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Baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone during long-distance migration in the bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica.  


The specific roles of corticosterone in promotion of avian migration remain unclear even though this glucocorticosteroid is elevated in many migrating bird species. In general, glucocorticosteroids promote metabolic homeostasis and may elicit effects on feeding and locomotion. Because the migratory stages of refueling and flight are characterized by distinct behaviors and physiology, the determination of corticosterone levels during each stage should help identify potential processes in which corticosterone is involved. We measured baseline levels of corticosterone in bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) during two distinct stages of migration: (1) immediately after arrival at a false stopover site just short of the Wadden Sea and (2) throughout the subsequent 4-wk refueling period on the Wadden Sea. Plasma corticosterone was higher in arriving than in refueling birds. In addition, corticosterone increased with size-corrected body mass during the refueling phase, suggesting that corticosterone rises as birds prepare to reinitiate flight. Therefore, elevated corticosterone appears associated with migratory flight and may participate in processes characterizing this stage. We also performed a capture stress protocol in all birds and found that corticosterone increased in both arriving and refueling godwits. Therefore, the normal course of migration may be typified by corticosterone concentrations that are lower than those associated with stressful and life-threatening episodes. PMID:11880983

Landys-Ciannelli, Meta M; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop; Wingfield, John C


Coelomic implantation of satellite transmitters in the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and the bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis) using propofol, bupivacaine, and lidocaine.  


Intravenous propofol was used as a general anesthetic with a 2:1 (mg:mg) adjunctive mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine as local anesthetics infiltrated into the surgical sites for implantation of satellite transmitters into the right abdominal air sac of 39 female and 4 male bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri and Limosa lapponica menzbeiri and 11 female and 12 male bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis). The birds were captured on nesting grounds in Alaska, USA, and on overwintering areas in New Zealand and Australia from 2005 through 2008. As it was developed, the mass of the transmitter used changed yearly from a low of 22.4 +/- 0.2 g to a high of 27.1 +/- 0.2 g and weighed 25.1 +/- 0.2 g in the final year. The mean load ratios ranged from 5.2% to 7.7% for godwits and from 5.7% to 7.5% for curlews and exceeded 5% for all years, locations, and genders of both species. The maximum load ratio was 8.3% for a female bar-tailed godwit implanted in Australia in 2008. Three godwits and no curlews died during surgery. Most birds were hyperthermic upon induction but improved during surgery. Two godwits (one in New Zealand and one in Australia) could not stand upon release, likely due to capture myopathy. These birds failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. The implanted transmitters were used to follow godwits through their southern and northern migrations, and curlews were followed on their southern migration. PMID:22946371

Mulcahy, Daniel M; Gartrell, Brett; Gill, Robert E; Tibbitts, T Lee; Ruthrauff, Daniel R



Strategic size changes of internal organs and muscle tissue in the Bar-tailed Godwit during fat storage on a spring stopover site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. In several migrant bird species it has now been established that refuelling is typified not only by fat deposition, but also by changes in lean body protein. The body com- position of a long-distance migratory shorebird, the Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica taymyrensis , was examined on a stopover site in spring to evaluate changes in lean dry mass

M. M. Landys-Ciannelli; T. Piersma; J. Jukema



Lack of leptin activity in blood samples of Adélie penguin and bar-tailed godwit.  


Unsuccessful attempts to identify the leptin gene in birds are well documented, despite the characterization of its receptor (LEPR). Since leptin and LEPR have poor sequence conservation among vertebrates, we speculated that a functional assay should represent the best way to detect leptin in birds. Using a leptin bioassay that is based on activation of the chicken LEPR in cultured cells, blood samples from wild birds with extreme seasonal variation in voluntary food intake and fat deposition (Adélie penguins and bar-tailed godwits) were tested for leptin activity. In these experiments, blood samples collected during the pre-incubation and the chick-rearing periods of Adélie penguins, and during the migratory flight and refueling stages of bar-tailed godwits, were found to contain no detectable leptin activity, while the sensitivity of the assay to activation by human blood samples from donor subjects representing a variety of body mass indices and fat contents was clearly demonstrated. These results suggest that in birds, an alternative control mechanism to that of mammals operates in the communication between the body fat tissues and the central control on energy homeostasis. PMID:20675300

Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Rosenblum, Charles I; Cerasale, David J; Beaulieu, Michaël; Criscuolo, Francois; Friedman-Einat, Miriam



Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses.  


Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification mechanisms such as metallothioneins. PMID:22421087

Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco



PCB burden and pattern in eggs of the curlew (numenius arquata) and the black-tailed godwit (limosa limosa) from Northwest Germany  

SciTech Connect

In recent decades the number of breedingpairs of the curlew has decreased in Westfalen (North-West Germany) as well as in the whole Federal Republic of Germany caused by permanent change or destruction of the environment. The hatching success decreased because of breeding in subideal habitats like fields resulting in starvation and reduced mobility to escape predators. In the District of Steinfurt (Westfalen, Germany), members of the {open_quotes}Workinggroup Wetmeadows{close_quotes} recognized decreasing hatching success of individually marked birds during several years. The burden of PCBs or other chlorinated compounds was hypothesized as a possible cause of this decrease. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Denker, E.; Buethe, A. [Chemisches Institut, Hannover (Germany)



Variation in the innate and acquired arms of the immune system among five shorebird species  

Microsoft Academic Search

To contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape variation in immune responses, we compared several components of the innate and acquired arms of the immune system in five related, but ecologically diverse, migratory shorebirds (ruff Philomachus pugnax L., ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres L., bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica L., sanderling Calidris alba Pallas and red knot C. canutus

Luisa Mendes; Theunis Piersma; Dennis Hasselquist; Kevin D. Matson; Robert E. Ricklefs



Shorebird community variations indicative of a general perturbation in the Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France).  


The Mont-Saint-Michel bay located on the East Atlantic Flyway is the first site in France for wintering shorebirds, with, on average, 53,000 individuals in January. Seven species represent 96% of that community: dunlin (Calidris alpina), knot (Calidris canutus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), curlew (Numenius arquata), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). The international bird census organised by Wetlands International in mid-January gave us the opportunity to study, for a 23 years period, population variations in the bay. Despite a quite good carrying capacity, we showed that the decreasing proportion of 4 species in the bay relative to the other French populations may indicate a general perturbation of the bay. We discuss the different hypotheses to explain that observation. PMID:14558463

Eybert, Marie-Christine; Geslin, Thomas; Questiau, Sophie; Feunteun, Eric



Metabolic profile of long-distance migratory flight and stopover in a shorebird  

PubMed Central

Migrating birds often complete long non-stop flights during which body energy stores exclusively support energetic demands. The metabolic correlates of such long-distance travel in free-living migrants are as yet poorly studied. Bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica taymyrensis, undertake a 4500 km flight to their single spring stopover site and thus provide an excellent model in which to determine the energy fuels associated with endurance travel. To this end, we evaluated plasma concentrations of six key metabolites in arriving godwits caught immediately upon landing near their stopover site. Initial metabolite levels were compared with levels after 5 h of inactive rest to determine how flight per se affects energy metabolism. Birds refuelling on the stopover site were also examined. Arriving godwits displayed elevated plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and butyrate, confirming the importance of lipid fuel in the support of extended migratory activity. Furthermore, elevated plasma triglycerides in these birds suggest that fatty acid provisioning is facilitated through hepatic synthesis and release of neutral lipids, as previously hypothesized for small migrants with high mass-specific metabolic rates. Finally, elevations in plasma uric acid suggest that protein breakdown contributes to the support of long-distance movement, to possibly maintain citric acid cycle intermediates, gluconeogenesis and/or water balance.

Landys, Meta M.; Piersma, Theunis; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Jukema, Joop; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Wingfield, John C.



Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: ecological corridor rather than barrier?  

PubMed Central

Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117–11?680?km (10?153±1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008–7390?km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8±1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators.

Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gottschalck, Jon C.; Warnock, Nils; McCaffery, Brian J.; Battley, Philip F.; Piersma, Theunis



Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

Gill, Jr. , R. E.; Tibbitts, T. L.; Douglas, D. C.; Handel, C. M.; Mulcahy, D. M.; Gottschalck, J. C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B. J.; Battley, P. F.; Piersma, T.



Identification of potentially important northward migration staging areas for 'long-jump' migrant waders in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the current information on the route of Great Knots, Red Knots and Bar-tailed Godwits as they migrate northwards from their non-breeding areas in Australia to the breeding grounds in Russia and Alaska. We especially focus on migration through the Yellow Sea region of north-east China and use data on departure and arrival times, population sizes, counts, leg flag

Jim Wilson; Mark Barter


[Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico].  


Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve monthly censuses (October 2007-September 2008) on the entire internal perimeter of the lagoon, which we divided into four areas: two at the North and two at the South. We observed a seasonal pattern, with the lowest abundance in May (1 585 birds) and the highest in October (47 410). The most abundant species were Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa; 55% of the total records), Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri; 23%), and Willet (Tringa semipalmata; 10%). All three species were more abundant in autumn; for both, the Marbled Godwit and Willet, we observed their highest numbers in winter and spring, while the Western Sandpiper showed noticeable oscillations, reaching a maximum in early winter (December). In summer, Marbled Godwit and Willet were the only birds present but in lower numbers. Here present the first records of the Pacific Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) in the area. Bird abundance and species richness were influenced seasonally by migration and spatially by sites in the lagoon. The greatest shorebird abundance was in the South area of the lagoon, probably because of better accessibility to food. Our results allowed the inclusion of San Ignacio Lagoon in the Western Hemisphere Shorebirds Reserve Network (WHSRN) as a site of international importance. PMID:23894976

Mendoza, Luis Francisco; Carmona, Roberto



Sex-biases in distribution and resource use at different spatial scales in a migratory shorebird  

PubMed Central

In migratory species, sexual size dimorphism can mean differing energetic requirements for males and females. Differences in the costs of migration and in the environmental conditions occurring throughout the range may therefore result in sex-biases in distribution and resource use at different spatial scales. In order to identify the scale at which sexual segregation operates, and thus the scale at which environmental changes may have sex-biased impacts, we use range-wide tracking of individually color-ringed Icelandic black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa islandica) to quantify sexual segregation at scales ranging from the occupation of sites throughout the non-breeding range to within-site differences in distribution and resource use. Throughout the range of this migratory shorebird, there is no evidence of large-scale sex differences in distribution during the non-breeding season. However, the sexes differ in their selection of prey types and sizes, which results in small-scale sexual segregation within estuaries. The scale of sexual segregation therefore depends on the scale of variation in resource distribution, which, in this system, is primarily within estuaries. Sexual segregation in within-site distribution and resource use means that local-scale anthropogenic impacts on estuarine benthic prey communities may disproportionately affect the sexes in these migratory shorebirds.

Alves, Jose A; Gunnarsson, Tomas G; Potts, Peter M; Sutherland, William J; Gill, Jennifer A



Variation in numbers and behaviour of waders during the tidal cycle: implications for the use of estuarine sediment flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine sediment flats are essential feeding areas for waders, but their exploitation is constrained by the movements of tides. In this cyclic environment the exposure period of sediment flats decreases several fold from upper to lower flats, and the moving tidal waterline briefly creates particular conditions for waders and their prey. This study attempts to determine how the exposure period and the movement of the tide line influence the use of space and food resources by waders across the sediment flats. Wader counts and observations of feeding behaviour were carried out in all phases of the tidal cycle, in plots forming a transect from upper to lower flats, thus representing a gradient of exposure periods. Pecking, prey intake, and success rates varied little along the gradient. Some species actively followed the tide line while foraging, whereas others are evenly spread over the exposed flats. Black-tailed Godwit, Dunlin and Avocet were 'tide followers', whereas Grey Plover, Redshank and Bar-tailed Godwit were 'non-followers'. Densities of 'followers' near the tide line were up to five times higher than elsewhere. Species differed markedly in the way they used space on the flats, but in general the rate of biomass acquisition (in grams of ash-free dry weight per time exposed) was much higher in lower flats. However, this preference was insufficient to counter the much longer exposure of the upper flats, so the total amount of biomass consumed on the latter was greater. Therefore, it was in these upper flats that waders fulfilled most of their energetic needs. Consequently, upper flats are of particular importance for the conservation of wader assemblages, but because they are usually closer to shore they tend to suffer the highest pressure from disturbance and land reclamation.

Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Martins, Ricardo C.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.



Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?  


We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates. PMID:17717813

Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E



Population-scale drivers of individual arrival times in migratory birds.  


1. In migratory species, early arrival on the breeding grounds can often enhance breeding success. Timing of spring migration is therefore a key process that is likely to be influenced both by factors specific to individuals, such as the quality of winter and breeding locations and the distance between them, and by annual variation in weather conditions before and during migration. 2. The Icelandic black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa islandica population is currently increasing and, throughout Iceland, is expanding into poorer quality breeding areas. Using a unique data set of arrival times in Iceland in different years for individuals of known breeding and wintering locations, we show that individuals breeding in lower quality, recently occupied and colder areas arrive later than those from traditionally occupied areas. The population is also expanding into new wintering areas, and males from traditionally occupied winter sites also arrive earlier than those occupying novel sites. 3. Annual variation in timing of migration of individuals is influenced by large-scale weather systems (the North Atlantic Oscillation), but between-individual variation is a stronger predictor of arrival time than the NAO. Distance between winter and breeding sites does not influence arrival times. 4. Annual variation in timing of migration is therefore influenced by climatic factors, but the pattern of individual arrival is primarily related to breeding and winter habitat quality. These habitat effects on arrival patterns are likely to operate through variation in individual condition and local-scale density-dependent processes. Timing of migration thus appears to be a key component of the intricate relationship between wintering and breeding grounds in this migratory system. PMID:16922847

Gunnarsson, Tómas G; Gill, Jennifer A; Atkinson, Philip W; Gélinaud, Guillaume; Potts, Peter M; Croger, Ruth E; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Appleton, Graham F; Sutherland, William J



Effects of Temperature on Growth and Reproduction of Aquatic Snails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of temperature on the following freshwater snails were studied: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. emarginata, Helisoma trivolvis, H. anceps, H. campanulatum and Physa gyrina -- all pulmonate 'pond' snails; one gill-breathing operculate (Amnicola limosa); ...

H. van der Schalie E. G. Berry D. I. Mount



Environmental conditions in high mountain lakes containing toxic benthic cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glacial lakes on an alpine pasture in Switzerland, benthic cyanobacteria produced microcystin, a cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptide.\\u000a The cyanobacteria formed dense mats on sediments and submerged stones. The mats consisted mainly of Oscillatoria limosa, Phormidium\\u000a konstantinosum (= Oscillatoria tenuis) and Tychonema granulatum (= Oscillatoria granulata). In order to characterize the ecological\\u000a conditions of these cyanobacteria, nutrient concentrations were determined, and

Konstanze Mez; Kurt Hanselmann; Hans Rudolf Preisig



Drought, but not salinity, determines the apparent effectiveness of halophytes colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  


The halophytes Plantago maritima, Aster tripolium, Artemisia santonicum, Puccinellia limosa, Festuca pseudovina and Lepidium crassifolium from two different saline soils of the Hungarian steppe were examined for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The salt aster (A. tripolium) and the sea plantain (P. maritima) were examined more thoroughly by recording root colonization parameters, the salt content in the soil and monthly precipitations in 2001 and 2002. Mycorrhizal colonization was maximal in late spring to early summer and had a second peak later in the autumn. Arbuscule formation and overall mycorrhizal colonization appeared to be inversely correlated with the intensity of rainfall at the investigated sites. The results suggest that, in addition to seasonality, drought may play an important role in governing mycorrhizal activity in saline habitats. In greenhouse experiments, conditions in which AMF could overcome the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride on establishing plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis were not met. PMID:18155803

Füzy, Anna; Biró, Borbála; Tóth, Tibor; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Bothe, Hermann



Isoprene emission from a subarctic peatland under enhanced UV-B radiation.  


Isoprene is a reactive hydrocarbon with an important role in atmospheric chemistry, and emissions from vegetation contribute to atmospheric carbon fluxes. The magnitude of isoprene emissions from arctic peatlands is not known, and it may be altered by increasing UV-B radiation. Isoprene emission was measured with the dynamic chamber method from a subarctic peatland under long-term enhancement of UV-B radiation targeted to correspond to a 20% loss in the stratospheric ozone layer. The site type of the peatland was a flark fen dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and sedges Eriophorum russeolum and Carex limosa. The relationship between species densities and the emission was also assessed. Isoprene emissions were significantly increased by enhanced UV-B radiation during the second (2004) and the fourth (2006) growing seasons under the UV-B exposure. Emissions were related to the density of E. russeolum. The dominant moss, W. exannulata, proved to emit small amounts of isoprene in a laboratory trial. Subarctic fens, even without Sphagnum moss, are a significant source of isoprene to the atmosphere, especially under periods of warm weather. Warming of the Arctic together with enhanced UV-B radiation may substantially increase the emissions. PMID:17888116

Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Riikka; Faubert, Patrick; Räsänen, Janne; Holopainen, Toini; Kyrö, Esko; Holopainen, Jarmo K



Growth and periodicity of cyanobacterial bloom in a polluted pond of Agra city.  


Periodical changes in physico-chemical properties and cyanophycean bloom in a pond ofAgra city during the year 2005 and 2006 were studied. It was recorded that the pond water was polluted throughout the study period and this was closely associated with Cyanobacterial bloom. During summer (March to June), the pond water was highly polluted, as it was rich in various nutrients and phosphates in particular. The pH of pond water was high with low DO and this was associated with the highest peak of water bloom. On the other hand, during winter (November to January), the bloom was at its lowest. The quantity of various nutrients in the pond water was low and the pH was also low but DO was high. Bloom consisted of eighteen members of Cyanophyceae of which Oscillatoria limosa, O. formosa, O. splendida, Anabeana iyengarii, Microcystis arruginosa and Nostoc muscorum were observed throughout the year. On the other hand, Oscillatoria agardhi, and O. tenuis were found only in winters, while O. annae in rainy season only. Similarly, Oscillatoria brevis, Anabaena flosaquae, Aphanizomenon sp. and Lyngybea birgei were found in abundance in summer. PMID:19297980

Tiwari, Ashesh; Chauhan, S V S



Goals and objectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report results from shorebird surveys in the North American Arctic, defined here as Bird Conservation Regions 2 and 3 of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative ( The surveys estimate population size and trend, and provide information on habitat relationships, at the regional and Arctic-wide scale (Table 1, Fig 1). Of the 53 species of shorebirds that breed in the United States and Canada, 26 (47%) breed in the arctic in sufficient numbers that arctic surveys are an important part of monitoring programs for them (Brown et al. 2001, Donaldson et al. 2000; Table 1). Arctic-breeding shorebirds are a diverse group that exhibits a wide range of migration, reproductive, and wintering strategies (Table 1.1). Some species migrate a short distance to the northern United States and southern Canada (e.g. Purple Sandpiper; for scientific names, see Appendix D), while others undertake epic migrations to West Africa (e.g. Red Phalarope) or southern South America (e.g. Hudsonian Godwit, Red Knot). Some migrate in huge flocks, while others trickle south singly or in small groups. There are monogamous, polygamous, and polyandrous breeders, and most habitats in the Arctic provide nesting opportunities for shorebird species. Despite their different life history characteristics, all Arctic shorebird species share two traits: 1) they are all are migrants (none inhabit the Arctic year-round) and 2) because of their migratory behavior, all are exposed to anthropogenic hazards at some point(s) in their life cycle.

Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria



Influence of a large fluvial island, streambed, and stream bank on surface water-groundwater fluxes and water table dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial research on how hydraulic and geomorphologic factors control hyporheic exchange has resulted in reasonable process understanding; however, the role of fluvial islands on the transient nature of spatial flux patterns remains elusive. We used detailed field observations of the Truckee River, Nevada from 2003 to 2009 to quantify fluid flux between the river and a fluvial island, the streambed, and the adjacent stream bank. We constructed a 3-D numerical flow and heat transport model to further quantify the complex flow paths. Our study expands on previous research typically confined to less comprehensive scales and dimensions, and highlights the transient multidimensionality of the flow field. In fact, 1-D vertical streambed flux estimates indicated that the channel bar tail displayed the highest upward flux throughout the summer; however, 3-D model results indicated that the horizontal contribution was two orders of magnitude higher than the vertical contribution. The channel bar net flux is typically 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than the adjacent stream banks and an order of magnitude less than net streambed fluxes, indicating significant differences in river-aquifer interactions between each of the geomorphic units. Modeling simulations further indicated that the channel bar induces 6 times more fluid flux than an identical location without a fluvial island, consistent with flux estimates from a nearby river restoration location. Moreover, event-based and seasonal transient antecedent moisture and near-stream storage conditions contribute to multidimensional river-groundwater interactions. These results suggest that fluvial islands are a key driver and significant component of river-groundwater interactions and hyporheic flow.

Shope, Christopher L.; Constantz, James E.; Cooper, Clay A.; Reeves, Donald M.; Pohll, Greg; McKay, W. Alan



[Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].  


Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species. PMID:23025100

Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel



Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone between wetland and non-wetland areas. On-going analyses of water-chemistry data will be used to identify discrete water sources and to characterize the degree of horizontal and vertical water mixing within the system, as well as to help identify the biochemical requirements of the different plant communities. Results indicate that the chemical composition of the main creek reflects the accumulative effect that the peaty flarks have on the creek as it passes through the wetland system, with pH overall decreasing from 7.3 to 7.0, dissolved oxygen decreasing from 9400 to 8400 micrograms per liter and total dissolved solids increasing from 9 mg/L to 13 mg/L. String ground water is characterized by relatively high pH (ranging from 6.0 to 7.1), high oxidizing-reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from 50 mV to 180 mV), high dissolved oxygen (from 2500 ?g/L to 9600 ?g /L) while flark ground water has relatively lower pH (5.6 to 6.8), low oxidizing reducing potential (ORP) (ranging from -66 mV to 150 mV), low dissolved oxygen (from 900 ?g /L to 9000 ?g /L).

Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.