and parent-child pairs with unrelated control pairs matched for year of birth and parental education were made to determine the relative heritability of the general level of intelligence quotient as opposed to that of the sequential pattern of IQ change over age (3 to 12 years). There was greater similarity among related siblings relative to matched controls

Robert B. McCall

1970-01-01

120

Illumination compensation for face recognition by genetic optimization of the Self-Quotient Image method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face detection and recognition depend strongly on illumination conditions. In this paper, we present improvements in the illumination compensation method called Self Quotient Image (SQI) applied to face recognition. Using genetic algorithms (GA) we select parameters of the SQI method to improve face recognition. The parameters optimized by the GA were: the fraction of the mean value within the region

Claudio A. Perez; Luis E. Castillo

2009-01-01

121

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

2013-01-01

122

What Has Caused the Flynn Effect? Secular Increases in the Development Quotients of Infants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of five studies show that during the second half of the twentieth century there were increases in the Development Quotients (DQs) of infants in the first two years of life. These gains were obtained for the Bayley Scales in the United States and Australia, and for the Griffiths Test in Britain. The average of 19 data points is a DQ gain…

Lynn, Richard

2009-01-01

123

Social impairment in schizophrenia revealed by Autism-Spectrum Quotient correlated with gray matter reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties facing schizophrenia patients is a failure to construct appropriate relationships with others in social situations. This impairment of social cognition is also found in autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). Considering such commonality between the two disorders, in this study we adopted the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score to assess autistic traits, and explored the association between such traits and

Akihiko Sasamoto; Jun Miyata; Kazuyuki Hirao; Hironobu Fujiwara; Ryosaku Kawada; Shinsuke Fujimoto; Yusuke Tanaka; Manabu Kubota; Nobukatsu Sawamoto; Hidenao Fukuyama; Hidehiko Takahashi; Toshiya Murai

2011-01-01

124

Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Considerable research has been directed towards the roles of metal ions in nutrition with metal ion toxicity attracting particular attention. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of metal ions found in selected beverages (red wine, stout and apple juice) and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) for

Theresa Hague; Andrea Petroczi; Paul LR Andrews; James Barker; Declan P Naughton

2008-01-01

125

Spiritual Quotient Effects on Research Performance of Ph. D. Candidates: A Demonstration Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiritual quotient is emerging as a new concept of spiritual ability. It is obvious different with material ability. As a kind of brainwork, research needs more personal spiritual ability not material ability than physical work. This paper focuses on Ph. D candidates who play important role in university research work but without drawing much academic attention. In this research, we

Wang Haobai; Xu Pingping; Qian Hui

2007-01-01

126

Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

2012-01-01

127

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of a High Intellectual Quotient/Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the…

Antshel, Kevin M.

2008-01-01

128

MediaQuotient[TM]: National Survey of Family Media Habits, Knowledge, and Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined family media habits, including the use of television, movies, videos, computer and video games, the Internet, music, and print media. The study was conducted by mail with telephone follow-ups, surveying a national random sample of 527 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds who completed MediaQuotient questionnaires. Findings were…

Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.

129

J.J. O'Keefe's: A Participant-Observation Study of Teachers in a Bar on Friday Afternoon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research was undertaken with the idea that it may be possible to learn about teachers' work lives through the investigation of teacher behavior and attitudes in an out-of-work setting. Group and individual behavior of teachers who habitually gathered at the same bar on Friday afternoons was observed in order to examine patterns of…

Mehlenbacher, Sandra; Mehlenbacher, Earl

130

How Emotions Affect Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

Sylwester, Robert

1994-01-01

131

7?Emotion in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion has become one of the most popular—and popularized—areas within organizational scholarship. This chapter attempts to review and bring together within a single framework the wide and often disjointed literature on emotion in organizations. The integrated framework includes processes detailed by previous theorists who have defined emotion as a sequence that unfolds chronologically. The emotion process begins with a focal

Hillary Anger Elfenbein

2007-01-01

132

Workgroup emotional intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3

Peter J. Jordan; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Charmine E. J. Härtel; Gregory S. Hooper

2002-01-01

133

Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accu- rate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find

John D. Mayer; Richard D. Roberts; Sigal G. Barsade

2008-01-01

134

Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional

Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

2012-01-01

135

SO and USp Kähler and hyper-Kähler quotients and lumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study non-linear ? models whose target spaces are the Higgs phases of supersymmetric SO and USp gauge theories by using the Kähler and hyper-Kähler quotient constructions. We obtain the explicit Kähler potentials and develop an expansion formula to make use of the obtained potentials from which we also calculate the curvatures of the manifolds. The 1/2 BPS lumps in the U(1)×SO and U(1)×USp Kähler quotients and their effective descriptions are also studied. In this connection, a general relation between moduli spaces of vortices and lumps is discussed. We find a new singular limit of the lumps with non-vanishing sizes in addition to the ordinary small lump singularity. The former is due to the existence of singular submanifolds in the target spaces.

Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke

2009-07-01

136

Some Simple Projective Brauer Quotients of Simple Modules for the Symmetric Groups in Characteristic Two  

Microsoft Academic Search

By Alperin's weight conjecture (J. L. Alperin and P. Fong, 1990, J. Algebra131, 2–22) the number of simple kSn-modules equals the number of weights for Sn, where Sn is the symmetric group on n symbols and k is a field of characteristic p>0. In this paper we answer the question, “When is the Brauer quotient of a simple F2Sn-module V

Luis Valero-Elizondo

2001-01-01

137

Plasma leptin concentrations, basal metabolic rates and respiratory quotients in young and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To-examine the interrelationship of circulating leptin concentrations, basal metabolic rates (BMR) and respiratory quotients (RQ) in young and older adults.DESIGN: Cross sectional study.SUBJECTS: Seventy-six Australian men and women, 48 young (<35 y) and 28 older (?50 y).MEASUREMENTS: Fasting plasma leptin concentrations by RIA, BMR and RQ by indirect calorimetry, percentage body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass

MJ Soares; LS Piers; K O'Dea; GR Collier

2000-01-01

138

Higher 24-h Respiratory Quotient and Higher Spontaneous Physical Activity in Nighttime Eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that a higher 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) predicts greater ad-libitum food intake and that nighttime eaters (NE) ingested more calories during an in-patient food intake study and gained more weight over time. We investigated whether 24-h RQ was higher in individuals who exhibited nighttime eating behavior. Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (PI; n = 97, 54

Marci E. Gluck; Colleen A. Venti; Arline D. Salbe; Susanne B. Votruba; Jonathan Krakoff

2011-01-01

139

Norm controlled inversions and a corona theorem for H ? -quotient algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be an inner function on the unit disc D. We give a description of those ? for which the quotient algebra H?\\/?H? has no corona with respect to the visible part of its spectrum, that is for which M(H?\\/?H?)={z?D:?(z)=0}ÆM(H?). It happens that this property is equivalent to the norm controlled inversion property for H?\\/?H?, as well as to

Pamela Gorkin; Raymond Mortini; Nikolai Nikolski

2008-01-01

140

Reduced accuracy and sensitivity in the perception of emotional facial expressions in individuals with high autism spectrum traits.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is among other things characterized by specific impairments in emotion processing. It is not clear, however, to what extent the typical decline in affective functioning is related to the specific autistic traits. We employed The Autism Spectrum-Quotient (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 500 healthy individuals and investigate whether we could detect similar difficulties in the perception of emotional expressions in a broader autistic phenotype. The group with high AQ score was less accurate and needed higher emotional content to recognize emotions of anger, disgust, and sadness. Our findings demonstrate a selective impairment in identification of emotional facial expressions in healthy individuals that is primarily related to the extent of autistic traits. PMID:22987888

Poljac, Ervin; Poljac, Edita; Wagemans, Johan

2012-09-17

141

High-speed imaging and electroglottography measurements of the open quotient in untrained male voices' register transitions.  

PubMed

Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In 10 subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration. PMID:20083378

Echternach, Matthias; Dippold, Sebastian; Sundberg, Johan; Arndt, Susan; Zander, Mark F; Richter, Bernhard

2010-01-18

142

A Formula for the Standard Error of Estimate of Deviation Quotients on Short Forms of Wechsler's Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A formula is presented for the standard error of estimate of Deviation Quotients (DQs). The formula is shown to perform well when used with data on short forms of two of Wechsler's scales. (Author/JAC)

Silverstein, A. B.

1985-01-01

143

Cadmium Malonate Complexation in Aqueous Sodium Trifluoromethanesulfonate Media to 75°C; Including Dissociation Quotients of Malonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molal formation quotients for cadmium–malonate complexes were measured potentiometrically from 5 to 75°C, at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 molal in aqueous sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaTr) media. In addition, the stepwise dissociation quotients for malonic acid were measured in the same medium from 5 to 100°C, at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 molal by

Moira K. Ridley; Donald A. Palmer; David J. Wesolowski; Richard M. Kettler

1998-01-01

144

Acid association quotients of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane in aqueous NaCl media to 200°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molal acid association quotients of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris, also abbreviated as THAM) were determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The emf was recorded for equimolal Tris\\/Tris-HCl buffer solutions from 5 to 200°C at approximately 25° intervals, and at ionic strengths of 0.0759, 0.2012, 0.7232, 1.9996, 3.5077, and 4.9599. The molal association quotients, as well as those

Donald A. Palmer; D. Wesolowski

1987-01-01

145

Comparing closed quotient in children singers' voices as measured by high-speed-imaging, electroglottography, and inverse filtering.  

PubMed

The closed quotient, i.e., the ratio between the closed phase and the period, is commonly studied in voice research. However, the term may refer to measures derived from different methods, such as inverse filtering, electroglottography or high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). This investigation compares closed quotient data measured by these three methods in two boy singers. Each singer produced sustained tones on two different pitches and a glissando. Audio, electroglottographic signal (EGG), and HSDI were recorded simultaneously. The audio signal was inverse filtered by means of the decap program; the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the flow glottogram. Glottal area was automatically measured in the high speed images by the built-in camera software, and the closed phase was defined as the flat minimum portion of the area-signal. The EGG-signal was analyzed in four different ways using the matlab open quotient interface. The closed quotient data taken from the EGG were found to be considerably higher than those obtained from inverse filtering. Also, substantial differences were found between the closed quotient derived from HSDI and those derived from inverse filtering. The findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing between these quotients. PMID:22280605

Mecke, Ann-Christine; Sundberg, Johan; Granqvist, Svante; Echternach, Matthias

2012-01-01

146

The theory of emotion: I: Emotional attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following pages I propose, assuming Darwin's principles as to the explanation of emotional attitudes, and the James-Lange theory of the nature of emotion, to bring these two into some organic connection with each other, indicating the modifications of statement demanded by such connection. This close dependence upon results already reached, together with the impossibility of an adequate discussion

John Dewey

1894-01-01

147

Emotion In Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On the Cognitive Theory of Emotion an emotion is a cognition (assessment or evaluation), which causes bodily feeling. Emotion\\u000a can be changed by changing the cognition. Negative emotions such as anger, revenge are due to faulty assessments such as failure\\u000a to accept reality, failure to understand that we can only do that, which is within our power and a misuse

Barbara Maier

148

Emotion in Behavioural Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

spectrum is emotion as a cognitive state,while for those working at the more physical end it is emotion as a bodily state. Note that by this we meanthe internal modelling of emotion, rather than its external expression. These two approaches reflect a longstandingdebate within psychology itself [Picard 97] and could be traced back as far as the separation ofbody and

Ruth Aylett

149

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in func- tional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

150

Music, memory and emotion  

PubMed Central

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

Jancke, Lutz

2008-01-01

151

Music, memory and emotion.  

PubMed

Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

Jäncke, Lutz

2008-08-08

152

Retrieval of Emotional Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

Buchanan, Tony W.

2007-01-01

153

Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning.

R. J. Dolan

2002-01-01

154

The amygdala and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala complex has long been known as part of the neural circuitry critical for emotion. Beyond its role in emotional reactivity, studies of animal models and patients with amygdala damage demonstrate its importance in emotional learning, whereby cues acquire significance through association with rewarding or aversive events. Although its function in associative learning has become well established, other recent

Michela Gallagher; Andrea A Chiba

1996-01-01

155

Teaching Emotional Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

Bump, Jerome

156

Up with Emotional Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

Pool, Carolyn R.

1997-01-01

157

Acid association quotients of bis-tris in aqueous sodium chloride media to 125°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic strength and temperature dependencies of the molal acid association quotients of 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2?-nitrilotriethanol (also abbreviated as bis-tris) were determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The emf was recorded for equimolal bis-tris\\/bis- trisHCl buffer solutions from 5 to 125°C at approximately 25°C intervals, and at nine ionic strengths from 0.05 to 5.0m (NaCl). The molal association

David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1989-01-01

158

Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense Than Previous Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies

Leaf Van Boven; Katherine White; Michaela Huber

2009-01-01

159

Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional

Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

2009-01-01

160

Emotions: form follows function.  

PubMed

Emotion research has been divided by debate as to whether emotions are universal in form or cognitively constructed. We review an emerging approach that focuses on function rather than form. Functional affective science suggests that the particular origin of an emotion is relatively unimportant; instead, emotions can be understood in terms of a rapidly deployed set of mechanisms that structure perception, cognition and behavior to facilitate goal fulfillment. Evidence from this approach suggests at least three major functions of emotion: sensory gating, embodying affect, and integrating knowledge toward goal resolution. These functions appear to be universal and automatically activated, yet also moderated by conscious representation and regulatory efforts. PMID:23375166

Farb, Norman A S; Chapman, Hanah A; Anderson, Adam K

2013-01-31

161

Parents' Beliefs about Emotions and Children's Recognition of Parents' Emotions.  

PubMed

This study investigated parents' emotion-related beliefs, experience, and expression, and children's recognition of their parents' emotions with 40 parent-child dyads. Parents reported beliefs about danger and guidance of children's emotions. While viewing emotion-eliciting film clips, parents self-reported their emotional experience and masking of emotion. Children and observers rated videos of parents watching emotion-eliciting film clips. Fathers reported more masking than mothers and their emotional expressions were more difficult for both observers and children to recognize compared with mothers' emotional expressions. For fathers, but not mothers, showing clearer expressions was related to children's general skill at recognizing emotional expressions. Parents who believe emotions are dangerous reported greater masking of emotional expression. Contrary to hypothesis, when parents strongly believe in guiding their child's emotion socialization, children showed less accurate recognition of their parents' emotions. PMID:20160992

Dunsmore, Julie C; Her, Pa; Halberstadt, Amy G; Perez-Rivera, Marie B

2009-06-01

162

The dissociation quotients of formic acid in sodium chloride solutions to 200[degrees]C  

SciTech Connect

The dissociation quotients of formic acid were measured potentiometrically from 25 to 200[degrees]C in NaCl solutions at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mol-kg[sup [minus]1]. The experiments were carried out in a concentration cell with hydrogen electrodes. The resulting molal acid dissociation quotients for formic acid, as well as a set of infinite dilution literature values and a calorimetrically-determined enthalpy of reaction, were fitted by an empirical equation involving an extended Debye Hueckel term and seven adjustable parameters involving functions of temperature and ionic strength. This regressional analysis yielded the following thermodynamic quantities for 25[degrees]C: logK = [minus]3.755[plus minus]0.002, [Delta]H[degrees] = [minus]0.09[plus minus]0.15 kJ-mol[sup [minus]1], [Delta]S[degrees] = [minus]72.2[plus minus]0.5 J-K[sup [minus]1]-mol[sup [minus]1], and [Delta]C[degrees][sub p] = [minus]147[plus minus]4 J-K[sup [minus]1]-mol[sup [minus]1]. The isocoulombic form of the equilibrium constant is recommended for extrapolation to higher temperatures. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bell, J.L.S.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-02-01

163

Emotions: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

The present paper is an attempt to understand emotions and the affect from Indian traditional point of view. In the Indian philosophical texts’ detailed descriptions of emotions are not available nor are dealt with as a separate concept. This view of emotions lays emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals. They are seen as modification of desire and attachment. The desires are seen as arising from the contact and attachment of the ego or ahamkara with the external world and are caused by a sense of imperfection, incompleteness or non-fulfillment. Ego or ahamkara is differentiated from the true Self or atman. Emotions are viewed as springs of action and are bipolar in nature. According to Patanjali's Yoga Shastra, suffering is due to ignorance about one's true “self” (avidya). Hence, suffering or dukha arises from within and not from the outside world. Bhagvadgita traces all emotional experiences to the gunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. Works of Bharathmuni have contributed to the understanding of emotional experiences. Concept of rasa or aesthetic relish is central to this approach to understanding affective experiences as dealt with in the Natyashastra of Bharathamuni. These views underline the recommended path for self-transformation. Regulating emotions, both emotional experience and emotional expression, is an integral part of the recommended “principles of living.”

Ramaprasad, Dharitri

2013-01-01

164

[Neuroarchitecture of musical emotions].  

PubMed

The emotional response to music, or musical emotion, is a universal response that draws on diverse psychological processes implemented in a large array of neural structures and mechanisms. Studies using electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance, lesions and individuals with extent musical training have begun to elucidate some of these mechanisms. The objective of this article is reviewing the most relevant studies that have tried to identify the neural correlates of musical emotion from the more automatic to the more complex processes, and to understand how these correlates interact in the brain. The article describes how the presentation of music perceived as emotional is associated with a rapid autonomic response in thalamic and subthalamic structures, accompanied by changes in the electrodermal and endocrine responses. It also explains how musical emotion processing activates auditory cortex, as well as a series of limbic and paralimbic structures, such as the amygdala, the anterior cingulate cortex or the hippocampus, demonstrating the relevant contribution of the limbic system to musical emotion. Further, it is detailed how musical emotion depends to a great extent on semantic and syntactic process carried out in temporal and parietofrontal areas, respectively. Some of the recent works demonstrating that musical emotion highly relies on emotional simulation are also mentioned. Finally, a summary of these studies, their limitations, and suggestions for further research on the neuroarchitecture of musical emotion are given. PMID:23440757

Sel, Alejandra; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

2013-03-01

165

Embodiment of emotion concepts.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition hold that higher cognitive processes operate on perceptual symbols and that concept use involves partial reactivations of the sensory-motor states that occur during experience with the world. On this view, the processing of emotion knowledge involves a (partial) reexperience of an emotion, but only when access to the sensory basis of emotion knowledge is required by the task. In 2 experiments, participants judged emotional and neutral concepts corresponding to concrete objects (Experiment 1) and abstract states (Experiment 2) while facial electromyographic activity was recorded from the cheek, brow, eye, and nose regions. Results of both studies show embodiment of specific emotions in an emotion-focused but not a perceptual-focused processing task on the same words. A follow up in Experiment 3, which blocked selective facial expressions, suggests a causal, rather than simply a correlational, role for embodiment in emotion word processing. Experiment 4, using a property generation task, provided support for the conclusion that emotions embodied in conceptual tasks are context-dependent situated simulations rather than associated emotional reactions. Implications for theories of embodied simulation and for emotion theories are discussed. PMID:19469591

Niedenthal, Paula M; Winkielman, Piotr; Mondillon, Laurie; Vermeulen, Nicolas

2009-06-01

166

Emotions are real.  

PubMed

It is obvious that emotions are real, but the question is what kind of "real" are they? In this article, I outline a theoretical approach where emotions are a part of social reality. I propose that physical changes (in the face, voice, and body, or neural circuits for behavioral adaptations like freezing, fleeing, or fighting) transform into an emotion when those changes take on psychological functions that they cannot perform by their physical nature alone. This requires socially shared conceptual knowledge that perceivers use to create meaning from these physical changes (as well as the circuitry that supports this meaning making). My claim is that emotions are, at the same time, socially constructed and biologically evident. Only when we understand all the elements that construct emotional episodes, in social, psychological, and biological terms, will we understand the nature of emotion. PMID:22642358

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2012-06-01

167

Emotion and autobiographical memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

2010-03-01

168

Eight Ways Videogames Generate Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fields are interested in how videogames can generate emotion but most have a very limited conception of what emotional response includes. This paper presents a comprehensive model of emotional response to the single- player game based on two roles players occupy during gameplay and four different types of emotion. The emotion types are based on different ways players can

Jonathan Frome

2007-01-01

169

Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: external mood induction (positive vs. neutral emotions) and emotional design induction (positive vs. neutral emotions). A computer-based lesson on the topic of immunization

Eunjoon “Rachel” Um; Jan L. Plass; Elizabeth O. Hayward; Bruce D. Homer

2012-01-01

170

Rethinking emotions and educational leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of 'emotions'. Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misun- derstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a viable conception of emotions and educational leadership needs to understand

Diane Zorn; Megan Boler

2007-01-01

171

Emotional Robotics: Tug of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional communication skills are dominant in biological systems. Although the rules that govern creating and broadcasting emotional cues are inherently complex, their effectiveness makes them attractive for biological systems. Emotional communication requires very low bandwidth and is generally easy to interpret. Despite the ad- vantages of emotional communication, little or no research has explored which emotional cues are the most

David Grant Cooper; Dov Katz; Hava T. Siegelmann

172

Potentiometric and solubility studies of association quotients of aluminum malonate complexation in NaCl media to 75°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients for aluminum-malonate (Al(Ma)y3?2y, Ma ? CH2(CO2)22?) complexes from 5 to 75°C at four ionic strengths from 0.1 to 1.0 molal in aqueous NaCl media. Two mononuclear aluminum-malonate species, Al(Ma)+ and Al(Ma)2?, were identified, and the formation quotients for these species were modeled by empirical equations to describe their temperature and

Moira K. Ridley; Donald A. Palmer; David J. Wesolowski; Richard M. Kettler

1998-01-01

173

Emotions in negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we discuss the ways in which emotions influence the course of negotiation. Emotions play a role in the development\\u000a of relationships among negotiators; they also facilitate or hinder coordination of strategic exchanges. These functions highlight\\u000a an interplay between information-processing and emotional expressions: intentions are inferred from statements made and nonverbal\\u000a gestures sent. They are understood as part

Daniel Druckman; Mara Olekalns

2008-01-01

174

Affect, Emotions and Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotions and mood play a central role both in the outcome and the management of neurologic illness. The importance is magnified\\u000a when faced with differentiating between a primary emotional etiology for presenting complaints or neurocognitive symptoms\\u000a and the possibility of emotional symptoms being the result of a neurologic injury, or a process of dysfunction as a result\\u000a of an attempt

James G. Scott; Mike R. Schoenberg

175

Music and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a These two quotations reflect common attitudes about music. Tolstoy’s comment suggests that music conveys emotion, whereas Torke’s question implies that music influences listeners’ emotions. Section 5.2 of the present chapter includes a discussion of the various theoretical approaches that\\u000a are used to explain affective responses to music. Few scholars dispute the claim that listeners recognize emotions in music.\\u000a Some argue,

Patrick G. Hunter; E. Glenn Schellenberg

176

Disorders of emotional behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having stressed the distinction between general adaptive systems and specific functional systems, the author argues\\u000a that emotions constitute a general adaptive system distinct from, but interacting with, the cognitive system, considered as\\u000a the other (more evolved) adaptive system.\\u000a \\u000a The main characteristics of the emotional system are its componential nature and its hierarchical organization. These basic\\u000a features of the emotional

Guido Gainotti

2001-01-01

177

Gender and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we consider the relation between gender and emotion, particularly as that connection is expressed in stereotyping,\\u000a power relations, and sexuality. As we review pertinent research we strive to move beyond the conventional “gender differences”\\u000a model that has tended to dominate the study of gender and emotion. We propose two useful theoretical frameworks for investigating\\u000a the gender-emotion link.

Stephanie A. Shields; Dallas N. Garner; BROOKE DI LEONE; Alena M. Hadley

178

Value of focal applied energy quotient in treatment of ureteral lithiasis with shock waves.  

PubMed

The treatment of ureteral lithiasis by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is progressively being abandoned owing to advances in endoscopic lithotripsy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causes as to why ESWL is less effective-with a measurable parameter: focal applied energy quotient (FAEQ) that allows us to apply an improvement project in ESWL results for ureteral lithiasis. A prospective observational cohort study with 3-year follow-up and enrollment period was done with three groups of cases. In Group A, 83 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by endoscopic lithotripsy using Holmiun:YAG laser. In Group B, 81 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by ESWL using Doli-S device (EMSE 220F-XXP). In Group C, 65 cases of ureteral lithiasis were treated by ESWL using Doli-S device (EMSE 220F-XXP) (FAEQ >10). Statistical study and calculation of RR, NNT, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were done. Efficiency quotient (EQ) and focal applied energy quotient [FAEQ = (radioscopy seconds/number of shock waves) × ESWL session J] were analyzed. From the results, the success rate of the treatment using Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy and ESWL is found to be 94 and 48%, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Success rate of endoscopic laser lithotripsy for lumbar ureteral stones was 82% versus 57% of ESWL (p = 0.611). In Group B, FAEQ was 8.12. In Group C, success rate was 93.84% with FAEQ of 10.64%. When we compare results from endoscopic lithotripsy with Holmium:YAG laser in Group B with results from ESWL with FAEQ >10, we do not observe absolute benefit choosing one or the other. In conclusion, the application of ESWL with FAEQ >10, that is, improving radiologic focalization of the calculus and increasing the number of Joules/SW, makes possible a treatment as safe and equally efficient as Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy in ureteral lithiasis less than 13 mm. PMID:22002726

Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Palao-Yago, Francisco; Mijan-Ortiz, Jose Luis; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

2011-10-15

179

Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules  

PubMed Central

Control design belongs to the most important and difficult tasks of control engineering and has therefore been treated by many prominent researchers and in many textbooks, the systems being generally described by their transfer matrices or by Rosenbrock equations and more recently also as behaviors. Our approach to controller design uses, in addition to the ideas of our predecessors on coprime factorizations of transfer matrices and on the parametrization of stabilizing compensators, a new mathematical technique which enables simpler design and also new theorems in spite of the many outstanding results of the literature: (1) We use an injective cogenerator signal module F over the polynomial algebra D=F[s] (F an infinite field), a saturated multiplicatively closed set T of stable polynomials and its quotient ring DT of stable rational functions. This enables the simultaneous treatment of continuous and discrete systems and of all notions of stability, called T-stability. We investigate stabilizing control design by output feedback of input/output (IO) behaviors and study the full feedback IO behavior, especially its autonomous part and not only its transfer matrix. (2) The new technique is characterized by the permanent application of the injective cogenerator quotient signal module DTFT and of quotient behaviors BT of DF-behaviors B. (3) For the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection, model matching, and decoupling and not necessarily proper plants we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of proper stabilizing compensators with proper and stable closed loop behaviors, parametrize all such compensators as IO behaviors and not only their transfer matrices and give new algorithms for their construction. Moreover we solve the problem of pole placement or spectral assignability for the complete feedback behavior. The properness of the full feedback behavior ensures the absence of impulsive solutions in the continuous case, and that of the compensator enables its realization by Kalman state space equations or elementary building blocks. We note that every behavior admits an IO decomposition with proper transfer matrix, but that most of these decompositions do not have this property, and therefore we do not assume the properness of the plant. (4) The new technique can also be applied to more general control interconnections according to Willems, in particular to two-parameter feedback compensators and to the recent tracking framework of Fiaz/Takaba/Trentelman. In contrast to these authors, however, we pay special attention to the properness of all constructed transfer matrices which requires more subtle algorithms.

Blumthaler, Ingrid; Oberst, Ulrich

2012-01-01

180

Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders.  

PubMed

The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

2010-09-07

181

Emotional reactivity and emotion recognition in frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is associated with a profound decline in social and emotional behavior; however, current understanding regarding the specific aspects of emotional functioning that are preserved and disrupted is limited. Objective To assess preservation of function and deficits in two aspects of emotional processing (emotional reactivity and emotion recognition) in FTLD. Methods Twenty-eight FTLD patients were compared with 16 controls in emotional reactivity (self-reported emotional experience, emotional facial behavior, and autonomic nervous system response to film stimuli) and emotion recognition (ability to identify a target emotion of fear, happy, or sad experienced by film characters). Additionally, the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion recognition were investigated. Results FTLD patients were comparable to controls in 1) emotional reactivity to the fear, happy, and sad film clips and 2) emotion recognition for the happy film clip. However, FTLD patients were significantly impaired compared with controls in emotion recognition for the fear and sad film clips. Volumetric analyses revealed that deficits in emotion recognition were associated with decreased lobar volumes in the frontal and temporal lobes. Conclusions The socioemotional decline typically seen in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients may result more from an inability to process certain emotions in other people than from deficits in emotional reactivity.

Werner, K.H.; Roberts, N.A.; Rosen, H.J.; Dean, D.L.; Kramer, J.H.; Weiner, M.W.; Miller, B.L.; Levenson, R.W.

2008-01-01

182

Emotional Circuits and Computational Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

this article, wesurvey some issues about the nature of emotion, describewhat is known about the neural basis of emotion, andconsider some efforts that have been made to developcomputer-based models of different aspects of emotion.

Jean-Marc Fellous; Jorge L. Armon; Joseph E. LeDoux

183

A novel method testing the ability to imitate composite emotional expressions reveals an association with empathy.  

PubMed

Social communication relies on intentional control of emotional expression. Its variability across cultures suggests important roles for imitation in developing control over enactment of subtly different facial expressions and therefore skills in emotional communication. Both empathy and the imitation of an emotionally communicative expression may rely on a capacity to share both the experience of an emotion and the intention or motor plan associated with its expression. Therefore, we predicted that facial imitation ability would correlate with empathic traits. We built arrays of visual stimuli by systematically blending three basic emotional expressions in controlled proportions. Raters then assessed accuracy of imitation by reconstructing the same arrays using photographs of participants' attempts at imitations of the stimuli. Accuracy was measured as the mean proximity of the participant photographs to the target stimuli in the array. Levels of performance were high, and rating was highly reliable. More empathic participants, as measured by the empathy quotient (EQ), were better facial imitators and, in particular, performed better on the more complex, blended stimuli. This preliminary study offers a simple method for the measurement of facial imitation accuracy and supports the hypothesis that empathic functioning may utilise motor control mechanisms which are also used for emotional expression. PMID:23626756

Williams, Justin H G; Nicolson, Andrew T A; Clephan, Katie J; de Grauw, Haro; Perrett, David I

2013-04-23

184

Dissociation quotients of succinic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 225{degrees}C  

SciTech Connect

The first and second molal dissociation quotients of succinic acid were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode, concentration cell. These measurements were carried out from 0 to 225{degrees}C over 25{degrees} intervals at five ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The dissociation quotients from this and two other studies were combined and treated with empirical equations to yield the following thermodynamic quantities for the first acid dissociation equilibrium at 25{degrees}C: logK{sub 1a} = -4.210{+-}0.003; {Delta}H{sub 1a}{sup 0} = 2.9{+-} 0.2 kJ-mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 1a}{sup 0} = -71{+-}1 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}; and {Delta}C{sub p1a}{sup 0} = -98{+-}3 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}; and for the second acid dissociation equilibrium at 25{degrees}C: logK{sub 2a} = -5.638{+-}0.001; {Delta}H{sub 2a}{sup 0} = -0.5{+-}0.1 kJ-mol{sup {minus}1}; {Delta}S{sub 2a}{sup 0} = -109.7{+-}0.4 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}; and {Delta}C{sub p2a}{sup 0} = -215{+-}8 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}.

Kettler, R.M. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-01-01

185

Emotions in robot design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the role emotions might play in robot design. It is argued that if one wants to deal with this problem one first has to develop a profound understanding of the mechanisms underlying behaviors which are called emotional. To investigate the relation between behavior and mechanism the “New Fungus Eater” approach is proposed, which is a minimalist bottom-up approach. It

R. Pfeifer

1993-01-01

186

Beware Emotional Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals,…

King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

2011-01-01

187

EmoteMail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email has become a central communication channel for private and professional exchange. Its format remains equally neutral regardless of the relation to the recipient. While writing remains an excellent vehicle to communicate tone and emotion, this can sometimes be a painstaking and tedious process, and requires considerable skill.EmoteMail is an email client that is augmented to convey aspects of the

Jussi Ängeslevä; Carson Reynolds; Sile O'Modhrain

2004-01-01

188

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

189

Denying Medical Students' Emotions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)|

USA Today, 1984

1984-01-01

190

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

2009-01-01

191

Understanding emotional abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits

C A Rees

2010-01-01

192

Genuinely collective emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is received wisdom in philosophy and the cognitive sciences that individuals can be in emotional states but groups cannot. But why should we accept this view? In this paper, I argue that there is substantial philosophical and empirical support for the existence of collective emotions. Thus, while there i sg ood reason to be skeptical about many ascriptions of

Bryce Huebner

2011-01-01

193

Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

194

Emotion and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The more neuroscientists explore how the brain processes, stores, and retrieves information, the more evident is the connection between emotion and reason. Scientists have discovered that the same areas of the brain that are involved in processing emotion are involved in processing memory. (Author/JOW)

Weiss, Palumbo Ruth

2000-01-01

195

Color enhanced emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Color Enhanced Emotion system controls the human 'emotion' drastically. The system recognizes the facial expressions and controls skin pigment components using a real-time processor. By implementing the proposed system, an attendee can experience a system that will usher in a new era in communication and in movie editing systems.

Toshiya Nakaguchi; Norimichi Tsumura; Koichi Takase; Takao Makino; Saya Okaguchi; Ryoko Usuba; Nobutoshi Ojima; Yoichi Miyake

2005-01-01

196

Adding Emotions to Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of out-of-copyright children books are available online, but are not very attractive to children due to a lack of illustrations. Automatic text illustration may enhance the reading experience of these books, but inappropriate picture coloring may convey inappropriate emotions. Since already at a very early age, children can map colors to certain emotions, we propose an approach

Claudia Hauff; Dolf Trieschnigg; Giambattista Amati; Fabio Crestani

2011-01-01

197

Organizational emotional memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As a fascinating concept, the term of organizational memory attracted many researchers from a variety of disciplines. In particular, the content of organizational memory, which involves declarative and procedural memory, found broad research interest in the management literature. Nevertheless, there is sparse research in the management literature on the emotional content aspect of organizational memory. Emotional memory is

Ali E. Akgün; Halit Keskin; John Byrne

2012-01-01

198

Towards Emotionally Adapted Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

2004-01-01

199

Darwin and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872\\/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This

Ursula Hess; Pascal Thibault

2009-01-01

200

Emotions and Golf Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

2006-01-01

201

Music, Emotions, and Truth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

Packalen, Elina

2008-01-01

202

Emotional intelligence skills training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times a significant amount of research has been undertaken in the area of emotions in organisations (Ashkanasy, Härtel, & Daus, 2002). In particular, the emotional intelligence construct has been widely researched and highlighted as a tool that organisations can harness to improve individual performance of organisational members at all levels (Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Härtel, 2002). This has led

Jane Murray

2003-01-01

203

Emotional Intelligence in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional intelligence (EI) has emerged in the past twenty five years as one of the crucial components of emotional adjustment, personal well-being, life success, and interpersonal relationships in different contexts of everyday life. This article provides a critical review of the research field of EI in the school context and analyzes its…

Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Ruiz, Desiree

2008-01-01

204

The theory of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the James-Lange, or discharge theory of the nature of emotion. Emotion is a mode of behavior which is purposive, or has an intellectual content. It reflects the subjective valuation of the objectively expressed idea or purpose. Certain movements, formerly useful, are reduced to tendencies to action or to attitudes, and when instinctively aroused into action, serve as means for

John Dewey

1895-01-01

205

Inspection and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted1 inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft?reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and control, and the

Jane Perryman

2007-01-01

206

SEMINAR: HISTORY OF EMOTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

History of Emotions is a research seminar on one of the most profound features of our individual makeup and its development during the last five hundred years. We will explore what are emotions? How were they used and manipulated? Could a middle class man have ambitions? Or a middle class woman? What was love? What were the institutions of love?

Heikki Lempa

207

Emotionally Expressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to express emotions is important for creating believable interactive characters. To simulate emotional expressions in an interactive environment, an intelligent agent needs both an adaptive model for generating believ- able responses, and a visualization model for mapping emo- tions into facial expressions. Recent advances in intelligent agents and in facial modeling have produced effective al- gorithms for these

Magy Seif El-nasr; Thomas R. Ioerger; John Yen; Donald H. House; Frederic I. Parke

1999-01-01

208

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample.…

Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

209

Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: A comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal–Wallis

A. Petroczi; D. P. Naughton

2009-01-01

210

The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ [greater than or…

Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

2013-01-01

211

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample.…

Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

212

The Construction and Validation of an Abridged Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports on the development and validation of an abridged version of the 50-item Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure of autistic traits. We aimed to reduce the number of items whilst retaining high validity and a meaningful factor structure. The item reduction procedure was performed on data from 1,263 Dutch students…

Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Wheelwright, Sally; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Posthuma, Danielle; van der Sluis, Sophie

2011-01-01

213

The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ [greater than or…

Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

2013-01-01

214

The Construction and Validation of an Abridged Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the development and validation of an abridged version of the 50-item Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure of autistic traits. We aimed to reduce the number of items whilst retaining high validity and a meaningful factor structure. The item reduction procedure was performed on data from 1,263 Dutch students and…

Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Wheelwright, Sally; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Posthuma, Danielle; van der Sluis, Sophie

2011-01-01

215

Correction: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

Theresa Hague; Andrea Petroczi; Paul LR Andrews; James Barker; Declan P Naughton

2010-01-01

216

Emotion regulation in psychopathy.  

PubMed

Emotion processing is known to be impaired in psychopathy, but less is known about the cognitive mechanisms that drive this. Our study examined experiencing and suppression of emotion processing in psychopathy. Participants, violent offenders with varying levels of psychopathy, viewed positive and negative images under conditions of passive viewing, experiencing and suppressing. Higher scoring psychopathics were more cardiovascularly responsive when processing negative information than positive, possibly reflecting an anomalously rewarding aspect of processing normally unpleasant material. When required to experience emotional response, by 'getting into the feeling' of the emotion conveyed by a negative image, higher factor 1 psychopathic individuals showed reduced responsiveness, suggesting that they were less able to do this. These data, together with the absence of corresponding differences in subjective self-report might be used to inform clinical strategies for normalising emotion processing in psychopathic offenders to improve treatment outcome, and reduce risk amongst this client group. PMID:23079384

Casey, Helen; Rogers, Robert D; Burns, Tom; Yiend, Jenny

2012-10-16

217

Emotional Complexity and the Neural Representation of Emotion in Motion  

PubMed Central

According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant’s emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition.

Barnard, Philip J.; Lawrence, Andrew D.

2011-01-01

218

Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut  

PubMed Central

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate.

Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

2013-01-01

219

Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.  

PubMed

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

2013-10-15

220

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

221

Emotional intelligence correlates with functional responses to dynamic changes in facial trustworthiness.  

PubMed

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a constellation of traits, competencies, or abilities that allow individuals to understand emotional information and successfully navigate and solve social/emotional problems. While little is known about the neurobiological substrates that underlie EI, some evidence suggests that these capacities may involve a core neurocircuitry involved in emotional decision-making that includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and amygdala. In a sample of 39 healthy volunteers (22 men; 17 women), scores on the Bar-On EQ-i (a trait/mixed model of EI) and Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; an ability model of EI) were correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during brief presentations of moving facial expressions that changed in the level of perceived trustworthiness. Core emotion neurocircuitry was responsive to dynamic changes in facial features, regardless of whether they reflected increases or decreases in apparent trustworthiness. In response to facial movements indicating decreasing trustworthiness, MSCEIT correlated positively with functional responses of the vmPFC and rostral ACC, whereas the EQ-i was unrelated to regional activation. Systematic differences in EI ability appear to be significantly related to the responsiveness of the vmPFC and rostral ACC to facial movements suggesting potential trustworthiness. PMID:23802123

Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Webb, Christian A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Rauch, Scott L; Weber, Mareen

2013-01-01

222

Emotions and Emotion Regulation Among Novice Military Parachutists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soldiers (N = 95) reported emotions and emotion regulation strategies experienced in their first parachute jump and other challenging situations. Results indicated an emotional profile characterized by feeling anxious, energetic, and happy before parachuting and playing sport. However, this pattern was not similar to the emotional responses experienced at work or in life in general. Participants reported greater use of

Gordon Bucknall; Paul A. Davis; Christopher J. Beedie

2012-01-01

223

Emotion Concepts and Emotional States in Social Judgment and Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objection to conclusions of research investigating effects of emotions on cognitive processes is that the effects are due to the activation of semantic concepts rather than to emotional feelings. A sentence unscrambling task was developed to prime concepts of happiness, sadness, or neutral ideas. Pilot studies demonstrated that unscrambling emotional sentences did not affect emotional state but did prime

Åse Innes-Ker; Paula M. Niedenthal

2002-01-01

224

Regulation of emotions by listening to music in emotional situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musical stimuli are among the most intensive stimuli trig- gering emotions. Therefore, we investigated in the present study whether subjects use music to regulate their emotions in everyday situations. We set out to examine whether dis- positional emotional regulation styles are determining the situation-dependent choice of music. In a pre-study (N = 72), 20 music stimuli and 16 emotionally laden

Mirjam Thoma; Stefan Ryf; Ulrike Ehlert; Urs Nater

2006-01-01

225

Adult Learning in the Workplace: Emotion Work or Emotion Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Organizational life evokes joy, hate, anger, despair, curiosity, and esteem, yet as far as management is concerned, emotions are disruptive, dysfunctional, and derailing. In spite of managerial reluctance to embrace the emotional self as a relevant aspect of the worker, emotion makes everyone human, and organizations weigh on workers' emotional

Bierema, Laura L.

2008-01-01

226

Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

2011-01-01

227

Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the study, students completed self-report and ability tests of emotional intelligence. The test results

Neal M. Ashkanasy; Marie T. Dasborough

2003-01-01

228

8 Strategic Emotion in Negotiation: Cognition, Emotion, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an overview of research on emotion in negotiation that integrates cognitive, affective, and cultural aspects of the field. We address the following issues: (1) the effects of mood and emotion on negotiator cognition and performance and the potential of emotion as a negotiation strategy; (2) individual differences in emotional expression and individual traits, such as self-monitoring and

Shu LI; Michael E. ROLOFF

229

[The emotions of oncologists].  

PubMed

Emotions are parts of organizational reality to an ever increasing extent. Importantly, they are not just tools in the hand of healthcare workers to achieve better physician / healthcare professional-to-patient interactions but intrinsic processes and characteristics with psychic, cognitive and somatic actions. For a thorough investigation of the issue, a PANAS-X questionnaire was used to examine the emotions of 187 physicians and other healthcare professionals, all engaged in oncology, in 2009. The research succeeded in exploring the overall emotional state oncology professionals had assumed in relation with their job as well as enabled the authors of this study to draw the respondents' emotional map and assess their fundamental emotional attitudes. Furthermore, the authors managed to identify groups of respondents that had felt more intense positive, and/or less intense negative emotions that are socially accepted than others. They included those of senior experienced oncologists, males, individuals with families, childless individuals, ward workers, and skilled professionals. According to the findings, the range of emotions an oncologist experiences / feels intently during his everyday work is dependent upon a great number of factors. PMID:21918747

Lazįnyi, Kornélia; Molnįr, Péter; Bugįn, Antal; Kiss, Csongor; Szįntó, Jįnos; Gonda, Andrea; Tóth, Zoltįn; Hernįdi, Zoltįn; Hadijev, Janaki; Remenyik, Eva; Damjanovich, Lįszló; Dinya, Tamįs; Flaskó, Tibor; Bįgyi, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

2011-02-17

230

Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict.

Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

2013-01-01

231

Relationship between athletes' emotional intelligence and precompetitive anxiety.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between athletes' Emotional Intelligence (EI) and precompetitive anxiety. Taiwanese intercollegiate track and field athletes (N = 111; 64 men, 47 women) completed the Bar-On EQ-i 1 mo. before a1 national intercollegiate athletic meet, and the Competition State Anxiety Inventory-2R 1 hr. before the competition. Analyses indicated that participants with the lowest EI scores reported greater intensity of precompetitive cognitive anxiety than those with the highest EI scores. No other statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Further, correlational analyses and multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that EI components such as stress management, intrapersonal EI, and interpersonal EI were associated with precompetitive anxiety. Current EI measures provide limited understanding of precompetitive anxiety. A sport-specific EI measure is needed for future research. PMID:20391895

Lu, Frank J-H; Li, Gladys Shuk-fong; Hsu, Eva Ya-wen; Williams, Lavon

2010-02-01

232

Emotional intelligence and effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence has become increasingly popular as a measure for identifying potentially effective leaders, and as a tool for developing effective leadership skills. Despite this popularity, however, there is little empirical research that substantiates the efficacy of emotional intelligence in these areas. The aim of the present paper was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Emotional

Benjamin Palmer; Melissa Walls; Zena Burgess; Con Stough

2001-01-01

233

Emotional Literacy Training for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A psychotherapist recounts her personal and professional development in concepts of self-esteem. The article considers core conditions for development of healthy self-esteem, the powerful effects wrought by teachers who create healthy emotional environments, emotional intelligence and emotional literacy, current initiatives to develop emotional

Morris, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

234

Emotions in Pervasive Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of an intelligent environment to connect and adapt to real internal sates, needs and behaviors' meaning of humans can be made possible by considering users' emotional states as contextual parameters. In this paper, we build on enactive psychology and investigate the incorporation of emotions in pervasive systems. We define emotions, and discuss the coding of emotional human markers

Nevin Vunka Jungum; Eric Laurent

2009-01-01

235

Emotion and the motivational brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits

Peter J. Lang; Margaret M. Bradley

2010-01-01

236

Narrating Emotional Events in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that schizophrenia patients report similar amounts of experienced emotion in response to emotional material compared with nonpatients. However, less is known about how schizophrenia patients describe and make sense of their emotional life events. We adopted a narrative approach to investigate schizophrenia patients' renderings of their emotional life experiences. In Study 1, patients' (n = 42) positive

June Gruber; Ann M. Kring

2008-01-01

237

Thoughts, Emotions, and Chemo  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment Thoughts, emotions, and chemo What about my memory and thinking? Research has shown that chemo can ... the brain’s activities that are affected are concentration, memory, comprehension (understanding), and reasoning. The changes that are ...

238

Beyond Reason: Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

Suįrez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simo~Es da Fonseca, J.

2004-08-01

239

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in a speaker's emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

240

The Emotional Voter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It seems self-evident that political figures arouse passion and emotion in the electorate. Vivid examples can be found throughout\\u000a all of political history. In 1864, Harper’s Weekly described Abraham Lincoln as a “monster”, a characterization that is clearly\\u000a emotionally evocative (Jamieson, 1992). John F. Kennedy, the “Camelot” president, evoked feelings of tremendous pride and\\u000a patriotism in his eloquent speeches (e.g.,

Linda M. Isbell; Victor C. Ottati

241

Emotions as mind organs.  

PubMed

In matters of the mind, the opposition between what is mind-made or inside and natural or outside the mind is bound to misfire. Lindquist et al. build their analysis on a strong contrast between naturalism, which they reject, and psychologism, which they endorse. We challenge this opposition and indicate how adopting psychologism to combat a naturalistic view of emotional mind/brain areas is self-defeating. We briefly develop the alternative view of emotions as mental organs. PMID:22617656

de Gelder, Beatrice; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

2012-06-01

242

Emotions and Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encounter between emotion research and agent-based technology is multifaceted. One the one hand, results from emotion\\u000a research start to serve as role model from nature, providing inspirations for technical design criteria for individual agents\\u000a at the micro level and agent groups and societies at the macro level as well as the sophisticated linkages in between them.\\u000a On the other

Paolo Petta; Robert Trappl

2001-01-01

243

Emotion work: disclosing cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for all women in the US. Current research has focused\\u000a on the psychological relationship and not the sociological relationship between emotions and the experience of breast cancer\\u000a survivors. This paper focuses on the emotion work involved in self-disclosing a breast cancer diagnosis in a racially or ethnically\\u000a diverse

Grace J. Yoo; Caryn Aviv; Ellen G. Levine; Cheryl Ewing; Alfred Au

2010-01-01

244

Texture affects color emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm–cool, masculine–feminine, hard–soft, and heavy–light. Three sample types of increasing visual complexity are used: UC,

M. P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

2011-01-01

245

Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat  

PubMed Central

Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal) with female university students living in Osaka (Japan), Poznan (Poland) and Chiang Mai (Thailand). Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement). Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations. There were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but no significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat.

2012-01-01

246

From emotion perception to emotion experience: Emotions evoked by pictures and classical music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous neurophysiological studies evoked emotions by presenting visual stimuli. Models of the emotion circuits in the brain have for the most part ignored emotions arising from musical stimuli. To our knowledge, this is the first emotion brain study which examined the influence of visual and musical stimuli on brain processing. Highly arousing pictures of the International Affective Picture System

Thomas Baumgartner; Michaela Esslen; Lutz Jäncke

2006-01-01

247

Higgs Branch, Hyper-Kähler Quotient and Duality in SUSY N = 2 Yang-Mills Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy limits of N = 2 supersymmetric field theories in the Higgs branch are described in terms of a nonlinear four-dimensional ?-model on a hyper-Kähler target space, classically obtained as a hyper-Kähler quotient of the original flat hypermultiplet space by the gauge group. We review in a pedagogical way this construction, and illustrate it in various examples, with special attention given to the singularities emerging in the low-energy theory. In particular, we thoroughly study the Higgs branch singularity of Seiberg-Witten SU(2) theory with Nf flavors, interpreted by Witten as a small instanton singularity in the moduli space of one instanton on ?4. By explicitly evaluating the metric, we show that this Higgs branch coincides with the Higgs branch of a U(1) N = 2 SUSY theory with the number of flavors predicted by the singularity structure of Seiberg-Witten's theory in the Coulomb phase. We find another example of Higgs phase duality, namely between the Higgs phases of U(Nc) Nf flavors and U(Nf-Nc) Nf flavors theories, by using a geometric interpretation due to Biquard et al. This duality may be relevant for understanding Seiberg's conjectured duality Nc ? Nf-Nc in N = 1 SUSY SU(Nc) gauge theories.

Antoniadis, I.; Pioline, B.

248

On the distribution for sums of partial quotients in continued fraction expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let x in [0, 1) and [a1(x), a2(x), ...] be the continued fraction expansion of x. For any n >= 1, write S_n(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^n a_k(x) . Khintchine (1935 Compos. Math. 1 361-82) proved that \\frac{S_n(x)}{n log n} converges in measure to \\frac{1}{log 2} with respect to {L}^1 , where L^1 denotes the one dimensional Lebesgue measure. Philipp (1988 Monatsh. Math. 105 195-206) showed that there is not a reasonable normalizing sequence such that a strong law of large numbers is satisfied. In this paper, we show that for any ? >= 0, the set \\[ \\begin{equation*} E(\\alpha)=\\left\\{x\\in [0,1)\\colon \\lim_{n\\to \\infty}\\frac{S_n(x)}{nlog n}=\\alpha\\right\\} \\end{equation*} \\] is of Hausdorff dimension 1. Furthermore, we prove that the Hausdorff dimension of the set consisting of reals whose sums of partial quotients grow at a given polynomial rate is 1.

Wu, Jun; Xu, Jian

2011-04-01

249

The intelligence quotient of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There has always been an asking question with physicians and health staff whether delivery mode can effect on child intelligence. This study was conducted to compare the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: This study conducted in two stages; a cross-sectional section in which 5000 randomly selected children, who were 6-7 years old, attended at 10 Cognitive Examination Posts in Mashhad. The examination was performed by the Exceptional Education and Training Institute affiliated to Ministry of Education for all 6-7 years old children at the entry to the primary school. At the second stage, we selected two matched groups of 189 children who delivered by cesarean section or spontaneous vaginal delivery and then compared their IQ scores. RESULTS: The cesarean delivery group had significantly higher IQ test scores. Maternal and paternal educational levels were related to children’s IQ scores. After adjusting of maternal and paternal education, maternal age and parity, there was not any significant difference between IQ scores of cesarean delivery and natural vaginal delivery groups 101(3.67) vs. 100.7(4.28). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, the association between cesarean deliveries with better cognitive development in children cannot be supported.

Khadem, Nayereh; Khadivzadeh, Talaat

2010-01-01

250

Talking about Emotion: Prosody and Skin Conductance Indicate Emotion Regulation  

PubMed Central

Talking about emotion and putting feelings into words has been hypothesized to regulate emotion in psychotherapy as well as in everyday conversation. However, the exact dynamics of how different strategies of verbalization regulate emotion and how these strategies are reflected in characteristics of the voice has received little scientific attention. In the present study, we showed emotional pictures to 30 participants and asked them to verbally admit or deny an emotional experience or a neutral fact concerning the picture in a simulated conversation. We used a 2?×?2 factorial design manipulating the focus (on emotion or facts) as well as the congruency (admitting or denying) of the verbal expression. Analyses of skin conductance response (SCR) and voice during the verbalization conditions revealed a main effect of the factor focus. SCR and pitch of the voice were lower during emotion compared to fact verbalization, indicating lower autonomic arousal. In contradiction to these physiological parameters, participants reported that fact verbalization was more effective in down-regulating their emotion than emotion verbalization. These subjective ratings, however, were in line with voice parameters associated with emotional valence. That is, voice intensity showed that fact verbalization reduced negative valence more than emotion verbalization. In sum, the results of our study provide evidence that emotion verbalization as compared to fact verbalization is an effective emotion regulation strategy. Moreover, based on the results of our study we propose that different verbalization strategies influence valence and arousal aspects of emotion selectively.

Matejka, Moritz; Kazzer, Philipp; Seehausen, Maria; Bajbouj, Malek; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Prehn, Kristin

2013-01-01

251

Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

Challacombe, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

252

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

253

Toll Bar on Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

Hunter, Dave

2008-01-01

254

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome\\/High-Functioning Autism, Malesand Females, Scientists and Mathematicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Individuals score in the range 0–50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with Asperger

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Richard Skinner; Joanne Martin; Emma Clubley

2001-01-01

255

Double Self Quotient Image Based Image Flattening for Defect Detection in Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display Panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of using self quotient image (SQI) to flatten the background region of a thin film transistor liquid crystal display image. To overcome an inherent shortcoming of SQI method, namely the halo effect in thin film transistor liquid crystal display images, double SQI method is introduced. Experimental results demonstrate that SQI can be used effectively to eliminate a non-uniformity of the background region in a test image.

Young-Chul Song,; Se-Yun Kim,; Kil-Houm Park,

2010-03-01

256

Acquisition of Visuomotor Abilities and Intellectual Quotient in Children Aged 4–10 Years: Relationship with Micronutrient Nutritional Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement.\\u000a We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with\\u000a iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4–10 years).\\u000a Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ

Horacio F. Gonzįlez; Agustina Malpeli; Graciela Etchegoyen; Lucrecia Lucero; Florencia Romero; Carolina Lagunas; Gustavo Lailhacar; Manuel Olivares; Ricardo Uauy

2007-01-01

257

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient—Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the ‘broader’ (BAP), ‘medium’ (MAP) and ‘narrow’ autism phenotypes\\u000a (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP\\u000a in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample. Parents of

Liliana Ruta; Domenico Mazzone; Luigi Mazzone; Sally Wheelwright; Simon Baron-Cohen

258

The emotions of professional writers.  

PubMed

In this study, 24 professional writers completed a short pencil-and-paper questionnaire on which they indicated how they felt before, at a pause, and after specific writing episodes. The intensity with which they experienced 20 emotions was assessed, as was the frequency with which these emotions were experienced when writing in general. Results indicated that the professionals experienced positive emotions significantly more often when writing in general than they experienced either negative-active or negative-passive emotions. Negative-passive emotions such as boredom, shame, and shyness were particularly rare and weak. During the actual writing process, positive emotions tended to intensify, whereas negative-passive and negative-active emotions resisted change. Sponsorship of writing had little impact on the quality of emotions experienced during the process. The professional poets, however, experienced negative-active emotions significantly more often when writing in general than did the prose writers. PMID:3204537

Brand, A G; Leckie, P A

1988-09-01

259

Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation.

Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

2013-01-01

260

Tensor magnetic resonance imaging in a case of mild traumatic brain injury with lowered verbal intelligence quotient.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 31-year-old man who had mild traumatic brain injury as a result of an accident at the age of 24 years. Seven years after the trauma, at the age of 31 years, he had a lower verbal intelligence quotient than performance intelligence quotient by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised, and frontal lobe dysfunction, for example, difficulty in maintaining or changing the set as revealed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Keio Version. Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging had not shown any abnormalities. Abnormal brain areas were detected on magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. On tractography, some fibres from the corpus callosum towards the frontal cortex were noted to be lacking in the left hemisphere compared with the right. The tractography results may explain the patient's lowered verbal intelligence quotient and focal left frontal lobe dysfunction. Diffusion tensor imaging is therefore helpful in detecting lesions in mild traumatic brain injury with diffuse axonal injury. PMID:17549335

Hashimoto, Keiji; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun; Abo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Toshinori

2007-05-01

261

Emotional Intelligence … What Is It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, it was thought that a person's intelligence (IQ or intelligence quotient) deter- mined how people succeeded in life. Schools used IQ tests to choose children for gifted pro- grams and some companies even used IQ scores when hiring. In the last ten years, researchers have found that IQ isn't the only predictor of a person's success. They

Nancy K. Recker

262

[Intelligent quotient of obese children and adolescents by the Weschler scale].  

PubMed

The intellectual characteristics of 65 obese children and adolescents (weight for height > or = 140%), aged 8 to 13 years and 11 months, were compared to those of 35 eutrophic children and adolescents (weight for height between 90 and 110%; and stature for age > 95%) of the same age group, utilizing the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--WISC. Children and adolescents of the two groups were paired according to age groups, schooling level and socioeconomic condition. The obese group was composed of new patients assisted at the Department of Pediatrics of the Federal University of S. Paulo (Escola Paulista de Medicina), Brazil. The control group was made up of children from public primary schools, from the same geographical area as those studied. The eutrophic group presented significantly better performance in the intelligence test (Intelligence Quotient--IQ) than the obese group (average IQ--91 x 85; p < 0.05). Eutrophic children and adolescents revealed a wider range of interests, better capacity for social adaptability as well as greater speed and dexterity. Although weak, there was a positive correlation between income level, weight/stature relation (W/S) and IQ. There was no correlation between IQ and level of schooling. The eutrophic boys from higher income levels showed better perceptual and spacial organizing ability and a wider range of interests than those from the lower income groups. In spite of the fact that all the average IQ results presented consistently favored the eutrophic in relation to the obese, it is not possible to confirm one group's superiority over the other, due to the wide range of intervenient factors involved in the intelligence process. PMID:9008926

Campos, A L; Sigulem, D M; Moraes, D E; Escrivćo, A M; Fisberg, M

1996-02-01

263

IQdb: an intelligence quotient score-associated gene resource for human intelligence.  

PubMed

Intelligence quotient (IQ) is the most widely used phenotype to characterize human cognitive abilities. Recent advances in studies on human intelligence have identified many new susceptibility genes. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in IQ score and the relationship between IQ score and the risk of mental disorders have won little attention. To address the genetic complexity of IQ score, we have developed IQdb (http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn), a publicly available database for exploring IQ-associated human genes. In total, we collected 158 experimental verified genes from literature as a core dataset in IQdb. In addition, 46 genomic regions related to IQ score have been curated from literature. Based on the core dataset and 46 confirmed linked genomic regions, more than 6932 potential IQ-related genes are expanded using data of protein-protein interactions. A systematic gene ranking approach was applied to all the collected and expanded genes to represent the relative importance of all the 7090 genes in IQdb. Our further systematic pathway analysis reveals that IQ-associated genes are significantly enriched in multiple signal events, especially related to cognitive systems. Of the 158 genes in the core dataset, 81 are involved in various psychotic and mental disorders. This comprehensive gene resource illustrates the importance of IQdb to our understanding on human intelligence, and highlights the utility of IQdb for elucidating the functions of IQ-associated genes and the cross-talk mechanisms among cognition-related pathways in some mental disorders for community. Database URL: http://IQdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn. PMID:24030781

Kong, Lei; Cheng, Lu; Fan, Li-Ya; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

2013-09-11

264

Effect of bone quality and implant surgical technique on implant stability quotient (ISQ) value  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study investigated the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) value. In addition, the influence of interfacial bone quality, directly surrounding the implant fixture, on the resonance frequency of the structure was also evaluated by the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two different types of bone (type 1 and type 2) were extracted and trimmed from pig rib bone. In each type of bone, the same implants were installed in three different ways: (1) Compaction, (2) Self-tapping, and (3) Tapping. The ISQ value was measured and analyzed to evaluate the influence of bone quality and surgical technique on the implant primary stability. For finite element analysis, a three dimensional implant fixture-bone structure was designed and the fundamental resonance frequency of the structure was measured with three different density of interfacial bone surrounding the implant fixture. RESULTS In each group, the ISQ values were higher in type 1 bone than those in type 2 bone. Among three different insertion methods, the Tapping group showed the lowest ISQ value in both type 1 and type 2 bones. In both bone types, the Compaction groups showed slightly higher mean ISQ values than the Self-tapping groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. Increased interfacial bone density raised the resonance frequency value in the finite element analysis. CONCLUSION Both bone quality and surgical technique have influence on the implant primary stability, and resonance frequency has a positive relation with the density of implant fixture-surrounding bone.

Yoon, Hong-Gi; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun

2011-01-01

265

Hemoglobin, Lead Exposure, and Intelligence Quotient: Effect Modification by the DRD2 Taq IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and lead exposure remain significant public health issues in many parts of the world, often occurring together. Animal studies suggest that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) mediates the effects of both lead and iron on cognition and behavior. Objective We tested the hypothesis that the DRD2 Taq IA polymorphism modifies the effects of lead and hemoglobin on intelligence quotient (IQ) among children. Methods Blood lead and hemoglobin were assessed in 717 children 3–7 years of age attending 12 schools in Chennai, India. IQ was determined using the Binet-Kamat scales of intelligence. Genotyping for the DRD2 polymorphism was carried out using a MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Stratified analyses and interaction models, using generalized estimating equations (GEEs), were used to explore interactions between lead and hemoglobin, and DRD2 Taq IA categories [homozygous variant (A1) vs. presence of wild-type allele (A2)]. Results After we controlled for potential confounders, a one-unit increase in log blood lead was associated with a decrease of 9 IQ points [95% confidence interval (CI), ?18.08 to ?0.16] in the homozygous-variant children (n = 73) compared with a decrease of 4 IQ points (95% CI, ?7.21 to ?0.69) among those with the wild-type allele (n = 644). Higher hemoglobin levels were associated with higher IQ in the children who carried the wild-type allele DRD2, but in children homozygous for the variant allele, an increase of 1 g/dL hemoglobin was associated with a decrease in 1.82 points of IQ (95% CI, ?5.28 to 1.64; interaction term p-value = 0.02). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the DRD2 Taq IA polymorphism disrupts the protective effect of hemoglobin on cognition and may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to lead exposure.

Roy, Ananya; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Modali, Rama; Nasaruddin, Khaja; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Palaniapan, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

2011-01-01

266

Effects of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on the glottal closed quotient in untrained male voices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique has remained poorly understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a / vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, followed by a minute of repeated phonation into a hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. The tube parameters and tube phonation task criteria were selected according to theoretical calculations predicting an increase in the acoustic load such that phonation would occur under conditions of near-maximum inertive reactance. Following tube phonation, each participant repeated a similar series of spoken /a/ vowels. Electroglottography (EGG) was used to measure the glottal closed quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design with direct replication across subjects was used to identify any changes in CQ across the phases of the experiment. Single-subject analysis using the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques.

Gaskill, Christopher Somers

267

Sarcopenia and a physiologically low respiratory quotient in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

Patients with cirrhosis have increased gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation that may contribute to a low respiratory quotient (RQ), and this may be linked to sarcopenia and metabolic decompensation when these patients are hospitalized. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to measure RQ and its impact on skeletal muscle mass, survival, and related complications in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Fasting RQ and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined by indirect calorimetry in cirrhotic patients (n = 25), and age, sex, and weight-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Abdominal muscle area was quantified by computed tomography scanning. In cirrhotic patients we also examined the impact of RQ on mortality, repeat hospitalizations, and liver transplantation. Mean RQ in patients with cirrhosis (0.63 ± 0.05) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than healthy matched controls (0.84 ± 0.06). Psoas muscle area in cirrhosis (24.0 ± 6.6 cm(2)) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in controls (35.9 ± 9.5 cm(2)). RQ correlated with the reduction in psoas muscle area (r(2) = 0.41; P = 0.01). However, in patients with cirrhosis a reduced RQ did not predict short-term survival or risk of developing complications. When REE was normalized to psoas area, energy expenditure was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis (66.7 ± 17.8 kcal/cm(2)) compared with controls (47.7 ± 7.9 kcal/cm(2)). We conclude that hospitalized patients with cirrhosis have RQs well below the traditional lowest physiological value of 0.69, and this metabolic state is accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle area. Although low RQ does not predict short-term mortality in these patients, it may reflect a decompensated metabolic state that requires careful nutritional management with appropriate consideration for preservation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:23288550

Glass, Cathy; Hipskind, Peggy; Tsien, Cynthia; Malin, Steven K; Kasumov, Takhar; Shah, Shetal N; Kirwan, John P; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

2013-01-03

268

Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ).  

PubMed

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using, for the first time, data from 4192 Taiwanese parents (1208 with ASD children and 2984 with typically developing children). Results yielded a 35-item, 5-dimensional factor solution that had favorable psychometric characteristics (RMSEA = .054; NNFI = .962; CFI = .969) than any of the previously-published AQ factor solutions. Subscales of this new AQ-Chinese model were statistically and semantically coherent, namely: Socialness, Mindreading, Patterns, Attention to Details and Attention Switching. The psychometric properties of the AQ-Chinese did not change between clinic-based and community-based data suggesting good fitting for a continuum of autistic expression. Furthermore, the considerable overlap between the AQ-Chinese and the AQ factor structures derived previously using student samples indicated consistency in the manifestation of the autistic profile across different cultures and age groups. Group differences in the AQ-Chinese scores were in line with previous studies, i.e. males generally scored radically higher than females except in Attention to Details. Interestingly, mothers of ASD children reported lower total AQ scores than community mothers yet no significant group difference for the fathers. Important research and clinical implications pertinent to parents with children with ASD and the utility of the AQ were drawn. PMID:22985783

Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

2012-09-15

269

Magnitude and regulation of bacterioplankton respiratory quotient across freshwater environmental gradients.  

PubMed

Bacterioplankton respiration (BR) may represent the largest single sink of organic carbon in the biosphere and constitutes an important driver of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions from freshwaters. Complete understanding of BR is precluded by the fact that most studies need to assume a respiratory quotient (RQ; mole of CO(2) produced per mole of O(2) consumed) to calculate rates of BR. Many studies have, without clear support, assumed a fixed RQ around 1. Here we present 72 direct measurements of bacterioplankton RQ that we carried out in epilimnetic samples of 52 freshwater sites in Québec (Canada), using O(2) and CO(2) optic sensors. The RQs tended to converge around 1.2, but showed large variability (s.d.=0.45) and significant correlations with major gradients of ecosystem-level, substrate-level and bacterial community-level characteristics. Experiments with natural bacterioplankton using different single substrates suggested that RQ is intimately linked to the elemental composition of the respired compounds. RQs were on average low in net autotrophic systems, where bacteria likely were utilizing mainly reduced substrates, whereas we found evidence that the dominance of highly oxidized substrates, for example, organic acids formed by photo-chemical processes, led to high RQ in the more heterotrophic systems. Further, we suggest that BR contributes to a substantially larger share of freshwater CO(2) emissions than presently believed based on the assumption that RQ is ?1. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton RQ is not only a practical aspect of BR determination, but also a major ecosystem state variable that provides unique information about aquatic ecosystem functioning. PMID:22094347

Berggren, Martin; Lapierre, Jean-Franēois; del Giorgio, Paul A

2011-11-17

270

Higher 24-h respiratory quotient and higher spontaneous physical activity in nighttime eaters.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that a higher 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) predicts greater ad-libitum food intake and that nighttime eaters (NE) ingested more calories during an in-patient food intake study and gained more weight over time. We investigated whether 24-h RQ was higher in individuals who exhibited nighttime eating behavior. Healthy nondiabetic Pima Indians (PI; n = 97, 54 male/43 female) and whites (W; n = 32, 22 male/10 female) were admitted to our Clinical Research Unit. After 3 days of a weight maintaining diet, 24-h energy expenditure (24-h EE), 24-h RQ, rates of carbohydrate (CHOX) and lipid oxidation (LIPOX), and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were measured in a metabolic chamber whereas volunteers were in energy balance and unable to consume excess calories. Individuals subsequently ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine for 3 days with amount and timing of food intake recorded. Fifty-five individuals (36%; 39 PI, 16 W) were NE, who ate between 11 PM and 5 AM on at least one of the 3 days on the vending machines. There were no differences in BMI or percentage body fat between NE and non-NE. After adjusting for age, sex, race, fat-free mass, fat mass, and energy balance, NE had a higher 24-h RQ (P = 0.01), higher CHOX (P = 0.009), and lower LIPOX (P = 0.03) and higher 24-h SPA (P = 0.04) compared to non-NE. There were no differences in adjusted 24-h EE or sleep RQ between the groups. Individuals with nighttime eating behavior have higher 24-h RQ, higher CHOX and lower LIPOX, a phenotype associated with increased food intake and weight gain. PMID:20864947

Gluck, Marci E; Venti, Colleen A; Salbe, Arline D; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

2010-09-23

271

THE COMPARISON OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF ATOPIC AND NONATOPIC CHILDREN IN IBADAN, NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Atopy-related illnesses such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are chronic illnesses, and children suffering from such illnesses are subjected to frequent absenteeism from school. Studies have shown that the performance of children with asthma was comparable to their healthy counterparts despite their absenteeism at school, in contrast to findings in other chronic illnesses like epilepsy. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the association between atopy and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a group of Nigerian children in Ibadan, a city in southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of children in an urban elementary school. Questionnaires to ascertain the presence of atopy-associated conditions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were administered to the parents of 128 pupils in the 3rd to 6th grades of elementary school. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, pupils were categorized as being atopic and nonatopic. All the pupils underwent the Standard Progressive Matrices IQ test. The IQ scores were then compared among these two groups of children. Results: Out of the children studied, 26.6% were found to have atopy and after adjusting for factors such as age and sex, the IQ scores in this atopic group were not found to be statistically different from the scores in the nonatopic group (r = 2.122872, P = 0.009). Conclusion: IQ scores were not statistically significantly different for children with and without atopy. Thus, the presence of atopy does not appear to be associated with low IQ scores and hence, may not be related to poor school performance.

Daramola, O O M; Ayoola, O O; Ogunbiyi, A O

2010-01-01

272

Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements.  

PubMed

According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F; Atkinson, Anthony P; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2013-04-04

273

Processing of emotional reactivity and emotional memory over sleep  

PubMed Central

Sleep enhances memories, particularly emotional memories. As such, it has been suggested that sleep deprivation may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder. This presumes that emotional memory consolidation is paralleled by a reduction in emotional reactivity, an association that has not yet been examined. In the present experiment, we utilized an incidental memory task in humans and obtained valence and arousal ratings during two sessions separated either by 12 hours of daytime wake or 12 hours including overnight sleep. Recognition accuracy was greater following sleep relative to wake for both negative and neutral pictures. While emotional reactivity to negative pictures was greatly reduced over wake, the negative emotional response was relatively preserved over sleep. Moreover, protection of emotional reactivity was associated with greater time in REM sleep. Recognition accuracy, however, was not associated with REM. Thus, we provide the first evidence that sleep enhances emotional memory while preserving emotional reactivity.

Baran, Bengi; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Ericson, Callie; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

2012-01-01

274

Emotional Intelligence: Giving Computers Effective Emotional Skills to Aid Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do computers need emotional intelligence? Science fiction often portrays emotional computers as dangerous and frightening,\\u000a and as a serious threat to human life. One of the most famous examples is HAL, the supercomputer onboard the spaceship Discovery,\\u000a in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAL could express, recognize and respond to human emotion, and generally had strong emotional skills

Chris Creed; Russell Beale

2008-01-01

275

Modulation of emotion by cognition and cognition by emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In particular, the BOLD response within bilateral amygdala and

K. S. Blair; B. W. Smith; D. G. V. Mitchell; J. Morton; M. Vythilingam; L. Pessoa; D. Fridberg; A. Zametkin; E. E. Nelson; W. C. Drevets; D. S. Pine; A. Martin; R. J. R. Blair

2007-01-01

276

Empathy and emotion recognition in people with autism, first-degree relatives, and controls.  

PubMed

Empathy is the lens through which we view others' emotion expressions, and respond to them. In this study, empathy and facial emotion recognition were investigated in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC; N=314), parents of a child with ASC (N=297) and IQ-matched controls (N=184). Participants completed a self-report measure of empathy (the Empathy Quotient [EQ]) and a modified version of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Task (KDEF) using an online test interface. Results showed that mean scores on the EQ were significantly lower in fathers (p<0.05) but not mothers (p>0.05) of children with ASC compared to controls, whilst both males and females with ASC obtained significantly lower EQ scores (p<0.001) than controls. On the KDEF, statistical analyses revealed poorer overall performance by adults with ASC (p<0.001) compared to the control group. When the 6 distinct basic emotions were analysed separately, the ASC group showed impaired performance across five out of six expressions (happy, sad, angry, afraid and disgusted). Parents of a child with ASC were not significantly worse than controls at recognising any of the basic emotions, after controlling for age and non-verbal IQ (all p>0.05). Finally, results indicated significant differences between males and females with ASC for emotion recognition performance (p<0.05) but not for self-reported empathy (p>0.05). These findings suggest that self-reported empathy deficits in fathers of autistic probands are part of the 'broader autism phenotype'. This study also reports new findings of sex differences amongst people with ASC in emotion recognition, as well as replicating previous work demonstrating empathy difficulties in adults with ASC. The use of empathy measures as quantitative endophenotypes for ASC is discussed. PMID:23174401

Sucksmith, E; Allison, C; Baron-Cohen, S; Chakrabarti, B; Hoekstra, R A

2012-11-19

277

Spanish parents' emotion talk and their children's understanding of emotion.  

PubMed

Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children's emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children's emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons et al., 2004), once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again 6 months later. Mothers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children's emotion understanding after controlling for children's previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers' use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children's emotion understanding, it did not predict children's emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed. PMID:24069016

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

2013-09-24

278

When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa. PMID:22309721

Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

2012-02-06

279

Emotional Awareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has highlighted the importance of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence in organizations, and these topics are attracting increasing attention. In this article, the authors present the results of a preliminary classroom study in which emotion concepts were incorporated into an undergraduate leadership course. In the…

Ashkanasy, Neal M.; Dasborough, Marie T.

2003-01-01

280

Emotions, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Brief, Pragmatic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally

Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph

2012-01-01

281

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

282

Emotional processing in personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of personality disorders, borderline and antisocial types are associated with emotional dysfunctioning. In borderline\\u000a personality disorder (BPD), the hypothesis of emotional hyperresponsiveness can be supported by several experimental studies\\u000a that suggest highly intensive and slowly subsiding emotions to primed and non-primed stimuli, as well as by data showing biased\\u000a information, which processes in the context of emotions.

Sabine C. Herpertz

2003-01-01

283

The Analysis of Emotional Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this issue discuss the emotional experience, including shame, guilt, exaltation, how it feels to be criminally victimized, how people experience nuclear weapons, emotional links with the environment, psychological closeness, ways of being alone, emerging from depression, and collective emotion. (RM)

De Rivera, Joseph, Ed.

1984-01-01

284

The research on emotional design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, designers are keeping more attention to the emotional experience when people use the product. In this article, the authors focus on innovation of product design which is based on humanæs emotional demand. First, the authors have studied the theory of Normanæs emotional design and the situation awareness theory of cognitive psychology, and then indicate that the basic attribute of

Wei Sun; Ping Sun

2008-01-01

285

Emotions in nondirected text learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the influence of emotions on nondirected learning. Nondirected learning is conceptualized as learning which occurs in the absence of external prompts, reinforcements, or specific instruction. In Study 1, one of two expository texts was given to ninety-two undergraduate subjects for the ostensible purpose of obtaining attitudinal and emotional ratings. Two separate measures of motivational and emotional factors

RICHARD M. RYAN; JAMES P. CONNELL; ROBERT W. PLANT

1990-01-01

286

Linguistic Markers and Emotional Intensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this experiment is to explore possible relationships between the intensity of emotions and the lexical modalities for expressing those emotions. In this experiment, 60 Hebrew-speaking subjects were asked to watch four short films that aroused emotion. Two of the films gave rise to different degrees of happiness, and two produced…

Argaman, Osnat

2010-01-01

287

Emotion, desire, and interest: Descriptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the nature and inter-relation of emotion, desire, and interest. Both emotion and desire consist of 4 elements. Content of emotions and desires refers to the intellectual interpretation of stimuli. Once the stimulus is interpreted, an attitude develops, either toward or against it. Feeling is the direct and immediate answer to the stimulus as it is being interpreted. Finally, the

S. F. MLennan

1895-01-01

288

Modeling the Experience of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computing has proven to be a viable field of research comprised of a large number of multidisciplinary researchers resulting in work that is widely published. The majority of this work consists of emotion recognition technology, computational modeling of causal factors of emotion and emotion expression in virtual characters and robots. A smaller part is concerned with modeling the effects

Joost Broekens

2009-01-01

289

Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made

Marķa Ruz; Pķo Tudela

2011-01-01

290

Neural network modeling of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not

Daniel S. Levine

2007-01-01

291

Effects of Color on Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional reactions to color hue, saturation, and brightness (Munsell color system and color chips) were investigated using the Pleasure–Arousal–Dominance emotion model. Saturation (S) and brightness (B) evidenced strong and consistent effects on emotions. Regression equations for standardized variables were: Pleasure = .69B + .22S, Arousal = ? .31B + .60S, Dominance = ? .76B + .32S. Brightness effects were nearly

Patricia Valdez; Albert Mehrabian

1994-01-01

292

Emotional Facial Expressions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review empirical evidence regarding the relationship between facial expression and emotion during infancy. We focus on differential emotions theory’s view of this relationship because of its theoretical and methodological prominence. We conclude that current evidence fails to support its proposal regarding a set of pre-specified facial expressions that invariably reflect a corresponding set of discrete emotions

Linda A. Camras; Jennifer M. Shutter

2010-01-01

293

The role of leaders' emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western cultures support the notion that the ideal 'professional' behaviour for a leader is primarily rational and carefully controlled emotionally. The relationship of reason and emotion is often played out as one of mutual exclusion, and moreover as one representing hierarchy of leaders and followers. Power positions in most organizations are ritually emphasized through strict emotional control\\/suppression. Thus this display

Kornélia Lazįnyi

294

Service dimensions for consumer emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes important factors in service dimensions for consumer emotions and conducts a survey by questionnaire. We present three findings. (1) The orders of the survey results in the percentage of sample number with “hue angle” of beverage packaging, emotions, and impulse buying desire all showing “analogous?>?contrasting?>?complementary.” (2) In the questionnaire survey of emotions and impulse buying desire, “medium

Regina W. Y. Wang; Ying-Chun Chen

2011-01-01

295

Classifying emotion: a developmental account  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic classification of emotions which can also characterize their nature. The first challenge we address is the submis- sionofclearcriteriaforatheoryofemotionsthatdeterminewhichmentalphenomena are emotions and which are not. We suggest that emotions as a subclass of mental states are determined by their functional roles. The second and main challenge is the presentation of a

Alexandra Zinck; Albert Newen

2008-01-01

296

The Physical Basis of Emotion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the theories of C. Lange and William James on emotional consciousness, affirming it to be the effect of organic changes which express emotion. The name emotion might be considered to connote organic excitement as the distinctive feature of the state. (SLD)|

James, William

1994-01-01

297

Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

Ghosn, Irma K.

2001-01-01

298

The Analysis of Emotional Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this issue discuss the emotional experience, including shame, guilt, exaltation, how it feels to be criminally victimized, how people experience nuclear weapons, emotional links with the environment, psychological closeness, ways of being alone, emerging from depression, and collective emotion. (RM)|

De Rivera, Joseph, Ed.

1984-01-01

299

Research on culture differences in emotional designing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dredges up the origin of emotional design through analyzing the phenomena and causes of emotion consumption and proposes that cultural difference is the key to emotional design. Designing pursues differences, and emotional feelings stem from culture. This research draws in the emotional relevance of cultural factors on the emotional design in the design process, carries out the practical

Shence Wang; Han Wu

2009-01-01

300

Emotion Cause Events: Corpus Construction and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion processing has always been a great challenge. Given the fact that an emotion is triggered by cause events and that cause events are an integral part of emotion, this paper constructs a Chinese emotion cause corpus as a first step towards automatic inference of cause-emotion correlation. The corpus focuses on five primary emotions, namely happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and

Sophia Yat Mei Lee; Ying Chen; Shoushan Li; Chu-Ren Huang

2010-01-01

301

Précis of The brain and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics treated in The Brain and Emotion include the definition, nature and functions of emotion (Chapter 3), the neural bases of emotion (Chapter 4), reward, punishment and emotion in brain design (Chapter 10), a theory of consciousness and its application to under- standing emotion and pleasure (Chapter 9), and neural networks and emotion-related learning (Appendix). The approach is that

Edmund T. Rolls

2000-01-01

302

Emotional Development and School Readiness. Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes research on the contribution of young children's emotional competence to their school readiness. Describes ways early childhood teachers can support young children's emotional competence by creating a secure emotional environment, helping children understand emotions, modeling genuine appropriate emotions, supporting children's emotion

Hyson, Marilou

2002-01-01

303

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

304

Drug Design and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid.'' The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central

Gerd Folkers; Amrei Wittwer

2007-01-01

305

Emotional requirements engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini tutorial reviews application of psychological theories in requirements engineering. Theories from psychology of emotion and motivation are introduced and applied in a scenario-based process to analyse affective situations which might be produced by user-oriented RE. Use of agent technology in storyboards and scenario analysis of affective situations is described and illustrated with case studies in health informatics for

Alistair Sutcliffe

2011-01-01

306

Emotional Subjects for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metaphors such as "gypsy academics,""freeway flyers," and "contingent laborers," ascribed by compositionists to their work and its conditions, comment on the low status of composition specialists and teachers in academic hierarchies. Work is the activity around which a profession forms, and, as such, it produces emotional dispositions compatible…

Micciche, Laura R.

307

Developing Emotionally Intelligent Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transformational change in today's schools will require leaders with strong intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. A recent assessment program in South Carolina focused attention on the identification of the emotional intelligence of aspiring and newly appointed principals. A battery of personality and leadership assessments was used to develop…

Cox, Edward P.

2009-01-01

308

Emotional memory is perceptual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two

Arnoud Arntz; Corlijn de Groot; Merel Kindt

2005-01-01

309

The Emotionally Sensitive Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a list of signs, symptoms, and indicators of emotionally sensitive adolescents includes clinging behavior, withdrawn behavior, shy/inhibited behavior, represses anger, poor reaction to criticism, makes self-disparaging statements, low self-esteem, "can't forgive self or others," ruined by a small critical comment, exploding…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Lehtonen, Kimmo

310

Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

311

Robots that have emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals have many different motivations and they must decide which of their different motivations they should try at any given time to satisfy with their behavior. Emotions are states of an individual’s body and brain that allow the motivational decision mechanism of the individual to function more properly, that is, in ways that increase the individual’s survival and reproductive chances.

Domenico Parisi; Giancarlo Petrosino

2010-01-01

312

Interaction on Emotions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the addition of an emotion dialogue to the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) system. The goal of the MRE system is to provide an immersive learning environment for army officer recruits. The user can engage in conversation with severa...

A. Hartholt T. J. Muller

2004-01-01

313

Emotions and calls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Birds use different calls to understand each other. Birds can give distress calls and other calls to let other birds know how they feel. Similarly, humans can detect how other humans feel by the tone of voice they use. They can use their hearing abilities to assess the emotions and moods of others.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-10-08

314

Emotional Images in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces ideas for future research that explore non-diagnostic uses of images in medicine. The dynamics are studied from a subjective and emotional perspective, a standpoint common in art and design but rarely considered relevant in academic medicine and science. The fundamental aim of the project is to study how images can influence and alter the afflicted individuals' experiences

Henrik Enquist

315

Emotion locomotion: promoting the emotional health of elementary school children by recognizing emotions.  

PubMed

Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed Emotion Locomotion, a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school. Emotion Locomotion used an analogy that the "engine" of a train represents the "individual" and the train "cars" represent various emotions, such as happiness, sadness, calmness, and anger. Analysis of pre- and posttest scores showed an increase in appropriate student responses that involved identifying emotions from photographs and in recognition of vocabulary words representing emotions. Students' role playing during puppet shows demonstrated increased appropriate expression of emotions and healthy ways to deal with feelings during scenarios. Programs such as Emotion Locomotion present opportunities to expand the outreach of school nurses and colleges of nursing through community partnerships to provide critical life skills for student populations. PMID:19592675

McLachlan, Debra A; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K; Linam, Eve H; Moneymaker, Laura D; Rathke, Meghan K

2009-07-10

316

Sad music induces pleasant emotion.  

PubMed

In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-06-13

317

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and Adaptation Among 5- to 8YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated relations between emotionality, emotion regulation, and children's behavioral adaptation in a longitudinal design. Mothers rated emotionality and emotion regulation related to anger, fear, and positive emotions–exuberance for 151 children at age 5 and later at age 6 years 6 months. Emotionality and emotion regulation measures were modestly related. Preschool ratings at age 6 (n = 125), maternal

Ann-Margret Rydell; Lisa Berlin; Gunilla Bohlin

2003-01-01

318

Integrating the emotional intelligence construct: the relationship between emotional ability and emotional competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper posits that the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has not advanced as quickly and adroitly as it could have because of a lack of validity studies that combine the two most prevalent models, emotionality ability (EA) and emotional competency (EC). Although prior EI validations studies exist, none have examined the relationship between the primary EA and EC measurement

Craig R Seal; Mary D Sass; James R Bailey; Matthew Liao-Troth

2009-01-01

319

Neural network modeling of emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.

Levine, Daniel S.

2007-03-01

320

Transformations of emotional experience.  

PubMed

In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

de Cortińas, Lia Pistiner

2013-06-01

321

Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience.  

PubMed

Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed. PMID:23668818

Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2013-05-13

322

Culture, attention, and emotion.  

PubMed

This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research. PMID:21639670

Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

2011-05-30

323

This Emotional Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are we happy? Is adolescence the most difficult stage of life? These are but a few of the questions explored in the PBS program "This Emotional Life". The three part series was produced by the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit and Vulcan Productions, and visitors to the site can discuss current news regarding emotional health and also "participate in the ongoing exploration of mental health and wellness." The materials on the site are divided into "Topics", "Perspectives", and "People & Blogs". The "Perspectives" area is a good place to start, and visitors can listen to people like Larry David and Chevy Chase give their own insights into the meaning of happiness, stress, and falling in love. The "Topics" area provides resources that help people with conditions like addiction, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. The site is rounded out by the "Resource Finder", which can be used to locate mental health and well-being support organizations around the United States.

324

Emotion in Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contemporary research on negotiation and group decision support systems (see the chapter by Lewis, this volume) pays a special\\u000a attention on emotion as a factor in restructuring and reframing of problem representation and solution (Barry, Group Decis\\u000a Negotiation 17:97–105, 2008; Druckman and Olekalns, Group Decis Negotiation 17:1–11, 2008). It involves multi-disciplinary\\u000a approaches and reaches beyond sociology and behavioral research (see

Bilyana Martinovski

325

Consciousness Emotion and Imagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper proposes a brain-inspired cognitive architecture that incorporates approximations,to the concepts of consciousness, emotion, and imagination. To emulate the empirically established cog- nitive efficacy of conscious as opposed,to unconscious,information processing in the mammalian brain, the architecture adopts a model of information flow from global workspace theory. Cognitive functions such as anticipation and planning are realised through internal simulation

Murray Shanahan

326

Bimodal Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When interacting with robots we show a plethora of affective reactions typical of natural communications. Indeed, emotions\\u000a are embedded on our communications and represent a predominant communication channel to convey relevant, high impact, information.\\u000a In recent years more and more researchers have tried to exploit this channel for human robot (HRI) and human computer interactions\\u000a (HCI). Two key abilities are

Marco Paleari; Ryad Chellali; Benoit Huet

2010-01-01

327

Tactile-emotion synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss experiments on two individuals in whom specific textures (e.g., denim, wax, sandpaper, silk, etc.) evoked equally distinct emotions (e.g., depression, embarrassment, relief, and contentment, respectively). The test\\/retest consistency after 8 months was 100%. A video camera recorded subjects' facial expressions and skin conductance responses (SCR) were monitored as they palpated different textures. Evaluators' ratings significantly correlated with the

V. S. Ramachandran; David Brang

2008-01-01

328

Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether perinatal nutrition influences cognitive function at 7½-8 years in children born preterm. Design Randomised, blinded nutritional intervention trial. Blinded follow up at 7½-8 years. Setting Intervention phase in two neonatal units; follow up in a clinic or school setting. Subjects 424 preterm infants who weighed under 1850?g at birth; 360 of those who survived were tested at 7½-8 years. Interventions Standard infant formula versus nutrient enriched preterm formula randomly assigned as sole diet (trial A) or supplements to maternal milk (trial B) fed for a mean of 1 month. Main outcome measures Intelligence quotient (IQ) at 7½-8 years with abbreviated Weschler intelligence scale for children (revised). Results There was a major sex difference in the impact of diet. At 7½-8 years boys previously fed standard versus preterm formula as sole diet had a 12.2 point disadvantage (95% confidence interval 3.7 to 20.6; P<0.01) in verbal IQ. In those with highest intakes of trial diets corresponding figures were 9.5 point disadvantage and 14.4 point disadvantage in overall IQ (1.2 to 17.7; P<0.05) and verbal IQ (5.7 to 23.2; P<0.01). Consequently, more infants fed term formula had low verbal IQ (<85): 31% versus 14% for both sexes (P=0.02) and 47% versus 13% in boys P=0.009). There was a higher incidence of cerebral palsy in those fed term formula; exclusion of such children did not alter the findings. Conclusions Preterm infants are vulnerable to suboptimal early nutrition in terms of their cognitive performance—notably, language based skills—at 7½-8 years, when cognitive scores are highly predictive of adult ones. Our data on cerebral palsy generate a new hypothesis that suboptimal nutritional management during a critical or plastic early period of rapid brain growth could impair functional compensation in those sustaining an earlier brain insult. Cognitive function, notably in males, may be permanently impaired by suboptimal neonatal nutrition. Key messagesSuboptimal nutrition during sensitive stages in early brain development may have long term effects on cognitive functionIn a randomised trial of early nutrition in preterm infants those fed standard rather than nutrient enriched preterm formula had reduced verbal IQ scores at 7½ to 8 years, at least in boysIn exploratory analyses on children of both sexes verbal IQ below 85 and cerebral palsy were more prevalent in the standard formula groupOur data show the potential vulnerability of the human brain to early suboptimal nutritionAvoidance of undernutrition in sick preterm infants seems important in optimising later neurodevelopmental outcomes

Lucas, A; Morley, R; Cole, T J

1998-01-01

329

Interpersonal emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes-response-dependent and response-independent-that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24098929

Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

2013-10-01

330

Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.  

PubMed

Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: (1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young; (3) even in the absence of pregnancy prolactin secretion responds to environmental stimuli under specific conditions. Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the case of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; (4) the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose to prolactinomas; (5) dealing with individual cases requires the perception that the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.e., prolactin affects the brain and mood but, on the other hand, personality traits and environmental factors may stimulate the secretion of prolactin and may play a role in the genesis of the disease. PMID:9667060

Sobrinho, L G

1998-01-01

331

Drug Design and Emotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Geteiltes Leid ist halbes Leid.'' The old German proverb reflects the fact that sharing a bad emotion or feeling with someone else may lower the psychological strain of the person experiencing sorrow, mourning or anger. On the other hand the person showing empathy will take literally a load from its counterpart, up to physiological reaction of the peripheral and central nervous pain system. Though subjective, mental and physical states can be shared. Visual perception of suffering may be important but also narrative description plays a role, all our senses are mixing in. It is hypothetized that literature, art and humanities allow this overlap. A change of mental states can lead to empirically observable effects as it is the case for the effect of role identity or placebo on pain perception. Antidepressants and other therapeutics are another choice to change the mental and bodily states. Their development follows today's notion of ``rationality'' in the design of therapeutics and is characterized solely by an atomic resolution approach to understand drug activity. Since emotional states and physiological states are entangled, given the difficulty of a physical description of emotion, the future rational drug design should encompass mental states as well.

Folkers, Gerd; Wittwer, Amrei

2007-11-01

332

Acid association quotients of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane in aqueous NaCl media to 200/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

The molal acid association quotients of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris, also abbreviated as THAM) were determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The emf was recorded for equimolal Tris/Tris-HCl buffer solutions from 5 to 200/sup 0/C at approximately 25/sup 0/ intervals, and at ionic strengths of 0.0759, 0.2012, 0.7232, 1.9996, 3.5077, and 4.9599. The molal association quotients, as well as those selected from the literature and calorimetrically-determined enthalpies of reaction, were simply described by a six parameter equation which yielded the following thermodynamic quantities at infinite dilution and 25/sup 0/C: logK = 8.701 +/- 0.009, ..delta..H/sup 0/ = -47.53 +/- 0.13 kJ-mol/sup -1/, ..delta..S/sup 0/ = -4.9 +/- 0.5 J-K/sup -1/-mol/sup -1/, and ..delta..C/sup 0//sub p/ = 67 +/- 13 J-K/sup -1/-mol/sup -1/. The fitting equation for this isocoulombic reaction incorporates a four term expression for logK and a linear isothermal dependence on ionic strength.

Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.

1987-07-01

333

Appraisals, emotions and emotion regulation: An integrative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims to investigate the relation between appraisals, emotions, and emotion regulation strategies by creating\\u000a a structural equation model which integrates these three aspects of the emotion process. To reach this aim, Italian students\\u000a (N = 610) confronted with their high school diploma examination completed a questionnaire 3 weeks before the beginning of the\\u000a exam. Results showed that they experienced primarily

Susanna Schmidt; Carla Tinti; Linda J. Levine; Silvia Testa

2010-01-01

334

Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and School Performance in Middle School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the connections of middle school students' emotional dispositions and academic-related affect with their school performance. One hundred three 6th–8th grade students completed three self-rated assessments regarding: (a) their academic competency; (b) affective tendencies (both mood and emotion regulation); and (c) negative emotions experienced during school-related tasks. Teachers assessed students' positive and negative moods, and schools provided achievement

Gail Gumora; William F Arsenio

2002-01-01

335

The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews modern research on the psychology of emotion regulation. Emotion regulation determines the offset of emotional responding and is thus distinct from emotional sensitivity, which determines the onset of emotional responding. Among the most viable categories for classifying emotion-regulation strategies are the targets and functions of emotion regulation. The emotion-generating systems that are targeted in emotion regulation

Sander L. Koole

2009-01-01

336

[Update on "expressed emotions"].  

PubMed

The present article is meant to sum up the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to the concept of "Emotional Expression" and its very implementation in the clinical and therapeutical field which are well-known in anglo-saxon countries but very little applied and known in France. "Emotional Expression" (EE), which came out of research and studies undertaken by Brown (1959) and later on, Vaughn and Leff (1976), defines interaction between a schizophrenic patient and his close environment according to 3 criterium: judgmental comments and criticism, hostility, emotional over-involvement. Family surroundings are characterized by strong EE or weak EE according to the frequency and the quantity of the measures during a typical standard family-interview: the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). A strong EE is considered as being a non-specific factor. "Emotional Expression" proves to be a predictable indication for relapse in terms of psychiatric affluence (positive symptoms), hospitalization rate and psycho-social adjustment process. The possibilities of forecasting do not concern specifically schizophrenia as the relation between family climate and relapse can be observed in other mental pathology as well. The psycho-educational approach which is induced by this research trend is based on a concept of a partnership between the patients's family and the patient. The purpose in fact is to bring about changes within the relationship of the patient and his environment so as to reduce judgmental criticism, hostility and emotional over-involvement (information programs concerning etiology, therapeutical strategies in view of improving understanding of the illness and to reorganize proper family relationship). The advantage of such a concept which is well-known lies in the fact that it helps to find out those family surroundings with strong EE who represent factors of relapse for psychiatric patients and to suggest therefore therapeutical treatment, the purpose of which should be defined together with all those concerned namely, the patient, the family, the therapeutist so as to intervene during the evolution of the illness. The literary bibliographical review which we have made lead us to find the existence of a wide field of research with results showing clearly the predictable aspects of EE in the illness process. In this way, new approaches in the "intake" of schizophrenic patients and their families are clearly defined. PMID:10951910

Abaoub, A; Vidon, G

337

Processing orientation and emotion recognition.  

PubMed

There is evidence that some emotional expressions are characterized by diagnostic cues from individual face features. For example, an upturned mouth is indicative of happiness, whereas a furrowed brow is associated with anger. The current investigation explored whether motivating people to perceive stimuli in a local (i.e., feature-based) rather than global (i.e., holistic) processing orientation was advantageous for recognizing emotional facial expressions. Participants classified emotional faces while primed with local and global processing orientations, via a Navon letter task. Contrary to previous findings for identity recognition, the current findings are indicative of a modest advantage for face emotion recognition under conditions of local processing orientation. When primed with a local processing orientation, participants performed both significantly faster and more accurately on an emotion recognition task than when they were primed with a global processing orientation. The impacts of this finding for theories of emotion recognition and face processing are considered. PMID:21842989

Martin, Douglas; Slessor, Gillian; Allen, Roy; Phillips, Louise H; Darling, Stephen

2011-08-15

338

Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

2004-01-01

339

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

340

Flexible Emotional Responsiveness in Trait Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility—the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: (a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli and (b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of

Christian E. Waugh; Renee J. Thompson; Ian H. Gotlib

2011-01-01

341

Automatic emotion regulation during anger provocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals frequently have to regulate their emotions, especially negative ones, to function successfully. However, deliberate emotion regulation can have significant costs for the individual. Are there less costly ways to achieve emotion regulatory goals? In two studies, we test the hypothesis that more automatic types of emotion regulation might provide the benefits of deliberate emotion regulation without the costs. Study

Iris B. Mauss; Crystal L. Cook; James J. Gross

2007-01-01

342

TEAM EMOTION RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND TEAM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams' emotional skills can be more than the sum of their individual parts. Although theory emphasizes emotion as an interpersonal adapta- tion, emotion recognition skill has long been conceptualized as an indi- vidual-level intelligence. We introduce the construct of team emotion recognition accuracy (TERA) - the ability of members to recognize teammates' emotions - and present preliminary evidence for its

Hillary Anger Elfenbein; Jeffrey T. Polzer; Nalini Ambady

343

Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of psychology is in the midst of an “emotion revolution,” reflecting the emerging role of emotion theory in clinical\\u000a research and practice (Samoilov & Goldfried, 2000; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). Although many researchers have commended\\u000a this trend, there is also an ongoing call for more clinical research that is founded on emotion theory and expands our understanding\\u000a of

Marni L. Jacob; Kristel Thomassin; Diana Morelen; Cynthia Suveg

344

Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Moral emotions,represent a key element of our human,moral appa- ratus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral be- havior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced,“self- conscious” emotions—shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previ- ous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review

June Price Tangney; Jeff Stuewig; Debra J. Mashek

2007-01-01

345

Attentional Biases for Emotional Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated emotion-related biases in selective attention for pictorial stimuli in nonclinical subjects; the stimuli included threatening, happy and neutral facial expressions. The combined results showed evi- dence of an emotion-related attentional bias for facial expressions (i.e. an interaction effect of dysphoria and the emotional valence of the facial expression on attentional bias). In particular, nondysphoric subjects (i.e. those

Claire Bonham-Carter; Emma Fergusson; Jane Jenkins; Michelle Parr

1997-01-01

346

Emotional Eating: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional eating is part of the eating disorder spectrum. It requires specific, scientifically-valid treatments that address its biological, psychological, social\\/cultural, and spiritual aspects. Remuda's Emotional Eating Program offers this package for those who eat emotionally, whether overweight or not. Patients participate in a Biblically-based program that promotes healthy eating and a balanced lifestyle. The program integrates portions of Dialectical Behavior

Darcy Tucker

347

Meaningful Parameters in Emotion Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expressive speech synthesis some method of mimicking the way one specific speaker express emotions is needed. In this work\\u000a we have studied the suitability of long term prosodic parameters and short term spectral parameters to reflect emotions in\\u000a speech, by means of the analysis of the results of two automatic emotion classification systems. Those systems have been trained\\u000a with

Eva Navas; Inmaculada Hernįez; Iker Luengo; Ińaki Sainz; Ibon Saratxaga; Jon Sįnchez

2007-01-01

348

Workplace bullying, emotions, and outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examines emotional experiences as potential mediators between exposure to workplace bullying and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to leave the organization, respectively. A total of 5,520 respondents participated in the study. Drawing upon affective events theory (AET), the results show that emotions partly mediate these relationships and, hence, support the notion that emotions play a central part in the relationship between bullying and essential occupational outcomes. PMID:22852437

Glasų, Lars; Notelaers, Guy

2012-01-01

349

Children acquire emotion categories gradually  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2–5 years) first labeled facial expressions of six emotions and were then shown a

Sherri C. Widen; James A. Russell

2008-01-01

350

Emotion and self-control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biology-based model of choice is used to examine time-inconsistent preferences and the problem of self-control. Emotion is shown to be the biological substrate of choice, in that emotional systems assign value to ‘goods’ in the environment and also facilitate the learning of expectations regarding alternative options for acquiring those goods. A third major function of the emotional choice systems

Adam Gifford Jr.

2002-01-01

351

Representing Emotions with Linguistic Acuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a robot to make effective and friendly interaction with human users, it is important to keep track of emotional changes\\u000a in utterance properly. Emotions have traditionally been characterized by intuitive but atomic categories or as points in evaluation-activity\\u000a dimensions. However, this characterization falls short of capturing subtle emotional changes either in narration or in text,\\u000a where the vast majority

Hye-jin Min; Jong C. Park

2007-01-01

352

Informational need of emotional stress.  

PubMed

According to the informational theory of emotions, emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need satisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed. PMID:11543094

Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V

353

Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.  

PubMed

Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. PMID:20736070

Ruz, Marķa; Tudela, Pķo

2010-08-22

354

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs About Emotions, Mother–Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother–child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value\\/danger of children's emotions and parent\\/child roles in emotion socialization. Mother–child emotion talk was observed during a Lego storytelling task. Children's emotion understanding was

Marie Belle Perez Rivera; Julie C. Dunsmore

2011-01-01

355

Emotional influences on singing  

Microsoft Academic Search

national grants in 9 years. She is the author of over 50 research papers, abstracts, chapters and edited books, and has presented research results at 43 conferences and been,keynote,or invited speaker,at 13 international,conferences.,Her research,interests include the neural control of voice and breathing, respiratory and laryngeal control during speech,and,singing,and,emotional,influences,on voice. She has,supervised,several,PhD and Masters,research,students,and,is currently supervising,a number,of postgraduate,students at the National,Voice

Pamela Davis

356

Emotional abilities and cortical activation during emotional information processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the physiological study of cognitive intelligence there is sound evidence of a more efficient use of the brain in brighter individuals (the neural efficiency hypothesis). However, scarcely anything is known with respect to physiological correlates of emotional abilities. To overcome this limitation, we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal emotional management abilities (EMA) and the extent of event-related desynchronization (ERD)

H. Harald Freudenthaler; Andreas Fink; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2006-01-01

357

Prospective Effects of Emotion-Regulation Skills on Emotional Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in emotion-regulation skills have widely been shown to be associated with poor emotional adjustment. However, it is still unclear whether these deficits are a cause or a consequence of poor adjustment. The purpose of the present research was to clarify the reciprocal effects between these 2 concepts. In 2 studies (Ns = 446 and 635),…

Berking, Matthias; Orth, Ulrich; Wupperman, Peggilee; Meier, Laurenz L.; Caspar, Franz

2008-01-01

358

Emotion in voice matters: Neural correlates of emotional prosody perception.  

PubMed

The ability to perceive emotions is imperative for successful interpersonal functioning. The present study examined the neural characteristics of emotional prosody perception with an exploratory event-related potential analysis. Participants were 59 healthy individuals who completed a discrimination task presenting 120 semantically neutral word pairs from five prosody conditions (happy/happy, angry/angry, neutral/neutral, angry/happy, happy/angry). The task required participants to determine whether words in the pair were spoken in same or different emotional prosody. Reflective of an initial processing stage, the word 1 N1 component was found to have greatest amplitude in parietal regions of the hemispheres, and was largest for emotional compared to neutral stimuli, indicating detection of emotion features. A second processing stage, represented by word 1 P2, showed similar topographic effects; however, amplitude was largest for happy in the left hemisphere while angry was largest in the right, illustrating differentiation of emotions. At the third processing stage, word 1 N3 amplitude was largest in frontal regions, indicating later cognitive processing occurs in the frontal cortex. N3 was largest for happy, which had lowest accuracy compared to angry and neutral. The present results support Schirmer and Kotz's (2006) model of vocal emotion perception because they elucidated the function and ERP components by reflecting three primary stages of emotional prosody perception, controlling for semantic influence. PMID:23830881

Iredale, Jaimi Marie; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye; Dimoska-Di Marco, Aneta; Swift, Joshua

2013-07-04

359

Regional brain function, emotion and disorders of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the neural substrates of emotion and its disorders. Neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize the circuitry underlying disorders of emotion. Particular emphasis has been placed on the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and the amygdala as critical components of the circuitry that may be dysfunctional in both depression and

Richard J Davidson; Heather Abercrombie; Jack B Nitschke; Katherine Putnam

1999-01-01

360

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) figures prominently in emotional responding, but its exact role remains unclear. The present study tests two hypotheses: (1) Between-person differences in resting RSA are related to emotional reactivity, and (2) within-person changes in RSA are related to regulatory efforts. Pairs of women watched an upsetting film and discussed it. One woman in each of the experimental

Emily A. Butler; Frank H. Wilhelm; JAMES J. GROSSc

2006-01-01

361

The Voice of Emotion: Acoustic Properties of Six Emotional Expressions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in the perceptual identification of emotional states suggested that listeners seemed to depend on a limited set of vocal cues to distinguish among emotions. Linguistics and speech science literatures have indicated that this small set of cues included intensity, fundamental frequency, and temporal properties such as speech rate and duration. Little research has been done, however, to validate these cues in the production of emotional speech, or to determine if specific dimensions of each cue are associated with the production of a particular emotion for a variety of speakers. This study addressed deficiencies in understanding of the acoustical properties of duration and intensity as components of emotional speech by means of speech science instrumentation. Acoustic data were conveyed in a brief sentence spoken by twelve English speaking adult male and female subjects, half with dramatic training, and half without such training. Simulated expressions included: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. The study demonstrated that the acoustic property of mean intensity served as an important cue for a vocal taxonomy. Overall duration was rejected as an element for a general taxonomy due to interactions involving gender and role. Findings suggested a gender-related taxonomy, however, based on differences in the ways in which men and women use the duration cue in their emotional expressions. Results also indicated that speaker training may influence greater use of the duration cue in expressions of emotion, particularly for male actors. Discussion of these results provided linkages to (1) practical management of emotional interactions in clinical and interpersonal environments, (2) implications for differences in the ways in which males and females may be socialized to express emotions, and (3) guidelines for future perceptual studies of emotional sensitivity.

Baldwin, Carol May

362

Culture and the Categorization of Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some writers assume—and others deny—that all human beings distinguish emotions from nonemotions and divide the emotions into happiness, anger, fear, and so on. A review of ethnographic and cross-cultural studies on (a) emotion lexicons, (b) the emotions inferred from facial expressions, and (c) dimensions implicit in comparative judgments of emotions indicated both similarities and differences in how the emotions are

James A. Russell

1991-01-01

363

Networks of Emotion Concepts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the similarity network and hierarchical clustering of Finnish emotion concepts. Native speakers of Finnish evaluated similarity between the 50 most frequently used Finnish words describing emotional experiences. We hypothesized that methods developed within network theory, such as identifying clusters and specific local network structures, can reveal structures that would be difficult to discover using traditional methods such as multidimensional scaling (MDS) and ordinary cluster analysis. The concepts divided into three main clusters, which can be described as negative, positive, and surprise. Negative and positive clusters divided further into meaningful sub-clusters, corresponding to those found in previous studies. Importantly, this method allowed the same concept to be a member in more than one cluster. Our results suggest that studying particular network structures that do not fit into a low-dimensional description can shed additional light on why subjects evaluate certain concepts as similar. To encourage the use of network methods in analyzing similarity data, we provide the analysis software for free use (http://www.becs.tkk.fi/similaritynets/).

Toivonen, Riitta; Kivela, Mikko; Saramaki, Jari; Viinikainen, Mikko; Vanhatalo, Maija; Sams, Mikko

2012-01-01

364

Diagnosis of Type, Location and Size of Cracks by Using Generalized Differential Quadrature and Rayleigh Quotient Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an appropriate and accurate algorithm is pro- posed to diagnosis of lateral or vertical cracks on beam, based on beam natural frequencies. Clamped-free boundary conditions are assumed for the beam. The crack in beam is modelled by without mass torsion spring. Then, the relationship between the beam natural frequencies, location and stiffness of the crack is presented by using the Rayleigh quotient and the governing equation is solved by using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). If there is only one crack in the beam, then three natural frequencies are used as inputs to the algorithm and mode shapes corresponding to each the natural frequencies are calculated. Finally, type, location and severity of cracks in beam, are diagnosed.

Akbarzadeh Khorshidi, Majid; Soltani, Delara

2013-03-01

365

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian version: a cross-cultural confirmation of the broader autism phenotype.  

PubMed

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the 'broader' (BAP), 'medium' (MAP) and 'narrow' autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample. Parents of children with autism spectrum conditions scored higher than the control parents on total AQ, social skills and communication subscales, and exhibited higher rates of BAP, MAP and NAP. We conclude that the Italian AQ is a cross-culturally reliable measure of these different phenotypes, and can be used to identify a phenotypic gradient of severity of autistic traits in families. To understand the molecular basis of these phenotypes will require its use in genetic association studies. PMID:21626054

Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-04-01

366

Emotion and sociable humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able

Cynthia Breazeal

2003-01-01

367

The Automaticity of Emotion Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary accounts of emotion typically assume that humans evolved to quickly and efficiently recognize emotion expressions because these expressions convey fitness-enhancing messages. The present research tested this assumption in 2 studies. Specifically, the authors examined (a) how quickly perceivers could recognize expressions of anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, shame, and surprise; (b) whether accuracy is improved when

Jessica L. Tracy; Richard W. Robins

2008-01-01

368

EMOTIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS: A NEUROCOMPUTATIONAL THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a theory of how conscious emotional experience is produced by the brain as the result of many interacting brain areas coordinated in working memory. These brain areas integrate perceptions of bodily states of an organism with cognitive appraisals of its current situation. Emotions are neural processes that represent the overall cognitive and somatic state of the organism.

Paul Thagard

369

Modelling human attention and emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a previously developed engineering control approach to attention, presenting detailed attention control function assignments to the wealth of brain modules experimentally observed. A proposed mechanism for attention amplification through acetylcholine is analysed by use of neural field theory. The control system is extended to include biasing by emotional valence, with qualitative analysis given of a range of emotion

J. G. Taylor; N. Fragopanagos

2004-01-01

370

Emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between managerial emotional intelligence (EI) levels and a rating of leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study involved administering the Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) EI test to 38 supervisors within a large manufacturing organisation. Ratings of supervisory leadership effectiveness were assessed via subordinate ratings on an attitude survey detailing

Robert Kerr; John Garvin; Norma Heaton; Emily Boyle

2006-01-01

371

Does leadership need emotional intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in emotional intelligence has bloomed over the last few years. That it has become a standard concept in general and applied psychology, as well as in applied business settings, is indubitable. Is this popularity warranted? Casting a shadow over the concept of emotional intelligence are concerns about its meaningfulness and the construct and predictive validity of its various measures.

John Antonakis; Neal M. Ashkanasy; Marie T. Dasborough

2009-01-01

372

Emotion in Sport across Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions make life worth living. They are essential to sporting life, whether experienced as a child or adult, player or spectator. Our sporting memories are dominated by strong emotion- al events. In the 2000 Olympics, many in the world rejoiced with Australia's Cathy Freeman as she captured gold in the 400 meters. At the other extreme, many Major League Baseball

Peter R. E. CrockerKent; C. KowalskiSharleen; D. Hoar; Meghan H. McDonough

373

Memory, emotion, and REM sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored the manner in which REM sleep deprivation might affect various aspects of memory processing. A series of tests, including S. Sternberg's test of scanning of immediate memory, past personal and nonpersonal memory, and past emotional memories, was administered to 8 college students after baseline, control-awakening, and REM-deprivation nights. Results show that only past, emotionally important memories may have been

Ramon Greenberg; Chester Pearlman; Wynn R. Schwartz; Hildreth Y. Grossman

1983-01-01

374

Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

2008-01-01

375

Artificial emotions as emergent phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some researchers claim that emotion is unique to mammals, this paper describes a notion of artificial emotion as a phenomenon resulting from a series of modifications to emergent behaviors generated by a behavior-based artificial intelligence (AI) approach. Such modifications to behaviors are caused by stimuli (including those from humans) which a robot receives from its environment. The paper describes

Takashi Gomi; Joseph Ulvr

1993-01-01

376

Emotive Qualities in Robot Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores the expression of emotion in synthesized speech for an anthropomorphic robot. We have adapted several key emotional correlates of human speech to the robot's speech synthesizer to allow the robot to speak in either an angry, calm, disg...

C. Breazeal

2000-01-01

377

Emotional Intelligence: Components and Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is no accepted definition and no adequate measure for the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Some of the myriad issues surrounding EI are discussed here. One problem in the consideration of EI is the confusion between the terms "feelings" and "emotions." Differences between the two are examined and a working definition of feelings is…

Bernet, Michael

378

Emotional entrainment in music performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at defining a computational model of human emotional entrainment. Music, as a non-verbal language to express emotions, is chosen as an ideal test bed for these aims. We start from multimodal gesture and motion signals, recorded in a real world collaborative condition in an ecological setting. Four violin players were asked to play, alone or in duo,

Giovanna Varni; Antonio Camurri; Paolo Coletta; Gualtiero Volpe

2008-01-01

379

Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

Pickover, Sheri

2010-01-01

380

Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

Neophytou, Lefkios

2013-01-01

381

Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while maintaining a consistent personality. For short-term interactions in restricted environments, scripting and state machine techniques can create agents with emotion and personality, but these methods are labor intensive, hard to extend, and brittle in new environments. Fortunately, research

Anthony G. Francis; Manish Mehta; Ashwin Ram

2010-01-01

382

Measures of emotion: A review  

PubMed Central

A consensual, componential model of emotions conceptualises them as experiential, physiological, and behavioural responses to personally meaningful stimuli. The present review examines this model in terms of whether different types of emotion-evocative stimuli are associated with discrete and invariant patterns of responding in each response system, how such responses are structured, and if such responses converge across different response systems. Across response systems, the bulk of the available evidence favours the idea that measures of emotional responding reflect dimensions rather than discrete states. In addition, experiential, physiological, and behavioural response systems are associated with unique sources of variance, which in turn limits the magnitude of convergence across measures. Accordingly, the authors suggest that there is no “gold standard” measure of emotional responding. Rather, experiential, physiological, and behavioural measures are all relevant to understanding emotion and cannot be assumed to be interchangeable.

Mauss, Iris B.; Robinson, Michael D.

2009-01-01

383

Bowel distress and emotional conflict.  

PubMed Central

A psychodynamic assessment of 60 women with functional bowel disorder seen at St Mark's, a specialist hospital for disorders of the colon and rectum, has shown that most were trapped in severe emotional conflicts with which they were unable to cope. In many the bodily illnesses appeared to be an expression of these conflicts as well as a defence against experiencing them. The illnesses were then partly, or entirely, emotional conflicts that had become medicalized--emotional conflicts in illnesses clothing. The illnesses, usually precipitated by significant life events, often had their roots in emotional conflicts in infancy or childhood at which time a high proportion of the women had experienced a severe life trauma. The study also indicated that the conflicts that appeared to contribute to the illnesses were associated with emotional difficulties in fulfilling themselves as women.

Brook, A

1991-01-01

384

DEALING WITH ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: CAN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ENHANCE ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisational learning is a method of successfully dealing with continuous change. Emotional aspects of change, however, are not addressed in any detail. In this article, I explore the four branches of emotional intelligence, emotional awareness, emotional facilitation, emotional knowledge and emotional regulation to identify the links between organisational learning and emotional intelligence that contribute to successful organisational change. Although emotional

Peter J. Jordan

385

Emotion to emotion speech conversion in phoneme level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having an ability to synthesize emotional speech can make human-machine interaction more natural in spoken dialogue management. This study investigates the effectiveness of prosodic and spectral modification in phoneme level on emotion-to-emotion speech conversion. The prosody modification is performed with the TD-PSOLA algorithm (Moulines and Charpentier, 1990). We also transform the spectral envelopes of source phonemes to match those of target phonemes using LPC-based spectral transformation approach (Kain, 2001). Prosodic speech parameters (F0, duration, and energy) for target phonemes are estimated from the statistics obtained from the analysis of an emotional speech database of happy, angry, sad, and neutral utterances collected from actors. Listening experiments conducted with native American English speakers indicate that the modification of prosody only or spectrum only is not sufficient to elicit targeted emotions. The simultaneous modification of both prosody and spectrum results in higher acceptance rates of target emotions, suggesting that not only modeling speech prosody but also modeling spectral patterns that reflect underlying speech articulations are equally important to synthesize emotional speech with good quality. We are investigating suprasegmental level modifications for further improvement in speech quality and expressiveness.

Bulut, Murtaza; Yildirim, Serdar; Busso, Carlos; Lee, Chul Min; Kazemzadeh, Ebrahim; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

2004-10-01

386

Intentional intelligence and the intentional intelligence quotient (IIQ): construct development and scale validation integrating mindfulness, self?agency, and positive thought flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study follows Braud’s (2009) recommendation for the field of management, spirituality, and religion to produce “standardized assessment instruments”. Our principal goals in this study were to (1) define the construct of intentional intelligence and (2) formulate and assess a valid and reliable measure of the intentional intelligence quotient (IIQ). Intentional intelligence is defined as one’s ability to (a) identify

David S. Steingard; Ronald L. Dufresne

2011-01-01

387

Using Self-Report to Identify the Broad Phenotype in Parents of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Study Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The concept of the "broad phenotype" of autism refers to the finding that relatives of people with autism often have mild forms of autistic-like characteristics, such as social and communicative difficulties. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a questionnaire devised to assess features of the broad phenotype in adults,…

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Maybery, Murray; Maley, Alana; Wong, Dana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim

2004-01-01

388

Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: a study using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The concept of the 'broad phenotype' of autism refers to the finding that relatives of people with autism often have mild forms of autistic-like characteristics, such as social and communicative difficulties. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a questionnaire devised to assess features of the broad phenotype in adults, with parents of people with autism, to see

Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Murray Maybery; Alana Maley; Dana Wong; Wayne Hill; Joachim Hallmayer

2004-01-01

389

Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-01-01

390

The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

2011-01-01

391

A Simplified Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment to Evaluate the Effect of the Ionic Strength on the Equilibrium Concentration Quotient of the Bromcresol Green Dye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modified laboratory experiment for undergraduate students is presented to evaluate the effects of the ionic strength, "I", on the equilibrium concentration quotient, K[subscript c], of the acid-base indicator bromcresol green (BCG). The two-step deprotonation of the acidic form of the dye (sultone form), as it is dissolved in water, yields…

Rodriguez, Hernan B.; Mirenda, Martin

2012-01-01

392

Emotion recognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury: longitudinal analysis of emotional prosody and facial emotion recognition.  

PubMed

Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was to examine if children sustaining a TBI exhibit difficulties with emotion recognition in terms of emotional prosody and face emotion recognition and to determine (1) how these abilities change over time and (2) what, if any, additional factors such as sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) affected the findings. Results provide general support for the idea that children sustaining a TBI exhibit deficits in emotional prosody and face emotion recognition performance. Further, although some gains were noted in the TBI group over the two-years following injury, factors such as SES and age at injury influenced the trajectory of recovery. The current findings indicate the relationship between TBI and emotion recognition is complex and may be influenced by a number of developmental and environmental factors. Results are discussed in terms of their similarity to previous investigations demonstrating the influence of environmental factors on behavioral recovery following pediatric TBI, and with regard to future investigations that can further explore the link between emotion recognition deficits and long-term behavioral and psychosocial recovery. PMID:20678980

Schmidt, Adam T; Hanten, Gerri R; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D; Levin, Harvey S

2010-05-26

393

Processing emotional category congruency between emotional facial expressions and emotional words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are critical for effective social communication, and as such may be processed by the visual system even when it might be advantageous to ignore them. Previous research has shown that categorising emotional words was impaired when faces of a conflicting valence were simultaneously presented. In the present study, we examined whether emotional word categorisation would also be impaired

Samantha Baggott; Romina Palermo; Allison M. Fox

2011-01-01

394

Showing and telling about emotions: Interrelations between facets of emotional competence and associations with classroom adjustment in Head Start preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study of low income preschoolers (N?=? 60), we examined relations between three facets of emotional competence: emotion knowledge, level of negative emotion expression, and emotion regulation; and their associations with indicators of classroom adjustment. Emotion knowledge was positively related to positive emotion regulation but was not related to negative emotion expression or negative dysregulation. Negative emotion expression related

Alison L. Miller; Sarah E. Fine; Kathleen Kiely Gouley; Ronald Seifer; Susan Dickstein; Ann Shields

2006-01-01

395

Loneliness and emotional intelligence.  

PubMed

The possible associations of loneliness with Emotional Intelligence (EI), 2 of its correlates (life satisfaction and a sense of meaning), and several background variables were tested on a sample of 134 young adults attending college in northern Israel. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis provided support for the model, suggesting that the presence of meaning, EI, and size and availability of an individual's social network are the strongest correlates of loneliness. EI therefore emerges as a potentially important factor in our understanding of loneliness, and the model provides a framework for future studies. The results are discussed vis-ą-vis existing findings in the literature and possible directions for approaching loneliness as a theoretical concept and a social phenomenon. PMID:22303611

Zysberg, Leehu

396

Are specific emotions narrated differently?  

PubMed

Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions. PMID:20001120

Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

2009-12-01

397

Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display: the signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions. PMID:20230076

Lam, Catherine K; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne

2010-03-01

398

Emotional conflict and social context  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to move the debate over the status of the conflict between emotion and judgement forward by refuting three implicit claims: that conflict between emotion and judgement is always to be avoided; that any conflict should always be resolved and, moreover, that it should be resolved immediately; that judgement should usually take priority in any resolution. Refutation of these three claims leads to recognition of the wide variety of different cases of conflict between emotion and judgement; examination of these cases is aided by consideration of the social context in which the conflicts occur.

FitzGerald, Chloe

2011-01-01

399

An Integrated Approach to Emotion Recognition for Advanced Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion identification is beginning to be considered as an essential feature in human-computer interaction. However, most\\u000a of the studies are mainly focused on facial expression classifications and speech recognition and not much attention has been\\u000a paid until recently to physiological pattern recognition. In this paper, an integrative approach is proposed to emotional\\u000a interaction by fusing multi-modal signals. Subjects are exposed

Panagiotis D. Bamidis; Christos A. Frantzidis; Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; Andrej Luneski; Chrysa D. Lithari; Manousos A. Klados; Charalampos Bratsas; Christos L. Papadelis; Costas Pappas

2009-01-01

400

Adding emotional factors to synthesized voices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with how to add emotional factors to synthesized voices by applying essentic forms of emotion which reflect the timewise response of muscle reaction to each kind of emotions. We modulate the magnitude and fundamental frequency of given series of voice with no emotional factor by the essentic standard forms obtained by fingertip pressure. Psychological evaluation of these

Fumio Hara

1997-01-01

401

Emotion: Appraisal-coping model for the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling emotion has become a challenge nowadays. Therefore, several models have been produced in order to express human emotional activity. However, only a few of them are currently able to express the close re- lationship existing between emotion and cognition. An appraisal-coping model is presented here, with the aim to simulate the emotional impact caused by the eval- uation of

Karim Mahboub; Evelyne Clément; Cyrille Bertelle; Véronique Jay

2009-01-01

402

Theories of emotion causation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present an overview of emotion theories, organised around the question of emotion causation. I argue that theories of emotion causation should ideally address the problems of elicitation, intensity, and differentiation. Each of these problems can be divided into a subquestion that asks about the relation between stimuli and emotions (i.e., the functional level of process description, cf. Marr, 1982)

Agnes Moors

2009-01-01

403

Product relevant emotions in the Spanish language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a five-stage study to identify what emotions are product relevant in Mexican culture, and to cross-compare these with the emotions identified in a prior study carried out in the Netherlands. 34 emotion terms in the Spanish language were identified as product relevant, 17 of which were related to product appearance. 21 emotion terms that were identified in

Juan Carlos Ortķz Nicolįs; Irma Hernįndez

404

Emotions: A Means of Studying Human Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotions affect people's perceptions of reality, with the emotions that we experience on a daily basis appearing to be in response to external stimulus such as a stressor of some kind resulting in responses which ultimately result in some emotion being expressed, be it anger, fear, love, hate, disgust, pleasure, and so on. Therefore, Meyer's (1933) contention that emotions are

William L. Smith

405

Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show

Alison M. Jaggar

1989-01-01

406

Magda B. Arnold's contributions to emotions research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview to the special issue of Cognition and Emotion devoted to Magda B. Arnold's (1903–2002) contributions to the psychology of human emotion. Contributors provide insight into the intellectual forebears and theoretical scope of Arnold's emotion theory, and the interconnections of Arnold's theories and contemporary trends in research on emotion, motivation, and social neuroscience. A biography of

Stephanie A. Shields; Arvid Kappas

2006-01-01

407

The function of emotional intelligence in leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of emotional intelligence in leadership activities attracts more and more attention of researchers and practitioners. Based on the introduction of the concept and the ability model of emotional intelligence, the roles of leader's emotional intelligence in leadership activities are discussed in detail. Keywords-emotional intelligence; leader; leadership effectiveness

Shuhong Wang; Shengxu Xiong

2011-01-01

408

Neural Response to Emotional Salience in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroimaging probes of brain regions implicated in emotion represent an important research strategy for understanding emotional dysfunction in schizophrenia. Anterior limbic structures, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the generation of emotional responses, although few studies to date have used emotion probes to target these areas in schizophrenia. With

Stephan F Taylor; K Luan Phan; Jennifer C Britton; Israel Liberzon

2005-01-01

409

Beyond Cognition: Modeling Emotion in Cognitive Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in psychology and neuroscience has identified both the critical role of emotion in decision-making and social interaction, and some of the mechanisms mediating the functioning of emotion. Yet the majority of cognitive architectures do not include models of emotion. In this paper I first motivate the need for including emotion in cognitive architectures, and then describe a generic

Eva Hudlicka

2004-01-01

410

Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary…

Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

2012-01-01

411

Modeling Emotion-Based Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computational a pproach to Emotion- Based Decision-Making that models important aspects of emotional processing and integrates these with other models of per ception, motivation, behavior, and motor control. A particular emphasis is placed on using some of the mec ha- nisms of emotions as building blocks for the acquisition of emotional memories that serve as biasing

Juan D. Velįsquez

412

Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a

Michaela Rohr; Juliane Degner; Dirk Wentura

2011-01-01

413

Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a

Michaela Rohr; Juliane Degner; Dirk Wentura

2012-01-01

414

Gender and Preschoolers’ Perception of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person’s gender plays a role in the emotion children attribute to that person, even given unambiguous cues to a basic emotion. Eighty preschoolers (4 or 5 years of age) were asked to name the emotion of either a boy (Judd) or a girl (Suzy) in otherwise identical stories about prototypical emotional events and, separately, as shown with identical prototypical

Sherri C. Widen; James A. Russell

2002-01-01

415

Emotional Intelligence in Christian Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the importance of emotional intelligence in Christian higher education. Specifically, it addresses possible implications between emotional intelligence skills and success in the areas of learning, mental health, and career preparation. The paper addresses the following questions: Is there a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement? Does emotional intelligence provide tools that enable students to conquer

Sudi Kate Gliebe

2012-01-01

416

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and the same,

Joseph J. Campos; Carl B. Frankel; Linda Camras

2004-01-01

417

Facial color control to represent character emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a facial color change technique, which is a combination of emotional models based on human cultural theory, emotional expression pattern using colors, and emotional reaction speed function, as opposed to previous methods that express emotions through blood flow, pulse, or skin temperature.

Kyu Ho Park; Tae Yong Kim

2009-01-01

418

Emotion Deficits in Schizophrenia: Timing Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past two decades of research on emotional response in schizophrenia has demonstrated that people with schizophrenia do not have a marked deficit in reported emotional experience in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli. However, the extent to which people with schizophrenia maintain their emotional state to guide future behavior remains a largely unexplored area of investigation. In the present

Ann M. Kring; Marja Germans Gard; David E. Gard

2011-01-01

419

On the Nature of Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a unitary approach to emotion and emotion regulation, building on the excellent points in the lead article by Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue), as well as the fine commentaries that follow it. It begins by stressing how, in the real world, the processes underlying emotion and emotion regulation appear to be largely one and…

Campos, Joseph J.; Frankel, Carl B.; Camras, Linda

2004-01-01

420

Emotion, Attention, and the Startle Reflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical model of emotion is based on research using the startle-probe methodology. It explains inconsistencies in probe studies of attention and fear conditioning and provides a new approach to emotional perception, imagery, and memory. Emotions are organized biphasically, as appetitive or aversive (defensive). Reflexes with the same valence as an ongoing emotional state are augmented; mismatched reflexes are inhibited.

Peter J. Lang; Margaret M. Bradley; Bruce N. Cuthbert

1990-01-01

421

Using Mindfulness Practice to Work with Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important point to understand is that working with and understanding our own emotional reactions is an essential prerequisite to working skillfully with emotionally charged individuals in disputes. Training in “mediation techniques” designed to help us recognize and work with emotions in the mediation and negotiation context will not work unless we have practiced working with our own emotions

Deborah Calloway

2010-01-01

422

Adult attachment, emotional control, and marital satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research into the relations among attachment style, emotional experience, and emotional control. Questionnaire measures of these variables were completed by a broad sample of 238 married couples. Continuous measures of attachment showed that insecure attachment (low Comfort with closeness; high Anxiety over relationships) was related to greater control of emotion, regardless of whether the emotion was

JUDITH A. FEENEY

1999-01-01

423

Towards emotion recognition from electroencephalographic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, information about the emotional state of users has become more and more important in human-computer interaction. Automatic emotion recognition enables the computer to recognize a user's emotional state and thus allows for appropriate reaction, which may pave the way for computers to act emotionally in the future. In the current study, we investigate different feature sets

Kristina Schaaff; Tanja Schultz

2009-01-01

424

Modeling the Emotional State of Computer Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the structure of a Bayesian network designed to monitor the behavior of a user interacting with a conversational computer and use that information to estimate the user's emotional state. Our model of emotional state uses two discrete dimensions, valence (bad to good) and arousal (calm to excited), to capture the dominant aspects of physical emotional response. Emotion is

J. Eugene Ball; Jack Breese

1999-01-01

425

Emotions in human and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence and emotions differentiate humans from animals. Emotion is part of a persons behaviour and certain feelings can affect his\\/her performance, emotions can even prevent a person from producing an intelligent outcome. Therefore, when a computer aims to emulate human behaviour, not only should this computer think and reason, but it should also be able to show emotions. This paper

Juan Mart??nez-Miranda; Arantza Aldea

2005-01-01

426

Dimensions of Emotion in Expressive Musical Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dimensions of emotion conveyed by music. Participants rated emotion terms after seeing and\\/or hearing recordings of clarinet performances that varied in expressive content. A factor analysis re- vealed four independent dimensions of emotion. Changes to the clarinetists' ex- pressive intentions did not significantly affect emotions conveyed by sound. It was largely through the visual modality that

BRADLEY W. VINES; CAROL L. KRUMHANSL; MARCELO M. WANDERLEY; IOANA DALCA

2005-01-01

427

Disambiguating the Components of Emotion Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Affective neuroscience and cognitive science approaches are useful for understanding the components of emotion regulation; several examples from current research are provided. Individual differences in emotion regulation and a focus on the context of emotion experience and expression provide additional tools to study emotion regulation, and its…

Goldsmith, H. H.; Davidson, Richard J.

2004-01-01

428

Sex Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability Emotional Intelligence is a cognitive ability that includes the perception, understanding, and management of your own emotions and those of other people, and can be distinguished from Trait Emotional Intelligence, which includes a variety of personality dimensions related to emotions (Petrides & Furnham, 2001). Past research has shown that men obtain lower scores than women, on average, on measures

Monica Beisecker; A. Barchard

429

African American and European American Mothers' Beliefs About Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors examined mothers’ beliefs about their children's negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices. Design. A total of 65 African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children's negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results. African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was

Jackie A. Nelson; Esther M. Leerkes; Marion OBrien; Susan D. Calkins; Stuart Marcovitch

2012-01-01

430

Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.  

PubMed

This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631

Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

2010-09-01

431

Emotional conflict occurs at an early stage: Evidence from the emotional face–word Stroop task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptual processing of emotional conflict was studied using electrophysiological techniques to measure event-related potentials (ERPs). The emotional face–word Stroop task in which emotion words are written in prominent red color across a face was use to study emotional conflict. In each trial, the emotion word and facial expression were either congruent or incongruent (in conflict). When subjects were asked

Xiang-ru Zhu; Hui-jun Zhang; Ting-ting Wu; Wen-bo Luo; Yue-jia Luo

2010-01-01

432

The experience of positive emotion is associated with the automatic processing of positive emotional words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines the relationship between attention bias for positive emotional words and self-reported emotional experience. Previous research suggests that the experience of positive emotion momentarily broadens cognitive processes, potentially allowing individuals to build an array of enduring personal resources. However, it is unknown whether the experience of positive emotion also broadens emotional information processing. Participants included 60 healthy

Gregory P. Strauss; Daniel N. Allen

2006-01-01

433

Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and

Matthias Spörrle; Isabell M. Welpe; Friedrich Försterling

2006-01-01

434

Emotional Intelligence and Emotion Work: Examining Constructs From an Interdisciplinary Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional intelligence and emotion work are two research areas traditionally presented as distinct. This article reviews their definitions, examines their intersections, and illustrates the advantage of approaching emotion research from an interdisciplinary framework. Conclusions address the following: (a) An employee’s emotional intelligence or cognitive abilities cannot be assessed or developed without an understanding of the context or emotion work rules;

Rose Opengart

2005-01-01

435

Emotional Intelligence and Emotions Associated with Optimal and Dysfunctional Athletic Performance  

PubMed Central

This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key points Athletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions. Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions. Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance.

Lane, Andrew M.; Devonport, Tracey J.; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal

2010-01-01

436

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music – an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life – can arouse emotions – biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework – referred to as BRECVEMA – includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'.

Juslin, Patrik N.

2013-09-01

437

From everyday emotions to aesthetic emotions: Towards a unified theory of musical emotions.  

PubMed

The sound of music may arouse profound emotions in listeners. But such experiences seem to involve a 'paradox', namely that music - an abstract form of art, which appears removed from our concerns in everyday life - can arouse emotions - biologically evolved reactions related to human survival. How are these (seemingly) non-commensurable phenomena linked together? Key is to understand the processes through which sounds are imbued with meaning. It can be argued that the survival of our ancient ancestors depended on their ability to detect patterns in sounds, derive meaning from them, and adjust their behavior accordingly. Such an ecological perspective on sound and emotion forms the basis of a recent multi-level framework that aims to explain emotional responses to music in terms of a large set of psychological mechanisms. The goal of this review is to offer an updated and expanded version of the framework that can explain both 'everyday emotions' and 'aesthetic emotions'. The revised framework - referred to as BRECVEMA - includes eight mechanisms: Brain Stem Reflex, Rhythmic Entrainment, Evaluative Conditioning, Contagion, Visual Imagery, Episodic Memory, Musical Expectancy, and Aesthetic Judgment. In this review, it is argued that all of the above mechanisms may be directed at information that occurs in a 'musical event' (i.e., a specific constellation of music, listener, and context). Of particular significance is the addition of a mechanism corresponding to aesthetic judgments of the music, to better account for typical 'appreciation emotions' such as admiration and awe. Relationships between aesthetic judgments and other mechanisms are reviewed based on the revised framework. It is suggested that the framework may contribute to a long-needed reconciliation between previous approaches that have conceptualized music listeners' responses in terms of either 'everyday emotions' or 'aesthetic emotions'. PMID:23769678

Juslin, Patrik N

2013-05-29

438

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Back Pain and Emotional Distress Common Reactions to Back Pain Four out of five adults will experience an episode of significant back pain sometime during ...

439

Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... frustration, possibly with a temper tantrum or sullen rage. He may even strike back by hitting, biting, ... emotions, be prepared for everything from delight to rage. However, you should consult your pediatrician if your ...

440

Is boundary extension emotionally selective?  

PubMed

When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions. PMID:23445174

Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

2013-02-28

441

Multiple emotional contagions in service encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the dynamic impact of multiple sequential emotional displays by employees on customers’ negative emotions.\\u000a Using video-based stimuli to manipulate emotional displays by employees, this study shows the sequential occurrences of negative\\u000a and positive emotional contagions in service failure and recovery encounters. The results suggest that higher levels of employees’\\u000a negative emotional displays lead to a greater increase

Jiangang Du; Xiucheng Fan; Tianjun Feng

2011-01-01

442

Sentimentalism and Self-Directed Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is a long-standing philosophical debate about the role of emotions in moral judgment. Some argue that emotions are inessential;\\u000a we can make moral judgments without having an emotional response. Others, so-called sentimentalists, argue that emotions play\\u000a an essential role. Philosophers have debated these positions for ages with no resolution. Intuitions vary as to whether emotions\\u000a are essential to morality.

Jesse Prinz

443

Brain imaging, genetics and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the published evidence on genetically driven variation in neurotransmitter function and brain circuits involved in emotion. Several studies point to a role of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in amygdala activation during emotion perception. We also discuss other polymorphisms (e.g. the COMT val158met polymorphism, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 ?703 G\\/T) and putative effects on affective processing in cortical and

André Aleman; Marte Swart; Sophie van Rijn

2008-01-01

444

Emotional organization of autobiographical memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical\\u000a retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative\\u000a valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal\\u000a did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal

Matthew D. Schulkind; Gillian M. Woldorf

2005-01-01

445

Toddlers’ Understanding of Peers’ Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants’ ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their own behavior with the toys. They found

Sara R. Nichols; Margarita Svetlova; Celia A. Brownell

2010-01-01

446

Examining emotional intelligence and leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying theories have been presented about the relationship of emotional intelligence to transformational leadership. The present study examines the extent to which a self report measure of emotional intelligence, based upon an ability model, can predict each of the four components of transformational leadership. This study further considers the extent to which the quality of a leader-follower dyaĸs Leader-Member Exchange

Shannon Webb

2005-01-01

447

Is tenderness a basic emotion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the case to consider tenderness a basic emotion, using the criteria proposed by Ekman (in Handbook of\\u000a cognition and emotion, Wiley, England, 1999). The first part of the article reviews the relationship between tenderness and the related concepts of love and empathy.\\u000a The next section reviews evidence concerning whether tenderness meets some of Ekman’s criteria. The last

Juan Pablo Kalawski

2010-01-01

448

An audiovisual emotion recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

2007-12-01

449

Emotion and the motivational brain.  

PubMed

Psychophysiological and neuroscience studies of emotional processing undertaken by investigators at the University of Florida Laboratory of the Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention (CSEA) are reviewed, with a focus on reflex reactions, neural structures and functional circuits that mediate emotional expression. The theoretical view shared among the investigators is that expressed emotions are founded on motivational circuits in the brain that developed early in evolutionary history to ensure the survival of individuals and their progeny. These circuits react to appetitive and aversive environmental and memorial cues, mediating appetitive and defensive reflexes that tune sensory systems and mobilize the organism for action and underly negative and positive affects. The research reviewed here assesses the reflex physiology of emotion, both autonomic and somatic, studying affects evoked in picture perception, memory imagery, and in the context of tangible reward and punishment, and using the electroencephalograph (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), explores the brain's motivational circuits that determine human emotion. PMID:19879918

Lang, Peter J; Bradley, Margaret M

2009-10-30

450

Psychometric properties of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to broaden the alexithymia concept, we identified six aspects in a newly developed questionnaire for children which aims to measure emotion awareness: Differentiating Emotions, Verbal Sharing of Emotions, Bodily Awareness, Acting Out Emotions, Analyses of Emotions, and Others’ Emotions. First, the six-factor structure of this Emotion Awareness Questionnaire was identified in children (692 children, 9–16 years old), although

Carolien Rieffe; Mark Meerum Terwogt; K. V. Petrides; Richard Cowan; Anne C. Miers; Abigail Tolland

2007-01-01

451

Emotionally Intelligent Interventions for Students with Reading Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construct of emotional intelligence provides a framework for understanding emotional processes in students with reading disabilities. The components of emotional intelligence include the perception of emotions, emotional facilitation of thinking, emotional knowledge, and emotional regulation. This article examines underlying affective processes as they relate to cognition, motivation, and social functioning. Ecological and individual interventions for influencing learning and social

John Pellitteri; Michael Dealy; Charles Fasano; John Kugler

2006-01-01

452

Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

2008-11-13

453

The relationship between initial implant stability quotient values and bone-to-implant contact ratio in the rabbit tibia  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values have been supposed to predict implant stability. However, the relationship between ISQ values and bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC%) which is one of the predictors of implant stability is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial ISQ values in relation to BIC% using rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four New Zealand white rabbits received a total of 16 implants in their tibia. Immediately after implant placement ISQ values were assessed. The measurements were repeated at the time of sacrifice of the rabbits after 4 weeks. Peri-implant bone regeneration was assessed histomorphometrically by measuring BIC% and bone volume to total volume values (bone volume %). The relationships between ISQ values and the histomorphometric output were assessed, and then, the osseointegration prediction model via the initial ISQ values was processed. RESULTS Initial ISQ values showed significant correlation with the BIC%. The bone volume % did not show any significant association with the ISQ values. CONCLUSION In the limitation of this study, resonance frequency analysis is a useful clinical method to predict the BIC% values and examine the implant stability.

Park, In-Phill; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Shin-Jae

2011-01-01

454

Is obesity associated with a decline in intelligence quotient during the first half of the life course?  

PubMed

Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the first half of the life course. We analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study to test whether becoming obese was associated with intellectual decline from childhood to midlife. We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972-1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured in childhood and adulthood. Anthropometric measurements were taken at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person assessments. As expected, cohort members who became obese had lower adulthood IQ scores. However, obese cohort members exhibited no excess decline in IQ. Instead, these cohort members had lower IQ scores since childhood. This pattern remained consistent when we accounted for children's birth weights and growth during the first years of life, as well as for childhood-onset obesity. Lower IQ scores among children who later developed obesity were present as early as 3 years of age. We observed no evidence that obesity contributed to a decline in IQ, even among obese individuals who displayed evidence of the metabolic syndrome and/or elevated systemic inflammation. PMID:24029684

Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Meier, Madeline H; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

2013-09-12

455

A performance comparison of the transform domain Rayleigh quotient quadratic correlation filter (TDRQQCF) approach to the regularized RQQCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rayleigh Quotient Quadratic Correlation Filter (RQQCF) has been used to achieve very good performance for Automatic Target Detection/Recognition. The filter coefficients are obtained as the solution that maximizes a class separation metric, thus resulting in optimal performance. Recently, a transform domain approach was presented for ATR using the RQQCF called the Transform Domain RQQCF (TDRQQCF). The TDRQQCF considerably reduced the computational complexity and storage requirements, by compressing the target and clutter data used in designing the QCF. In addition, the TDRQQCF approach was able to produce larger responses when the filter was correlated with target and clutter images. This was achieved while maintaining the excellent recognition accuracy of the original spatial domain RQQCF algorithm. The computation of the RQQCF and the TDRQQCF involve the inverse of the term A1 = Rx + Ry where Rx and Ry are the sample autocorrelation matrices for targets and clutter respectively. It can be conjectured that the TDRQQCF approach is equivalent to regularizing A1. A common regularization approach involves performing the Eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD) of A1, setting some small eigenvalues to zero, and then reconstructing A1, which is now expected to be better conditioned. In this paper, this regularization approach is investigated, and compared to the TDRQQCF.

Ragothaman, P.; Mahalanobis, A.; Muise, R.; Mikhael, W. B.

2008-05-01

456

Living Emotions, Avoiding Emotions: Behavioral Investigation of the Regulation of Socially Driven Emotions  

PubMed Central

Emotion regulation is important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions more positively when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behavior. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (with a human partner) or the meaning of the situation (with a computer partner). Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner, as compared to a computer partner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions.

Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

2013-01-01

457

When Emotion Blinds: A Spatiotemporal Competition Account of Emotion-Induced Blindness  

PubMed Central

Emotional visual scenes are such powerful attractors of attention that they can disrupt perception of other stimuli that appear soon afterward, an effect known as emotion-induced blindness. What mechanisms underlie this impact of emotion on perception? Evidence suggests that emotion-induced blindness may be distinguishable from closely related phenomena such as the orienting of spatial attention to emotional stimuli or the central resource bottlenecks commonly associated with the attentional blink. Instead, we suggest that emotion-induced blindness reflects relatively early competition between targets and emotional distractors, where spontaneous prioritization of emotional stimuli leads to suppression of competing perceptual representations potentially linked to an overlapping point in time and space.

Wang, Lingling; Kennedy, Briana L.; Most, Steven B.

2012-01-01

458

Effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin administration on insulin resistance and respiratory quotient in aged dyslipidemic non-insulin dependent diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and ninety-five aged (mean age: 67±4.8 years), non-insulin dependent diabetic patients underwent a randomised single-blind study for investigating the effect of statin administration on insulin resistance and respiratory quotient. After 4 weeks run-in period, all patients were randomised in three groups: placebo (n=67), simvastatin (10 mg\\/day) (n=61) and atorvastatin (5 mg\\/day) (n=67). Each treatment period lasted 8 weeks.

Giuseppe Paolisso; Mara Barbagallo; Giuseppina Petrella; Emilia Ragno; Michelangela Barbieri; Mauro Giordano; Michele Varricchio

2000-01-01

459

Association quotients of aluminum sulphate complexes in NaCl media from 50 to 125°C: Results of a potentiometric and solubility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation and molal formation quotients for the complexation of aluminum with sulphate were measured based on potentiometric and solubility experiments. Potentiometric titrations, utilizing a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell, were performed from 50 to 125°C at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 molal in aqueous NaCl media. Two aluminum-sulphate species, AlSO4+and Al(SO4)2?, were identified from the titration data and the

Moira K. Ridley; David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer; Richard M. Kettler

1999-01-01

460

Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients With and Without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention\\u000a Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA’s were used to analyse\\u000a the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD or ADHD. We applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) computations to\\u000a assess discriminant power. All but one

Bram B. Sizoo; Wim van den Brink; Marielle Gorissen-van Eenige; Maarten W. Koeter; Patricia J. M. van Wijngaarden-Cremers; Rutger Jan van der Gaag

2009-01-01

461

The influence of prior expectations on emotional face perception in adolescence.  

PubMed

Prior expectations influence the way incoming stimuli are processed. A standard, validated way of manipulating prior expectations is to bias participants to perceive a stimulus by instructing them to look out for this type of stimulus. Here, we investigated the influence of prior expectations on the processing of incoming stimuli (emotional faces) in adolescence. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed activity and functional connectivity in 13 adolescents and 13 healthy adults (matched for gender and intelligence quotient), while they were presented with sequences of emotional faces (happy, fearful, or angry). A specific instruction at the start of each sequence instructed the participants to look out for fearful or angry faces in the subsequent sequence. Both groups responded more accurately and with shorter reaction times (RTs) to faces that were congruent with the instruction. For anger, this bias was lower in the adolescents (for RTs), and adults demonstrated greater activation than adolescents in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and greater functional connectivity between the vMPFC and the thalamus when the face was congruent with the instruction. Our results demonstrate that the influence of prior expectations (in the form of an instruction) on the subsequent processing of face stimuli is still developing in the adolescent brain. PMID:22661411

Barbalat, Guillaume; Bazargani, Narges; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

2012-06-01

462

Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures  

PubMed Central

In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception.

Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

2013-01-01

463

Building Emotional Resilience to Promote Health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a growing body of evidence has linked positive emotional health with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independent of negative emotion. Several potential mechanisms have been posited to account for these associations, including improved health behavior, direct physiological benefits, and enhanced resistance to and recovery from stress among individuals with high versus low positive emotional resources. Links between positive emotion and health have implications for targeted interventions, but no empirical investigations to date have tested the impact of efforts to enhance positive emotion on cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, some existing data point to the potential value of strategies to increase emotional resources for individuals' functional health and capacity to manage stress.

Davis, Mary C.

2009-01-01

464

Postabsorptive respiratory quotient and insulin-stimulated glucose storage rate in nondiabetic pima indians are related To glycogen synthase fractional activity in cultured myoblasts.  

PubMed Central

A decreased ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation rate (an elevated respiratory quotient) predicts the development of obesity. Skeletal muscle accounts for a major fraction of total body lipid oxidation and is the principle site for reduced glucose storage in insulin-resistant subjects. The potentially important role that muscle has in promoting obesity or insulin resistance may be based on metabolic control intrinsic to skeletal muscle. Cultured skeletal muscle provides a system to examine the importance of inherent metabolic traits in muscle biopsies from obese and insulin-resistant subjects. Glycogen synthase fractional activity (GSFA) was measured in cultured myoblasts from 21 Pima Indians characterized in vivo using indirect calorimetry and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Basal GSFA in cultured muscle cells is inversely correlated with postabsorptive respiratory quotient of the muscle donors (r = -0.66, P = 0.001) and with in vivo high dose insulin-stimulated glucose storage rates (r = 0.47, P = 0.04). These results indicate that the postabsorptive respiratory quotients and insulin-mediated glucose storage rates in vivo share a common regulatory mechanism with GSFA in cultured myoblasts. Abnormal regulation of glycogen synthase phosphorylation state may be an intrinsic defect in skeletal muscle associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

Mott, D M; Pratley, R E; Bogardus, C

1998-01-01

465

Emotions and eating in everyday life.  

PubMed

This field study assessed emotional states experienced in everyday life and examined the subjective motivation to eat associated with these emotional states. Twenty-three female subjects rated their momentary emotional state and motivation to eat on 6 consecutive days at 11:00a.m., 2:00p.m., 5:00p.m., 8:00p.m. and 11:00p.m. A cluster analysis of the resulting 634 emotion profiles revealed three types of emotional states characterized by the labels "Anger-dominance", "Tension/Fear" and "Relaxation/Joy". A fourth cluster showing generally low levels of emotions was labelled "Unemotional state". Most of the self-rated motivations to eat were increased during periods of negative emotions. During negative emotions a heightened tendency to cope with these emotions through eating and more intense bodily symptoms of hunger were also reported. No differences in motivations to eat were found between the two negative emotion clusters or between relaxation/joy and the unemotional state. Results indicate the presence of "emotionally instrumental eating" in a non-clinical population under real life conditions. Physiological correlates of negative emotional states may be involved in emotionally instrumental eating. PMID:10896762

Macht, M; Simons, G

2000-08-01

466

Canadian Forces Training and Mental Preparation for Adversity: Empirical Review of Stoltz 'Adversity Quotient (AQ) Training for Optimal Response to Adversity', A Review of the AQ Literature and Supporting Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the theory of the Adversity Quotient (AQ), and the associated training procedure developed by Stoltz (1997; 2000). This report covers three general areas. First, we present an overview of the AQ conceptual framework and training progra...

P. A. Angelopoulos S. J. Houde M. M. Thompson D. R. McCreary A. Blais

2002-01-01

467

Appraisal of Emotions in Media Use: Toward a Process Model of Meta-Emotion and Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition and operationalization of this construct. We propose a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation to

Anne Bartsch; Peter Vorderer; Roland Mangold; Reinhold Viehoff

2008-01-01

468

Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6–8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and

Glade L. Topham; Laura Hubbs-Tait; Julie M. Rutledge; Melanie C. Page; Tay S. Kennedy; Lenka H. Shriver; Amanda W. Harrist

2011-01-01

469

Emotional Intelligence as a Moderator of Affectivity\\/Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor\\/Psychological Distress Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional labor refers to effort, planning, and control required to display organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal\\u000a transactions and performed by individuals either through deep acting or surface acting. Deep acting refers to the modification\\u000a of inner feeling in order to express the organizationally desired emotions, whereas surface acting refers to the change of\\u000a emotional expression without facilitating the change of

Jahanvash Karim; Robert Weisz

470

Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed.

Perlovsky, Leonid

2010-03-01

471

Metacognition of emotional face recognition.  

PubMed

While humans are adept at recognizing emotional states conveyed by facial expressions, the current literature suggests that they lack accurate metacognitions about their performance in this domain. This finding comes from global trait-based questionnaires that assess the extent to which an individual perceives him or herself as empathic, as compared to other people. Those who rate themselves as empathically accurate are no better than others at recognizing emotions. Metacognition of emotion recognition can also be assessed using relative measures that evaluate how well a person thinks s/he has understood the emotion in a particular facial display as compared to other displays. While this is the most common method of metacognitive assessment of people's judgments of learning or their feelings of knowing, this kind of metacognition--"relative meta-accuracy"--has not been studied within the domain of emotion. As well as asking for global metacognitive judgments, we asked people to provide relative, trial-by-trial prospective and retrospective judgments concerning whether they would be right or wrong in recognizing the expressions conveyed in particular facial displays. Our question was: Do people know when they will be correct in knowing what expression is conveyed, and do they know when they do not know? Although we, like others, found that global meta-accuracy was unpredictive of performance, relative meta-accuracy, given by the correlation between participants' trial-by-trial metacognitive judgments and performance on each item, were highly accurate both on the Mind in the Eyes task (Experiment 1) and on the Ekman Emotional Expression Multimorph task (in Experiment 2). PMID:21859205

Kelly, Karen J; Metcalfe, Janet

2011-08-01

472

Emotional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to motor symptomatology, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by emotional dysfunction. Depression affects some 30 to 40 percent of Parkinson patients and other psychiatric co-morbidities include anxiety and apathy. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional dysfunction in Parkinson patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. There is also evidence suggesting that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems is important in the understanding and treatment of mood disorders in Parkinson's disease. In this review we discuss the neuropsychiatric abnormalities that accompany Parkinson's disease and describe their neuropsychological, neuropharmacologic, and neuroimaging concomitants.

Blonder, Lee X.; Slevin, John T.

2011-01-01

473

Influence of children's emotional states on the recognition of emotion in peers and social motives to change another's emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment addressed the question of whether children's own emotional states influence their accuracy in recognizing emotional states in peers and any motives they may have to intervene in order to change their peers' emotional states. Happiness, sadness, anger, or a neutral state were induced in preschool children, who then viewed slides of other 4-year-old children who were actually experiencing

Charles R. Carlson; Elyse Schwartz Felleman; John C. Masters

1983-01-01

474

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

475

The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

2012-01-01

476

Emotional Development Across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differen- tially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socio- emotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate emotions across adulthood. The present data support a view of differential age-related

Matthias Kliegel; Theodor Jäger; LOUISE H. PHILLIPS

2007-01-01

477

Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

478

Reported emotions and conventions of emotionality among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Study 1, 53 college students were asked to appraise their affective experiences in terms of typically and atypically experienced emotions. Results reveal a strong trend toward the delineation of positive affects as typical and negative affects as atypical. Studies 2 and 3, with 101 college students, examined forms of response set that might have contributed to the findings of

Shula Sommers

1984-01-01

479

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

480

Bodies of emotion: rethinking culture and emotion through Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

motion has represented a tantalizing subject for social scientific inquiry because it appears to tell us about our true selves; the self that, after all the thinking and interacting are done, feels the welling-up of rage, the tender pangs of love, the black emptiness of despair. Invoking methodological individualism, our phrasing here frames emotions as the property of persons, and

Tom Boellstorff; Johan Lindquist

2004-01-01

481

Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)|

Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

2001-01-01

482

Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

Gabrielsson, Alf

1999-01-01

483

Are emotional intelligent workers also more empathic?  

PubMed

This paper analyzes whether emotional intelligence and self-monitoring are related to empathy among a sample of workers in both the public and private employment sectors. Two hundred and forty-two employees (42.5% men and 57.5% women) with a mean age of 35.21 years (SD = 10.07, range 18-61) completed a questionnaire that measured the variables of interest. The results showed that emotion regulation, a dimension of emotional intelligence, accounts for most of the variance of empathy, followed by the ability to understand emotions and the management of others' emotions. Furthermore, gender did not yield any moderator effect on the relations among emotional intelligence, self-monitoring and empathy. We conclude that the intrapersonal aspects of emotional intelligence, in particular, emotion regulation, help explain the empathy of workers. The implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:23786638

Martos, Maria Pilar Berrios; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Augusto, José Marķa

2013-06-21

484

Modeling and Evaluating Emotions Impact on Cognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to make advances in modeling the relationship between emotion and cognition. The researchers proposed to use computational models to concretize psychological theories concerning the relationship between emotion, cognition...

J. Gratch S. Marsella

2000-01-01

485

Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional

Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

2008-01-01

486

Congruence of meaning between facial expressions of emotion and selected emotion terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

How similar are the meanings of facial expressions of emotion and the emotion terms frequently used to label them? In three studies, subjects made similarity judgments and emotion self-report ratings in response to six emotion categories represented in Ekman and Friesen's Pictures of Facial Affect, and their associated labels. Results were analyzed with respect to the constituent facial movements using

Nancy Alvarado

1996-01-01

487

Emotional Design for Hotel Stay Experiences: Research on Guest Emotions and Design Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotel guest emotions and design opportunities in relation to hotel stay experiences are the basis of this study. The three-level model of emotional design for hotels is proposed to clarify the relationships between hotel offerings, design emphases, guest emotions and guest perception, with theoretical basis on a synergy of knowledge in emotional design, experience design, and hospitality. This paper also

Kathy Pui Ying

488

Family Expressiveness and Parental Emotion Coaching: Their Role in Children's Emotion Regulation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored the relations between positive and negative family expressiveness, parental emotion coaching, child emotion regulation, and child aggression. The sample included 120 fourth-grade children and their mothers. Mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist, the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, and a portion of the meta-emotion interview to assess their awareness and acceptance of, and instruction in managing their

Sally R. Ramsden; Julie A. Hubbard

2002-01-01

489

Measuring Emotionality across Cultures: Self-Reported Emotional Experiences as Conceptualizations of Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the emotional experiences of individuals from different cultures. The self-reported emotional experiences of individuals from 30 nations in the Intercultural Study on Emotional Antecedents and Reactions (ISEAR) database (Scherer, 1997) were analyzed across seven emotions in terms of their intensity, length, and recency. Through exploratory factor analysis, three, single-factor constructs were identified

Sowan Wong; Michael Harris Bond

490

Emotional Intelligence and Emotion Work: Examining Constructs from an Interdisciplinary Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional intelligence and emotion work are two research areas traditionally presented as distinct. This article reviews their definitions, examines their intersections, and illustrates the advantage of approaching emotion research from an interdisciplinary framework. Conclusions address the following: (a) An employee's emotional intelligence or…

Opengart, Rose

2005-01-01

491

Emotional Flooding--Using Empathy to Help Babies Manage Strong Emotions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often a young child's challenging behavior results from emotional flooding--being overwhelmed by one's emotions. The authors explain that in children, the "thinking brain," the cerebral cortex, is not fully developed, and children get emotionally overwhelmed more easily than adults because they process their experiences through the "emotional

Gillespie, Linda; Hunter, Amy

2008-01-01

492

Face to face with emotion: Holistic face processing is modulated by emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative emotions are linked with a local, rather than global, visual processing style, which may preferentially facilitate feature-based, relative to holistic, processing mechanisms. Because faces are typically processed holistically, and because social contexts are prime elicitors of emotions, we examined whether negative emotions decrease holistic processing of faces. We induced positive, negative, or neutral emotions via film clips and measured

Kim M. Curby; Kareem J. Johnson; Alyssa Tyson

2011-01-01

493

Face to face with emotion: Holistic face processing is modulated by emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative emotions are linked with a local, rather than global, visual processing style, which may preferentially facilitate feature-based, relative to holistic, processing mechanisms. Because faces are typically processed holistically, and because social contexts are prime elicitors of emotions, we examined whether negative emotions decrease holistic processing of faces. We induced positive, negative, or neutral emotions via film clips and measured

Kim M. Curby; Kareem J. Johnson; Alyssa Tyson

2012-01-01

494

The value of emotion: An examination of television journalists’ notions on emotionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article engages with current discussions about public emotions by examining journalists’ perceptions of the value of emotional expression in broadcast news. First, the study provides insight into how journalists assess the place and role of emotion in news reporting and the perceived emotionalizing of news. Second, it examines how the journalists’ discourse about emotion is linked to their ideas

Mervi Pantti

2010-01-01

495

Brief emotion training improves recognition of facial emotions in chronic schizophrenia. A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired emotional communication may be an important contributing factor to poor social function in schizophrenia. This pilot study examined the effect of emotion training exercises on the perception of facial emotional expression. Twenty male chronic schizophrenia patients underwent three training sessions using a computerized Emotion Training program, developed for teaching autistic children, which was adapted to the clinical setting. Patients

Henry Silver; Craig Goodman; Gabriela Knoll; Victoria Isakov

2004-01-01

496

Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Link between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Young Adult Romantic Relationship Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between retrospective reports of childhood emotional maltreatment and current satisfaction in a romantic relationship. Participants included 492 (135 male, 357 female) young adults in current romantic relationships. Results indicated that total emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relation between childhood emotional maltreatment and romantic relationship satisfaction. Multiple mediator analyses

Laura L. Bradbury; Anne Shaffer

2012-01-01

497

Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations of Machiavellianism (Mach) with self-report and performance emotional intelligence (EI) and with personality were examined. The possible existence of an emotional manipulation capability, not covered within current EI measures, was also examined by constructing an emotional manipulation scale. Mach was found to be negatively correlated with self-report and performance EI, and also with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Emotional manipulation was

Elizabeth J. Austin; Daniel Farrelly; Carolyn Black; Helen Moore

2007-01-01

498

Dream Emotions, Waking Emotions, Personality Characteristics and Well-Being—A Positive Psychology Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to discover whether personality characteristics and waking emotions relate to dreaming emotions. There were 123 participants, ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. It was hypothesized that participants with significant positive emotional trait and state ratings in waking life would experience more positive dreams. Data collection utilized diaries and questionnaires, including Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire, IPIP Emotional

Sue Gilchrist; John Davidson; Jane Shakespeare-Finch

2007-01-01

499

Creating Emotional Resonance: Interpersonal Emotion Work and Motivational Framing in a Transgender Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine how interpersonal emotion work in a transgender support group and motiva- tional framing of transgender social movement organizations together constructed favorable conditions for emo- tional resonance. We define emotional resonance as the emotional harmony and\\/or disjuncture between collective action frames and the emotional lives of potential recruits. Data derive from fieldwork, interviews, online e-mail lists

DOUGLAS SCHROCK; DAPHNE HOLDEN; LORI REID

2004-01-01

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Emergent Themes in the Study of Emotional Development and Emotion Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Makes explicit a reconceptualization of the nature of emotion that over the past decade has fostered the study of emotion regulation. In the past,