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Sample records for bar-tailed godwit limosa

  1. Contrasting extreme long-distance migration patterns in bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battley, Phil F.; Warnock, Nils; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Piersma, Theunis; Hassell, Chris J.; Douglas, David C.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Schuckard, Rob; Melville, David S.; Riegen, Adrian C.

    2012-01-01

    Migrating birds make the longest non-stop endurance flights in the animal kingdom. Satellite technology is now providing direct evidence on the lengths and durations of these flights and associated staging episodes for individual birds. Using this technology, we compared the migration performance of two subspecies of bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica travelling between non-breeding grounds in New Zealand (subspecies baueri) and northwest Australia (subspecies menzbieri) and breeding grounds in Alaska and eastern Russia, respectively. Individuals of both subspecies made long, usually non-stop, flights from non-breeding grounds to coastal staging grounds in the Yellow Sea region of East Asia (average 10 060 ± SD 290 km for baueri and 5860 ± 240 km for menzbieri). After an average stay of 41.2 ± 4.8 d, baueri flew over the North Pacific Ocean before heading northeast to the Alaskan breeding grounds (6770 ± 800 km).Menzbieri staged for 38.4 ± 2.5 d, and flew over land and sea northeast to high arctic Russia (4170 ± 370 km). The post-breeding journey for baueri involved several weeks of staging in southwest Alaska followed by non-stop flights across the Pacific Ocean to New Zealand (11 690 km in a complete track) or stopovers on islands in the southwestern Pacific en route to New Zealand and eastern Australia. By contrast, menzbieri returned to Australia via stopovers in the New Siberian Islands, Russia, and back at the Yellow Sea; birds travelled on average 4510 ± 360 km from Russia to the Yellow Sea, staged there for 40.8 ± 5.6 d, and then flew another 5680–7180 km to Australia (10 820 ± 300 km in total). Overall, the entire migration of the single baueri godwit with a fully completed return track totalled 29 280 km and involved 20 d of major migratory flight over a round-trip journey of 174 d. The entire migrations of menzbieri averaged 21 940 ± 570 km, including 14 d of major migratory flights out of 154 d total. Godwits of both

  2. New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Junsik; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Heejong; Kim, Youngjun; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-06-01

    In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20˚C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea. PMID:27417093

  3. New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Junsik; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Heejong; Kim, Youngjun; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20˚C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea. PMID:27417093

  4. Coelomic implantation of satellite transmitters in the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and the bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis) using propofol, bupivacaine, and lidocaine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gartrell, Brett D.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous propofol was used as a general anesthetic with a 2∶1 (mg∶mg) adjunctive mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine as local anesthetics infiltrated into the surgical sites for implantation of satellite transmitters into the right abdominal air sac of 39 female and 4 male bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri and Limosa lapponica menzbeiri) and 11 female and 12 male bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis). The birds were captured on nesting grounds in Alaska, USA, and on overwintering areas in New Zealand and Australia from 2005 through 2008. As it was developed, the mass of the transmitter used changed yearly from a low of 22.4 ± 0.2 g to a high of 27.1 ± 0.2 g and weighed 25.1 ± 0.2 g in the final year. The mean load ratios ranged from 5.2% to 7.7% for godwits and from 5.7% to 7.5% for curlews and exceeded 5% for all years, locations, and genders of both species. The maximum load ratio was 8.3% for a female bar-tailed godwit implanted in Australia in 2008. Three godwits and no curlews died during surgery. Most birds were hyperthermic upon induction but improved during surgery. Two godwits (one in New Zealand and one in Australia) could not stand upon release, likely due to capture myopathy. These birds failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. The implanted transmitters were used to follow godwits through their southern and northern migrations, and curlews were followed on their southern migration.

  5. Geographic variation in morphology of Alaska-breeding Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) is not maintained on their nonbreeding grounds in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conklin, J.R.; Battley, Phil F.; Potter, M.A.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Among scolopacid shorebirds, Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) have unusually high intra- and intersexual differences in size and breeding plumage. Despite historical evidence for population structure among Alaska-breeding Bar-tailed Godwits (L. l. baueri), no thorough analysis, or comparison with the population's nonbreeding distribution, has been undertaken. We used live captures, field photography, museum specimens, and individuals tracked from New Zealand to describe geographic variation in size and plumage within the Alaska breeding range. We found a north-south cline in body size in Alaska, in which the smallest individuals of each sex occurred at the highest latitudes. Extent of male breeding plumage (proportion of nonbreeding contour feathers replaced) also increased with latitude, but female breeding plumage was most extensive at mid-latitudes. This population structure was not maintained in the nonbreeding season: morphometrics of captured birds and timing of migratory departures indicated that individuals from a wide range of breeding latitudes occur in each region and site in New Zealand. Links among morphology, phenology, and breeding location suggest the possibility of distinct Alaska breeding populations that mix freely in the nonbreeding season, and also imply that the strongest selection for size occurs in the breeding season. ?? 2011 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  6. Guts don't fly: Small digestive organs in obese Bar-tailed Godwits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, R.E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    We documented fat loads and abdominal organ sizes of Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) that died after colliding against a radar dome on the Alaska Peninsula, most likely just after takeoff on a trans-Pacific flight of 11,000 km, and of birds of the same subspecies just before northward departure from New Zealand. We compared these data with data on body composition of godwits of the smaller lapponica subspecies obtained during a northward stopover in The Netherlands. As a consequence of high amounts of subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat, and very small fat-free mass, Bar-tailed Godwits from Alaska had relative fat loads that are among the highest ever recorded in birds (ca. 55% of fresh body mass). Compared with northbound godwits from New Zealand, the Alaskan birds had very small gizzards, livers, kidneys, and guts. This suggests that upon departure, long-distance migrants dispense with parts of their 'metabolic machinery' that are not directly necessary during flight, and rebuild these organs upon arrival at the migratory destination.

  7. Hemispheric-scale wind selection facilitates bar-tailed godwit circum-migration of the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Hufford, Gary; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    The annual 29 000 km long migration of the bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri, around the Pacific Ocean traverses what is arguably the most complex and seasonally structured atmospheric setting on Earth. Faced with marked variation in wind regimes and storm conditions across oceanic migration corridors, individuals must make critical decisions about when and where to fly during nonstop flights of a week's duration or longer. At a minimum, their decisions will affect wind profitability and thus reduce energetic costs of migration; in the extreme, poor decisions or unpredictable weather events will risk survival. We used satellite telemetry to track the annual migration of 24 bar-tailed godwits and analysed their flight performance relative to wind conditions during three major migration legs between nonbreeding grounds in New Zealand and breeding grounds in Alaska. Because flight altitudes of birds en route were unknown, we modelled flight efficiency at six geopotential heights across each migratory segment. Birds selected departure dates when atmospheric conditions conferred the greatest wind assistance both at departure and throughout their flights. This behaviour suggests that there exists a cognitive mechanism, heretofore unknown among migratory birds, that allows godwits to assess changes in weather conditions that are linked (i.e. teleconnected) across widely separated atmospheric regions. Godwits also showed adaptive flexibility in their response not only to cues related to seasonal changes in macrometeorology, such as spatial shifting of storm tracks and temporal periods of cyclogenesis, but also to cues associated with stochastic events, especially at departure sites. Godwits showed limits to their response behaviours, however, especially relative to rapidly developing stochastic events while en route. We found that flight efficiency depended significantly upon altitude and hypothesize that godwits exhibit further adaptive flexibility by varying

  8. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-04-15

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  9. Crossing the ultimate ecological barrier: Evidence for an 11,000-km-long non-stop flight from Alaska to New Zealand and Eastern Australia by Bar-tailed Godwits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Piersma, Theunis; Hufford, Gary; Servranckx, R.; Riegen, Adrian C.

    2005-01-01

    Populations of the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica; Scolopacidae) embark on some of the longest migrations known among birds. The baueri race breeds in westernAlaska and spends the nonbreeding season a hemisphere away inNew Zealand and eastern Australia; the menzbieri race breeds in Siberia and migrates to western and northern Australia. Although the Siberian birds are known to follow the coast of Asia during both migrations, the southern pathway followed by the Alaskabreeders has remained unknown. Two questions have particularecological importance: (1) do Alaska godwits migrate directly across the Pacific, a distance of 11 000 km? and (2) are they capable of doing this in a single flight without stopping to rest or refuel? We explored six lines of evidence to answer these questions. The distribution of resightings of marked birds of the baueri and menzbieri races was significantly different between northward and southward flights with virtually no marked baueri resighted along the Asian mainland during southward migration. The timing of southward migration of the two races further indicates the absence of a coastal Asia route by baueri with peak passage of godwits in general occurring there a month prior to the departure of most birds from Alaska. The use of a direct route across the Pacific is also supported by significantly more records of godwits reported from within a direct migration corridor than elsewhere in Oceania, and during the September to November period than at other times of the year. The annual but rare occurrence of Hudsonian Godwits (L. haemastica) in New Zealand and the absence of their records along the Asian mainland also support a direct flight and are best explained by Hudsonian Godwits accompanying Bar-tailed Godwits from known communal staging areas in Alaska. Flight simulation models, extreme fat loads, and the apparent evolution of a wind-selected migration from Alaska further support a direct, nonstop flight.

  10. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  11. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  12. Shorebird community variations indicative of a general perturbation in the Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France).

    PubMed

    Eybert, Marie-Christine; Geslin, Thomas; Questiau, Sophie; Feunteun, Eric

    2003-08-01

    The Mont-Saint-Michel bay located on the East Atlantic Flyway is the first site in France for wintering shorebirds, with, on average, 53,000 individuals in January. Seven species represent 96% of that community: dunlin (Calidris alpina), knot (Calidris canutus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), curlew (Numenius arquata), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). The international bird census organised by Wetlands International in mid-January gave us the opportunity to study, for a 23 years period, population variations in the bay. Despite a quite good carrying capacity, we showed that the decreasing proportion of 4 species in the bay relative to the other French populations may indicate a general perturbation of the bay. We discuss the different hypotheses to explain that observation. PMID:14558463

  13. Sex-specific winter distribution in a sexually dimorphic shorebird is explained by resource partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A; Spaans, Bernard; ten Horn, Job; Brugge, Maarten; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) implies correlated differences in energetic requirements and feeding opportunities, such that sexes will face different trade-offs in habitat selection. In seasonal migrants, this could result in a differential spatial distribution across the wintering range. To identify the ecological causes of sexual spatial segregation, we studied a sexually dimorphic shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica, in which females have a larger body and a longer bill than males. With respect to the trade-offs that these migratory shorebirds experience in their choice of wintering area, northern and colder wintering sites have the benefit of being closer to the Arctic breeding grounds. According to Bergmann's rule, the larger females should incur lower energetic costs per unit of body mass over males, helping them to winter in the cold. However, as the sexes have rather different bill lengths, differences in sex-specific wintering sites could also be due to the vertical distribution of their buried prey, that is, resource partitioning. Here, in a comparison between six main intertidal wintering areas across the entire winter range of the lapponica subspecies in northwest Europe, we show that the percentage of females between sites was not correlated with the cost of wintering, but was positively correlated with the biomass in the bottom layer and negatively with the biomass in the top layer. We conclude that resource partitioning, rather than relative expenditure advantages, best explains the differential spatial distribution of male and female bar-tailed godwits across northwest Europe. PMID:25505527

  14. Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply

    PubMed Central

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A.; Smart, Jennifer; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a ‘phenotype-limited’ distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually dimorphic shorebird), that has to reach buried prey with a probing bill of fixed length. The main prey of female bar-tailed godwits is buried deeper in winter than in summer. Using sightings of individually marked females, we found that in winter only longer-billed individuals remained in the Dutch Wadden Sea, while the shorter-billed individuals moved away to an estuary with a more benign climate such as the Wash. Although longer-billed individuals have the widest range of options in winter and could therefore be selected for, counterselection may occur during the breeding season on the tundra, where surface-living prey may be captured more easily with shorter bills. Phenotype-limited distributions could be a widespread phenomenon and, when associated with assortative migration and mating, it may act as a precursor of phenotypic evolution. PMID:26543585

  15. The blind men and the elephant: Concerns about the use of juvenile proportion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCaffery, Brian J.; Handel, Colleen M.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile proportion data in shorebirds are being used with increasing frequency to estimate recruitment and even breeding success. Although this area of investigation holds great promise, flaws in current study designs preclude great confidence in the broad-scale inferences being drawn. We present data from our own investigations on juvenile proportions in Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica in Alaska to illustrate the significance of some of these problems. We then explore issues of study design, specifically bias, precision, untested assumptions and the use of correlations for interpreting juvenile proportion data. The issue of bias is particularly important, because inferences about shorebird productivity are being expanded to geographic areas well beyond what the data legitimately allow. Until studies of juvenile proportions are more rigorously designed and implemented, we suggest that many of the inferences about shorebird productivity based on such data are premature and may lead to management decisions that are detrimental to the conservation of shorebirds.

  16. Breeding latitude drives individual schedules in a trans-hemispheric migrant bird.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F; Potter, Murray A; Fox, James W

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear benefits of optimal arrival time on breeding grounds, migration schedules may vary with an individual bird's innate quality, non-breeding habitat or breeding destination. Here, we show that for the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica baueri), a shorebird that makes the longest known non-stop migratory flights of any bird, timing of migration for individual birds from a non-breeding site in New Zealand was strongly correlated with their specific breeding latitudes in Alaska, USA, a 16,000-18,000 km journey away. Furthermore, this variation carried over even to the southbound return migration, 6 months later, with birds returning to New Zealand in approximately the same order in which they departed. These tightly scheduled movements on a global scale suggest endogenously controlled routines, with breeding site as the primary driver of temporal variation throughout the annual cycle. PMID:20842198

  17. Metabolic profile of long-distance migratory flight and stopover in a shorebird.

    PubMed

    Landys, Meta M; Piersma, Theunis; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Jukema, Joop; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Wingfield, John C

    2005-02-01

    Migrating birds often complete long non-stop flights during which body energy stores exclusively support energetic demands. The metabolic correlates of such long-distance travel in free-living migrants are as yet poorly studied. Bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica taymyrensis, undertake a 4500 km flight to their single spring stopover site and thus provide an excellent model in which to determine the energy fuels associated with endurance travel. To this end, we evaluated plasma concentrations of six key metabolites in arriving godwits caught immediately upon landing near their stopover site. Initial metabolite levels were compared with levels after 5 h of inactive rest to determine how flight per se affects energy metabolism. Birds refuelling on the stopover site were also examined. Arriving godwits displayed elevated plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and butyrate, confirming the importance of lipid fuel in the support of extended migratory activity. Further-more, elevated plasma triglycerides in these birds suggest that fatty acid provisioning is facilitated through hepatic synthesis and release of neutral lipids, as previously hypothesized for small migrants with high mass-specific metabolic rates. Finally, elevations in plasma uric acid suggest that protein breakdown contributes to the support of long-distance movement, to possibly maintain citric acid cycle intermediates, gluconeogenesis and/or water balance. PMID:15705555

  18. Absolute consistency: individual versus population variation in annual-cycle schedules of a long-distance migrant bird.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F; Potter, Murray A

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism's annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska) to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r = 0.82-0.92). However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change. PMID:23342168

  19. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  20. Variation in the innate and acquired arms of the immune system among five shorebird species.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luisa; Piersma, Theunis; Hasselquist, Dennis; Matson, Kevin D; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape variation in immune responses, we compared several components of the innate and acquired arms of the immune system in five related, but ecologically diverse, migratory shorebirds (ruff Philomachus pugnax L., ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres L., bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica L., sanderling Calidris alba Pallas and red knot C. canutus L.). We used a hemolysis-hemagglutination assay in free-living shorebirds to assess two of the innate components (natural antibodies and complement-mediated lysis), and a modified quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in birds held in captivity to assess the acquired component (humoral antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoid) of immunity. Ruddy turnstones showed the highest levels of both innate and acquired immune responses. We suggest that turnstones could have evolved strong immune responses because they scavenge among rotting organic material on the seashore, where they might be exposed to a particularly broad range of pathogens. Although ruffs stand out among shorebirds in having a high prevalence of avian malaria, they do not exhibit higher immune response levels. Our results indicate that relationships between immune response and infection are not likely to follow a broad general pattern, but instead depend on type of parasite exposure, among other factors. PMID:16391350

  1. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, R.E., Jr.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  2. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gottschalck, Jon C.; Warnock, Nils; McCaffery, Brian J.; Battley, Philip F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117–11 680 km (10 153±1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008–7390 km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8±1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. PMID:18974033

  3. Pair bonds: arrival synchrony in migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, T G; Gill, J A; Sigurbjörnsson, T; Sutherland, W J

    2004-10-01

    Synchronous arrival of pairs of migratory birds at their breeding grounds is important for maintaining pair bonds and is achieved by pairs that remain together all year round. Here we show that arrival is also synchronized in paired individuals of a migratory shorebird, the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa islandica), even though they winter hundreds of kilometres apart and do not migrate together. The mechanisms required to achieve this synchrony and prevent 'divorce' illustrate the complexity of migratory systems. PMID:15470417

  4. Sweet salvation.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2016-04-20

    A bar-tailed godwit, I thought, feeling rather smug. I was photographing wading birds at the nearby salt marshes, and was very pleased with myself, not only for recognising the creature, but for getting some reasonable pictures. I also saw a flock of migrant geese and some lapwings, so altogether it was a satisfying trip. PMID:27097190

  5. Individual specialization in a shorebird population with narrow foraging niche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catry, Teresa; Alves, José A.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gunnarsson, Tómas G.; Granadeiro, José P.

    2014-04-01

    Individual specialization in resource use is a widespread driver for intra-population trait variation, playing a crucial evolutionary role in free-living animals. We investigated the individual foraging specialization of Black-tailed Godwits (Limosa limosa islandica) during the wintering period. Godwits displayed distinct degrees of individual specialization in diet and microhabitat use, indicating the presence of both generalist and specialist birds. Females were overall more specialist than males, primarily consuming polychaetes. Specialist males consumed mainly bivalves, but some individuals also specialized on gastropods or polychaetes. Sexual dimorphism in bill length is probably important in determining the differences in specialization, as longer-billed individuals have access to deep-buried polychaetes inaccessible to most males. Different levels of specialization within the same sex, unrelated to bill length, were also found, suggesting that mechanisms other traits are involved in explaining individual specialization. Godwits specialized on bivalves achieved higher intake rates than non-specialist birds, supporting the idea that individual foraging choices or skills result in different short-term payoffs within the same population. Understanding whether short-term payoffs are good indicators of long-term fitness and how selection operates to favour the prevalence of specialist or generalist godwits is a major future challenge.

  6. Functional ecology of saltglands in shorebirds: Flexible responses to variable environmental conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, J.S.; Dietz, M.W.; Masero, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; Dekinga, Anne; Battley, Phil F.; Sanchez-Guzman, J. M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2012-01-01

    Birds of marine environments have specialized glands to excrete salt, the saltglands. Located on the skull between the eyes, the size of these organs is expected to reflect their demand, which will vary with water turnover rates as a function of environmental (heat load, salinity of prey and drinking water) and organismal (energy demand, physiological state) factors. On the basis of inter- and intraspecific comparisons of saltgland mass (m sg) in 29 species of shorebird (suborder Charadrii) from saline, fresh and mixed water habitats, we assessed the relative roles of organism and environment in determining measured m sg species. The allometric exponent, scaling dry m sg to shorebird total body mass (m b), was significantly higher for coastal marine species (0??88, N=19) than for nonmarine species (0??43, N=14). Within the marine species, those ingesting bivalves intact had significantly higher m sg than species eating soft-bodied invertebrates, indicating that seawater contained within the shells added to the salt load. In red knots (Calidris canutus), dry m sg varied with monthly averaged ambient temperature in a U-shaped way, with the lowest mass at 12??5??C. This probably reflects increased energy demand for thermoregulation at low temperatures and elevated respiratory water loss at high temperatures. In fuelling bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica), dry m sg was positively correlated with intestine mass, an indicator of relative food intake rates. These findings suggest once more that saltgland masses vary within species (and presumably individuals) in relation to salt load, that is a function of energy turnover (thermoregulation and fuelling) and evaporative water needs. Our results support the notion that m sg is strongly influenced by habitat salinity, and also by factors influencing salt load and demand for osmotically free water including ambient temperature, prey type and energy intake rates. Saltglands are evidently highly flexible organs. The small

  7. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Marbled Godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, Jill A.; Sondreal, Marriah L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1998-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that influence parasitism, such as nest concealment and host density. The impact of management depends, in part, upon a species' nesting phenology and biology. The section on breeding-season phenology and site fidelity includes details on spring arrival and fall departure for migratory populations in the Great Plains, peak breeding periods, the tendency to renest after nest failure or success, and the propensity to return to a previous breeding site. The duration and timing of breeding varies among regions and years. Species' response to management summarizes the current knowledge and major findings in the literature on the effects of different management practices on the species. The section on management recommendations complements the previous section and summarizes specific recommendations for habitat management provided in the literature. If management recommendations differ in different portions of the species' breeding range, recommendations are given separately by region. The literature cited contains references to published and unpublished literature on the management effects and habitat requirements of the species. This section is not meant to be a complete bibliography; for a searchable, annotated bibliography of published and unpublished papers dealing with habitat needs of grassland birds and their responses to habitat management, use the Grassland and Wetland Birds Bibliography on the home page of this resource.

  8. Impacts of man-made landscape features on numbers of estuarine waterbirds at low tide.

    PubMed

    Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M

    2002-12-01

    The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries. PMID:12402099

  9. [Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Luis Francisco; Carmona, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve monthly censuses (October 2007-September 2008) on the entire internal perimeter of the lagoon, which we divided into four areas: two at the North and two at the South. We observed a seasonal pattern, with the lowest abundance in May (1 585 birds) and the highest in October (47 410). The most abundant species were Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa; 55% of the total records), Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri; 23%), and Willet (Tringa semipalmata; 10%). All three species were more abundant in autumn; for both, the Marbled Godwit and Willet, we observed their highest numbers in winter and spring, while the Western Sandpiper showed noticeable oscillations, reaching a maximum in early winter (December). In summer, Marbled Godwit and Willet were the only birds present but in lower numbers. Here present the first records of the Pacific Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) in the area. Bird abundance and species richness were influenced seasonally by migration and spatially by sites in the lagoon. The greatest shorebird abundance was in the South area of the lagoon, probably because of better accessibility to food. Our results allowed the inclusion of San Ignacio Lagoon in the Western Hemisphere Shorebirds Reserve Network (WHSRN) as a site of international importance. PMID:23894976

  10. An Exception to the Rule: Carry-Over Effects Do Not Accumulate in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing consensus that events during one part of an animal's annual cycle can detrimentally affect its future fitness. Notably, migratory species have been shown to commonly display such carry-over effects, facing severe time constraints and physiological stresses that can influence events across seasons. However, to date, no study has examined a full annual cycle to determine when these carry-over effects arise and how long they persist within and across years. Understanding when carry-over effects are created and how they persist is critical to identifying those periods and geographic locations that constrain the annual cycle of a population and determining how selection is acting upon individuals throughout the entire year. Using three consecutive years of migration tracks and four consecutive years of breeding success data, we tested whether carry-over effects in the form of timing deviations during one migratory segment of the annual cycle represent fitness costs that persist or accumulate across the annual cycle for a long-distance migratory bird, the Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica. We found that individual godwits could migrate progressively later than population mean over the course of an entire migration period, especially southbound migration, but that these deviations did not accumulate across the entire year and were not consistently detected among individuals across years. Furthermore, neither the accumulation of lateness during previous portions of the annual cycle nor arrival date at the breeding grounds resulted in individuals suffering reductions in their breeding success or survival. Given their extreme life history, such a lack of carry-over effects suggests that strong selection exists on godwits at each stage of the annual cycle and that carry-over effects may not be able to persist in such a system, but also emphasizes that high-quality stopover and wintering sites are critical to the maintenance of long

  11. Trophic resource partitioning within a shorebird community feeding on intertidal mudflat habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Pierrick; Robin, Frédéric; Kojadinovic, Jessica; Delaporte, Philippe; Rousseau, Pierre; Dupuy, Christine; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    In ecological systems, it is necessary to describe the trophic niches of species and their segregation or overlap to understand the distribution of species in the community. In oceanic systems, the community structure of top predators such as seabird communities has been well documented with many studies in several biogeographical areas. But for coastal habitats, very few investigations on the trophic structure have been carried out in avian communities. In this study, the trophic resource partitioning was investigated on eight of the most abundant species of a shorebird community on the central Atlantic coast of France. Our work comprised a comprehensive sample of birds with different ecomorphogical patterns and data on their main prey to encompass potential sources of overlap and segregation in this community. We examined the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of blood to investigate the trophic structure (1) on a temporal scale by comparing migration and wintering periods; (2) on a spatial scale through inter-site comparisons; and (3) on the community level within groups of phylogenetically related species. Diets appeared different in several cases between periods, between sites and between juveniles and adults for the same sites. A clear trophic partitioning was established with four functional groups of predators in winter inside the community. The Grey Plover, the Bar-tailed Godwit, the Curlew and a majority of the dunlins were worm-eaters mainly feeding on Nereis diversicolor or Nephtys hombergii. Two species were predominantly deposit-suspensivorous mollusc-eaters, including the Red Knot and the Black-tailed Godwit feeding mainly on Macoma balthica. The Oystercatcher fed mainly on suspensivorous molluscs like Cerastodrema edule and two species including the Redshank and some dunlins adopted opportunistic behaviours feeding on mudflat and/or in marshes.

  12. Variation in numbers and behaviour of waders during the tidal cycle: implications for the use of estuarine sediment flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Martins, Ricardo C.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2006-05-01

    Estuarine sediment flats are essential feeding areas for waders, but their exploitation is constrained by the movements of tides. In this cyclic environment the exposure period of sediment flats decreases several fold from upper to lower flats, and the moving tidal waterline briefly creates particular conditions for waders and their prey. This study attempts to determine how the exposure period and the movement of the tide line influence the use of space and food resources by waders across the sediment flats. Wader counts and observations of feeding behaviour were carried out in all phases of the tidal cycle, in plots forming a transect from upper to lower flats, thus representing a gradient of exposure periods. Pecking, prey intake, and success rates varied little along the gradient. Some species actively followed the tide line while foraging, whereas others are evenly spread over the exposed flats. Black-tailed Godwit, Dunlin and Avocet were 'tide followers', whereas Grey Plover, Redshank and Bar-tailed Godwit were 'non-followers'. Densities of 'followers' near the tide line were up to five times higher than elsewhere. Species differed markedly in the way they used space on the flats, but in general the rate of biomass acquisition (in grams of ash-free dry weight per time exposed) was much higher in lower flats. However, this preference was insufficient to counter the much longer exposure of the upper flats, so the total amount of biomass consumed on the latter was greater. Therefore, it was in these upper flats that waders fulfilled most of their energetic needs. Consequently, upper flats are of particular importance for the conservation of wader assemblages, but because they are usually closer to shore they tend to suffer the highest pressure from disturbance and land reclamation.

  13. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates. PMID:17717813

  14. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  15. How do macrobenthic resources concentrate foraging waders in large megatidal sandflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsero, Alain; Sturbois, Anthony; Desroy, Nicolas; Le Mao, Patrick; Jones, Auriane; Fournier, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between foraging shorebirds, macrobenthos and sedimentary parameters has been widely studied across Western Europe. Megatidal areas have large zones uncovered when the water retreats. Consequently, in such cases, the tide also influences foraging activities. This paper examines the use of an intertidal space by waders to define how macrobenthic resource concentrates foraging activity of birds in a large megatidal sandflat. This approach combines accurate spatial distribution of waders (Oystercatcher, Eurasian curlew, Bar-tailed Godwit and Redknot) according to their activity with ecological/biological parameters. A differential exploitation of the flat is clearly shown, with macrobenthic biomass appearing as one of the main explanatory factor for the four species considered on the western part of the bay and altitude (shore elevation) in the eastern part. The novelty of this study relates to the large area, also presumed to be a functional unit, while considering at the same time the singularities of the different parts of the flat. This multi-scale approach identifies important factors influencing the differential distribution patterns observed. The different selected parameters present an important variability in their contribution, underlining the complexity of explaining the distribution of foraging birds. Consequently, the study of such complex phenomena needs to consider additional variables to improve the relevance of explanatory models.

  16. Analysis of Winds in Extreme Bird Migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, W.; Mills, C. M.; Gill, R. E.; Douglas, D.; Walsh, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Bar-tailed Godwits feed in the nutrient-rich mud flats of western Alaska during the summer prior to attempting an extreme, non-stop migration of ~10,000 km lasting up to ten days and nights between late August and October to the Southern Hemisphere. In-situ measurements indicate that the birds make use of episodic near-surface tailwinds (north/northeast winds) on the backsides of low-pressure systems passing through the Gulf of Alaska to facilitate their trip. Projections of future climate from GCMs indicate northward shifts in these low-pressure systems, likely making a trip that already pushes the physical limits of these birds (in the present climate) more arduous. A generalized tailwind index is created in order to quantify the near-surface winds experienced during a typical migration season, providing clarity on the frequency and duration of beneficial tailwind episodes and facilitating comparison between present climate and paleoclimate scenarios. A comparison of our tailwind index to in-situ measurements verifies that the birds generally depart Alaska at advantageous times. Examination of past climate for possible alternate migration pathways provides useful information concerning the future of these birds. Spatial patterns of future wind and storm track shifts are consistent with more difficult migrations during the next century.

  17. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  18. When Siberia came to the Netherlands: The response of continental black-tailed godwits to a rare spring weather event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senner, Nathan R.; Verhoeven, Mo A.; Abad-Go´mez, Jose´ M.; Gutie´rrez, Jorge S.; Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Kentie, Rosemarie; Masero, Jose´ A.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    This suggests that populations with continued access to food, behavioural flexibility and time to dissipate the costs of the event can likely withstand the consequences of an extreme weather event. For populations constrained in one of these respects, though, extreme events may entail extreme ecological consequences.

  19. Population identification of western hemisphere shorebirds throughout the annual cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Colwell, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Identification of relationships among geographically distinct populations of migratory species can provide an understanding of breeding and natal philopatry, migration pathways, and population mixing during winter. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses to search for markers specific to difficult-to-differentiate shorebird species (e.g. long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus and short-billed dowitcher L. griseus) as well as geographically distinct breeding populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica, red-necked phalaropes Phalaropus lobatus, semipalmated plovers Charadrius semipalmatus, dunlin Calidris alpina, pectoral sandpipers C. melanotos, semipalmated sandpipers C. pusilla and western sandpipers C. mauri. Markers clearly differentiated all shorebird species. Estimates of population differentiation varied greatly among species (FST= 0.095a??0.685) and correlated with interspecific variation in philopatry and geographical separation of breeding populations. We assigned individuals to putative breeding locales with greater certainty in well-differentiated species than in poorly differentiated species. Our findings indicate specific phylogeographical structure varies among species, which has strong implications for conservation of habitats within migratory corridors. We suggest that RAPDs are useful in identifying geographical populations of migratory species and that molecular markers should be considered for tracking migratory birds throughout the annual cycle.

  20. Remote sensing aides studies of climate and wildlife in the Arctic-on land, at sea, and in the air (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, D. C.; Durner, G. M.; Gill, R. E.; Griffith, B.; Schmutz, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Every day a variety of remote sensing technologies collects large volumes of data that are supporting new analyses and new interpretations about how weather and climate influence the status and distribution of wildlife populations worldwide. Understanding how climate presently affects wildlife is crucial for projecting how climate change could affect wildlife in the future. This talk highlights climate-related wildlife studies by the US Geological Survey in the Arctic. The Arctic is experiencing some of the most pronounced climate changes on earth, raising concerns for species that have evolved seasonal migration strategies tuned to habitat availability and quality. On land, large herbivores such as caribou select concentrated calving areas with high abundance of rapidly growing vegetation and calf survival increases with earlier green-up and with the quantity of food available to cows at peak lactation. Geese time their migrations and reproductive efforts to coincide with optimal plant phenology and peak nutrient availability and departures from this synchrony can influence the survival of goslings. At sea, the habitats of polar bears and other sea-ice-dependent species have dramatically changed over just the past two decades. The ice pack is comprised of younger ice that melts much more extensively during summer-a trend projected to continue by all general circulation models under all but the most aggressive greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios. Studies show that by mid-century optimal polar bear habitats will be so reduced that the species may become extirpated from some regions of the Arctic. In the air, a variety of shorebird species make non-stop endurance flights between northern and southern hemispheres. The bar-tailed godwit undertakes a trans-Pacific flight between Alaska and Australasia that lasts more than seven days and spans more than 10,000 km. Studies show that godwits time their flights to coincide with favorable wind conditions, but stochastic

  1. Consumption of benthic fauna by carnivorous birds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiffarth, G.; Nehls, G.

    1997-12-01

    Consumption by carnivorous birds was estimated for the Sylt-Rømø tidal inlet in the northern part of the Wadden Sea, as well as the subarea Königshafen, a small, tidal bay. The bird community of the Sylt-Rømø Wadden Sea was dominated by Dunlin (35% of all birds counted), Eider (9%), Oystercatcher (8%), Knot (8%), and Shelduck (7%). The community in the Königshafen was dominated by Eider (20%), Knot (17%), Bar-tailed Godwit (17%), Dunlin (13%), and Oystercatcher (8%). Annual consumption was estimated at 3.4 g AFDW · m-2 · year-1 for the entire Sylt-Rømø Wadden Sea and 19.2 g AFDW · m-2 · year-1 for the Königshafen. Restricting the calculations to the intertidal area resulted in a consumption of 8.7 g AFDW · m-2 · year-1 for the Sylt-Rømø Wadden Sea and 17.6 g AFDW · m-2 · year-1 for the Königshafen. In the two areas, consumption was dominated by the Eider with 37% and 60% of the total consumption, respectively. In comparison to the western parts of the Wadden Sea the seasonal pattern of consumption as well as species composition differed, most probably as an effect of different climatic conditions, whereas annual consumption on intertidal flats seems to be in the same order of magnitude. On average, 15 25% of the mean annual macrozoobenthic biomass seems to be taken by carnivorous birds in the Wadden Sea, which is in the same order of magnitude as in other northern temperate estuarine areas.

  2. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  3. Environmental Breviatea harbour mutualistic Arcobacter epibionts.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Emmo; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald; Kleiner, Manuel; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Riedel, Dietmar; Littmann, Sten; Chen, Jianwei; Milucka, Jana; Viehweger, Bernhard; Becker, Kevin W; Dong, Xiaoli; Stairs, Courtney W; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Brown, Matthew W; Roger, Andrew J; Strous, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Breviatea form a lineage of free living, unicellular protists, distantly related to animals and fungi. This lineage emerged almost one billion years ago, when the oceanic oxygen content was low, and extant Breviatea have evolved or retained an anaerobic lifestyle. Here we report the cultivation of Lenisia limosa, gen. et sp. nov., a newly discovered breviate colonized by relatives of animal-associated Arcobacter. Physiological experiments show that the association of L. limosa with Arcobacter is driven by the transfer of hydrogen and is mutualistic, providing benefits to both partners. With whole-genome sequencing and differential proteomics, we show that an experimentally observed fitness gain of L. limosa could be explained by the activity of a so far unknown type of NAD(P)H-accepting hydrogenase, which is expressed in the presence, but not in the absence, of Arcobacter. Differential proteomics further reveal that the presence of Lenisia stimulates expression of known 'virulence' factors by Arcobacter. These proteins typically enable colonization of animal cells during infection, but may in the present case act for mutual benefit. Finally, re-investigation of two currently available transcriptomic data sets of other Breviatea reveals the presence and activity of related hydrogen-consuming Arcobacter, indicating that mutualistic interaction between these two groups of microbes might be pervasive. Our results support the notion that molecular mechanisms involved in virulence can also support mutualism, as shown here for Arcobacter and Breviatea. PMID:27279223

  4. Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Noble, David G

    2009-01-01

    Canadian shorebirds are exposed to environmental contaminants throughout their annual cycle. Contaminant exposure among species varies with diet, foraging behaviour and migration patterns. We sampled twelve species of shorebirds from four locations across Canada to assess their exposure to PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, as well as four trace elements (Hg, Se, Cd, As). SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT followed by SigmaCHL were most frequently found above trace level in the shorebird carcasses. In general, the plover species (American golden, semipalmated, black-bellied) appear to be the most contaminated with organochlorines, whereas Hudsonian and marbled godwits appear to be the least contaminated. Among adult birds, the greater and lesser yellowlegs had the highest hepatic Hg concentrations (2.4-2.7 microg g(-1) dw), whereas American golden plovers as well as Hudsonian and marbled godwits contained relatively low levels of Hg (<1 microg g(-1) dw). Renal Se concentrations varied from 3.2 to 16.7 microg g(-1) dw and exhibited little interspecific or seasonal variation. Renal Cd levels in adult birds were highest in Hudsonian godwits from Quill Lakes (43 microg g(-1) dw) and Cape Churchill (12 microg g(-1) dw), and lowest (0.8-1.5 microg g(-1) dw) in greater and lesser yellowlegs from Cape Churchill and Bay of Fundy. Renal As concentrations varied from 0.06 microg g(-1) dw in golden plovers from Cape Churchill to 4.6 and 5.1 microg g(-1) dw in dunlin samples from the Pacific coast. There is no evidence that contaminants were adversely affecting the shorebirds sampled from the Canadian locations in this study. PMID:18340543

  5. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil. PMID:26675921

  6. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, T C L; Gama, A M S; Alves, T P; Fontoura, N F

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (-30.22, -50.55). The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m) was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC), average granulometry (Avgran), and the percentage of sand (Pcsand). Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis) was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis. PMID:27097092

  7. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    -bar deposits can be controlled by aggradation at the scale of the entire meander belt. Despite their different preservation potential, the sedimentology of downstream-bar deposits is overall similar to that of expansional bars, since a downstream decrease in grain size and dominance of upbar-directed palaeoflows are observed in both cases. Bar-tail deposits are instead distinctive of DMFPB, specifically when channel-flow impinges at high angle against river outer banks. There, fine-grained counter-point bars or coarse-grained eddy-accretion deposits can accumulate. Channel belts dominated by DMFPB develop cross-sectional configurations featuring two main marginal trenches, commonly filled with bar tail deposits.

  8. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. PMID:26342138

  9. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-01

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. PMID:26342138

  10. Isoprene emission from a subarctic peatland under enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Riikka; Faubert, Patrick; Räsänen, Janne; Holopainen, Toini; Kyrö, Esko; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2007-01-01

    Isoprene is a reactive hydrocarbon with an important role in atmospheric chemistry, and emissions from vegetation contribute to atmospheric carbon fluxes. The magnitude of isoprene emissions from arctic peatlands is not known, and it may be altered by increasing UV-B radiation. Isoprene emission was measured with the dynamic chamber method from a subarctic peatland under long-term enhancement of UV-B radiation targeted to correspond to a 20% loss in the stratospheric ozone layer. The site type of the peatland was a flark fen dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and sedges Eriophorum russeolum and Carex limosa. The relationship between species densities and the emission was also assessed. Isoprene emissions were significantly increased by enhanced UV-B radiation during the second (2004) and the fourth (2006) growing seasons under the UV-B exposure. Emissions were related to the density of E. russeolum. The dominant moss, W. exannulata, proved to emit small amounts of isoprene in a laboratory trial. Subarctic fens, even without Sphagnum moss, are a significant source of isoprene to the atmosphere, especially under periods of warm weather. Warming of the Arctic together with enhanced UV-B radiation may substantially increase the emissions. PMID:17888116

  11. Diversity and ecological tolerance of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of halophyton plants living nearby Kiskunság soda ponds, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Bárány, Ágnes; Krett, Gergely; Márialigeti, Károly; Szili-Kovács, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    Many halophytes and halophilic microorganisms are capable to adapt to the extremities of saline habitats. This study reveals the taxonomic diversity and ecological tolerance of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of three different halophytes (Bolboschoenus maritimus, Puccinellia limosa and Aster tripolium) living in the vicinity of Kiskunság soda ponds. Following a sampling in September 2013, altogether 76 bacterial strains were isolated using two different media. The strains were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing following ARDRA grouping. Salt and pH tolerance of the strains were examined by measuring their growth in broths containing 0-15% NaCl (w/V) and characterized with pH 7-12 values. Among the strains genera of Anaerobacillus, Bacillus and Exiguobacterium (Firmicutes), Agromyces, Isoptericola, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nesterenkonia and Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), Halomonas and Idiomarina (Proteobacteria) and Anditalea (Bacteroidetes) were identified. The Bolboschoenus and Puccinellia samples characterized with the highest pH and electric conductivity values were dominated by Bacillus, Halomonas and Nesterenkonia, respectively. The salt tolerance of the bacterial strains was strongly dependent on the sampling location and plant species. In contrast, growth of bacterial strains in broths with alkaline pH values was more balanced. The strains from the Puccinellia sample showed the widest salt and pH tolerance. PMID:26132838

  12. Microcystin-producing and non-producing cyanobacterial blooms collected from the Central India harbor potentially pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Prashant; Kumar Agrawal, Manish; Nath Bagchi, Suvendra

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of relative abundance, frequency and biovolume, the important value index ranks were assigned to individual cyanobacteria in phytoplankton samples collected from fourteen water resources of Central India. The mcyABDE genes were detected in all the blooms with Microcystis (-aeruginosa, -viridis, -panniformis, -botrys) as being the major constituent morphospecies. On the other hand, blooms composed of primarily Oscillatoria (-limosa,-agardhii, -laetevirens) along with Anabaena, Nostoc, Phormidium and Spirulina as sub-dominant forms exhibited quite a patchy distribution of one or the other mcy genes. Fifty percent of Microcystis- but none of the Oscillatoria dominant blooms produced microcystins-RR and desmethyl-RR at 0.03-0.41mgg(-1) bloom dry mass. Traces of dissolved microcystin was detected in lake water, which is well below the WHO guideline. Irrespective of cyanobacterial composition and microcystin production ability, during the study period 43-64% of the cyanobacterial bloom samples exhibited association of viable but nonculturable forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, as evident from amplification of the antigen genes. We believe that spread of endemic cholera is the major threat associated with harmful algal blooms. PMID:25682583

  13. The stability of aerobic granular sludge under 4-chloroaniline shock in a sequential air-lift bioreactor (SABR).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Lv, Mei-le; Dai, Xin; Zhou, Jia-heng; Xu, Xiang-yang

    2013-07-01

    The aerobic granular sludge technology has a great potential in treatment of municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater containing toxic non-degradable pollutants. However, the formation and structural stability of aerobic granular sludge is susceptible to toxic shock. In the study, the effect of 4-chloroaniline (4-ClA) as a common toxic pollutant on the granular structure and performance was investigated, and the mechanism was revealed to provide more information on 4-ClA degradation with aerobic granular sludge process. The results showed that a 4-ClA shock at influent 200 mg L(-1) could cause the disintegration of aerobic granular sludge and decrease of the pollutant removal performance. The analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the mature and disintegrated granular sludge showed that the decrease of protein content in EPS, especially the components like Amide I 3-turn helix and β-sheet structures and aspartate, was not good for the stability of aerobic granular sludge. The microbial community results demonstrated that the disappearance of dominant bacteria like Kineosphaera limosa or appearance like Acinetobacter, might contribute to the reduction of EPS and disintegration of aerobic granular sludge. PMID:23685649

  14. Ground-based LiDAR to investigate landscape engineering by woody riparian trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Manners, R.; Lightbody, A.

    2013-12-01

    Plant-scale disruption to flow can result in upstream scour and downstream deposition, creating 'tail bars'. Tail bars have been postulated to exhibit airfoil geometries that reduce drag, causing a positive feedback whereby additional deposition of sediment results in growth of pioneer islands. We quantify the relative influence of vegetation morphology and grain size on morphodynamics by using ground-based LiDAR to scan trees and associated scour and tail bar features. We scanned trees of various growth stages and morphologies (Populus and Tamarix) in both sand- and gravel-bed settings. We post-process vegetation scans for hydrodynamic vegetation density, a proxy for leaf area index that we use in stress partitioning calculations to compare the magnitude of grain versus vegetation roughness. We also quantify the dimensions of upstream scour (maximum depth and volume) and downstream tail bar deposits (maximum height, width, length, volume). The vegetation and ground scans will be used to evaluate whether scour and tail bar geometries can be predicted from hydrodynamic vegetation density, and whether tail bars exhibit airfoil geometries in a manner that reduces drag. Field observations indicate single-stem trees (e.g. Populus) produce greater upstream scour but more subdued tail bar deposits, whereas multi-stem trees (e.g. Tamarix) produce less upstream scour but more tail bar deposition. Scour and tail bar features are more dramatic in the sand-bed setting compared to the gravel-bed, where grain roughness may play a larger role. Our research quantifies the magnitude of vegetation-morphodynamic feedbacks, with implications for plant community and landscape evolution in a multitude of riverine settings.

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in bird and human use of beaches in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Rodriguez, Donald A; Chapman, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Southern California's beaches can support a remarkable diversity of birds along the Pacific Flyway. We asked whether seasonal, annual, and spatial factors affect bird richness and abundance on public beaches. To do so, we conducted three years of monthly bird surveys on 12 sandy beaches in Ventura California. Across all surveys, we counted 22 shorebird species, 8 gull species, 24 other water bird species, and 24 landbird species. Sanderling, western gull, Heerman's gull, willet, marbled godwit, and whimbrel were the most abundant members of the bird community. Beach wrack was uncommon, particularly where beaches were groomed, and did not have a large effect on bird abundance, though it was positively associated with overall bird richness. Beaches near estuaries tended to be wide, and such beaches had a higher richness and abundance of birds. Beaches with shallow slopes tended to have more gulls and shorebirds. People and (illegal) unleashed dogs were common, particularly at beaches fronted by houses. The abundance and richness of shorebirds and the richness of other waterbirds was lower where human activity was high. Bird richness and abundance was strongly affected by season, with the highest density of birds being seen during the fall shorebird migration. Gull abundance peaked earlier (August-September) than shorebird abundance (October through December). A brief pulse of shorebirds also occurred in May due to spring migration. Comparing these data with surveys in the 1990's found no evidence for a decline in shorebirds over time, though black-bellied plover appear to still be recovering from the strong 1997-1998 ENSO. Opportunities to conserve birds on these beaches are limited, but could include enforcing leash laws and setting up human exclosures near estuary mouths. PMID:23450765

  16. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  17. Goals and objectives: chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    We report results from shorebird surveys in the North American Arctic, defined here as Bird Conservation Regions 2 and 3 of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (http://www.nabci.net/International/English/bcrmap.html). The surveys estimate population size and trend, and provide information on habitat relationships, at the regional and Arctic-wide scale (Table 1, Fig 1). Of the 53 species of shorebirds that breed in the United States and Canada, 26 (47%) breed in the arctic in sufficient numbers that arctic surveys are an important part of monitoring programs for them (Brown et al. 2001, Donaldson et al. 2000; Table 1). Arctic-breeding shorebirds are a diverse group that exhibits a wide range of migration, reproductive, and wintering strategies (Table 1.1). Some species migrate a short distance to the northern United States and southern Canada (e.g. Purple Sandpiper; for scientific names, see Appendix D), while others undertake epic migrations to West Africa (e.g. Red Phalarope) or southern South America (e.g. Hudsonian Godwit, Red Knot). Some migrate in huge flocks, while others trickle south singly or in small groups. There are monogamous, polygamous, and polyandrous breeders, and most habitats in the Arctic provide nesting opportunities for shorebird species. Despite their different life history characteristics, all Arctic shorebird species share two traits: 1) they are all are migrants (none inhabit the Arctic year-round) and 2) because of their migratory behavior, all are exposed to anthropogenic hazards at some point(s) in their life cycle.

  18. Multidisciplinary approach to identify aquifer-peatland connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, Marie; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Cloutier, Vincent; Ferlatte, Miryane; Munger, Julie; Quillet, Anne; Paniconi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In southern Quebec (Canada), wetlands sustain increasing pressures from agriculture, urban development, and peat exploitation. To protect both groundwater and ecosystems, it is important to be able to identify how, where, and to what extent shallow aquifers and wetlands are connected. This study focuses on peatlands which are especially abundant in Quebec. The objective of this research was to better understand aquifer-peatland connectivity and to identify easily measured indicators of this connectivity. Geomorphology, hydrogeochemistry, and vegetation were selected as key indicators of connectivity. Twelve peatland transects were instrumented and monitored in the Abitibi (slope peatlands associated with eskers) and Centre-du-Quebec (depression peatlands) regions of Quebec (Canada). Geomorphology, geology, water levels, water chemistry, and vegetation species were identified/measured on all transects. Flow conditions were simulated numerically on two typical transects. Results show that a majority of peatland transects receives groundwater from a shallow aquifer. In slope peatlands, groundwater flows through the organic deposits towards the peatland center. In depression peatlands, groundwater flows only 100-200 m within the peatland before being redirected through surface routes towards the outlet. Flow modeling and sensitivity analysis have identified that the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of permeable deposits close to the peatland and beneath the organic deposits influence flow directions within the peatland. Geochemical data have confirmed the usefulness of total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeding 14 mg/L as an indicator of the presence of groundwater within the peatland. Vegetation surveys have allowed the identification of species and groups of species that occur mostly when groundwater is present, for instance Carex limosa and Sphagnum russowii. Geomorphological conditions (slope or depression peatland), TDS, and vegetation can be measured

  19. [Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

    2012-09-01

    Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100

  20. Two New Species of Homalometron (Digenea: Apocreadiidae) from Nearctic Freshwater Fundulids, Elucidation of the Life Cycle of H. cupuloris, and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Congeners.

    PubMed

    Fayton, Thomas J; Curran, Stephen S; Andres, Michael J; Overstreet, Robin M; McAllister, Chris T

    2016-02-01

    Two species of digeneans belonging in Homalometron are described from Nearctic freshwater fundulid fishes: Homalometron robisoni n. sp. is described from the Blackstripe Topminnow, Fundulus notatus, from Oklahoma and Homalometron frocioneae n. sp. is described from the Banded Killifish, Fundulus diaphanus, from New York. Homalometron robisoni n. sp. differs from all congeners by having vitelline follicles that extend into the forebody, a feature that necessitates altering the generic diagnosis for the genus. Homalometron frocioneae n. sp. may be distinguished from North and Middle American congeners by the position of the intestinal bifurcation (relatively more posterior in the forebody than in other species) and tegumental spine coverage on the body (spines are absent from the posterior body extremity and on most of the dorsal surface). Comparison of ribosomal DNA (ITS 1 and 2 regions, 5.8S gene, and partial fragment of 28S gene) from the 2 new species and some congeners from the Western Hemisphere provided evidence for the validity of the 2 new species and affirmed a close relationship between H. robisoni n. sp. and Homalometron pallidum. Comparison of ribosomal DNA from newly collected Homalometron spp. and larval stages of an apocreadiid from brackish water hydrobiid snails (cercariae in rediae in Littoridinops palustris and metacercariae in L. palustris and Amnicola limosa ) from a tidal river in Mississippi revealed that larval stages represented Homalometron cupuloris. A phylogeny based on Bayesian inference analysis using partial 28S rDNA gene fragments from 14 species of Homalometron (all from the Western Hemisphere) and 1 megaperine and rooted by a second megaperine was conducted and produced a strongly supported phylogram that estimates the interrelationships among species. The estimated phylogeny suggests that ecological factors such as salinity and food web interactions between species of Homalometron, intermediate hosts, and fishes drive

  1. Floral miniaturisation and autogamy in boreal-arctic plants are epitomised by Iceland's most frequent orchid, Platanthera hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Richard M; Sramkó, Gábor; Rudall, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. This paper concludes our series of publications comparing island and mainland speciation in European butterfly-orchids, by studying the morphology, phylogenetics and reproductive biology of the controversial circum-arctic species Platanthera (Limnorchis) hyperborea-the most frequent of seven Icelandic orchids. We draw particular attention to its phylogenetic placement, remarkable reproductive biology and morphological convergence on other Platanthera lineages through floral miniaturisation. Methods. Five populations of P. hyperborea in southwest Iceland were measured for 33 morphological characters and subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. Representative samples from six populations were sequenced for nrITS and placed in a taxonomically broader phylogenetic matrix derived from previous studies. Key Results . Section Limnorchis consists of three distinct ITS-delimited clades based on P. stricta, P. sparsifolia-limosa-aquilonis and P. dilatata-hyperborea. Within the latter group, supposed species boundaries overlap; instead, the data indicate a crude stepwise series of ribotypic transitions extending eastward from North America to Iceland. Morphometric data failed to identify any taxonomically meaningful partitions among Icelandic P. hyperborea populations, despite the presence of a distinct and apparently plesiomorphic ribotype at the most glacially influenced habitat sampled. Microscopic study of the flowers revealed several distinguishing features (some not previously reported), including resupinate lateral sepals, toothed bract margins, club-shaped papillae shared by both the interior of the labellar spur and the stigmatic surface, and an exceptionally adhesive stigma that is reliably covered in disaggregated pollen masses prior to anthesis; auricles are absent. Conclusions. Ribotypes suggest that Icelandic P. hyperborea represents the terminus of a

  2. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of an Alpine peatland during extraordinary summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollinger, Simon; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In peatland ecosystems, plant production exceeds decomposition due to their typical characteristic of waterlogged soils leading to peatland growth and an accumulation of thick organic soil layers. As a result, peatlands constitute a major global storage of carbon (C) by storing about 612 PgC in their peat, thus representing the most space-effective C stocks of all terrestrial ecosystems, similar in magnitude as the increasing atmospheric C pool (~ 850 PgC). However, little is known about the effects of climate change on peatlands and the contribution of Alpine peatlands as a source of greenhouse gases in the course of a changing climate. It is debatable how land-use changes and ongoing degradation of Alpine peatlands affect the peatland-atmosphere C exchange. On the one hand, more C may sequester due to increased plant growth in a warmer climate, on the other hand large amounts of respired C may release as a consequence of higher temperatures and lowered peatland water table depths due to increasing evaporation rates and extending drought periods. To examine the potential effects of climate change on the peatland carbon exchange with the atmosphere, we calculated CO2 and CH4 fluxes using the eddy covariance method. The investigated ombrotrophic peatland is located on the bottom of the Styrian Enns valley at an altitude of 632 m above sea level. It is a slightly degraded pine peat bog (62 ha) with a closed peat moss cover featuring the three plant associations Pino mugo-Sphagnetum magellanici, Sphagnetum magellanici, and Caricetum limosae, according to the prevailing hydrological site conditions. During summer drought in 2015, the water level decreased from an annual average water level of -10.44 cm to -28.50 cm below surface at the centre of the peat bog. Here, we present diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4 fluxes during an extraordinary dry summer and compare them to calculated fluxes during periods characterised by precipitation and higher peat water levels of the

  3. Short term response of a peatland to warming and drought - climate manipulation experiment in W Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Leśny, Jacek; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Basińska, Anna; Gąbka, Maciej; Stróżecki, Marcin; Samson, Mateusz; Łuców, Dominika; Józefczyk, Damian; Hoffmann, Mathias; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    . Generally, warmer conditions led to increases in NDVI and LAI, whilst the site exposed to only drought exhibited the lowest LAI. Warming shifted the vegetation species composition by promoting vascular plants (mainly Carex rostrata and C. limosa), which result also correlates positively with nutrient (Ptot, Mn, F, Na, Zn) availability in the peat water. Here, we report short-term responses to increased temperature and diminished precipitation, showing that the combination of these to stressors leads to very different scenario than their individual impacts. Our results further emphasize the need for long term records from field manipulation site on peatland response to climate changes. The Research was co-founded by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development within the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme within the WETMAN project (Central European Wetland Ecosystem Feedbacks to Changing Climate - Field Scale Manipulation, Project ID: 203258, contract No. Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013 (www.wetman.pl). References Fenner N., Freeman Ch. (2011). Nature Geoscience, 4, 895-900 Hoffmann M., et al. (2015). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200, 30-45 Kimball BA. (2005). Global Change Biology, 11, 2041-2056

  4. Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.

    2008-12-01

    Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone

  5. Late-Holocene environmental and climatic changes in central part of the Western Sayan Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenaderova, Anna; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan

    2016-04-01

    with most stable hydrological conditions. During this period, the flood waters have supplied the least amount of allochthonous contaminants on the surface of the swamp. On the peatlands, sedge and sedge-moss plant communities were developed. Main plant species which grows in the peatlands are Carex altaica (Gorodk.) V.Krecz, Carex limosa L. Tomentypnum nitens Hedw., Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr., Warnstorfia exannulata (B.S.G.) Loeske., Thelypteris palustris Schott, Baeothryon caespitosum (L.) A.Dietr. During the last 500 years an increase of allochthonous contaminants inputs to marsh sediments is observed. In our opinion, the main causes of the increase were reduction the forest area, sharper contrast of summer and winter temperatures and more rapid melting of snow in early summer. The last cause lead to increased levels of floods. Eutrophic-mesotrophic sphagnum communities (Sphagnum warnstorfii Russ., Sph.subsecundum Nees,, Sphagnum angustifolium Jensen., Sph. fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr.), which are growing at the moment, begin to develop in the peatlands since 500 years ago.