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Sample records for barfin flounder verasper

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of opsins in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Kanta; Murakami, Naoto; Andoh, Tadashi; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kawamura, Shoji; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-02-10

    Green light irradiation facilitates the somatic growth of barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). However, the V. moseri visual system, which may be associated with somatic growth by acting on the endocrine system upon exposure to this particular wavelength, remains largely unexplored. Herein, we characterized the visual opsin repertoire of V. moseri to understand the molecular basis underlying this effect. The five types of visual opsins that are found in vertebrates were cloned from RNA that was extracted from the eyes of V. moseri. Notably, V. moseri possessed one pseudogene (RH2-A) and two intact (RH2-B and RH2-C) copies of "green-sensitive" opsin genes. The wavelengths of maximum absorption spectra (λmax) for each of the reconstituted photopigments were 552nm for "red-sensitive" LWS, 506nm for RH2-B, 490nm for RH2-C, 482nm and 416nm for "blue-sensitive" SWS2A and SWS2B, respectively, 367nm for "ultraviolet-sensitive" SWS1, and 494nm for "dim-light sensitive rhodopsin" RH1. The λmax of SWS2A was longer than that of any other reported vertebrate SWS2 opsin. By measuring the expression level of these opsin genes with quantitative RT-PCR in 3-, 15-, and 27-month-old fish, we found that RH2-B and SWS2A were expressed at a constant level, whereas the expression of LWS, RH2-C, SWS2B, and SWS1 opsin genes decreased, and that of RH1 increased with age. Barfin flounders inhabit inshore waters at a young age and expand their habitat to deep sea areas as they age, and green light is relatively abundant in deep water compared to the lights of other wavelengths in shallow water. Our results indicate that gene repertoire and expression profile of the opsin genes of barfin flounder are adaptive to their habitat shift that occurs during development, with some opsins acquiring a distinct λmax. PMID:25433330

  2. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  3. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right

  4. Chronic effects of light irradiated from LED on the growth performance and endocrine properties of barfin flounder Verasper moseri.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Murakami, Naoto; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kikuchi, Shigeto; Mizusawa, Kanta; Andoh, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of specific wavelengths of light on the growth of barfin flounder. The fish, reared in white tanks in a dark room, were irradiated with light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak wavelengths of 464nm (blue), 518nm (green), and 635nm (red) under a controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5, light-dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light). Fish were reared for four weeks in three independent experiments at three different water temperatures (averages of 14.9°C, 8.6°C, and 6.6°C). The fish irradiated with blue and green light had higher specific growth rates (% body weight⋅day(-1)) than fish irradiated with red light. Notably, green light had the greatest effect on growth among the three light wavelengths at 6.6°C. In the brains of fish reared at 6.6°C, the amounts of melanin-concentrating hormone 1 mRNA under green light were lower than those under red light, and amounts of proopiomelanocortin-C mRNA under blue and green light were higher than those under red light. No differences were observed for other neuropeptides tested. In the pituitary, no difference was observed in growth hormone mRNA content. In plasma, higher levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I were observed in fish under green light than those of fish under red light. These results suggest that the endocrine systems of barfin flounder are modulated by a specific wavelength of light that stimulates somatic growth. PMID:26795919

  5. Effects of background color on GnRH and MCH levels in the barfin flounder brain.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of background color on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) levels in the brain of the barfin flounder Verasper moseri were monitored to investigate the interaction of GnRH and MCH in the brain. Fish were reared in white or black tanks from one month after hatching for about 7 months. MCH levels in the brain and pituitary were higher in the white tank fish. In contrast, chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) levels in the brain were higher in the black tank fish. No significant differences between background colors were observed in the brain concerning salmon GnRH and seabream GnRH levels. Furthermore, six-month-old fish that had been reared in white tank were transferred to another white or black tank. Brain cGnRH-II levels were higher in black tank fish than those in white tank at 2 and 7 days after the transfer. Double-staining immunohistochemistry showed that some cGnRH-II-immunoreactive (ir) fibers were in close contact with MCH-ir cell bodies in the hypothalamus. These results indicate that background color affects not only MCH levels but also cGnRH-II levels in the brain and suggest that cGnRH-II may play a role in the regulation of MCH neural function, food intake, in the brain of the barfin flounder. PMID:17475262

  6. Changes in brain seabream GnRH mRNA and pituitary seabream GnRH peptide levels during ovarian maturation in female barfin flounder.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Pham, Ky Xuan; Amiya, Noriko; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    The pleuronectid barfin flounder Verasper moseri expresses three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), i.e., seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), salmon GnRH, and chicken GnRH-II. Among these, sbGnRH is the dominant form in the pituitary, indicating that sbGnRH regulates gonadal maturation. In order to clarify the physiological roles of sbGnRH during ovarian maturation in reared female barfin flounder, the changes in brain sbGnRH mRNA levels and pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, respectively. The fish hatched in April 2002. The gonadosomatic index remained low until August 2004 and increased thereafter until April 2005 when the fish began to ovulate. The sbGnRH mRNA levels per brain increased significantly from April 2004 to April 2005. Pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels also increased significantly during this period. These results indicate that sbGnRH is involved in ovarian maturation and ovulation in the barfin flounder. PMID:18662692

  7. Effects of tank color on melanin-concentrating hormone levels in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of the barfin flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2005-09-15

    A pleuronectiform fish, the barfin flounder Verasper moseri, reared in a white tank had a smaller ratio of pigmented area of the skin on non-eyed side, grew faster, and had greater melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-immunoreactive cell bodies and MCH gene expression in the brain than in the black tank, indicating that synthesis and release of MCH are higher in fish from a white tank. In the present study, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for MCH was developed. MCH levels were assessed in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of barfin flounders reared in a white or black tank. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, MCH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled MCH. Displacement curves of serially diluted extracts (brain, pituitary gland, and plasma) of the barfin flounder paralleled that of the MCH standard. MCH levels in the brain and plasma were higher in fish reared in the white tank for 5 months than in the black tank. These results suggest that synthesis and secretion of MCH are enhanced with the white background and that MCH is involved in both somatic growth and the skin pigmentation in the barfin flounder. PMID:15979616

  8. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species. PMID:17646149

  9. Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the Japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) and immunohistochemistry. A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-MSH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled Des-Ac-alpha-MSH. The sensitivity of the assay, defined as twice the standard deviation at a zero dose, was 0.98 ng/ml (49 pg/well). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the assay were 8.8% (n=8) and 17.3% (n=5), respectively, at about 50% binding. Cross-reactivities of Des-Ac-alpha-MSH and Di-Ac-alpha-MSH were about 100%. Cross-reactivities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II were less than 0.2%, and that of melanin-concentrating hormone was less than 2.0% at 50% binding. Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve. Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard. In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha

  10. An Early Warning System for Flounder Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Bin; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Jianqin; Duan, Qingling; Wen, Jiwen

    With the constant expansion of the scale and mismanagement in aquaculture,the diseases of flounder occur more and more frequently than before, which has brought great economic losses to fish farmers. For the sake of the problem described above, based on a great number of surveys, the early warning theory of flounder disease, the analysis of the outbreak and development of diseases and the relationship between disease and factors, the logic process of the early warning for flounder disease was confirmed. It consists of five parts: specifying the target, searching for the source, distinguishing the sign, predicting the degree and eliminating the menace. Using the expert survey method the early warning indexes which affect the normal life of the flounder and calculated the range of the water environment factors were also confirmed. Finally, an early warning system was implemented, which can reduce the damage from the flounder disease.

  11. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Summer flounder accountability measures. (a... subsequent single fishing year recreational sector ACT. (d) Non-landing accountability measures, by...

  12. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  13. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  14. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  15. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  16. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  17. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  18. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  3. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder specifications. 648.102 Section 648.102 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries §...

  4. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder gear restrictions. 648.108 Section 648.108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries...

  5. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder gear restrictions. 648.108 Section 648.108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries...

  6. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications published on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81498). An... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder...

  7. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  8. 75 FR 4490 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  9. 76 FR 19276 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of ] Virginia. Vessels were authorized by Virginia...

  10. 78 FR 77005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... both transferring a portion of their 2013 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth...

  11. 75 FR 22025 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  12. 77 FR 14481 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  13. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and...

  14. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  15. 77 FR 75569 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  16. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of New Jersey. NMFS...

  17. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... summer flounder fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.107 Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. (a) The Regional Administrator has determined that...

  18. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS...

  19. 75 FR 30739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  20. 75 FR 76925 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  1. 77 FR 5414 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action,...

  2. 77 FR 19951 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. The State of North Carolina is...

  3. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. In addition, the State of Maine...

  4. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  5. Pigmentation development, defects, and patterning in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica A; Hakala, Tanya F; Quist, Judith E

    2005-01-01

    Flounders offer unique opportunities to study the cytological basis of vertebrate pigmentation. Individual skin pigment cells are clearly visible at hatching, and flounder ontogeny includes a dramatic shift in overall pigmentation (from symmetrical to asymmetrical) during metamorphosis. Moreover, several types of malpigmentation occur in hatchery populations; although much effort has gone into reducing the frequency of such defects, their etiology remains poorly understood, and they have rarely been described at the cellular level. In this paper, we use light and fluorescence microscopy to describe the cytological basis of normal developmental changes and of common types of malpigmentation. We then discuss the implications of these observations for underlying patterning mechanisms. PMID:16351966

  6. Dimerization of melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) and MC5R creates a ligand-dependent signal modulation: Potential participation in physiological color change in the flounder.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Akie; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Saito, Yumiko

    2016-05-01

    Vertebrates produce α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which contains an N-terminal acetyl group, and desacetyl-α-MSH, which does not contain an N-terminal acetyl group. In teleosts and amphibians, α-MSH-related peptides stimulate pigment dispersion via melanocortin receptors 1-5 (MC1R-MC5R), which are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. We previously reported an interesting phenomenon associated with physiological color changes in the skin of a flatfish, barfin flounder (bf). Specifically, pigments in xanthophores expressing only the bfMC5R gene were dispersed by both α-MSH and desacetyl-α-MSH, whereas those in melanophores expressing both the bfMC1R and bfMC5R genes were dispersed by desacetyl-α-MSH, but not by α-MSH. In this study, we examined whether heterodimers of bfMC1R and bfMC5R can act as significant inhibitory receptors for the N-terminal acetylation of α-MSH in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that bfMC1R and bfMC5R were localized together at the plasma membrane when expressed in the same cells. Indeed, after coexpression of Flag-bfMC1R and HA-bfMC5R, immunoprecipitation with anti-Flag antibodies resulted in the presence of anti-HA immunoreactivity in the precipitate, and vice versa. Importantly, cyclic AMP assays showed that cotransfection of bfMC1R with bfMC5R inhibited the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by α-MSH to a greater extent than that observed after transfection of bfMC1R alone. Of note, this inhibitory response was not caused by desacetyl-α-MSH. Thus, we show a ligand-dependent signaling through functional heterodimerization of MC1R and MC5R in mammalian cells. The ligand-selective receptor complex also provide the first mechanistic implication that may play a role in the control of color change in teleosts. PMID:27080548

  7. Windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) responses to cold temperature extremes in a Northwest Atlantic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine M.; Gallo, Jenine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on flatfish includes not only the effects of warming on sensitive life history stages, but also impacts from more frequent or unseasonal extreme cold temperatures. Cold weather events can affect the overwintering capabilities of flatfish near their low temperature range limits. We examined the responses of two flatfish species, the thin-bodied windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) and cold-tolerant winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), to variable winter temperatures in a Northwest Atlantic estuary using abundance and size data collected during a monitoring study, the Aquatic Biological Survey, conducted from 2002 to 2010. Winter and spring abundances of small (50 to 120 mm total length) juvenile windowpane were positively correlated with adult densities (spawning stock) and fall temperatures (thermal conditions experienced during post-settlement development for the fall-spawned cohort) of the previous year. Windowpane abundances in the estuary were significantly reduced and the smallest size class was nearly absent after several consecutive years with cold (minimum temperatures < 1 °C) winters. Interannual variation in winter flounder abundances was unrelated to the severity of winter temperatures. A Paulik diagram illustrates strong positive correlations between annual abundances of sequential winter flounder life history stages (egg, larval, Age-1 juvenile, and adult male) within the estuary, reflecting residency within the estuary through their first year of life. Temperature variables representing conditions during winter flounder larval and post-settlement development were not significant factors in multiple regression models exploring factors that affect juvenile abundances. Likewise, densities of predators known to consume winter flounder eggs and/or post-settlement juveniles were not significantly related to interannual variation in winter flounder juvenile abundances. Colder estuarine temperatures through the

  8. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  9. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  10. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  11. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  12. Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2002-12-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 μg protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  13. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flounder from November 1 through April 30, per trip, must fish with nets that have a minimum mesh size of 5... Administrator). Vessels fishing under the LOA shall not fish west of the line. Vessels issued a permit under.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  15. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures. 648.103 Section 648.103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer...

  16. Spatial and temporal shifts in suitable habitat of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Rooker, Jay R.

    2013-02-01

    Factors influencing suitable habitats of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) within the Galveston Bay Complex (GBC), Texas, were assessed using generalized additive models (GAM). Fishery independent data collected with bag seines throughout the GBC from 1999 to 2009 were used to predict the probability of southern flounder occurrence. Binomial GAMs were used to assess presence/absence of southern flounder and models included temporal variables, benthic variables such as distance to habitats generated within a geographic information system, and physicochemical conditions of the water column. Separate models were generated for newly settled southern flounder, young-of-the-year (YOY) southern flounder observed in the summer, and YOY southern flounder observed in fall based on size and collection month. Factors affecting southern flounder occurrence changed seasonally, as did the corresponding shifts in the spatial distribution of suitable habitat. Temporal effects (year and month) were retained in all models. Physicochemical conditions (temperature, turbidity, and measures of environmental variability), and the presence of seagrass beds were influential for newly settled southern flounder. Distance to marine and/or freshwater sources were found to be important for YOY southern flounder in the summer and fall seasons. The abundance of brown shrimp was found to only influence the distribution of YOY southern flounder in the fall, when intermediate abundances of the potential prey item increased the occurrence of southern flounder. After model completion, the availability and spatial distribution of suitable habitat within the GBC was predicted using available environmental and spatial data for 2005. Spatial distributions of predicted suitable habitat stress the relative importance of West Bay during the newly settled stage and in the fall season, and Upper Bay during the summer and fall of the first year of life. These models demonstrate the potential

  17. Pilot attempt to grow winter flounders commercially. Completion report 15 Feb 77-30 Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, P.J.; Hoornbeek, F.K.

    1980-09-01

    The first part of this report contains the details and results of laboratory efforts to raise flounders through the early developmental stages including metamorphosis. The second part reports the efforts to grow out newly metamorphosed flounders to commercial size. In order to produce marketable sized winter flounders in heated water, it will be necessary to assure availability of brood stock and an abundance of live food both prior and subsequent to metamorphosis.

  18. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 24151). An error was found in the summer flounder commercial quota and recreational... Register of April 23, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-9755, on page 24152, Table 1 is corrected as follows: Table 1... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2012 Summer Flounder,...

  19. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  20. Transcriptional Responses of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  1. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and 2 weeks later) of 17 -estra-diol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial in...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  3. 78 FR 78786 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2014 Commercial Summer Flounder Quota Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...NMFS is announcing the commercial summer flounder state quotas for fishing year 2014. The 2014 summer flounder specifications were established in December 2012. This notice incorporates any previously unaccounted for overages from fishing year 2012 and any known overages to date from fishing year 2013. These commercial state quotas may change as a result of a recent stock assessment and a......

  4. 75 FR 2820 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one state to... necessitate a state quota transfer (70 FR 53969). This rule specified that such late- season quota transfers... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  5. 76 FR 17032 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... and 2011 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Vessels were authorized...

  6. 78 FR 59626 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels landing... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  7. 78 FR 75267 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial...

  8. 78 FR 25003 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island; and...

  9. 78 FR 66857 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  10. 77 FR 52262 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... quota for summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer...

  11. 75 FR 52890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... for the 2010 calendar ] year was set equal to 13,278,001 lb (6,023 mt) (74 FR 67978, December 22, 2009... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2010 summer flounder...

  12. 77 FR 73556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  13. 77 FR 69567 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  14. 77 FR 64239 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  15. 78 FR 76766 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  16. 78 FR 76765 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  17. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2012 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting...

  18. 78 FR 33 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia, the State of North Carolina is...

  19. 77 FR 25103 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  20. 78 FR 70890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  1. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management action. The MAFMC may, at any time,...

  2. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management action. The MAFMC may, at any time,...

  3. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (<3 km upriver from the mouth) and stone flounder were most abundant near the mouth. Recently settled starry flounder were first detected further upstream in areas characterized by low salinity <10 and by the absence of the predatory sand shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  4. Pathogenicity comparison of high and low virulent strains of Vibrio scophthalmi in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio scophthalmi is a bacterial pathogen of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and virulence is different from various strains. There is not information available on pathogenicity to olive flounder caused by different strains of V. scophthalmi. In this study, the high and low virulent strains...

  5. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  6. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2015-09-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  7. Liver lesions in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Jamaica Bay, New York: Indications of environmental degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Herman, R.L.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Liver sections of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from Jamaica Bay and Shinnecock Bay, New York, in 1989, were examined microscopically to determine the pervasiveness of liver lesions observed previously in Jamaica Bay winter flounder. Neoplastic lesions were not detected in fish from Jamaica Bay or the Shinnecock Bay reference site. Twenty-two percent of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined (n = 103) had unusual vacuolization of hepatocytes and biliary pre-ductal and ductal cells (referred to hereafter as the vacuolated cell lesion). The lesion, identical to that found in 25% of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined in 1988, has previously been identified in fishes taken from highly polluted regions of the Atlantic coast (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, and Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut). Prevalence of the vacuolated cell lesion in winter flounder from Jamaica Bay was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than in 102 specimens collected from Shinnecock Bay. Current scientific literature indicates vacuolated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are chronically injured and that the extent of their deformity is consistent with the action of a hepatotoxicant. The high prevalence of vacuolated hepatocytes in Jamaica Bay winter flounder and absence of the lesion in flounder from reference sites strongly supports the hypothesis that this impairment is a manifestation of a toxic condition in at least some portions of Jamaica Bay.

  8. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat. PMID:24773542

  9. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of male and female olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaofei; You, Feng; Wang, Lijuan; Weng, Shenda; Wu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinwei; Zou, Yuxia; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination. PMID:25121093

  10. 50 CFR 648.65 - Windowpane flounder sub-ACL and AM for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... width of the dredge, and is the rows of dredge rings that extend from the back edge of the twine top (i... windowpane flounder catch, overage, and projection that resulted in the gear restricted area. (2) If...

  11. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  12. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  13. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  14. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section. The Regional Administrator shall implement the AM in accordance with the APA... APA. If a 2010 yellowtail flounder subcomponent catch allocation was exceeded in the 2010 fishing...

  15. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  16. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  17. Decline of flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) at the margin of the species' distribution range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Lappalainen, Antti; Ådjers, Kaj; Rask, Martti; Norkko, Alf

    2015-11-01

    The Baltic Sea is undergoing large-scale environmental change due to eutrophication, climate change, over-exploitation and habitat destruction, with subsequent degradation of living conditions for many fish species. Signs of this unfavorable development are seen as population declines in species affected. We provide the first synthesis and characterization of the recent population decline in European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea, using available fishery-independent data from the Finnish coast, which is at the margin of the distribution range of this species. The objective was to document recent changes in the flounder population, identify the onset and quantify the magnitude of the change. The results showed substantial decreases in flounder numbers and biomass across the whole study area during recent decades. Based on the time series data available, flounder abundances declined by 46-97% from the 1990s to the 2000s, with top values in the mid-1990s and current low levels reached in the early 2000s. Additionally, signs of decreasing flounder size and condition were also observed. We discuss potential reasons for the development in terms of environmental change and fishing, and identify potential bottlenecks for population maintenance and mechanisms behind population change, thereby contributing to our general understanding of marginal flounder populations.

  18. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  19. Fecundity of flounder, Pleuronectes flesus, in the Baltic Sea — Reproductive strategies in two sympatric populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Dahlman, Gry

    2010-10-01

    Two sympatric flounder populations with different reproductive strategies, offshore spawning at 10-20 psu producing pelagic eggs and coastal spawning at 5-7 psu with demersal eggs respectively, inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Salinity governs the reproductive success by irregular saline water inflows and hence stock abundance and distribution. The potential fecundity (the standing stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary) was assessed for fish sampled at five locations (two for offshore spawners and three for coastal spawners) along the salinity gradient (ICES SD 25, 27/28, 28 and 29). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in r2-values of 0.698-0.894 for the respective sampling location with somatic weight or total fish length as the main predictor, and otolith weight (proxy for age) and oocyte density (by gravimetric counting) as additional predictors. Analysis by univariate regressions using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity for coastal spawning- than offshore spawning flounder (˜ 69% more oocytes for an intermediate sized fish) but no intra-population differences. Similarly, gonad dry weight was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder. Further, growth estimations indicated higher growth in offshore spawning- than in coastal spawning flounder suggesting that the coastal spawning population allocate relatively more resources into reproductive growth than somatic, potentially a result of strong selection for high fecundity of flounder producing demersal eggs due to poor egg survival for this spawning strategy. Earlier studies on fecundity of Baltic flounder are reviewed and discussed with consideration of inter-population differences questioning the idea of in general higher fecundity of flounder in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  1. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: On December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82189), NMFS published interim specifications for the summer flounder... revised quota setting procedures for the FMP (67 FR 6877, February 14, 2002), summer flounder overages are... following Federal Register documents: 77 FR 14481 (March 12, 2012); and 77 FR 19951 (April 3, 2012). Table...

  2. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( P<0.05). Food deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( P<0.05) and a 91.7% decrease in the 48 h fasted group ( P<0.05). Therefore, our study demonstrates that NPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  3. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  4. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  5. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  6. Differential Expression Patterns of Crystallin Genes during Ocular Development of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Young Mee; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul Ji; Park, Jong Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2012-12-01

    Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most widely cultured fish species in Korea. Although olive flounder receive attention from aquaculture and fisheries and extensive research has been conducted eye morphological change in metamorphosis, but little information was known to molecular mechanism and gene expression of eye development- related genes during the early part of eye formation period. For the reason of eyesight is the most important sense in flounder larvae to search prey, the screening and identification of expressed genes in the eye will provide useful insight into the molecular regulation mechanism of eye development in olive flounder. Through the search of an olive flounder DNA database of expressed sequence tags (EST), we found a partial sequence that was similar to crystallin beta A1 and gamma S. Microscopic observation of retinal formation correspond with the time of expression of the crystallin beta A1 and gamma S gene in the developmental stage, these result suggesting that beta A1 and gamma S play a vital role in the remodeling of the retina during eye development. The expression of crystallin beta A1 and gamma S were obviously strong in eye at all tested developing stage, it is also hypothesized that crystallin acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein aggregation during maturation and aging in the eye. PMID:25949104

  7. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology, thus providing a perfect "host/guest" interaction that simultaneously satisfies both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The results also show the relation among binding energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the activity. The activity is correlated to the binding energy, and in the case of the mutants we have studied the number of hydrogen bonds. The greater the number of the hydrogen bonds the greater the antifreeze activity. The roles van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic

  8. Investigation on health conditions of flounder and smelt in the Elbe estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Hölzel, F.

    1980-03-01

    Since 1958 the occurrence of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) and smelt ( Osmerus eperlanus L.) in the lower River Elbe has shifted gradually toward the mouth of the river into the North Sea; this may be due to periodical deprivation of oxygen and fluctuating peaks of toxic nitrite concentrations. The interior organs of both fish species caught in the Elbe estuary were examined. Macroscopic inspections revealed discolouring of the liver to be most pronounced in specimens 2 3 years of age. Cross-sections of the liver demonstrated histopathological symptoms of oedematous degeneration in smelt, and extreme lipoid vacuolation in flounder increasing with size and age of the fishes. The intestine of both species investigated showed massive desquamation defects of the mucosa, occurring in smelts shortly after hatching, and in flounders after immigration into the estuary. The observations made suggest the influence of toxic compounds distributed in the aquatic environment on the health of both species.

  9. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  10. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  11. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (kcat) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high kcat, while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low kcat, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  13. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES TO ASSSESS HABITAT QUALITY IN RHODE ISLAND'S COASTAL LAGOONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used growth rates of juvenile winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, to assess habitat quality in 3 of Rhode Island's coastal salt ponds that had differing levels of nutrients and human development. In each pond, 1 m2 cages were placed in vegetated and unvegetated habi...

  14. Intestinal helminth parasites in flounder Platichthys flesus from the River Thames: an infracommunity analysis.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Hernandez, S; Whitfield, P J

    2004-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken of intestinal helminth communities in flounder Platichthys flesus from two sites on the River Thames. A comparison was made between helminth community richness and diversity from these sites at the component and infracommunity levels. At the component community level, a richer and more diverse parasite community was found in flounder from the Tilbury location (marine influence) than that from the Lots Road location (freshwater influence). At the infracommunity level, more parasite species and parasite individuals per host were found at Lots Road and the percentage of similarity values were low at both locations. Helminth species with high prevalence values in the parasite communities of the flounder are the dominant species in any individual fish, harbouring multi-specific infections. The presence of more invertebrate species, which are intermediate hosts in the helminth life cycle in the Thames, fish vagility and the high prevalence and abundance values of Pomphorhynchus laevis in the flounder, may explain the differences between the two locations. PMID:15575985

  15. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE...

  16. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  1. 76 FR 29670 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... (76 FR 23206). The difference is 590 lb (268 kg) less of summer flounder to be transferred; therefore..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA403 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States;...

  2. 76 FR 23206 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... included in the quota transfer effective April 4, 2011 (76 FR 19277). This correction accounts for 2,805 lb... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  3. 78 FR 72585 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... for the 2013 fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  4. 78 FR 51096 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  5. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... specifications for these fisheries was provided in the proposed specifications (77 FR 68723; November 16, 2012... rule (77 FR 68723). Comment 1: One commenter suggested that the quotas should be reduced by 50 percent... the 2011 determination that summer flounder has been rebuilt are based on the best available...

  6. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES AND STABLE ISOTOPES TO ASSESS HABITAT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used winter flounder growth rates and stable isotopes to assess habitat quality across an anthropogenic gradient in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Cages (1 m2) were placed in the Providence River which had the highest nutrient concentrations and greatest development, Prudence...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part...

  8. Detection of alternative splice and gene duplication by RNA sequencing in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of "omics" data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 "single-nucleotide polymorphisms" were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

  9. Detection of Alternative Splice and Gene Duplication by RNA Sequencing in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of “omics” data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 “single-nucleotide polymorphisms” were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

  10. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high k(cat), while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low k(cat), as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  11. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  12. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF 17B-ESTRADIOL IN SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol has been shown to cause increased vitellogenin (VtG) concentrations in male fish. The intent of this study was to evaluate the pathobiology associated with exposure to 17 -estradiol (E2) on liver, gonad, and kidney tissues of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Juve...

  13. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE...

  14. Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Do, Jung Wan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2016-09-25

    A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV. PMID:27599933

  15. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  16. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  17. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  18. Stabel Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths from Juvenile and Adult Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to determine if stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important nursery areas for winter flounder along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. In recent years the populations ...

  19. Difficult Cases in Career Counseling: IV-Floundering and Occupational Moratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Mangicaro, Laura L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents fourth in series of articles about difficult counseling problems for career counselors. Focuses on young adults in career transition, underscoring their needs for self-understanding. Considers underlying causes of floundering behavior and reasons that propel clients to retreat to career and psychological moratorium. Notes resource for…

  20. Wild and hatchery populations of Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) compared using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Byun, Soon Gyu; Kim, Yi Cheong; Lee, Jang Wook; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) is an important sport and food fish found around the margins of the North Pacific. Aquaculture production of this species in Korea has increased because of its commercial value. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of starry flounder populations. In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic starry flounder DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery starry flounder populations in Korea. All loci were readily amplified and demonstrated high allelic diversity, with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 18 in the wild population and from 2 to 12 in the farmed population. A total of 136 alleles were detected at the 12 microsatellite loci in the two populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.62 and 0.68, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.67 and 0.75, respectively, in the wild samples. These results indicate lower genetic variability in the hatchery population as compared to the wild population. Significant shifts in allelic frequencies were detected at eight loci, which resulted in a small but significant genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.043, P < 0.05). Further studies with additional starry flounder sample collections are needed for comprehensive determinations of the genetic varieties between the wild and hatchery populations. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future population genetic studies, monitoring the genetic variation for successful aquaculture management and the preservation of aquatic biodiversity. PMID:22272127

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jung-Ha; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, GunDo; Chung, Jongkyeong; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish. PMID:18578892

  2. Molecular cloning and sexually dimorphic expression of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Weng, Shenda; You, Feng; Fan, Zhaofei; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia

    2016-08-01

    WNT4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4) is regarded as a key regulator of gonad differentiation in mammalians. However, the potential role of wnt4 in teleosts during gonad differentiation and development is still unclear. The full-length cDNA sequence of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The wnt4 ORF contains 1059 nucleotides, encoding a protein with a signal peptide domain and a wnt family domain. Expression in tissues of adult flounders was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that wnt4 was widely expressed in multiple tissues of flounders, and the expression level was significantly higher in ovary than in testis. Then wnt4 expression pattern was investigated during gonadal differentiation period and at gonadal development stages (I-V). The results showed the expression levels were significantly higher in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. Notably, wnt4 expression had a very significant increase before testis differentiation. At gonad different developmental stages, there was no expression signal at stage I or stage II, and the expression of wnt4 was much stronger in ovary than in testis at stage III and stage IV, followed by a faint expression in stage V in both sexes. Our results imply that cloned wnt4 could be wnt4a. It is a sex-related gene and its expression pattern in gonadal differentiation period of flounder is different from that in mammalians or other teleosts. Flounder wnt4 might play more important role in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. PMID:26920537

  3. Isolation, characterization and seasonal variations in the concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine isodipeptide in the blood plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed Central

    Squires, E J; Feltham, L A

    1980-01-01

    A ninhydrin-positive compound was isolated from the plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and identified as the isodipeptide N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine. Wide seasonal variations in plasma concentration of this compound are found in the male flounder, whereas it is present only in trace amounts in the plasma of the female flounder throughout the year. In the male flounder the plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine rises from January to a peak in May and June. It is during these latter months that the flounder spawn. After spawning, the plasma concentration of the isodipeptide decreases to low basal values in October. These changes in plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine may be related to changes in testes weight, spermatogenesis and spawning activity of the winter flounder. PMID:7387633

  4. COMPARISON OF A REFERENCE STRAIN AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' AS FOOD FOR WINTER FLOUNDER (PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reference strain and four commercially available geographical strains of Artemia nauplii were each tested as a diet for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae. The Reference strain was provided by the Artemia Reference Center, Ghent, Belgium. The geographical st...

  5. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  6. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  7. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  8. Use of imaging analysis for modeling growth and development of hatchery-reared southern flounder and Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, and Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, are prime candidates for aquaculture. Hatchery methods have been developed for each species, but rearing larvae through metamorphosis is difficult. We investigated the early life history of these fishes using ...

  9. Kudoa septempunctata-induced gastroenteritis in humans after flounder consumption in Japan: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Yuichiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Toyokawa, Takao; Nakamura, Naomi; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Raw fish consumption is increasing worldwide. Since around the year 2000, western regions of Japan have reported a foodborne disease of unknown cause that occurred after the consumption of flounder. In October 2010, a particularly large outbreak was reported in these regions among individuals who consumed flounder fish that had been raised in aquaculture systems. The median incubation period was 5 h (range, 4-19 h), and the most frequently reported symptom was diarrhea (80%). The risk estimate of the consumption of flounder was significantly higher than that of the development of symptoms (odds ratio=9.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-∞). According to a trace-back investigation, all of the flounder responsible for the outbreak were raised in aquaculture systems. Microscopic examination revealed that the median amount of Kudoa septempunctata present in the muscle of flounder fish from the aquaculture farm was 4.5×10(3) spores/g (range, 1.0×10(3)-9.6×10(6) spores/g). The number of K. septempunctata spores required for the development of illness, as estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, was 7.2×10(7) spores/g; therefore, thus this might be the minimum ingestion threshold for the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. As a public health measure, the current study results should be referred to for the prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms related to the consumption of flounder; the national public health authority has disseminated these results. We concluded that K. septempunctata-contaminated flounder fish were associated with the gastrointestinal symptoms of this recent outbreak. PMID:25420663

  10. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach.

    PubMed

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  11. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and two weeks later) of 17 b-estradiol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial ...

  12. Further observation of the spermatozoa of lefteye flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by electronic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Tian; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Xie, Jia-Lin; Jiang, Ming

    2002-06-01

    The spermatozoon ultrastructure of left-eye flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, was observed by electronic microscopy, and shown to consist of head, midpiece and tail. Some nuclear vacuoles were observed inside and along the outer part of the nucleus and double-membrane structures were observed between the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane. The sperm sleeve consisted of four independent parts and had more than four mitochondria. Along the sperm tail there were wing-like lateral fins.

  13. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  14. Dynamics of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, seasonal migrations based on ultrasonic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Able, Kenneth W.; Grothues, Thomas M.

    2007-08-01

    Migrations of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, to and from estuaries to the continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) occur seasonally but their dynamics are poorly understood. Ultrasonic telemetry, both passive and active, was used during 2003-2005 to determine timing and rate of juvenile and adult summer flounder (268-535 mm TL) migrating to and from the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary in southern New Jersey. Additionally, 7 years of inner continental shelf surveys off New Jersey were used to assess complementary seasonal movements. Most tagged fish emigrated from the estuary between July and September, though emigration lasted into December and appeared to be influenced by a number of factors. In July 2004, more tagged fish emigrated, at increased rates of movement, at low barometric pressure during a storm event. Trawl collections on the inner shelf demonstrated the same approximate immigration times as seen with telemetry. Later in the fall, increased numbers of tagged summer flounder emigrated from the estuary when dissolved oxygen was decreasing. Fall trawl surveys showed increased numbers of fish on the inner shelf when dissolved oxygen was decreasing in the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary, supporting the telemetry results. Fish emigrated from the estuary during the day and night but nighttime movements were in deeper water at slightly slower rates of movement. Exit and re-entry also occurred during the fall emigration. Ultrasonically tagged individuals demonstrated homing by returning to the same estuary, in March through June, in the second and third year of the study (39-6%, respectively). In summary, immigration may result from homing for a large proportion of summer flounder. Emigration may be associated with storms on an episodic scale, and dissolved oxygen and temperature on a seasonal scale.

  15. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jing-Yun; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2014-08-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in mammals is known to be involved in antiviral response. In this study, we studied the structure, mRNA tissue distribution and regulation of IRF9 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The cDNA sequence of IRF9 is 3305 bp long, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1308 bp that encodes a peptide of 435 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence shares 33.7-72.0% identity to other fish IRF9s. Japanese flounder IRF9 possesses a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF association domain (IAD), two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and a proline-rich domain (PRD). The IRF9 transcripts were detectable in all examined tissues of healthy Japanese flounders, with higher levels in the head kidney, kidney, liver and spleen. The IRF9 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle when challenged with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). The up-regulations were stronger and arose earlier in the case of poly I:C treatment in most tested organs in a 7-day time course, with maximum increases ranging from 1.37- to 8.59-fold and peak time points from 3 h to 3 d post injection depending on different organs, relative to those in the case of LCDV treatment which ranged from 1.32- to 3.21-fold and from 18 h to 3 d post injection, respectively. The highest and earliest inductions were detected in the spleen in both challenge cases, while the inductions by LCDV in the muscle were quite faint. These results demonstrate a role of Japanese flounder IRF9 in the host's antiviral responses. PMID:24837327

  17. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  19. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  20. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianlei; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Peng

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5'-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder. PMID:25431413

  1. In Vitro Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata Spores Infecting the Muscle of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Funaguma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite infecting the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), has been recently reported to be the causative agent of a type of food poisoning in humans. Patients exhibited acute diarrhea and vomiting after ingestion of the raw flesh of infected flounder. A recent increase in the number of food-poisoning cases has prompted us to develop a control strategy of this parasite. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of several temperature and chemical treatments for inactivating K. septempunctata spores in vitro using the vital staining assay with the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI). Screening tests of treatment methods against K. septempunctata suggested that 25% ethanol for 5 min, 80°C for 10 s, limonene at 10 μL/mL for 5 min, and salinities at 0‰ and 160‰ for 5 min were effective for killing spores. To verify toxicity loss in K. septempunctata spores after the treatments, tight junction barrier integrity assays with Caco-2 cells were conducted. The results of the Caco-2 assays corresponded well with those of the Hoechst 33342-PI staining assay. Further studies are required to determine a practical treatment procedure for inactivating spores considering the treatment application in the production process of cultured olive flounder. PMID:26540185

  2. Measuring some flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) innate immune responses to be incorporated in effect biomonitoring concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    For an implementation of innate immune responses of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in an integrated biological effect monitoring concept, leucocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen, and analysed for their capacity to mount a respiratory burst response upon phorbol ester stimulation. Responding cells were identified by reduced nitro-blue-tetrazolium salt deposits and by dihydro-rhodamine fluorescence in light microscope and flow cytometric analysis. Responding cells were found in head kidney derived cell suspensions rather than in peripheral blood or spleen. Parallel cytometric and microscopic analysis indicated that responding cells had a granulocyte or monocyte morphology, were alpha-naphtyl-esterase or myeloperoxidase positive and in flow cytometry exhibited a characteristic forward and side scatter (FSC/SSC) pattern. These cells represented 30-40% of head kidney derived cell suspensions and only 4-5 % of peripheral blood and spleen. In order to reduce sampling effort in field studies, leucocyte cell suspensions derived from flounder head kidney could be used in respiratory burst assays without further enrichment protocols. This paper combines, for the first time, conventional and cytometric analysis of phagocytes derived from flounder peripheral blood and head kidney.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  4. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/). PMID:26096292

  5. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P < 0.05). Daily growth rates of flounder larvae were higher (0.391 mm) from the high CO2 concentration (1297 μatm) than those (0.361 mm and 0.360 mm) from the lower ones (988 and 574 μatm).The measurement on some chemical elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr) in fish tissue also revealed the increasing tendency of element concentration with increasing CO2 in seawater, although statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  6. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist with environmental impact assessments. From 1935 to 1980, the annual commercial landings of winter flounder in New England ranged from 6000 to 15000 t; the sport catch exceeded the commercial catch in some years. Winter flounder are found in waters with temperatures of 0 to 25 /degree/C and they usually spawn at 0 to 3 /degree/C. Reported fecundities are 0.5 to 1.5 million eggs per female. Metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete in 49-80 days, depending on temperature. Juveniles remain in or near shallow natal waters for much of their first 2 years. Adults of some populations move more than 3 miles offshore to cooler waters in summer. These adults live in shallow inshore waters in winter and early spring. Adult winter flounder feed largely on annelids, cnidariids, and mollusks. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus): molecular characterization, distribution and effects of fasting.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is primarily related to reproductive processes in vertebrates. However other physiological roles, including functions in food intake regulation and energy status, have been demonstrated for GnRH in animals. The ten amino acid active peptide is relatively conserved throughout chordates, more specifically in fish species. Teleosts generally have at least two variants of GnRH present in their genomes. GnRH2 (commonly termed chicken-GnRH) is common to all fish, whereas other prevalent forms include GnRH1 and/or GnRH3 (also known as salmon-GnRH). The mRNAs of all three forms were identified in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder GnRH1 appears to be ubiquitously and strongly expressed throughout the brain. GnRH2 mRNA is highly expressed in the optic tectum/thalamus. Finally, GnRH3 mRNA is expressed throughout the brain, but not in the pituitary, with apparent highest expression in the telencephalon/preoptic area. Flounder GnRH1 mRNA is found in most peripheral tissues examined, including the foregut, midgut and gonads. GnRH2 mRNA appears to be expressed throughout the periphery, with apparent highest transcript expression in male gonads. Finally, winter flounder GnRH3 transcript is found at low levels in the skin, heart, and gonads. The effect of fasting on the expression of each of the three isoforms was assessed. Fasting reduces GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNA expression in the optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus, and telencephalon/preoptic area, respectively, compared with fed fish. GnRH1 mRNA expression does not appear to be altered by feeding status. GnRH mRNAs do not seem to regulate food intake peripherally through the gut based on our preliminary findings. Our preliminary results suggest that the GnRH system could play a central role in food intake regulation of winter flounder. PMID:23298570

  8. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  9. Spatial patterns in markers of contaminant exposure, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and immunological response in juvenile winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    McElroy, A E; Hice, L A; Frisk, M G; Purcell, S L; Phillips, N C; Fast, M D

    2015-06-01

    Inshore winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus) populations in NY, USA have reached record low numbers in recent years, and recruitment into the fishery appears to be limited by survival of post-settlement juvenile fish. In order to identify cellular pathways associated with site-specific variation in condition and mortality, we examined differential mRNA expression in juvenile winter flounder collected from six different bays across a gradient in human population density and sewage inputs. Illumina sequencing of pooled samples of flounder from contrasting degraded sites and less impacted sites was used to guide our choice of targets for qPCR analysis. 253 transcripts of >100bp were differentially expressed, with 60% showing strong homology to mostly teleost sequences within the NCBI database. Based on these data, transcripts representing nine genes of interest associated with contaminant exposure, immune response and glucose and glycogen metabolism were examined by qPCR in individual flounder from each site. Statistically significant site-specific differences were observed in expression of all but one gene, although patterns in expression were complex with only one (vitellogenin), demonstrating a west to east gradient consistent with known loadings of municipal sewage effluent. Principal components analysis (PCA) identified relationships among the genes evaluated. Our data indicate that juvenile winter flounder are responding to estrogenic chemicals in more urbanized coastal bays, and suggests potential mechanistic links between immune response, contaminant exposure and energy metabolism. PMID:25946204

  10. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  11. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry. PMID:25449382

  12. Selective agars for the isolation of Streptococcus iniae from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and its cultural environment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; Kanai, K

    1999-05-01

    Two kinds of selective agar were developed for the isolation of Streptococcus iniae, the causal agent of streptococcosis, from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and from culture tanks in flounder farms. The selective agars were heart infusion agar with added thallium acetate and oxlinic acid (TAOA), and colistin sulphate and oxolinic acid (CSOA). For samples containing various bacterial flora, selective agars were supplemented with defibrinated horse blood in order to distinguish beta-haemolytic colonies of Strep. iniae. Streptococcus iniae was quantitatively isolated from the brain and kidney of diseased flounders in pure culture. Two-thirds of isolates picked up from selective blood agars inoculated with intestinal samples were identified as Strep. iniae. The bacterial colony numbers of deposits and water from culture tanks on selective blood agars were about 10-10(5) times smaller than those on control heart infusion agar; Strep. iniae was isolated from few deposit and water samples. PMID:10347871

  13. Comparison of common persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Vistula (Poland) and Douro (Portugal) River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Komar-Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2014-04-15

    Groups of flounder (Platichthys flesus) females were collected in 2011 from the Vistula River and the Duoro River estuaries and corresponding reference sites in the southern Baltic Sea and Portuguese coast of the Atlantic Ocean to measure and compare the levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The estuaries' sediments were also investigated. Several differences were found in the POPs between the estuaries and between the two marine regions, which were highlighted by PCA. The Vistula River estuary POPs, significantly higher than in the Douro River estuary, were dominated by DDTs followed by PCBs. PBDEs levels, indifferent between the estuaries, were relatively low. The POP levels in flounder and sediment evaluated against environmental assessment criteria (EACs) indicated that none of the measured contaminants for which EAC had been established exceeded the criterion, except for CB-118 in flounder from the Vistula River estuary. PMID:24492155

  14. Variation in otolith macrostructure of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus): A method to discriminate between wild and released fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, S.; Isshiki, T.

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a method to discriminate between wild and hatchery-produced Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, based on variations in otolith macrostructure. Otoliths of wild flounder were more elliptical than those of hatchery-produced fish, whereas otolith area and marginal coarseness showed no clear differences. Otolith morphometry did not vary significantly with water temperature or feeding conditions in rearing experiments. Reduced ellipticity in the otoliths of hatchery-produced fish could be caused by biotic and abiotic conditions after release. Throughout the study, it was found that otoliths of Japanese flounder reared at 15 and 20 °C regimes showed opaque zones regardless of feeding condition, while otolith of fish reared at 25 °C had translucent zones. The potential of thermal marks and secondary zones as a new mass-marking system is presented.

  15. Assessment of the European flounder responses to chemical stress in the English Channel, considering biomarkers and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Pichereau, Vianney; Sanchez, Wilfried; Riso, Ricardo; Labonne, Maylis; Amara, Rachid; Charrier, Grégory; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    A multi-biomarker approach was developed to evaluate responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in three contrasted estuaries over the English Channel: the Canche (pristine site), Tamar (heavy metals and PAHs contamination) and Seine (heavily pollution with a complex cocktail of contaminants). The condition factor and several biomarkers of the immune system, antioxidant enzymes, energetic metabolism and detoxification processes were investigated in young-of-the-year (0+) and one-year-old (1+) flounder. Results underlined the difference between the pristine site and the Seine estuary which showed a lower condition factor, a modulation of the immune system, a higher Cytochrome C oxidase activity, and an up-regulation of BHMT expression. The moderate biomarker responses in the Tamar fish could be linked to the specific contamination context of this estuary. Flounder life history traits were analyzed by otolith microchemistry, in order to depict how the fish use their habitat and thus respond to chemical stress in estuaries. PMID:25499967

  16. A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Seung Min; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeong, Joon Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic. PMID:26921543

  17. A low molecular weight peptide from snow mold with epitopic homology to the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Newsted, W J; Polvi, S; Papish, B; Kendall, E; Saleem, M; Koch, M; Hussain, A; Cutler, A J; Georges, F

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for a small size protein (ca. 3500 kDa) exhibiting epitopic homology to the Atlantic winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) is found in the snow molds Coprinus psychromorbidus, Myriosclerotinia borealis, and Typhula incarnata. The protein shows strong cross-reactivity with antisera specific for the flounder AFP. Preliminary studies suggest that the protein is synthesized in response to lowering the culture temperature, and that it is membrane associated and, therefore, may function in an analogous capacity to the fish AFP. Also, the protein is shown to have antifreeze properties as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging experiments. PMID:7818849

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  19. The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

  20. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  1. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yong; Awji, Elias Gebru; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2016-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder and its activity against pathogenic bacteria of olive flounder were investigated. 2. Intramuscular administration (12.5 or 125 mg/kg, n = 160) and HPLC analysis of sera were used. 3. Rapid absorption (Tmax 2.6 and 2.2 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 15.52 and 10.42 h; MRT, 18.79 and 14.44 h), and dose-proportional exposure (AUC0-∞, 273.69 and 2755.37 h. μg/ml) were observed after 12.5 and 125 mg/kg doses. 4. The withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium from muscle plus skin of olive flounder (n =40, water temperature, 23 °C) was 12 d (276 degree days). 5. Amoxicillin sodium had small MICs against Streptococcus iniae (0.008-0.06 μg/ml) and Streptococcus parauberis (0.03-1.0 μg/ml), whereas higher concentrations were required to inhibit Edwardsiella tarda isolates (0.06-16 μg/ml). 6. While large AUC0-24 h/MIC90 and Cmax/MIC90 ratios were obtained for S. iniae and S. parauberis, with drug concentrations in serum greater than MICs for the entire dosing interval (T > MIC90 of 100%), the lower dose (12.5 mg/kg) could not achieve target values of the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for E. tarda isolates, suggesting the need for higher doses to combat pathogenic bacteria with large MICs. PMID:26407038

  3. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  4. Transport and retention of flounder larvae ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard nursery (Ems estuary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Zwanette

    2001-05-01

    Variability in tidal transport of larval flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard was investigated to estimate the quantity of larvae that are annually retained in the nursery based on simultaneous measurements of water transport and larval concentrations. Sampling was done three times per hour in the main channel in the Dollard, during 35 tidal cycles divided over 1993, 1994 and 1995. In 1993, additional sampling was carried out simultaneously during eight tidal cycles in a subsidiary channel. Larval concentrations showed marked tidal variations at all time scales and indicated a patchy spatial distribution. The estimated net tidal transport of larvae was not correlated to the net tidal transport of water. However, a higher net water transport coincided with higher retention, defined as the percentage of net larval transport divided by the flood larval transport. Also, relatively longer duration of the flood than the ebb period (tidal asymmetry) was positively correlated with both net tidal water transport and larval retention. The wind direction significantly affected the net water transport at the cross-section in the main channel, whereas wind speed was not significant. The flood transport, but not the ebb or net transport, was significantly higher during spring tide following full moon than during the other lunar phases. The net tidal transport of larvae was much more variable in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995, frequently resulting in ebb surpluses in larval transport. Despite higher mean concentrations, the estimated net larval input was lower in 1994 than in 1993. This corresponded neither with the observed abundance estimates of juvenile flounder in the Dollard in these two years, nor with the abundance index obtained from routine surveys. The total larval input better reflects the juvenile flounder abundance. Variability in water circulation, influenced by varying wind conditions, and its effect on larval transport and retention is an important source

  5. Physiology of acute silver toxicity in the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) in seawater.

    PubMed

    Hogstrand, C; Ferguson, E A; Galvez, F; Shaw, J R; Webb, N A; Wood, C M

    1999-10-01

    Physiological effects of exposure to silver (AgClnn-1; 250 micrograms Ag l-1 or 1000 micrograms Ag l-1) in seawater fish were investigated using adult starry flounders. While all fish survived up to 10 days in 250 micrograms Ag l-1, flounders started to die after day 4 in 1000 micrograms l-1. Dose-dependent increases in plasma and hepatic silver concentrations showed that silver was available for uptake. There were minimal negative effects on hematological parameters, acid-base status, and blood gases. Plasma ammonia showed a pronounced (three- to four-fold), but transient increase in flounders exposed to either 250 micrograms Ag l-1 or 1000 micrograms Ag l-1. Whole body ammonia and acid equivalent efflux measurements indicated that ammonia retention was due to a combination of stimulated production and inhibited excretion. In the 1000-microgram Ag l-1 group there was a similar transient increase in plasma [magnesium], which was restored by day 4. In contrast, plasma chloride and sodium levels increased gradually towards the point when fish began to die. At 250 micrograms Ag l-1, the Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity of the intestine was unaffected but there was a two-fold increase in branchial Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. The latter effect was interpreted as compensation for an elevated chloride and sodium load. The increases in plasma chloride and sodium concentrations were accompanied by a marked suppression of drinking, thereby indicating that acute silver toxicity was likely caused by a combination of elevated electrolyte concentrations and dehydration. PMID:10595315

  6. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuyan; Guo, Huarong; Xiao, Qin; Su, Feng; Yin, Licheng

    2007-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder (FG cell line) was examined in this study. It was found that the exposure of FG cells to abamectin caused the decreases of both cell growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the increase of intracellular O2 - content. It was proposed that the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in FG cells caused the accumulation of O2 - content in FG cells, leading to the change of cell morphology and even the death of cells. The results showed that FG cell line is suitable for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of abamectin.

  7. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4-5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  8. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  9. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  10. Characterization of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD5 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Yongli

    2012-03-01

    As one member of winged helix domain transcription factors, FoxD5 was reported to be a trunk organizer. Recent study showed that zebrafish foxd5 is expressed in the somites. To further understand the function of FoxD5 in fish muscle development, the FoxD5 gene was isolated from flounder. Its expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization, while its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD, was analyzed by ectopic expression. It showed that flounder FoxD5 was firstly expressed in the tailbud, adaxial cells, and neural plate of the head. In flounder embryo, FoxD5 is expressed not only in forebrain but also in somite cells that will form muscle in the future. When flounder FoxD5 was over-expressed in zebrafish by microinjection, the expression of zebrafish MyoD in the somites was reduced, suggesting that FoxD5 is involved in myogenesis by regulating the expression of MyoD.

  11. Quantitative comparison of the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos and adult tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Tan, Xungang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin are myogenic regulatory factors that play important roles during myogenesis. It is thought that MyoD and Myf5 are required for myogenic determination, while myogenin is important for terminal differentiation and lineage maintenance. To better understand the function of myogenic regulatory factors in muscle development of flounder, an important economic fish in Asia, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the expression patterns of MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin at early stages of embryo development, and in different tissues of the adult flounder. The results show that, Myf5 is the first gene to be expressed during the early stages of flounder development, followed by MyoD and myogenin. The expressions of Myf5, yoD, and myogenin at the early stages have a common characteristic: expression gradually increased to a peak level, and then gradually decreased to an extremely low level. In the adult flounder, the expression of the three genes in muscle is much higher than that in other tissues, indicating that they are important for muscle growth and maintenance of grown fish. During embryonic stages, the expression level of MyoD might serve an important role in the balance between muscle cell differentiation and proliferation. When the MyoD expression is over 30% of its highest level, the muscle cells enter the differentiation stage.

  12. EFFECTS OF LARVAL STOCKING DENSITY ON LABORATORY-SCALE AND COMMERICAL-SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three experiments investigating larval stocking densities of summer flounder from hatch to metamorphosis, Paralichthys dentatus, were conducted at laboratory-scale (75-L aquaria) and at commercial scale (1,000-L tanks). Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities...

  13. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4–5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  14. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  15. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  16. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  17. A comparison of physical and rheological properties of Arrowtooth Flounder protein made using three different extraction processes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble(s) and insoluble(s) fish protein powders were made from arrowtooth flounder (AF) fillets using three methods, which were heating and fractionation (HF), enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), and alkali protein extraction (AE). The AF powders were compared and physical, chemical and rheological properti...

  18. Distribution, condition, and growth of newly settled southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) in the Galveston Bay Estuary, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lindsay A.; Rooker, Jay R.; Kraus, Richard T.; Holt, G. Joan

    2008-08-01

    Several flatfish species, including southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruit to estuaries during early life. Therefore, evaluation of estuarine sites and habitats that serve as nurseries is critical to conservation and management. The present study used density data in conjunction with biochemical condition and growth measurements to evaluate settlement sites used by southern flounder in the Galveston Bay Estuary (GBE). In 2005, beam-trawl collections were made in three major sections of the GBE (East Bay, Galveston Bay, West Bay). Three sites were sampled in each bay. Within each sampling site, replicate collections were taken from three habitats: 1) marsh edge (< 1 m depth), 2) intermediate zone (10-20 m from marsh interface; ˜ 1 m depth), and 3) bay zone (typically > 100 m from marsh interface; depth > 1 m). Average size of southern flounder collected was 12-19 mm standard length, and peak densities occurred in January and February. Catch data indicated that densities of southern flounder were significantly greater in East Bay (2.75 per 100 m 2) than in Galveston Bay (0.91 per 100 m 2) or in West Bay (0.45 per 100 m 2). Densities were statistically similar among habitats. Otolith-based estimates of age indicated that the majority of southern flounder collected were 35-45 days old and derived from early December to early January hatch-dates. Growth rates were similar among bays and among habitats, with the average growth rate being 0.40 mm day - 1 (range: 0.21-0.76 mm day - 1 ). RNA:DNA was above the established baseline value for nutritional stress, indicating that newly settled southern flounder in the GBE were in relatively high condition. Habitat-specific differences in RNA:DNA ratios were not observed; however, ratios were significantly lower in West Bay (average 8.0) than in East Bay (average 9.5) or in Galveston Bay (average 9.8), suggesting the condition of new recruits may vary spatially within the GBE. Findings from the current study

  19. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K

    2015-12-30

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. These included three coastal lagoons, an estuarine river and Narragansett Bay. The δ(13)C trends observed along transects in several systems showed isotopically depleted terrestrial signals in the upper reaches of the estuaries. Significant differences (P<0.05) in δ(15)N were observed among all estuarine systems and these differences correlated (P<0.01) with human population densities in the watersheds. Although Narragansett Bay has a strong north-south gradient in nutrient concentrations this trend was not reflected in flounder δ(15)N. The northernmost station with the highest nutrient concentrations unexpectedly had significantly lower δ(15)N values. Depleted δ(15)N values at this nutrient-rich station may indicate that concentration-dependent fractionation needs to be considered when using nitrogen isotope ratios in biota to monitor anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in systems with high nitrogen loadings. PMID:26541984

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  1. Identification of endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhe-Zhe; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2016-03-01

    The mRNA level of the endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene (Jf_ENDOD1) in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus kidney was significantly increased after injection of formalin-killed bacteria cells (FKC) in the previous microarray study. ENDOD1 is a member of the DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases family, and its role in fish immunity has not been reported. The open reading frame of Jf_ENDOD1 cDNA was 912 bp, encoding 303 amino acids. The first 27 amino acids were predicted to be a signal peptide and the mature Jf_ENDOD1 was calculated as 32 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Jf_ENDOD1 showed 76% identity to that of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Transcripts of Jf_ENDOD1 were marginally detected in all sampled tissues from healthy fish, while they were significantly detected in brain, kidney, spleen and intestine at 6 h post FKC injection. Jf_ENDOD1 recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli showed DNase activity. Furthermore, to evaluate the DNase activities in vivo, total proteins from Japanese flounder kidney and spleen were extracted at 12, 24 and 72 h post Edwardsiella tarda FKC injection. The DNase activity of extracted protein was higher in treated fish than in untreated fish. Since the mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated after the FKC treatment, Jf_ENDOD1 might be responsible for the activities. PMID:26784919

  2. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  3. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Góra, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and sediment in three southern Baltic Sea sites, representing a range of exposure conditions, in order to evaluate spatial differences in PBDE contamination. Additionally, PBDEs were measured in muscle, liver, and gonads of flounder from one of the sites in order to examine inter-tissue distribution. Mean muscle Σ(7)PBDE levels, in the range of 10-21 ng g(-1) lipid, showed inter-site differences attributed to the distance from the Gulf of Gdańsk, and were overall lower than reported earlier in herring, sprat, and salmon. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for Σ(7)PBDE and individual BDE congeners, in the range of 0.5-24.5, were generally consistent with predicted models for persistent hydrophobic halogenated contaminants. Wet weight (wet wt) PBDE levels in muscle and liver, but not in gonads, were related to tissue lipid content and did not correlate with the fish length and weight. These tissues differed in PBDE levels and profiles as a result of varying lipid content and presumably lipid composition and congener-specific physico-chemical properties. PMID:22763178

  4. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  5. Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Arimoto, Takafumi

    2000-12-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10 11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated upforward. The resolving power of the retina in 40 530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  6. Transcriptional Onset of Lysozyme Genes during Early Development in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The immune system in teleost fish is not completely developed during embryonic and larval stages, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival in such an environment. However, the knowledge of the development of immune system assumed to be restricted. In many species, lysozymes have been considered as important genes of the first line immune defense. The early detection of lysozyme mRNA in previous reports, led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. As a result, c-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes indicating maternal transfer. Therefore, we investigated the expression patterns of lysozymes in flounder, including the matured oocyte. In our results, c-type lysozyme mRNA was first detected in unfertilized oocyte stage, observed the significantly decreased until hatching stage, and was significantly increased after hatching stage. On the other hand, g-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were first detected at late neurula stage, and the mRNA level was significantly increased after 20 dph. It may be suggest that maternally supplied mRNAs are selectively degraded prior to the activation of embryonic transcription. This study will be help in understanding the maturation and onset of humoral immunity during development of olive flounder immune system. PMID:25949197

  7. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder. PMID:23948077

  8. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family. PMID:26109358

  9. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  10. Cytochrome P4501A indices as biomarkers of contaminant exposure: A field study with plaice and flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Eggens, M.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of two flatfish species, flounder (Platichthys flesus) and plaice (Pleurnectus platessa), were collected during August/September 1991 and May/June 1992 in the southern North Sea. The induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A) in both species was examined, when exposed to environmental PCBs and PAHs. CYP1A was measured by a semi-quantitative ELISA technique and by the activity of its catalyst, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). In plaice, both hepatic CYP1 protein level and EROD activity were significantly higher at offshore sampling locations than at coastal locations, by a factor of 1.5 to 2. In flounder, which were only collected at coastal locations, the range of values of EROD activity was much greater than in plaice, but the range in CYP1A protein content was comparable in both species. multiple regression analysis of data from plaice and flounder did not show any significant correlation between CYP1A indices, water temperature and contaminant concentrations in fish tissues. CYP1A indices also appeared to be unrelated to food type, as determined by visual screening of fish intestines. It is concluded that the induction of CYP1A in plaice and flounder from the southern North Sea is not related in a simple manner to exposure to PCBs and PAHs. From the point of view-of use as a biomarker, the measurement of CYP1A protein level and EROD activity in plaice and flounder from the open North Sea cannot be applied straightforwardly for monitoring exposure to PCBs and/or PAHs.

  11. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  12. Immune responses of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus vaccinated by immersion of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda following hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Li; Tang, Xiao-Qian; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wen-Bin

    2015-10-16

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hyperosmotic immersion (HI) vaccination and determine the optimum hyperosmotic salinity for flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by investigating its immune responses following vaccination. Flounder were immersed in 1 of 3 hyperosmotic solutions at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinity, then transferred into 30‰ salinity normal seawater containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for vaccination (3 HI groups), or were immersed in normal seawater as direct immersion (DI group). The results showed that the percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen leukocytes induced by HI were significantly higher than that with DI (p < 0.05), and the 50‰ salinity group showed the strongest response among the HI groups, which reached peaks at Week 4. ELISA assay showed that the specific serum antibodies gradually increased after vaccination and reached peak at Day 32, and the fish treated with HI showed stronger antibody responses; among the HI groups, a significantly higher specific antibody level was detected in the 50‰ salinity group at Day 32 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the fish treated with HI showed higher specific mucosal antibody levels compared to the DI group, and the mucosal antibody showed a faster response, with peak time arriving 1 wk earlier than for the serum antibody. The relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder treated with HI at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinities were 79, 71 and 57% respectively, while this was 43% in the DI group. These results demonstrated that HI, especially the 50‰ salinity, could efficiently enhance the immune response of flounder and show higher RPS. This has significant value for immunological prevention of edwardsiellosis in flounder. PMID:26480914

  13. Influence of long (16L:8D) and short (8L:16D) photoperiods on blood metabolites and hepatic metabolism in Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huafeng; Bai, Xianshou; Feng, Yuhong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Youji; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the influence of long photoperiod (LP, 16L:8D) and short photoperiod (SP, 8L:16D) on hepatic energy metabolism in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated. Flounders were maintained under LP or SP conditions for 2 weeks then plasmatic and hepatic parameters were assessed. At the plasmatic level, the concentration of cortisol was enhanced in flounder maintained under LP compared to SP. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities in plasma also increased in LP flounder. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels between the two experimental groups. Plasma osmotic pressure, Na and Cl levels were significantly higher in LP compared to the SP group. In liver, a significant decrease of triglycerides together with an increase in glycogen was observed in the LP group. Hepatic hsl and pepck and muscle hsl mRNA expression in LP was significantly higher in the SP group. Overall the results indicate that the LP treatment caused a mild stress response and increased hepatic energy metabolism in the flounder, which in turn could affect osmoregulation. In conclusion, it would appear that LP treatment can adversely influence hepatic energy metabolism in adult olive flounder under fasting condition. PMID:27386368

  14. Effects of Starvation in Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Gwang Yeol; Oh, Ji Su

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of various dietary conditions on the growth, phenotypic traits, and morphometric dimensions of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and on the morphometric dimensions of sectioned olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Rock bream in the fed group increased in body weight, standard length, and condition factor, but these parameters decreased significantly for fish in the starved group (P < 0.05). The head connection dimensions of fish in the fed group decreased, while for starved fish there was increase in external morphometric dimensions (P < 0.05). In both species, sectioned morphometric analysis revealed that fish in the fed group had a larger body circumference and cross-cut sectional area, and greater cross-cut section height, relative to the starved group (P < 0.05). PMID:27004266

  15. Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-12-01

    The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

  16. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. PMID:27086686

  17. Juvenile nursery colonization patterns for the European flounder (Platichthys flesus): A latitudinal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, Filipe; van der Veer, Henk W.; Cabral, Henrique N.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we analysed the latitudinal trends in the nursery habitat colonization processes of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). This was accomplished by estimating the duration of the pelagic and metamorphic stages, as well as the duration of the spawning period, in several nursery areas across its geographical distribution range in the European Atlantic Coast: Mondego estuary (Portugal), Vilaine estuary (France), Slack estuary (France), Wadden Sea (Netherlands) and the Sørfjord (Norway). All juvenile flounders were captured with beam trawls in June/July 2010, and otolith microstructure was used to determine the duration of each stage by means of daily growth increments. The pelagic and metamorphic stages were longer at the middle of the distribution range, and lasted in total up to two months after hatching. The spawning period occurred between mid-January and early-July over the species' distribution range, with a time lapse of nearly two months between the Mondego estuary and the Sørfjord, as a consequence of warmer water temperature earlier in the season in southern areas. In general, total length of the captured fish showed a latitudinal cline between the northernmost and southernmost sampling sites, with higher values at the middle of the distribution range. The results also suggested the existence of a countergradient growth compensation mechanism in the northernmost populations. Apart from temperature, which sets the general metabolic pace of organisms, differences between sites were also related with local features, such as the extension of the continental platform and adaptations to transport and retention mechanisms.

  18. Morphological Analysis of Blind-Side Hypermelanosis of the Starry Flounder, Platichthys stellatus during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Duk-Young; Byun, Soon-Gyu; Myeong, Jeong-In; Kim, Hyo-Chan; Min, Byoung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In Pleuronectiformes, blind-side malpigmentation (hypermelanosis) is common in cultured flatfishes, and is economically important. To understand the mechanism of blind-side hypermelanosis in flatfishes, we examined when the malpigmentation initially occurred, and studied how the symptoms proceeded during early development of the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. To assess quantitative pattern changes of blind-side skin, we observed morphological development of the whole body from 22 (total length [TL] 10.0±0.2 mm and body weight [BW] 8.8±0.57 mg) to 110 days (TL 23.4±0.7 mm, BW 193.6±23.3 mg) after hatching (DAH), and also examined the malpigmented area rate of blind-side skin and the malpigmented fish ratios. The experimental animals were reared in fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks in water at a temperature of 18.9±1.9°C and salinity of 32.6±0.6 psu and were fed with rotifer and Artemia nauplii from 22 to 48 DAH, and with A. nauplii and commercial feed from 49 to 110 DAH. As results, the first staining patch seen by the naked eye was observed around the area between the anus and pelvic fin or caudal edge of the trunk at 80 DAH (TL 20.6±0.5 mm, BW 112.5±8.8 mg). The pigmented area and the pigmented fish ratios were significantly increased from 80 to 110 DAH. These results indicated that malpigmentation on the blind side of starry flounder was initially observed at about 2 cm in length and 100 mg in weight, and the pigmented domain on the blind-side skin was continually broadened by the differentiation of pigmented cells (melanophores and xanthophores) with growth. PMID:25949175

  19. On the ecology of two sympatric flounders of the genus Paralichthys in the Bay of Coquimbo, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, Enzo; Cid, Luis

    The ecology of two flounders belonging to the genus Paralichthys was studied in the Bay of Coquimbo (29°57'S), Chile. P. adspersus grows larger than P. microps. In both species, the females were significantly larger than the males. The species differed in their reproductive cycles as revealed by their gonadosomatic indices. This difference was also reflected in larval abundance and spatial distribution of the species. No significant changes were found in the abundances of juveniles and adults in the Bay of Coquimbo either throughout the year or interannually. However, when the analysis included the proportion of specimens between the two species and sex by season, the differences were apparent in most cases. The results show that the environmental characteristics of the marine system which the Bay of Coquimbo is a part of provide good feeding, spawning and nursery grounds for these two species of flounder.

  20. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  1. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-hao; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. According to myosatellite cell lines (MSCs) established in vitro from diploid and triploid flounder, we compared the characters of growth and differentiation of their MSCs. The results would be useful for learning the muscle development mechanism in teleosts. Materials and Methods. The skeletal muscle cells from the diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were isolated and cultured in vitro, respectively, and the cells were characterized at the morphology and molecular level; meanwhile, the performance of these cells’ proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Results. Two new skeletal muscle cell lines (POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n)) from diploid and triploid flounder have been respectively subcultured for 67 times and 66 times. The cultured cells were mostly spindle-like mononuclear cells. They have normal flounder diploid karyotype (2n=48t) and triploid karyotype (3n=72t), respectively. Muscle satellite cell gene marker (pax7b) and myogenic cell protein marker (Desmin) were all expressed in cells of two cell lines. Both of the cells could differentiate into the large polynucleated muscle fibre cells, and immunofluorescence reactions of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were positive. There were more cells of POMSCS(3n) to differentiate into the muscle fibre cells than that of POMSCS(2n). However, POMSCS(2n) cells proliferated more rapidly than those of POMSCS(3n) (P < 0.05). The significant fluorescent signals were observed in both POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n) cells after transfected with pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid. Conclusions. The two cell lines have been established and characterized as MSCs. We suppose that it might be the differentiation capacity, rather than the proliferation activity of MSCs to play a key role in the better growth of triploid ones than diploid. Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. PMID

  2. Radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder inhabiting the Fukushima accident-affected Pacific coastal waters of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aono, Tatsuo; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP) has contaminated coastal waters and been subsequently transferred to the marine biota along the Pacific coastal region of eastern Japan. To clarify the mechanism of radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder, a commercially valuable and piscivorous predator, the biokinetics of (137)Cs was simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model and then validated with the measured concentrations in available monitoring data. The (137)Cs concentrations in seawater of the Pacific coastal sites of eastern Japan, from Kesen-numa (170 km north from the 1FNPP) to Choshi (190 km south from the 1FNPP), were reconstructed by fitting the simulated levels to the observed concentrations. Simulated values were verified by measured radiocesium levels in sedentary organism such as macro-algae and mussels inhabiting each study site which had accumulated radiocesium in their ambient environment from the beginning of the accident. Using reconstructed (137)Cs concentrations in seawater, the (137)Cs levels in olive flounder and its main planktivorous prey fish, e.g. anchovy, sand lance, whitebait, etc., were simulated and compared with observed concentrations to clarify the biokinetics of radiocesium in these organisms. This assessment showed that the determining factor for the maximum radiocesium concentrations in fish in the plankton food chain is likely to be the initial radiocesium concentration which they were exposed to during the contamination stage. Furthermore, the simulated (137)Cs concentrations in gut contents of olive flounder were verified by measured (137)Cs concentrations in the stomach contents of this fish collected within 30 km from the 1FNPP. These results indicated that the decrease of (137)Cs levels in their prey organisms was the primary determining factor of radiocesium depuration, and the resultant ecological half-lives were 140-160 d in the olive flounder

  3. Identification and characterization of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Li, Xuejing; Gen, Xuyun; Chen, Yue; Wei, Junli; Sun, Jinsheng

    2014-02-15

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor participating in innate immunity through regulating TNF-α and other inflammatory cytokines expression. However, the expression and biological relevance of LITAF in fish is still very limited. In this study, a full-length LITAF cDNA, termed PoLITAF, was identified from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. PoLITAF contains a 67 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 435 bp open reading frame, and a 647 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. PoLITAF protein is comprised of 144 amino acids with a conserved C-terminal LITAF-like domain and shows 51-76% sequence similarity and 40-65% sequence identity with other LITAF homologues. Characterization of this new gene revealed that PoLITAF mRNA was detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression in gill. In head kidney primary culture, the expression of Japanese flounder PoLITAF and TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in response to Poly(I:C) and bacterial endotoxin LPS stimulation. Further in vivo experiments demonstrated that PoLITAF expression was up-regulated in head kidney, gill and spleen post bacterial challenge with Edwardsiella tarda. Moreover, the up-regulated expression of Japanese flounder TNF-α following the enhanced expression of PoLITAF was detected as early as 4h in both gill and head kidney tissues and 12h in spleen after the bacterial infection in vivo. Our findings suggest that PoLITAF is a novel inducible gene possibly involved in Japanese flounder innate immunity. PMID:24359872

  4. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) estuarine habitat use and the association between spring temperature and subsequent year class strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Davis, David; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine J.; Gallo, Jenine

    2013-11-01

    Winter flounder habitat use in New York/New Jersey Harbor was examined through a long-term (2002-2010) bottom trawl sampling program (Aquatic Biological Survey) in which 5234 winter flounder were captured in 2069 samples collected at approximately 26 stations throughout the harbor. Interannual variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) primarily was attributable to fluctuations in Year-1 juvenile CPUE, which was positively correlated with total annual egg abundances from the previous year. Adult male CPUE during the spawning season was positively correlated with total egg abundances of the same year, whereas adult female CPUE was unrelated to annual egg abundances in the harbor. Annual variation in adult male densities in the harbor during the spawning season reflects the intensity of estuarine spawning activity, whereas adult female densities may include non-reproductive, foraging individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in condition indices reflected energy use during the spawning season, with relatively high condition in January, reduced levels in March and April, and elevated condition again in May. Adult CPUE peaked in April, coincident with the critical feeding period that follows spawning. Mean April water temperatures were positively correlated with egg abundances the following year and Year-1 juvenile CPUE two years later. A similar correlation between April temperatures and Year-1 juvenile abundances two years later was demonstrated using published data for winter flounder collected in Niantic Bay, CT. Higher April water temperatures may enhance benthic secondary production during the critical feeding period, and thus increase prey availability for foraging adults that need to restore energy reserves in order to reproduce the following year. A direct examination of benthic secondary production and variation in winter flounder estuarine foraging and subsequent spawning activity is needed to more fully understand this relationship.

  5. Molecular Response of Estuarine Fish to Hypoxia: A Comparative Study with Ruffe and Flounder from Field and Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Thiel, Ralf; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the flounder (Platichthys flesus). We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that – with the exception of the heart of flounder – that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature. PMID:24595439

  6. Changes in metallothionein mRNA and protein after sublethal exposure to arsenite and cadmium chloride in juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from a Long Island Sound site within the Niantic River region contain elevated levels of liver As and Cd. Previous work in mammals suggests that a reduced species of As, NaAs{sup 3+}, is as potent a metallothionein (MT) inducer as CdCl{sub 2}. The authors investigated whether this is also the case in winter flounder by subcutaneously exposing juveniles to a sublethal range of NaAs{sup 3+} (0, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 {micro}mol/g fish) or CdCl{sub 2} (0, 0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 {micro}mol/g). Both metals rapidly induced MT protein within 24 h of exposure, but only the highest dose of CdCl{sub 2} elicited a significant increase in MT mRNA. The magnitude of the MT protein response to CdCl{sub 2} (7.25-fold) demonstrates that elevated liver As and Cd do not narrow the MT response window in juvenile flounder from the Niantic River region. These fish have relatively low liver MT protein levels (46 {micro}g/g) and will be a useful reference population for future metal studies within Long Island Sound.

  7. Bacterial enteritis and the development of the larval digestive tract in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel).

    PubMed

    Kim, D-H; Han, H-J; Kim, S-M; Lee, D-C; Park, S-I

    2004-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates obtained from diseased olive flounder larvae, Paralichthys olivaceus, were identified as Vibrio ichthyoenteri based on the results of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Bacterial enteritis was reproduced in 16 and 22 days post-hatch (dph) larvae by administering brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia salina, dosed with the environmental isolates and reference strains of V. ichthyoenteri. To investigate the effect of the disease on development of the stomach, a pepsin activity assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the expression of the pepsinogen gene were performed. Expression of olive flounder pepsinogen was detected from 30-dph larvae and the increased level of pepsin activity coincided with reduced susceptibility to the disease. Growth rates of V. ichthyoenteri, V. anguillarum and Edwardsiella tarda were tested in artificial stomach conditions using HCl and porcine pepsin. All the strains of V. ichthyoenteri were inhibited by low pH conditions which corresponded with an increase in pepsin levels. This suggests that differentiation of the stomach in olive flounder larvae and juveniles, an essential physiological development, also provides the host with a non-immunological defence mechanism. PMID:15357708

  8. Metabolism, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) in relation to fish size and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, M.; Cronie, R.; Vethaak, A. D.; Van Der Puyl, P.

    Daily rates of oxygen consumption, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) have been measured in the laboratory at various constant temperatures. Oxygen consumption was related to body weight of the fish as a power function, with a weight exponent of between 0.71 and 0.85. No significant effects of temperature or feeding on this exponent were found. Flounder showed a significantly higher metabolic rate and a higher temperature coefficient for metabolism than plaice. Maximum daily rates of food consumption and the weight increment of fish fed with excess rations of fresh mussel meat could also be related to fish weights by means of power functions. For plaice these exponents decreased from about 0.9 at low temperatures (2-6 C°) to about 0.7 at high temperatures (18-22°C). Such a temperature effect on the weight exponent indicates that small juvenile fish eat more and grow faster at higher temperatures than do large older fish, and that large fish do better at low temperatures. After scaling of daily food consumption and growth in proportion to metabolic weights of the fish (W 0.78), feeding and growth at different fish sizes and temperatures can be compared and temperature-growth rate models can be used for investigations of feeding in natural populations. Compared to plaice, young flounder ate more and grew faster at higher temperatures (> 14°C). This may partly explain the preference of flounder for the shallower parts of coastal areas and estuaries, where summer temperatures and food densities are higher. Energy budgets of young plaice and flounder fed with excess rations of mussel meat indicate that at least 29% of the food energy is used for metabolism while about 37% of the food energy is converted into growth. The net conversion efficiency was estimated at 0.45 for food and growth in units of ash-free dry weight, and at 0.53 for food and growth in energy units. Analysis of the energy budget showed

  9. Clonal xenobiotic resistance during pollution-induced toxic injury and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in liver of female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)).

    PubMed

    Koehler, Angela; Alpermann, Tilmann; Lauritzen, Bjarne; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile and adult female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) were caught either in the estuary of the most polluted European river, the Elbe, or as controls in a reference site to study pollution-induced xenobiotic resistance in their livers in relation to pathological alterations. In juvenile fish, livers displayed reversible and irreversible degenerative toxipathic lesion types but never showed (pre)neoplastic changes. Tumour frequencies up to 70% were found macroscopically in livers of adult female flounder which had progressed to adenomas and carcinomas in the most polluted site. Because male adult flounder show only up to 50% of livers containing early preneoplastic foci but never malignancies, we focussed our study on female individuals. (Pre)neoplastic changes ranged from early eosinophilic foci to basophilic foci, adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Adenomas were generally eosinophilic whereas carcinomas were mainly basophilic. These phenotypical sequential changes strongly resemble those found in chemically-induced liver carcinogenesis in mammals. Characteristic mutations known from mammalian cancers have not been found so far in these flounder livers. Therefore, we investigated whether epigenetic events had induced a metabolic "resistant phenotype" of (pre)malignant cancer cells during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. With a quantitative immunohistochemical approach, we studied expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), cytochrome P4501A1, glutathione-S-transferase-A which are key proteins in xenobiotic metabolism and elimination. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the major source of the reducing power NADPH which is needed for biotransformation, oxyradical scavenging and biosynthesis, was detected as well. We observed upregulation of G6PDH activity already in early preneoplastic eosinophilic foci and subsequent further upregulation in basophilic foci and carcinomas. P-gp started to become

  10. Immune response of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was associated with the concentration of inactivated Edwardsiella tarda and immersion time.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-09-15

    In the optimization of immersion strategy, vaccine concentration and immersion time are two key factors needed to be considered, which largely determined the immune efficacy. In this work, the healthy flounder were vaccinated in formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda at four concentrations (10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9) CFU ml(-1)) for three immersion times (30, 60, 90 min), respectively. At the 6th week post vaccination, the flounders were challenged with live E. tarda, and the relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder in 10(9)-30, 10(8)-60, 10(8)-90 and 10(7)-90 min groups were 70%, 78%, 74% and 65%, respectively, which were much higher than the other vaccination groups. Meanwhile, the sIg(+) cells in the leucocytes of peripheral blood (PBL), spleen (SL), head kidney (HKL) were monitored by flow cytometry, and the specific sera and mucosal antibodies were measured by indirect ELISA for 6 weeks. The results showed that the proportions of sIg(+) cells in PBL, SL and HKL of vaccinated fish were significantly higher than the untreated fish since the 2nd week (P<0.05), and the fish in 10(9)-30, 10(8)-60, 10(8)-90 and 10(7)-90 min groups exhibited stronger responses than other groups, especially the 10(8)-60 min group displayed the strongest response, which reached the peaks (54.63% in PBL, 37.21% in SL, 36.51% in HKL) at the 5th week. ELISA assay showed that the kinetics of specific antibodies in sera were similar to the variation of sIg(+) cells, and the higher antibody levels were also detected in the four groups with higher RPS and stronger sIg+ response, whereas the mucosal antibody showed a faster response, which were significantly higher than the control since the 1st week (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that the higher RPS was closely associated with stronger immune response, and immersion with formalin-inactivated E. tarda under 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for 60 min induced the highest immune response of flounder against E. tarda bacterin, which might be applied for the

  11. The role of blood glucose in the restoration of muscle glycogen during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    Pagnotta, A; Milligan, C L

    1991-11-01

    The role of blood-borne glucose in the restoration of white muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in the active, pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the more sluggish, benthic winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were examined. During recovery from exhaustive exercise, the animals were injected with a bolus of universally labelled [14C]glucose via dorsal aortic (trout) or caudal artery (flounder) catheters. The bulk of the injected label (50-70%) remained as glucose in the extracellular fluid in both species. The major metabolic fates of the injected glucose were oxidation to CO2 (6-8%) and production of lactate (6-8%), the latter indicative of continued anaerobic metabolism post-exercise. Oxidation of labelled glucose could account for up to 40% and 15% of the post-exercise MO2 in trout and flounder, respectively. Exhaustive exercise resulted in a reduction of muscle glycogen stores and accumulation of muscle lactate. Glycogen restoration in trout began 2-4h after exercise, whereas in flounder, glycogen restoration began within 2h. Despite a significant labelling of the intramuscular glucose pool, less than 1% of the infused labelled glucose was incorporated into muscle glycogen. This suggests that blood-borne glucose does not contribute significantly to the restoration of muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in either trout or flounder and provides further evidence against a prominent role for the Cori cycle in these species. PMID:1757776

  12. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1) multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and (3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2) when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2), and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves) to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching) from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  13. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with the majority of the individuals being found during the spring (30.1%) and in S3 and S4 (72.6%). Males and females presented an even distribution, with a higher proportion of males observed during summer. Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus

  14. Application of a food chain model to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the lobster and winter flounder food chains in New Bedford Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.P. Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site a model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lobster and winter flounder food chains was developed. This model successfully reproduces tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyl concentrations observed at all levels of the food chain and across the 2 order of magnitude concentration gradient in the system. The model indicated that PCB concentrations in the flounder and, to a lesser extent, in the lobster are derived from the sediment. Dietary uptake exceeds uptake across the gill for all four homologues and becomes the dominant route at the higher chlorinated homologues. The assimilation efficiency of ingested PCB apparently declines from relatively high values for tri-chlorobiphenyl to relatively low values for hexachlorobiphenyl. Differences in observed lobster and flounder PCB concentrations appear to be due to differences in the importance of the benthic component of the food chains of these animals and differences in whole body lipid content.

  15. Development and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers from an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Database in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    To successful molecular breeding, identification and functional characterization of breeding related genes and development of molecular breeding techniques using DNA markers are essential. Although the development of a useful marker is difficult in the aspect of time, cost and effort, many markers are being developed to be used in molecular breeding and developed markers have been used in many fields. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers were widely used for genomic research and breeding, but has hardly been validated for screening functional genes in olive flounder. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from expressed sequence tag (EST) database in olive flounder; out of a total 4,327 ESTs, 693 contigs and 514 SNPs were detected in total EST, and these substitutions include 297 transitions and 217 transversions. As a result, 144 SNP markers were developed on the basis of 514 SNP to selection of useful gene region, and then applied to each of eight wild and culture olive flounder (total 16 samples). In our experimental result, only 32 markers had detected polymorphism in sample, also identified 21 transitions and 11 transversions, whereas indel was not detected in polymorphic SNPs. Heterozygosity of wild and cultured olive flounder using the 32 SNP markers is 0.34 and 0.29, respectively. In conclusion, we identified SNP and polymorphism in olive flounder using newly designed marker, it supports that developed markers are suitable for SNP detection and diversity analysis in olive flounder. The outcome of this study can be basic data for researches for immunity gene and characteristic with SNP. PMID:25949198

  16. Cloning and characterization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Peng, Weijiao; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) is a critical adaptor molecule in multiple inflammasome protein complexes that mediate inflammation and host defense. However, few studies have been performed in lower vertebrates such as in teleost. Here we identified and characterized a novel ASC gene (namely PoASC) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The complete cDNA sequence of PoASC contains a 22 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 612 bp open reading frame, and a 438 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced PoASC protein is comprised of 203 amino acids with a conserved N-terminal PYD domain and a C-terminal CARD domain and shows 35-62% sequence identity with other vertebrate ASC proteins. PoASC mRNA transcripts was detected in various Japanese flounder tissues and is dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Oligomeric speck-like structures were observed when PoASC was exogenously expressed in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells. Immune challenge experiments revealed that PoASC gene expression was significantly induced in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes by the canonical TLR ligands LPS, Poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations. In addition, the induction of PoASC was also observed in Edwardsiella tarda challenged head kidney and gill tissues. Furthermore, we for the first time showed that extracellular ATP, an important signaling molecule in triggering innate immune response and activation of NLR inflammasome, significantly up-regulates PoASC expression in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these findings addressed the involvement of PoASC in TLR and extracellular ATP-mediated innate immune signaling in the Japanese flounders. PMID:27103005

  17. Polluted harbor sediment and the annual reproductive cycle of the female flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, P.A.H.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Goos, H.J.T.; Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),and pesticides are metabolized by enzyme systems, which are also involved in steroid metabolism. Disturbances of reproduction may therefore occur through the interference of these compounds with the endocrine system. Several aspects of reproduction were studied in the flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.), an euryhaline flatfish which inhabits coastal waters and is therefore a suitable biomonitor for the effects of chemical pollutants. Fish were kept during three years in mesocosm systems of which the first provided a control, while the second one contained polluted sediment, derived from the Rotterdam harbor. In November, all ovaries from both mesocosms contained vitellogenic oocytes. In May, all the control fish were previtellogenic, while the ovaries of fish from the polluted mesocosm contained, besides previtellogenic oocytes, a large number of vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that an estrogenic induction had occurred. The in vitro tissue incubations with androstenedione as precursor revealed that the ovarian capacity to synthesize testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 2}) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) didn`t differ between both mesocosms. In May, however, the levels of T and E{sub 2} as well as the level of the yolk-precursor vitellogenin were significantly higher in the polluted mesocosm. The conclusion from this study was that polluted harbor sediment contains compounds that effect normal reproductive development, i.e. the induction of premature vitellogenesis.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-09-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  19. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  20. Effects of silver on eggs and larvae of the winter flounder. [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-MacPhee, G.; Cardin, J.A.; Berry, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Embryos and yolk-sac larvae of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were exposed to 0(control), 54, 92, 180, and 386 ..mu..g/liter silver (Ag/sup +/) during an 18-day flow-through bioassay. Percent hatch was signficantly reduced only at the 386-..mu..g/liter exposure level (24%). Embryos exposed to 180 and a 386 ..mu..g/liter hatched earlier than those exposed to lower concentrations, and many exhibited physical abnormalities. Larva mortality was significantly higher at 386, 180, and 92 ..mu..g/liter (100, 97, and 31%, respectively) than in the control (6%). The mean total lengths of larvae at hatch were significantly greater in control (3.56 mm) than in 386 ..mu..g/liter (1.98 mm) and 180 ..mu..g/liter (3.25 mm). At yolk-sac absorption, the mean total length of control larvae (4.27 mm) was significantly greater than that of larvae exposed to 180 ..mu..g/liter (4.15 mm). The highest concentration of silver not significantly reducing either survival or growth was 54 ..mu..g/liter.

  1. Distribution of mucous cells on the body surface of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kawai, K; Oshima, S

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of mucous cells was examined in the skin on the ocular and blind sides of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Observations were performed on both body sides at the following regions: cheek, lower jaw (blind side), gill cover (ocular side), dorsal side, lateral line, belly and caudal peduncle. The mucous cells observed were elliptic and positively stained for periodic acid Schiff reaction and Mayer's mucicarmine and showed a higher density and larger size on the ocular side compared to the blind side. Low densities of mucous cells were observed on the lower jaw compared with other regions of the body. The depth of the crack located between scales was deeper on the ocular side than the blind side, which might reflect total epidermis area and total number of mucous cells. Bacterial infection elucidated some information on the effect on the density and size of mucous cells, where the density and size decreased slightly after infection. Only the lower jaw, however, showed an increased number of mucous cells. The results show that the potential of skin to secrete mucus is higher on the ocular than on the blind side and bacterial infection decreases mucous secretion. PMID:21366577

  2. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  3. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Posten, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Moya, J.; Garrahan, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The consumption of contaminated fish has been shown to be a significant, pathway for human exposure. Risk assessors often assume that humans are exposed to the levels of contaminants in edible tissue of fish measured prior to preparation and cooking. This assumption may lead to overestimation or underestimation of risk since a particular cooking method may remove or transform toxic constituents in the flesh by thermal denaturation, vaporization, dissolution in aqueous tissue fluids or lipids that drip off the flesh, or extraction into cooling oil during deep fat frying. This paper presents and discusses the results of a study conducted to quantify the effect of preparation and cooking on PCB concentrations in the edible portion of winter flounder. The effects of broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish. The change in total PCB concentrations and 18 specific PCB congeners was estimated using a mass-balance approach using the precooked PCB concentration on a wet-weight basis and the cooked concentration taking into account any change in fillet weight resulting from cooking. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue, while pan frying and broiling did not result in a statistically significant difference in total PCB levels.

  4. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-11-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  5. Etropus crossotus, an annual flatfish species; age and growth of the fringed flounder in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.

    1998-12-01

    Fringed flounder, Etropus crossotus, a small flatfish common along the southeastern coast of the US, were collected along the South Carolina coast in the fall of 1992, and in the North Inlet estuary from August 1992 until July 1994. Standard length was 82% of total length and the relationship between standard length and wet weight showed near-isometric growth with no significant differences between males and females. Dry weight was 21% of wet weight and ash-free dry weight 14% of wet weight with no significant differences between sexes. Daily increments in the sagittal otoliths were used for age determination. No annual structures could be identified. The maximum age was about 14.5 months. Age-at-length was not different between the sexes. The relationship between age and length was exponential, with age (in days) equalling an e power of 4.242 + 0.135 × standard length (in cm). Back-calculated hatch dates and catches of early juveniles indicated a spawning season that lasted from March to October. Females started to be sexually mature at 7 to 7.5 cm standard length, but 50% maturity was reached at 8 to 8.5 cm. Females could grow to that size within one spawning season. Individuals hatched early in the spawning season could produce eggs in the latter portion of that season's spawning period.

  6. Philometrids of the southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma: a multidimensional approach to determine their diversity.

    PubMed

    de Buron, Isaure; France, Scott G; Connors, Vincent A; Roumillat, William A; Tsoi, Lam C

    2011-06-01

    Two species of philometrid nematode, Philometra overstreeti and Philometroides paralichthydis, infect the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. Individuals of P. overstreeti are located between the teeth and inside the bony part of the branchial arches of the fish. Individuals of P. paralichthydis are associated with the bones of the buccal cavity and among muscles that control the dorsal and anal fins. Sequencing of part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed 4 distinct genetic clades, each corresponding exactly to the 4 respective locations of the parasites in the host, suggesting the need for taxonomic revision. We hypothesized that each clade represented a separate species and, because the worms are morphologically indistinguishable, compared population level parameters of the clades comprising each currently recognized species. For each currently recognized species, the presence of worms from 1 clade was negatively correlated with the presence of worms from the other. Results also indicated significant differences between the clades in prevalences relative to both biotic and abiotic factors. Results clearly indicated major differences in the ecology of the philometrids constituting each clade. Taken as a whole, molecular and ecological data support the contention that the 4 genetic clades are likely 4 distinct species. PMID:21506857

  7. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  8. Fishing mortality in North Carolina's southern flounder fishery: direct estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality from a tag return experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of harvest rates is often a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management. These assessments are often based on catch-at-age data sets generated over many years, but estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality (F) can also be obtained from a shorter-term tag return study. We conducted a 2-year tag return experiment to generate direct estimates of F for southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in a North Carolina estuary. The southern flounder supports lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries within the state and has experienced heavy fishing pressure for more than a decade. During 2005 and 2006, fish were captured and tagged with the assistance of commercial harvesters in the New River estuary. Tag returns were used to generate monthly estimates of F, which demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern that was consistent between years. Several important assumptions of the tag return model were accounted for through the use of double-tagged individuals, the distribution of both high- and standard-reward tags, and the completion of an independent controlled experiment to evaluate mortality related to tagging. Annual estimates of F exceeded the short-term management target in both years. Residual patterns suggest that the estimates may actually have been biased low, possibly due to delayed mixing of tagged fish. Thus, despite recently amended fishery regulations, F in the North Carolina southern flounder gill-net fishery still has the potential to greatly exceed targeted levels, which may delay stock recovery. Tag return studies can provide reliable (and nearly real-time) information about F and natural mortality as long as the experimental design addresses specific assumptions related to tagging-induced mortality, tag shedding, and nonreporting of tags.

  9. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  10. Diseases of flounder ( Platichthys Flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, and their relation to stress factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick Vethaak, A.

    In 1988 a survey was conducted on the occurrence of gross pathologies in flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to stress factors, especially near fresh-water drainage sluices. A total of 9608 flounder were collected from 16 sites in June and September. Diseases recorded were: skin ulcers (affecting 7.7% of fish); fin rot (2.8%; only included in the study in September); lymphocystis (3.7%); skeletal deformities (0.3%); liver nematode infections (5.0%); intestinal cysts of the parasite Glugea sp. (0.4%); and liver nodules (pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions) (< 0.1%). Prevalences of skin ulcers and fin rot in Wadden Sea flounder are considerably higher than in those captured off the Dutch North Sea coast or in the Elbe estuary in Germany. These high disease levels in the Wadden Sea, however, are largely due to extremely high prevalences of skin ulcers observed near the drainage sluices of Lake IJssel, indicating a localized effect. Fin rot occurs at relatively high prevalences over the whole study area, but the data should be interpreted with some caution, due to diagnostic problems. Associations with possible disease determinants were investigated and causal hypotheses formulated. In general fish seem to develop skin diseases at sites with strong salinity fluctuations. Nutritional deficiencies possibly related to strong salinity fluctuations, high bacterial loads in the environment and obstacles to fish migration through sluices are amongst the most likely factors determining the locally high levels of skin ulcers. Although not established, it is possible that pollution-related factors and contaminant bioavailability are important. The stress imposed by a combination of these factors may adversely affect the immune system, making the fish vulnerable to opportunistic bacterial infection.

  11. Genetic diversity in two Japanese flounder populations from China seas inferred using microsatellite markers and COI sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongdong; Li, Sanlei; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Yurong; Zhan, Wei; Shi, Huilai

    2012-07-01

    Japanese flounder is one of the most important commercial species in China; however, information on the genetic background of natural populations in China seas is scarce. The lack of genetic data has hampered fishery management and aquaculture development programs for this species. In the present study, we have analyzed the genetic diversity in natural populations of Japanese flounder sampled from the Yellow Sea (Qingdao population, QD) and East China Sea (Zhoushan population, ZS) using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing data. A total of 68 different alleles were observed over 10 microsatellite loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the number of genotypes per locus ranged from 3 to 45. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity in QD were 0.733 and 0.779, respectively, and in ZS the heterozygosity values were 0.708 and 0.783, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in 7 of the 10 microsatellite loci in each of the two populations. The COI sequencing analysis revealed 25 polymorphic sites and 15 haplotypes in the two populations. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in the QD population were 0.746±0.072 8 and 0.003 34±0.001 03 respectively, and in ZS population the genetic diversity values were 0.712±0.047 0 and 0.003 18±0.000 49, respectively. The microsatellite data ( F st =0.048 7, P <0.001) and mitochondrial DNA data ( F st =0.128, P <0.001) both revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations. The information on the genetic variation and differentiation in Japanese flounder obtained in this study could be used to set up suitable guidelines for the management and conservation of this species, as well as for managing artificial selection programs. In future studies, more geographically diverse stocks should be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the population structure of Japanese

  12. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in raw aquacultured summer flounder fillets (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Arritt, Fletcher M; Eifert, Joseph D; Jahncke, Michael L; Pierson, Merle D; Williams, Robert C

    2007-05-01

    Packaging fishery products under vacuum atmosphere packaging (VAC) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions can significantly extend the shelf life of raw, refrigerated fish products. There is considerable commercial interest in marketing VAC and MAP refrigerated (never frozen) raw fish fillets. The objective of this study was to determine if Clostridium botulinum toxin development precedes microbiological spoilage in raw, refrigerated flounder fillets. Aquacultured flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) individual fish fillets either were packed with a film having an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of 3000 cm3 m(-2) 24 h(-1) at 22.8 degrees C or were vacuum packaged or packaged under 100% CO2 with a film having an OTR of 7.8 cm3 m(-2) 24 h(-1) at 21.1 degrees C and were stored at 4 and 10 degrees C. Samples were analyzed by aerobic plate count (APC) for spoilage and qualitatively for botulinum toxin with a mouse bioassay. The results demonstrate that flounder fillets (4 degrees C) packaged with a film having an OTR of 3,000 were microbiologically spoiled (APC, > 10(7) CFU/g) on day 15, but there was no toxin formation, even after 35 days of storage. However, at 10 degrees C, toxin production occurred (day 8), but it was after microbial spoilage and absolute sensory rejection (day 5). Vacuum-packaged fillets and 100% CO2 fillets (4 degrees C) packaged with a film having an OTR of 7.8 were toxic on days 20 and 25, respectively, with microbial spoilage (APC, >10(7) CFU/g) not occurring during the tested storage period (i.e., >35 days). At 10 degrees C, in vacuum-packaged flounder, toxin formation coincided with microbiological spoilage (days 8 to 9). In the 100% CO2-packaged fillets, toxin formation occurred on day 9, with microbial spoilage occurring on day 15. This study indicates that films with an OTR of 3,000 can be used for refrigerated fish fillets and still maintain the safety of the product. PMID:17536674

  13. ASSESSING HABITAT QUALITY OF MOUNT HOPE BAY AND NARRAGANSETT BAY USING GROWTH, RNA:DNA, AND FEDDING HABITS OF CAGED JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Somatic growth rates, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of juvenile Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Winter Flounder) were used to asses small-scale spatio-temporal variations in the habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragan-sett Bay, RI. Three successive caging experiments (14–16 d...

  14. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  15. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

    2014-11-01

    The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

  16. Electrophysiology of flounder intestinal mucosa. I. Conductance properties of the cellular and paracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Halm, D R; Krasny, E J; Frizzell, R A

    1985-06-01

    We evaluated the conductances for ion flow across the cellular and paracellular pathways of flounder intestine using microelectrode techniques and ion-replacement studies. Apical membrane conductance properties are dominated by the presence of Ba-sensitive K channels. An elevated mucosal solution K concentration, [K]m, depolarized the apical membrane potential (psi a) and, at [K]m less than 40 mM, the K dependence of psi a was abolished by 1-2 mM mucosal Ba. The basolateral membrane displayed Cl conductance behavior, as evidenced by depolarization of the basolateral membrane potential (psi b) with reduced serosal Cl concentrations, [Cl]s. psi b was unaffected by changes in [K]s or [Na]s. From the effect of mucosal Ba on transepithelial K selectivity, we estimated that paracellular conductance (Gp) normally accounts for 96% of transepithelial conductance (Gt). The high Gp attenuates the contribution of the cellular pathway to psi t while permitting the apical K and basolateral Cl conductances to influence the electrical potential differences across both membranes. Thus, psi a and psi b (approximately 60 mV, inside negative) lie between the equilibrium potentials for K (76 mV) and Cl (40 mV), thereby establishing driving forces for K secretion across the apical membrane and Cl absorption across the basolateral membrane. Equivalent circuit analysis suggests that apical conductance (Ga approximately equal to 5 mS/cm2) is sufficient to account for the observed rate of K secretion, but that basolateral conductance (Gb approximately equal to 1.5 mS/cm2) would account for only 50% of net Cl absorption. This, together with our failure to detect a basolateral K conductance, suggests that Cl absorption across this barrier involves KCl co-transport. PMID:2410537

  17. Histopathological, histomorphometrical, and immunohistochemical biomarkers in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Antoniak, Agnieszka; Napora-Rutkowski, Lukasz; Kopko, Orest; Lang, Thomas; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2012-04-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus), collected in late fall of 2009 from four coastal sites in the southern Baltic Sea including the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG), were investigated for a suite of biomarkers of contaminant effects. The biomarkers included liver histopathologies, which were diagnosed and assessed using commonly applied lesion categories, the size and density of melano-macrophage aggregates (MMAs), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) in liver as well as the size and density of MMAs and density of Perls'-positive cells in the spleen. The prevalence of liver lesions differed among the sites. Most frequently occurring were non-specific and early toxicopathic non-neoplastic lesions. Mean MMA size was in the range of 264-519 μm(2) and 717-2137 μm(2) in liver and spleen, respectively, and density was in the range of 6-13 and 15-26 MMAmm(-2), respectively. Mean density of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was in the range of 300-1281 cellsmm(-2). These histomorphometrical biomarkers correlated positively with the muscle Hg, Σ(7)PCB, and ΣDDT residues and negatively with the indices of general liver condition. They showed significant differences between the sites, which were in line with the spatial prevalence of liver lesions and CYP1A induction. Overall, the biomarker responses were more pronounced in the GoG sites in comparison to those outside the Gulf, which confirms some earlier results and broadens the knowledge of contaminant effects in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. PMID:22118815

  18. Cloning and stage-specific expression of CK-M1 gene during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2010-05-01

    The symmetrical body of flatfish larvae changes dramatically into an asymmetrical form after metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this change are poorly understood. As an initial step to clarify these mechanisms, we used representational difference analysis of cDNA for the identification of genes active during metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olicaceus. One of the up-regulated genes was identified as creatine kinase muscle type 1 (CK-M1). Sequence analysis of CK-M1 revealed that it spanned 1 708 bp and encoded a protein of 382 amino acids. The overall amino acid sequence of the CK-M1 was highly conserved with those of other organisms. CK-M1 was expressed in adult fish tissues, including skeletal muscle, intestine and gill. Whole mount in-situ hybridization showed that the enhanced expression of CK-M1 expanded from the head to the whole body of larvae as metamorphosis progressed. Quantitative analysis revealed stage-specific high expression of CK-M1 during metamorphosis. The expression level of CK-M1 increased initially and peaked at metamorphosis, decreased afterward, and finally returned to the pre-metamorphosis level. This stage-specific expression pattern suggested strongly that CK-M1 was related to metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder. Its specific role in metamorphosis requires further study.

  19. Disruption of the Thyroid System by the Thyroid-Disrupting Compound Aroclor 1254 in Juvenile Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yifei; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaona; Liu, Jinxiang; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs) in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3) gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following 25- and 50- day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L) with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC) exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies. PMID:25090620

  20. Short-term mercury exposure affecting the development and antioxidant biomarkers of Japanese flounder embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Liu, Jinhu; Lin, Longshan; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the acute and sub-lethal toxicities of waterborne mercuric chloride to Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos and larvae. Acute toxicity tests indicated that the 48-h LC(50) values of mercury to the embryos and larvae were 48.1 (32.8-63.6) and 99.4 (72.9-147.0) μg L(-1), respectively. Mercury could cause low hatching success, delayed hatching process, reduced growth at concentrations ≥20 μg L(-1), and induce reduced survival and higher morphological malformations at concentrations ≥40 μg L(-1) in the embryos and larvae. In sub-lethal toxicity test, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the larvae were significantly increased, while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was decreased by 10 days of 0-10 μg Hg(2+)L(-1) exposure. These findings suggested that the hatching, survival, growth and antioxidant biomarkers of the flounder were sensitive to the highest mercury concentrations and could thereby serve as potential biomarkers for evaluating mercury contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:20833429

  1. Effect of Temperature on Growth of Vibrio paraphemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Flounder, Salmon Sashimi and Oyster Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo Won; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gun; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the major pathogenic Vibrio species which contaminate ready-to-eat seafood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of human illness resulting from consumption of ready-to-eat seafood such as sashimi and raw oyster meat due to the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. We compared the growth kinetics of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus strains in broth and ready-to-eat seafood, including flounder and salmon sashimi, as a function of temperature. The growth kinetics of naturally occurring V. vulnificus in raw oyster meat was also evaluated. The minimum growth temperatures of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth were 13 °C and 11 °C, respectively. Overall, significant differences in lag time (LT) and specific growth rate (SGR) values between flounder and salmon sashimi were observed at temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 30 °C (p < 0.05). The growth of naturally occurring V. vulnificus reached stationary phase at ~4 log CFU/g in oysters, regardless of the storage temperature. This data indicates that the population of V. vulnificus in oysters did not reach the maximum population density as observed in the broth, where growth of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters grew up to >8 log CFU/mL. PMID:23330227

  2. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  3. Effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the growth of the larval olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Su; Shim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Suam

    2015-06-01

    It widely thought that ocean acidification processes that caused by atmospheric CO2 increase and accordingly lower seawater pH conditions might cause serious harm to marine food webs in certain ecosystems in the near future. Little is known about how marine fishes respond to reduced pH conditions. We investigated the effects of CO2 conditions on the growth of olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared at three different levels of pCO2 (574, 988 and 1297 µatm) in temperature-controlled (21 ± 0.5°C) water tanks for four weeks until metamorphosis. The experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011, and body lengths and weights were measured at the completion of each experiment. The results indicated that the body length and weight of flounder larvae significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentrations (P < 0.05). A higher daily growth rate during the early larval stage (hatching to 14 days) was found among the larvae reared in low pCO2 conditions, while a significantly lower growth rate was found among larvae in higher pCO2 water conditions. On the other hand, in the late larval stage (18 days after hatching to metamorphosis), the daily growth rate of larvae was much higher in high CO2 water. Bone density of larvae, however, decreased with increasing CO2 concentration in the water

  4. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( P<0.05). These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  5. Experimental challenge of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in rainbow trout and olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l.) are found in many marine fishes. To ensure food safety, it is important to determine whether these larvae are present in the body muscle of commercial fish species. However, there is little information regarding the tissue specificity of Anisakis and two of its sibling species, A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, that are common in marine fish in Japanese waters. We orally challenged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)), and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel)) with L3 larvae of these two sibling species and monitored infection for 5weeks. In rainbow trout, A. simplex s.s., but not A. pegreffii larvae, migrated into the body muscle. A small number of freely moving A. pegreffii larvae were recovered within the body cavity. In olive flounder, A. simplex s.s. larvae were found in both the body cavity and body muscle. A. pegreffii larvae were found only in the body cavity and primarily encapsulated in lumps. Our results indicate that there are differences in the sites of infection and host specificity between the two sibling species of A. simplex s.l. PMID:21122822

  6. An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshik, T; Nishizawa, T; Kobayashi, T; Nagano, T; Miyazaki, T

    2001-11-01

    A rhabdoviral disease occurred in farmed populations of market sized Japanese flounder (hirame) Paralichthys olivaceus in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1996. The causative agent was identified as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on morphological, immunological, and genetic analyses. Diseased fish that were artificially injected with a representative virus isolate showed the same pathological signs and high mortality as observed in the natural outbreak. This is the first report of an outbreak of VHSV infection in cultured fish in Japan. Clinical signs of diseased fish included dark body coloration, an expanded abdomen due to ascites, congested liver, splenomegaly, and a swollen kidney. Myocardial necrosis was most prominent and accompanied by inflammatory reactions. Necrotic lesions also occurred in the liver, spleen and hematopoietic tissue, and were accompanied by circulatory disturbances due to cardiac failure. Hemorrhagic lesions did not always appear in the lateral musculature. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many rhabdovirus particles and associated inclusion bodies containing nucleocapsids in the necrotized myocardium. The histopathological findings indicated that the necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathognomonic sign of VHSV infection in Japanese flounder. PMID:11775799

  7. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  8. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  9. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at two water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sun, M; Li, J; Gai, C L; Chang, Z Q; Li, J T; Zhao, F Z

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the pharmacokinetics profiles of difloxacin in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated following intravenous and oral administration (10 mg/kg BW) at 14 and 22 °C water temperatures. Plasma and tissue samples (muscle, liver, and kidney) were analyzed using an HPLC method. The results showed that the plasma concentration-time data for difloxacin were described commendably by two-compartment open model at the two water temperatures. The absorption half-life (t(1/2ka)) of difloxacin after oral administration were 2.08 and 1.10 h at 14 and 22 °C, respectively; whereas the elimination half-life (t(1/2β)) was 4.41 and 2.38 h, respectively. The muscle concentration of 1.35 ± 0.19 μg/g was observed at 9 h at 14 °C, and 2.11 ± 0.33 μg/g at 6 h at 22 °C, respectively. For liver, the peak concentration of difloxacin 2.43 ± 0.30 μg/g occurred at 6 h at 14 °C, which was lower than the 3.34 ± 0.24 μg/g peak that occurred at 4 h at 22 °C. The calculated bioavailability of difloxacin was 68.07% at 22 °C, which was higher than the 53.43% calculated for 14 °C. After intravenous administration, the t(1/2β) were 4.79 and 2.81 h at 14 and 22 °C, respectively. The results indicate that the peak concentrations in muscle and liver at 14 °C are approximately half of those achieved at 22 °C. However, the C(max) in kidney at 14 and 22 °C were similar. The Vd values were 1.20 and 1.75 L/kg at 14 and 22 °C, respectively. These data indicated that both temperature and drug administration had significant effects on the elimination of difloxacin, and lower temperature or oral administration resulted in lower elimination. PMID:23742101

  10. Toxicity and QSAR of chlorobenzenes in two species of Benthic flatfish, flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and sole (Solea solea L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Furay, V.J.; Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes were among the first large-scale produced aromatic compounds. They have found broad spectrum of uses in numerous domestic and industrial preparations, ranging from engine - block cleaners, solvents, pharmaceutical intermediates, synthesis of chlorophenols and in disinfectants. Recent investigations have shown that they are present in the major environmental compartments and organisms, including fish tissues, coastal waters, and estuaries. Comparatively little is known about the ecotoxicity of chlorinated benzenes particularly to economically important fish. A number of earlier investigations examined the toxicity of chlorobenzenes and they demonstrated differences in the toxicity values for the same species and isomers of the chemicals investigated. The present investigation has assessed the toxicity and QSARs of selected chlorobenzenes to two ecologically and commercially important flatfish, the flounder (platichthys flesus) and sole (Solea solea). Both have a widespread geographic distribution in coastal and estuarine regions throughout Western Europe and are therefore highly representative test species. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Quantitative trait loci detection of Edwardsiella tarda resistance in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using bulked segregant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P <0.001). Therefore, 106 individuals were genotyped using all the SSR markers in LG1 by single marker analysis. Two different analytical models were then employed to detect SSR markers with different levels of significance in LG1, where 17 and 18 SSR markers were identified, respectively. Each model found three resistance-related QTLs by composite interval mapping (CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.

  12. CpG-ODN increases resistance of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides flanked by specific bases in bacterial DNA induce a favorable immune response by acting as danger signals to the host. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODNs) also act like the unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides in bacterial DNA. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic CpG-ODN on the protection of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against infection by Philasterides dicentrarchi, a pathogen of scuticociliatosis, through two consecutive experiments (trial I and II). Fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CpG-ODN 1668 or GpC-ODN 1720 at different doses (3 microg in trial I and 10 microg in trial II), and after one week the fish were i.p. challenged with P. dicentrarchi. In both trial I and II, fish injected with CpG-ODN 1668 showed significantly higher serum scuticocidal activity than fish injected with PBS alone, while the scuticocidal activity disappeared by heat-inactivation. This result suggests that CpG-ODN might activate an alternative pathway of complement of olive flounder, and complement-mediated killing might be an important innate immune factor in the resistance against P. dicentrarchi infection. Although the cumulative mortality was largely different between trials I and II, the relative survival rate of fish injected with a high dose of CpG-ODN 1668 was considerably higher than that of fish injected with a low dose of this ODN, while the relative survival rate was not different between fish injected with the high dose and low dose of GpC-ODN 1720. The results of the present study suggest that CpG-ODNs may be used as potential immunostimulants to lessen cultured fish loss caused by scuticociliates. PMID:18992348

  13. Transfer of benzo(a)pyrene from two invertebrate prey species to the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitz, A.R.; Taghon, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Anthropogenic activities in and around the estuarine environment may introduce compounds with the ability to move through trophic levels, resulting in adverse effects to ecosystems and human health. In order to observe the potential for transfer of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its derivatives from prey organisms to a predator, a simplified benthic food chain was constructed. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, were fed via gavage either softshell clams, Mya arenaria, or sandworms, Neanthes virens, that had previously been exposed to {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene-contaminated sediments and contained 5.05 ng/g and 5.8 ng/g activity, respectively (wet weight). The fish received doses every 48 hours for a total of 192 hours after which time, all tissues except the gall bladder were examined for the presence of BaP using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC). The bile was extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LSC. The flounders that were fed worms demonstrated increased metabolism of the PAH relative to those fed clams, as shown by higher concentrations of polar metabolites in the bile. This corresponds with the higher concentration of metabolites recovered in the worm tissue; more than 95% of the recovered activity was in the form of polar derivatives whereas the activity in the clam tissue was almost completely parent benzo(a)pyrene. As was expected, the BaP metabolites formed by the fish were mediated by the differing abilities of the prey species to derivatize the PAH. Thus, macrofaunal interactions with sedimentary-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be important determinants in the fate and transport of these compounds in the benthos.

  14. The impact of intrapopulation variability in reproductive traits on population reproductive potential of Grand Bank American plaice ( Hippoglossoides platessoides) and yellowtail flounder ( Limanda ferruginea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. J.; Rideout, R. M.

    2008-04-01

    In geographically extensive fish populations the potential exists for reproductive traits to vary over the population's range but, the impact that such intrapopulation variability has on overall population reproductive potential has not been formally assessed. Here intrapopulation spatial variability in size at maturity and fecundity are demonstrated for Grand Bank American plaice ( Hippoglossoides platessoides) and yellowtail flounder ( Limanda ferruginea). Recognition of intrapopulation variability in these reproductive traits coupled with spatial variability in abundance resulted in an increase in estimated population total egg production (TEP) by as much as 10 14 eggs for American plaice and 10 15 eggs for yellowtail flounder as compared to assessment of TEP for the population as a whole. Results highlight the need to explore variability in life history traits not only between but, also within populations and emphasizes the need for sufficient spatial coverage during sampling in order to assess the reproductive potential of fish populations.

  15. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J; Krasnec, Michelle; Takeshita, Ryan; Ryan, Caitlin N; Griffitt, Kimberly J; Lay, Claire; Mayer, Gregory D; Bayha, Keith M; Hawkins, William E; Lipton, Ian; Morris, Jeffrey; Griffitt, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04-395mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation, telangiectasia of secondary lamellae, and lamellar epithelial proliferation in gill tissues. Dose-dependent upregulation of Cyp1a expression in liver tissues was observed. Taxonomic analysis of gill and intestinal commensal bacterial assemblages showed that exposure to oiled sediments led to distinct shifts in commensal bacterial population structures. These data show that chronic exposure to environmentally-relevant concentrations of oiled sediments produces adverse effects in flounder at multiple biological levels. PMID:26092636

  16. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and 3D structural prediction of the cold inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; Ma, Liman; Li, Zan; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Zhongkai; Yu, Haiyang; Qi, Jie; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-02-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a kind of RNA binding proteins that plays important roles in many physiological processes. The CIRP has been widely studied in mammals and amphibians since it was first cloned from mammals. On the contrary, there are little reports in teleosts. In this study, the Po CIRP gene of the Japanese flounder was cloned and sequenced. The genomic sequence consists of seven exons and six introns. The putative PoCIRP protein of flounder was 198 amino acid residues long containing the RNA recognition motif (RRM). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the flounder PoCIRP is highly conserved with other teleost CIRPs. The 5' flanking sequence was cloned by genome walking and many transcription factor binding sites were identified. There is a CpGs region located in promoter and exon I region and the methylation state is low. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis uncovered that Po CIRP gene was widely expressed in adult tissues with the highest expression level in the ovary. The mRNA of the Po CIRP was maternally deposited and the expression level of the gene was regulated up during the gastrula and neurula stages. In order to gain the information how the protein interacts with mRNA, we performed the modeling of the 3D structure of the flounder PoCIRP. The results showed a cleft existing the surface of the molecular. Taken together, the results indicate that the CIRP is a multifunctional molecular in teleosts and the findings about the structure provide valuable information for understanding the basis of this protein's function.

  17. Structural characterization of peptides derived from prosomatostatins I and II isolated from the pancreatic islets of two species of teleostean fish: the daddy sculpin and the flounder.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J M; Davis, M S; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1987-11-01

    The primary structures of three peptides from extracts from the pancreatic islets of the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius) and three analogous peptides from the islets of the flounder (Platichthys flesus), two species of teleostean fish, have been determined by automated Edman degradation. The structures of the flounder peptides were confirmed by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The peptides show strong homology to residues (49-60), (63-96) and (98-125) of the predicted sequence of preprosomatostatin II from the anglerfish (Lophius americanus). The amino acid sequences of the peptides suggest that, in the sculpin, prosomatostatin II is cleaved at a dibasic amino acid residue processing site (corresponding to Lys61-Arg62 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). The resulting fragments are further cleaved at monobasic residue processing sites (corresponding to Arg48 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). In the flounder the same dibasic residue processing site is utilised but cleavage at different monobasic sites takes place (corresponding to Arg50 and Arg97 in anglerfish preprosomatostatin II). A peptide identical to mammalian somatostatin-14 was also isolated from the islets of both species and is presumed to represent a cleavage product of prosomatostatin I. PMID:2889597

  18. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine contaminants in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Letcher, Robert J; Reddy, Christopher M; Moore, Michael J; Rubinstein, Belinda; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Various brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, as well as organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Eastern United States and Canada. The concentrations of PBDEs in winter flounder and right whales were similar in magnitude to the levels of PCBs, which was unlike the pattern observed in seals. In these marine mammals, the levels of PBDEs were orders of magnitude lower than the levels of OCs and PCBs detected. Evidence existed for the accumulation of methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs of natural origin in seals and right whales. Current-use, non-PBDE BFRs (including hexabromocyclododecane, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene) were detected in winter flounder and marine mammals. Future research should focus on monitoring PBDEs, current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, and MeO-BDEs of natural origin in marine organisms from Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. PMID:20434733

  19. A cDNA microarray analysis to identify genes involved in the acute-phase response pathway of the olive flounder after infection with Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Hong, Yong-Ki; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Woo-Jin; Ji, Young Joo; An, Cheul Min; Nam, Bo-Hye

    2014-09-15

    The acute-phase response (APR) is an important systemic reaction that occurs within hours of an inflammatory signal caused by physical bodily injury or microbial infection. To investigate the APR of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following infection with a pathogen, we established an expressed sequence tag (EST)-based cDNA microarray chip composed of 13,061 PCR-amplified cDNAs encoding unique genes selected from an olive flounder EST analysis. Microarray analyses showed that the set of genes involved in the APR was strongly up-regulated in the liver of the olive flounder after infection with Edwardsiella tarda. Among the up-regulated genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase domain-containing protein 1, six-transmembrane prostate protein, haptoglobin precursor, and toll-like receptor 5 soluble form were particularly strongly up-regulated. Interestingly, the toll-like receptor 5 soluble form, which has not yet been detected in mammals, was up-regulated as much as 250-fold upon E. tarda infection. These results suggest that the APR mechanism of fish may be regulated differently from that of mammals. The data described here contribute toward our collective understanding of APR, especially in fish. PMID:25063225

  20. Identification and characterization of ATP-gated P2X2 receptor gene dominantly expressed in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) head kidney macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) belongs to the family of purinergic receptors that have been shown to play important roles in regulating host innate immune response. Although the immunologic significance of P2X2R has been studied in mammals, the presence and immune relevance of P2X2R in fish remains unclear. In this study we extended our previous observations by identifying and characterizing a P2X2R ortholog (termed PoP2X2R) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that PoP2X2R mRNA transcripts are widely distributed in all examined normal tissues and are dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas tissue. In addition, we for the first time showed that multiple P2XR subtypes, including P2X2R, P2X4R and P2X7R are co-expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), indicating that they may assemble into hetero-receptor complex or interact in the form of homotrimers to trigger diverse purinergic signaling in the Japanese flounder immune cells. Compared with the known Japanese flounder P2X4 and P2X7 receptors, however, PoP2X2R is much more abundantly expressed in the Japanese flounder HKM cells, suggesting that PoP2X2R may play an important role in this type of immune cells. Glycosylation and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that PoP2X2R is a glycoprotein expressed on the plasma membrane. Immune challenges experiments showed that PoP2X2R was significantly induced by LPS, poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations in the HKM and PBL cells, and by Edwardsiella tarda infections in spleen and gill tissues as well. Taken together, we have identified and characterized a new P2X2R member that is involved in fish innate immune response. PMID:27103003

  1. Antigen uptake and expression of antigen presentation-related immune genes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after vaccination with an inactivated Edwardsiella tarda immersion vaccine, following hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingli; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Antigen uptake is a critical process for activation of the immune system, and therefore the ability to enhance antigen uptake is a primary consideration in the development of an immersion vaccination of fish. In the present work, flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immersed in three hyperosmotic solutions with 40, 50 and 60‰ salinities, then transferred into seawater of normal salinity (i.e. 30‰) containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for 30 min. The antigen uptake in vaccinated flounder was determined using an absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed significantly higher antigen uptake in the tissues of flounders immersed in solutions with 50‰ and 60‰ salinity compared to the control group directly immersed in vaccine (DI) (P < 0.05), and the highest amount of antigen was detected in flounders immersed in the 50‰ salinity solution, whereas there was no significant difference in antigen uptake between the 40‰ salinity group and the DI group (P > 0.05). A rapid and significant increase in antigen uptake was detected in the mucosal-associated tissues including the gill, skin and intestine (P < 0.05) compared with the spleen, kidney and liver. Antigen uptake in the gill and skin both peaked at 30 min post immersion, which was significantly higher than the levels of uptake measured in the other tissues (P < 0.05), and then quickly declined. In contrast, antigen uptake in the spleen, kidney and liver gradually increased 3 h post immersion (hpi). The expression profiles of four antigen presentation-related immune genes (MHC Iα, MHC IIα, CD4-1 and CD8α) were investigated after immersion. These four genes showed a significantly stronger response in the immersed flounders exposed to 50‰ salinity compared with the DI group (P < 0.05). In the mucosal-associated tissues, the expression of MHC Iα and CD8α genes peaked at 24 hpi, while the expression of MHC IIα and CD4-1 genes showed up-regulation in the gill and skin

  2. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1-8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species. PMID:25762582

  3. Molecular Cloning, Promoter Analysis and Expression Profiles of the sox3 Gene in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinning; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Sox3, which belongs to the SoxB1 subgroup, plays major roles in neural and gonadal development. In the present study, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus sox3 gene (Posox3) and its promoter sequence were isolated and characterized. The deduced PoSox3 protein contained 298 amino acids with a characteristic HMG-box domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that PoSox3 shares highly identical sequence with Sox3 homologues from different species. The promoter region of Posox3 has many potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites. The expression profiles of Posox3 in different developmental stages and diverse adult tissues were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Posox3 mRNA was maternally inherited, and maintained at a considerably high expression level between the blastula stage and the hatching stage during embryonic development. Posox3 was abundantly expressed in the adult brain and showed sexually dimorphic expression pattern. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out to investigate the cellular distribution of Posox3 in the ovary, and results showed the uniform distribution of Posox3 throughout the cytoplasm of oogonia and stage I–III oocytes. These results indicate that Posox3 has potentially vital roles in embryonic and neural development and may be involved in the oogenesis process. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of the structure and potential functions of Sox3 in Paralichthys olivaceus. PMID:26610486

  4. Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

  5. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain FORC_008, a foodborne pathogen from a flounder fish in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suyeon; Chung, Han Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Jong Gyu; Kim, Se Keun; Ku, Hye-Jin; Kim, You-Tae; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative, motile, nonspore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated seafoods. Although many cases of foodborne outbreaks caused by V. parahaemolyticus have been reported, the genomes of only five strains have been completely sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics. In order to characterize overall virulence factors and pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus associated with foodborne outbreak in South Korea, a new strain FORC_008 was isolated from flounder fish and its genome was completely sequenced. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of FORC_008 consists of two circular DNA chromosomes of 3266 132 bp (chromosome I) and 1772 036 bp (chromosome II) with a GC content of 45.36% and 45.53%, respectively. The entire genome contains 4494 predicted open reading frames, 129 tRNAs and 31 rRNA genes. While the strain FORC_008 does not have genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), its genome encodes many other virulence factors including hemolysins, pathogenesis-associated secretion systems and iron acquisition systems, suggesting that it may be a potential pathogen. This report provides an extended understanding on V. parahaemolyticus in genomic level and would be helpful for rapid detection, epidemiological investigation and prevention of foodborne outbreak in South Korea. PMID:27170457

  6. Potential of mean force calculation of the free energy of adsorption of Type I winter flounder antifreeze protein on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battle, Keith; Alan Salter, E.; Wesley Edmunds, R.; Wierzbicki, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that inhibit ice growth without changing the melting point of ice. In this work, we study the detailed molecular mechanism of interactions between the hydrophobic side of the winter flounder (WF) AFP and two mutants, AAAA and SSSS, in which threonine residues are substituted by serines and alanines, respectively. Umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations of the separation of the proteins from the (2 0 1) surface in an explicit water box is carried out to calculate the potential of mean force free energies of adsorption using AMBER10i. We estimate wild-type WF's free energy of adsorption to ice to be about -12.0 kcal/mol. Gas-phase pseudopotential plane-wave calculations of methane adsorption onto select surfaces of ice are also carried out under periodic boundary conditions to address the possible enthalpic role of WF's methyl groups in binding. The contributions of hydrophobic residues to the free energy of adsorption are discussed.

  7. Responses of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to a mixture of PAHs and PCBs in experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Loizeau, Véronique; Danion, Morgane; Pichereau, Vianney; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2014-12-01

    A multibiomarker approach was developed to evaluate the juvenile European flounder responses to a complex mixture of 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Exposure was performed through contaminated food pellets displaying: (1) PAH and PCB levels similar to those detected in the heavily polluted Seine estuary, respectively in sediments and in flatfish and (2) ten times these concentrations. Several biomarkers of the immune system (e.g., lysozyme concentration and gene expression of complement component C3 and TNF-receptor), DNA damage (e.g., Comet assay), energetic metabolism (e.g., activity of cytochrome C oxidase), detoxification process (e.g., cytochrome P450 1A1 expression level: CYP1A1; betaine homocysteine methyl transferase expression level: BHMT) were investigated after 14 and 29 days of contamination, followed by a 14-days recovery period. After 29 days of contamination, the detoxification activity (CYP1A1 expression level) was positively correlated with DNA damages; the increase of the BHMT expression level could also be related to the detoxification process. Furthermore, after the recovery period, some biomarkers were still upregulated (i.e., CYP1A1 and BHMT expression levels). The immune system was significantly modulated by the chemical stress at the two concentration levels, and the lysozyme appeared to be the most sensitive marker of the mixture impact. PMID:24504773

  8. Continental shelf nurseries and recruitment variability in American plaice and yellowtail flounder on the Grand Bank: insights into stock resiliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Simpson, Mark; Morgan, M. Joanne

    2004-05-01

    In 1994, a directed fishing moratorium was declared for Grand Bank American plaice ( Hippoglossoides platessoides) and yellowtail flounder ( Limanda ferruginea) stocks because both stocks showed severe declines in abundance from heavy exploitation during the mid 1980s and early 1990s. Four years later, the fishery for yellowtail re-opened while the plaice stock has shown little recovery and the moratorium is still in effect. To assess the possible causes of the differences in recovery between species, we examined the spatial structure and environmental characteristics of the continental shelf nursery habitats of plaice and yellowtail, and their relationship to recruitment variability and overall population size. Depth plays a major influential role determining the spatial pattern and the abundance of juveniles of both species and in the case of plaice the spatial structure of the adult population also determines the amount of nursery area utilised by juveniles. Recruitment variability was higher in plaice than in yellowtail. We found year class synchrony in both species indicating that common environmental conditions and/or biological processes are affecting recruitment in a similar manner. Density-dependent regulation appears to be more severe in yellowtail and this should contribute to a more stable population when compared to plaice. These results are discussed in terms of resiliency of both stocks to over-exploitation.

  9. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  10. Transfer kinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate from water and sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Ito, Nozomi; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Maki, Hideaki; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Toru; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated the kinetics of transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment to a marine benthic fish, the marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Fish were exposed in 3 treatments to PFOS in combinations of these exposure media for 28 d and then depurated for 84 d. A major part (37-66%) of PFOS in the fish was in the carcass (i.e., whole body minus muscle and internal organs). Three first-order-kinetic models that differed in exposure media, that is, 1) sum of dissolved and particulate phases and sediment; 2) dissolved phase, particulate phase, and sediment; and 3) dissolved phase only, were fitted to the data assuming common rate constants among the treatments. The uptake efficiency of dissolved PFOS at the respiratory surfaces was estimated to be 3.2% that of oxygen, and the half-life of PFOS in the whole body to be 29 d to 31 d. The better fit of models 1 and 2 and the values of the estimated uptake rate constants suggested that the PFOS in suspended and bottom sediments, in addition to that dissolved in water, contributed to the observed body burden of the fish. Based on an evaluation of several possible contributing factors to the uptake of PFOS from suspended and bottom sediments, the authors propose that further investigation is necessary regarding the mechanisms responsible for the uptake. PMID:23636803

  11. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  12. Disease prevalence in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Dutch Wadden Sea as indicator of environmental quality: A summary of 1988-2005 surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vethaak, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 1988, epizootics of ulcer disease in the flatfish flounder in the Dutch Wadden Sea were reported near freshwater drainage sluices of IJsselmeer Lake, locally affecting up to 38.9% of fish. Other diseases such as fin rot and lymphocystis were less frequent, but followed a similar pattern. Results of follow-up surveys in the Wadden Sea in 1994-2005 confirm previous findings and also show significantly elevated ulcer prevalences at other smaller drainage works. The most likely stress factors that contributed to the development of the epizootics at these sites include osmotic stress, adverse water quality conditions including chemical contaminants, nutritional deficiencies, and obstruction to fish migration. It was shown that discharges of IJsselmeer Lake freshwater in 1988-96 had a wide effect on the prevalence and distribution of ulcers and lymphocystis in the western Wadden Sea. A general reduction in disease prevalence in flounder in the entire Dutch Wadden Sea was observed during 1988-2005, which was most likely due to a general improvement in water quality and locally improved habitat conditions for flounder near drainage sluices. Ulcer prevalences outside the two IJsselmeer Lake sluices (Den Oever and Kornwerderzand) declined in this period from approximately 30% to 10% for medium-sized fish. Other skin diseases have also displayed a downward trend at both sites in recent years, with prevalences falling sharply to below 1%. Elsewhere in the Wadden Sea and the Ems-Dollard estuary, disease prevalences have declined towards natural background levels (< 1%). It is concluded that skin diseases, especially ulcers, are useful indicators of environmental quality in the Wadden Sea.

  13. Cloning of the cDNA encoding adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase 1 and its mRNA expression in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Keyong; Sun, Shujuan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    AMP deaminase catalyzes the conversion of AMP into IMP and ammonia. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of AMPD1 from skeletal muscle of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was cloned and characterized. The 2 526 bp cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 78 bp, a 3'-UTR of 237 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 211 bp, which encodes a protein of 736 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a highly conserved AMP deaminase motif (SLSTDDP) and an ATP-binding site sequence (EPLMEEYAIAAQVFK). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMPD1 and AMPD3 genes originate from the same branch, but are evolutionarily distant from the AMPD2 gene. RT-PCR showed that the flounder AMPD1 gene was expressed only in skeletal muscle. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a statistically significant 2.54 fold higher level of AMPD1 mRNA in adult muscle (750±40 g) compared with juvenile muscle (7.5±2 g) ( P<0.05). HPLC analysis showed that the IMP content in adult muscle (3.35±0.21 mg/g) was also statistically significantly higher than in juvenile muscle (1.08±0.04 mg/g) ( P<0.05). There is a direct relationship between the AMPD1 gene expression level and IMP content in the skeletal muscle of juvenile and adult flounders. These results may provide useful information for quality improvement and molecular breeding of aquatic animals.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha gene in response to immune challenges in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2015-10-01

    Nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is a conserved heterodimeric protein consisting of alpha and beta subunits. In addition to acting as a protein translation chaperone by forming a heterodimer with the beta subunit, NAC alpha (NACA) also shows important immune significance independent of NAC beta in mammalian cells. In lower vertebrates, however, the immunological relevance of NACA has not been revealed yet. In the present study, we identified and characterized a NACA gene (termed poNACA) involved in innate immune response in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. poNACA encodes a 215-amino-acid protein, with an apparent molecular weight of 23.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.51. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that poNACA gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues and showed dominant expression in hepatopancreas and gonad tissues. In enriched Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leucocytes, the expression of poNACA mRNA transcript was significantly induced by LPS, Poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations. In vivo experiments further revealed that poNACA gene expression was up-regulated in head kidney, gill and spleen tissues in response to Edwardsiella tarda challenges. Furthermore, overexpression of poNACA in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells resulted in increased gene expression of IL-1beta, IL-11 and TNF-alpha, and myxovirus resistance (Mx). Taken together, our findings indicate that an immune response gene, poNACA, involved in innate immune regulation in P. olivaceus has been identified. PMID:26142144

  15. Relationship between Sex Steroid and Vitellogenin Concentrations in Flounder (Platichthys flesus) Sampled from an Estuary Contaminated with Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alexander P.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kirby, Mark F.; Thain, John

    2006-01-01

    High concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein) have previously been found in male flounder (Platichthys flesus) from several UK estuaries; these levels have been ascribed to the presence of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, have also been recorded in these estuaries. However, there is no firm evidence to date that these two findings are causally linked or that the presence of estrogenic EDCs has any adverse population effects. In the present study, we examined the relationship between concentrations of VTG and sex steroids (11-oxotestosterone in males and 17β-estradiol in females) in specimens of flounder captured from the estuary of the River Mersey. We first questioned whether the high concentrations of VTG in male and immature female flounder were indeed caused by a direct effect of exogenous EDCs and not indirectly via the endogenous secretion of 17β-estradiol. The data favored the direct involvement of estrogenic EDCs. We then questioned whether the presence of estrogenic EDCs not only stimulated inappropriate VTG synthesis but whether it might also have had a negative effect on endogenous steroid secretion. It should be noted that the predicted consequences of a drop in steroid secretion include smaller gonads, smaller oocytes, fewer numbers of sperm, and depressed spawning behavior. This question was more difficult to answer because of the strong effect of the seasonal reproductive cycle and stage of maturation on steroid concentrations. However, matched by month of capture and stage of maturation, both 17β-estradiol in females and 11-keto-testosterone in males were in most cases significantly lower in those years when VTG concentrations were higher. PMID:16818243

  16. Molecular characterization of purinergic receptor P2X4 involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) innate immune response and its interaction with ATP release channel Pannexin1.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Xuejing; Geng, Xuyun; Lin, Rongxin; Li, Ming; Sun, Jinsheng

    2015-11-01

    P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) is a member of trimeric ATP-gated receptor channel family. Despite the importance of P2X4R in innate immunity has been addressed in mammals, the immunological significance of P2X4R has not been characterized in fish. In the present study we identified a full-length P2X4R cDNA sequence from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (termed poP2X4R) by RT-PCR and RACE approaches and analyzed its gene expression patterns under normal and immune challenge conditions. Qualitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that poP2X4R has a widespread distribution in all examined tissues but dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas. In Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes, poP2X4R was rapidly and significantly up-regulated by the immune challenges of LPS, poly(I:C) and zymosan. In addition, poP2X4R was up-regulated in spleen, head kidney and gill tissues by Edwardsiella tarda infections. Furthermore, we showed that poP2X4R is a membrane glycoprotein which could interact with ATP release channel Pannexin1, an important component in extracellular ATP-activated purinergic signaling pathways involved in Japanese flounder innate immune response. From a comparative immunological point of view, our results have provided new evidence for the involvement of extracellular ATP-gated P2XRs in fish innate immunity. PMID:26321132

  17. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  18. Survey of estrogenic activity in United Kingdom estuarine and coastal waters and its effects on gonadal development of the flounder Platichthys flesus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Y.; Scott, A.P.; Matthiessen, P.; Haworth, S.; Thain, J.E.; Feist, S.

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic discharges are known or suspected to be present in many United Kingdom estuaries and are also occurring from offshore oil and gas installations. The aim of this study was to establish whether estrogens and their mimics are present in marine waters at concentrations that can produce biological responses in fish and, if so, to discover whether the effects are likely to be harmful to populations and communities through changes in reproductive and other physiological processes. Laboratory studies and extensive field surveys were carried out with the euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus), using the amount of yolk protein vitellogenin in the blood of free-living male fish as an indicator of exposure to estrogens. Exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol for 3 weeks confirmed that the vitellogenin response was made and showed that this species is about one order of magnitude less sensitive than the freshwater species rainbow trout. The fish did not respond to the estrogen mimic nonylphenol at concentrations of 30 {micro}g/L. Wild male flounder were sampled from four contaminated United Kingdom estuaries: the Tyne, Crouch, Thames, and Mersey. Fish from one or more sites in each estuary had significantly elevated concentrations of vitellogenin in their blood when compared to concentrations in fish from the clean control estuary (Alde River). Vitellogenin concentrations in the Tyne and Mersey fish were four and six orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than control concentrations. Elevated vitellogenin concentrations were also seen in some male flounder caught in coastal areas. Approximately 20% of male fish from the Mersey estuary contained oocytes in their testes, but this intersex condition was not seen elsewhere. The implications of these findings for fish populations are discussed.

  19. The effects of temperature on ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression and sex differentiation in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Caruso, Catherine C; Breton, Timothy S; Berlinsky, David L

    2016-04-01

    Female summer flounder grow considerably faster and larger than males, and a tremendous increase in performance can therefore be realized through production of monosex female populations. Rearing temperature has been shown to affect sex differentiation in other teleost species by influencing expression of genes encoding transcription factors or enzymes involved in endocrine function. Cyp19a1a is a well-studied gene that had been shown to play a role in ovarian development, and exhibits sexually dimorphic expression in other species. In the present study, summer flounder (37 days post-hatch; DPH) were raised at 13, 16 or 19 °C. Fish from all three treatments were sampled throughout development and analyzed in qPCR to determine cyp19a1a gene expression levels. Sex ratios of additional fish grown to ≥150 mm at each temperature treatment were determined. Low female production was achieved overall (26.9, 17.6 and 0 % at 13, 16 and 19 °C, respectively). Cyp19a1a expression was significantly lower at 52 DPH (~15 mm total length) at the male-producing temperature (19 °C) and increased to similar levels as other treatments at 66 DPH. Expression levels later in juvenile development (66-191 DPH) largely decreased with fish size. The period of sex differentiation in summer flounder remains unknown, but cyp19a1a expression patterns suggest that it may occur earlier in development than that of congenerics. Further research is necessary to understand the sex-determining mechanisms in this species before sexually dimorphic growth can be used to achieve economic advantages in commercial production. PMID:26643906

  20. Skin and liver diseases induced in flounder (Platichthys flesus) after long-term exposure to contaminated sediments in large-scale mesocosms.

    PubMed Central

    Vethaak, A D; Jol, J G; Meijboom, A; Eggens, M L; Rheinallt, T; Wester, P W; van de Zande, T; Bergman, A; Dankers, N; Ariese, F; Baan, R A; Everts, J M; Opperhuizen, A; Marquenie, J M

    1996-01-01

    Disease development in flounder (Platichthys flesus) was studied over a period of 3 years in three large mesocosms (40 m x 40 m x 3 m). Two of the mesocosms contained clean sand and the third, sharing a common water circulation with one of the clean-sand mesocosms, was stocked with contaminated dredged spoil. In this way, one of the clean-sand mesocosms was indirectly polluted via the water phase, and analysis of contaminant concentrations in sediments and flounder tissues showed that it had a status intermediate between the other two. Random samples of the flounder populations from the indirectly polluted and reference mesocosms were examined every 2 months for epidermal diseases (lymphocystis, skin ulcers, fin rot) and then released. In addition, every 6 months, random samples of fish from all three mesocosms were sacrificed for histological and chemical investigation. With regard to the development of epidermal disease, the results showed little difference between the reference mesocosm and the indirectly polluted mesocosm, with the exception that lymphocystis was significantly elevated in the indirectly polluted mesocosm. Although pollution may be a risk factor in the etiology of this disease, such a relationship would probably be obscured under field conditions due to variation arising from other factors. Histopathological analysis of the livers revealed in total four cases of hepatocellular adenoma (1.5% of sampled population) in fish from the polluted mesocosms, the first occurring after 2.5 years of exposure in fish from the indirectly polluted mesocosm. Furthermore, several other liver lesions, including foci of cellular alteration and hydropic vacuolated lesions, developed during the course of the experiment before tumor formation was apparent. Prevalences of these conditions were very much lower in the reference mesocosm than in the two polluted mesocosms. Densities of melanomacrophage centers in the liver showed a similar trend. The findings clearly

  1. Identification of arsenobetaine in sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Riekwel-Booy, G.; Greef, M.C.; de Brauw, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Organo-arsenic has been isolated from sole, lemon sole, flounder, dab, crab and shrimps by extraction or ion-exchange in combination with thin-layer chromatography. An alkaline digestion of the samples, followed by a reduction with sodiumborohydride leads to the formation of trimethylarsine. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) can be used to identify arsenobetaine in the isolates. Sufficient purification by thin-layer chromatography is found to be a prerequisite for the detection of a protonated molecular ion of arsenobetaine. If this situation is not met acid enchanced FDMS or Fast Atom Bombardment mass spectrometry in high resolution can be used successfully.

  2. EFFECT OF ESTROGENIC (O,P'-DDT; OCTOPHENOL AND ANTI-ANDROGENIC (P'P'-DDE) CHEMICALS ON INDICATORS OF ENDOCRINE STATUS IN JUVENILE MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with male summer flounder to assess the value of selected measures of endocrine status in fish as indicators of exposure to endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Efficts of 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethane
    (o,p'-D...

  3. EFFECT OF 17B-ESTRADIOL, O,P'-DDT, OCTYLPHENOL AND P,P'-DDE ON GONADAL DEVELOPMENT AND LIVER AND KIDNEY PATHOLOGY IN JUVENILE MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this study was to compare histopathologically the effect of 17 -estradiol (E2), o,p' DDT, octylphenol and p,p' DDE on gonadal development and liver and kidney condition in sexually immature (juvenile) summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus). The dorsal sinus of 2-...

  4. Characterization and genomic structure of Dnah9, and its roles in nodal signaling pathways in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Niu, Jingjing; Liu, Conghui; Yang, Fang; Wang, Zhenwei; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Quanqi; He, Yan; Qi, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The nodal signaling pathway has been shown to play crucial roles in inducing and patterning the mesoderm and endoderm, as well as in regulating neurogenesis and left-right axis asymmetry. Here, we present the first complete cDNA and genomic sequences as well as the promoter predication of the Dnah9 gene in the Japanese flounder. The 15,558-bp-long cDNA is divided into 96 exons and spread over 138 kb of genomic DNA. Protein sequence comparison showed that it shares higher identity with other vertebrate orthologs, with an ATP binding dynein motor, AAA domain and microtubule binding stalk of dynein motor. Dnah9 exhibited maternal and ubiquitous expression in all cells of the early development stages, but became concentrated in the head at 1 DAH, as identified by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization methods. Furthermore, after nodal signaling was inhibited, the level of Southpaw did not change significantly at early development stage (50 % epiboly) but increased significantly at late stages (27-somite stages and 1 DAH), as well as the expression of Lefty, an inhibitor of nodal signaling, increased continuously. On the other hand, the expression level of Dnah9 decreased. The transcription factor binding site of FAST-1 (SMAD interacting protein) was identified in the transcription region of Dnah9 by the promoter analysis, which might format the complexes of SMADs, FAST-1 and the transcription region of Dnah9 served as a bridge of Dnah9 and nodal signaling. All evidences indicated that Dnah9 might be downstream of nodal during the early development stages, and an indirect function through SMADs for nodal signaling pathway. PMID:26377939

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manish Raj; Guo, Huarong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of carbamate insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill (FG) cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos. The cytotoxicity of carbaryl to FG cells was determined with methods including MTT and neutral red uptaking (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing and Hoechst 33342 and propidium idodide (PI) double staining. Moderate cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner was observed. The 24 h-IC50 value of 53.48 ± 1.21, 59.13 ± 1.19 and 46.21 ± 1.24 mg L-1 carbaryl was obtained through MTT, NRU and LDH assays, respectively. Double fluorescence staining demonstrated that carbaryl induced the death of FG cells mainly through necrosis. There was no significant genotoxicity found in the FG cells exposed to the highest testing concentration of carbaryl (20 mg L-1, P > 0.05) as was demonstrated by Comet assay. Zebrafish embryos exposed to carbaryl at concentrations ≥10 mg L-1 displayed moderate toxic effects on the survival, spontaneous movement, hatching, heart rates of the embryos and their development, which were evidenced by yolk and pericardial sac edemas, body length reduction and tail flexure in time- and concentration-dependent manners at specific stages. The 24 h-, 48 h- and 96 h-LC50 values of carbaryl to zebrafish embryos were 41.80 ± 1.10, 17.80 ± 1.04 and 14.46 ± 1.05 mg L-1, respectively. These results suggested that carbaryl is moderately toxic to FG cells cultured in vitro and zebrafish embryos, and the FG cells were similar to zebrafish embryos in their sensitivity to carbaryl as 24 h-IC50 and LC50 indicated.

  6. Catabolic Signaling Pathways, Atrogenes, and Ubiquitinated Proteins Are Regulated by the Nutritional Status in the Muscle of the Fine Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo N.; Ruiz, Pamela; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    A description of the intracellular mechanisms that modulate skeletal muscle atrophy in early vertebrates is still lacking. In this context, we used the fine flounder, a unique and intriguing fish model, which exhibits remarkably slow growth due to low production of muscle-derived IGF-I, a key growth factor that has been widely acknowledged to prevent and revert muscle atrophy. Key components of the atrophy system were examined in this species using a detailed time-course of sampling points, including two contrasting nutritional periods. Under basal conditions high amounts of the atrogenes MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 were observed. During fasting, the activation of the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways decreased; whereas, the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway increased. These changes in signal transduction activation were concomitant with a strong increase in MuRF-1, Atrogin-1, and protein ubiquitination. During short-term refeeding, the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways were strongly activated, whereas the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway decreased significantly. The expression of both atrogenes, as well as the ubiquitination of proteins, dropped significantly during the first hour of refeeding, indicating a strong anti-atrophic condition during the onset of refeeding. During long-term refeeding, Akt remained activated at higher than basal levels until the end of refeeding, and Atrogin-1 expression remained significantly lower during this period. This study shows that the components of the atrophy system in skeletal muscle appeared early in the evolution of vertebrates and some mechanisms have been conserved, whereas others have not. These results represent an important achievement for the area of fish muscle physiology, showing an integrative view of the atrophy system in a non-mammalian species and contributing to novel insights on the molecular basis of muscle growth regulation in earlier vertebrates. PMID:23024748

  7. Spatial and annual variation in fecundity and oocyte atresia of yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferruginea, in U.S. waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) was estimated over three years (2010-2012) for yellowtail flounder with individuals from the three stocks off the northeast U.S. coast. Down-regulation of PAF, the resorption of oocytes during development, was evident as the vitellogenic cohort advanced, so we directly measured atresia of vitellogenic oocytes using stereological techniques. PAF models including relative fish condition, stock area, year, and oocyte diameter of the leading cohort explained more variation than models with just size alone based on Akaike information criteria. In a given year, Gulf of Maine females had lower PAF at size than southern New England females. Interannual differences were evident: PAF of both stocks was higher in 2010 and lower in 2012, with 2011 showing less synchronization between these stocks. Differences in size at age and relative condition suggested that energy available for somatic and reproductive growth was lower in some years in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank, especially in 2011. Georges Bank PAF and condition were intermediate to the other stocks or more similar to the Gulf of Maine, varying annually. A latitudinal gradient in PAF is evident based on our results and relative to earlier studies that included Canadian stocks. The magnitude of down-regulation was variable across stocks and typically 3-25% of PAF. This can be accounted for in fecundity estimates, by the seasonal schedule of sampling and use of an oocyte diameter term in the fecundity model. Theoretical models of atresia patterns suggested variable rates over the later portion of clutch development. The timing of down-regulation varied among years, and its intensity was influenced by female relative condition. Fecundity was related to fish size, but was also affected by fish condition and oocyte diameter (a proxy for time until spawning), and spatial and temporal effects. A longer time series of PAF may identify environmental drivers that modulate annual stock

  8. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mork, Christina; Hershberger, Paul K.; Kocan, Richard; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial characterization of a rhabdovirus isolated from a single, asymptomatic starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected during a viral survey of marine fishes from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, is reported. Virions were bullet-shaped and approximately 100 nm long and 50 nm wide, contained a lipid envelope, remained stable for at least 14 days at temperatures ranging from -80 to 5 degrees C and grew optimally at 15 degrees C in cultures of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. The cytopathic effect on EPC cell monolayers was characterized by raised foci containing rounded masses of cells. Pyknotic and dark-staining nuclei that also showed signs of karyorrhexis were observed following haematoxylin and eosin, May-Grunwald Giemsa and acridine orange staining. PAGE of the structural proteins and PCR assays using primers specific for other known fish rhabdoviruses, including Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Spring viremia of carp virus, and Hirame rhabdovirus, indicated that the new virus, tentatively termed starry flounder rhabdovirus (SFRV), was previously undescribed in marine fishes from this region. In addition, sequence analysis of 2678 nt of the amino portion of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available. Detection of this virus during a limited viral survey of wild fishes emphasizes the void of knowledge regarding the diversity of viruses that naturally infect marine fish species in the North Pacific Ocean.

  9. Histological and enzymatic responses of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × P. dentatus ♂) to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Zhao, Chunyan; Wang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xuelei; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Xiao, Yongshuang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term heat exposure on Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ♀ × summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus ♂). From 24 ± 0.5°C, temperature was increased by 1 ± 0.5°C in a day and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before next rise. Cumulative survival rate (CSR), cumulative survival rate under different temperature (CSR-T), histological alteration, and related enzyme activities were investigated. In P. olivaceus, mass mortality occurred at 29 and 32 °C (the CSR-T dropped to 42.39%), and serious gill damages appeared at 30 and 32°C. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysozyme (LZM), and pyruvate kinase (PK) declined around 29 and 32°C (except for CAT). In comparison with P. olivaceus, the CSR of the hybrids was higher, the gill kept a better structural integrity, and the activities of SOD, CAT, LZM, and PK showed tiny fluctuations. The results suggested that during the process of chronic heat stress, P. olivaceus seemed to be more sensitive to 29 and 32°C, and the manifestations in survival, histology, and enzyme activity were generally consistent. For the hybrids, the comparatively insensitivity to high temperature might imply its better heat tolerance. PMID:24390013

  10. Hepatic metallothionein as a biomaker for metal contamination: age effects and seasonal variation in European flounders (Pleuronectes flesus) from the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel.

    PubMed

    Rotchell, J M; Clarke, K R; Newton, L C; Bird, D J

    2001-08-01

    Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein [MT] and three metals (Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined in 242 European flounders (Pleuronectes flesus) collected from power stations at Oldbury-upon-Severn and Hinkley Point, located in Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, UK, respectively, between March 1996 and February 1998. A model involving three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine variation in MT and metal concentrations with respect to season, year and site; with age-class included as a covariate in the analysis. Hepatic concentrations of MT and Cd (and to some degree, Cu, but not Zn) increased significantly with age. The model explained 38, 25, 17 and 26% of the variation in MT, Cu, Zn and Cd, respectively, with significant effects due to season, and to a lesser extent, to year. Site was only a significant factor for Cd which was higher in fish from Hinkley. Correlation between the individual concentration of MT and each metal alone, or in combination, was poor, and explained only an additional 3.0% of the residual variation in MT, most of which was attributable to Cu (2.7%). Compared to other industrialised estuaries, Cd concentrations were high (>20 micro g-1 in some individuals). The study emphasises the importance of seasonal variation and other factors in biomonitoring programmes and highlights the limitations of using [MT] as a biomarker for metal contamination in flounders from the Severn Estuary. PMID:11525428

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of PoIR2, a novel gene involved in immune response in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhai, Teng; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-03-01

    A novel immune-related gene was expressed in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) injected with Vibrio anguillarum. The complete cDNA contained a 169 bp 5’UTR, a 336 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 111 amino acids and a 556bp 3’UTR. Six exons and five introns were identified in the PoIR2 gene. Blastp similarity comparison showed its encoding protein had 50% similarity to Danio rerio neuromedin S (NMS), but further alignment indicated they did not have NMS C-terminal conservational signature domain. So it was not defined as an NMS homologue. Protein structure analysis indicated it had a 26aa signal peptide and was a secretory pathway protein. RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of PoIR2 was quickly induced and drastically increased in liver, kidney, spleen, gills, intestine, heart, and skeletal muscle after infected with V. anguillarum. These results indicated that the PoIR2 might play some important role in Japanese flounder immune response system. This gene was named PoIR2 ( P.olivaceus immune-related gene 2, GenBank accession number: EU224372). The mature PoIR2 peptide was expressed in BL21(DE3) pLysS using pET-32a(+) vector and a great part of the recombinant mature peptide existed as soluble type.

  12. Conserved elements in the nanos3 3'UTR of olive flounder are responsible for the selective retention of RNA in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Meijie; Tan, Xungang; Sui, Yulei; Jiao, Shuang; Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng

    2016-08-01

    In teleost fish, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified very early during embryogenesis and migrate to the site that gonads are formed. A previous study indicated that nanos3 is specifically expressed in PGCs, and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of nanos3 is responsible for the localization of mRNA in these cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional regions of nanos3 3'UTR in olive flounder using truncated and mutated nanos3 3'UTRs fused to chimeric RNAs and microinjected into fertilized zebrafish eggs. The results indicated that a 68-bp functional element in the nanos3 3'UTR of olive flounder played important roles in the protection and degradation of RNA. Within this element, a U-rich region was identified to be responsible for the protection of RNA in PGCs and two GCAC sites for the degradation of RNA in somatic cells. The first GCAC was located adjacently to the U-rich region and the second GCAC within the U-rich region. Overall, we concluded that the two GCACs were the binding sites of miR-430, a microRNA that suppresses translation, whereas the U-rich region was the binding site of Dnd, a protein that antagonizes the miR-430-mediated silencing of mRNA. PMID:27085583

  13. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  14. Characterization of F-spondin in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its role in the nervous system development of teleosts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongshuang; Xin, Nian; Liu, Jinxiang; Liu, Mengmeng; Wang, Zhenwei; Wang, Wenji; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

    2016-01-10

    F-spondin was originally isolated from the developing embryonic floor plate of vertebrates, secreting numerous kinds of neuron-related molecules. The protein performs a positive function in nervous system development, which is attributed to the high conservation of F-spondin protein, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in several species. However, its precise function remains unknown, especially in marine fish. In this study, the F-spondin of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). was cloned, and its expression pattern and structural characteristics were analyzed. The 2421bp-long cDNA ORF of PoF-spondin was obtained and divided into 14 exons spread over 61,496bp of the genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PoF-spondin was actually the ortholog of the human spon1 gene and shared high identities with other teleost spon1a genes. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that PoF-spondin was maternally expressed, and transcripts were present from one-cell stage to hatching stage, peaking at tailbud stage. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that PoF-spondin was detectable mainly in the gonads (especially in the ovary) and the brain. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the PoF-spondin transcription distributed throughout the cleavage of the ball in the early stage and expressed at a high level in the floor plate of the trunk at tailbud and pre-hatching stages. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to nervous system development (spon1b, foxo3b, and foxj1a) was significantly increased after the injection of PoF-spondin into the embryos of wild-type zebrafish. Furthermore, PoF-spondin significantly suppressed the expression of the chordamesoderm marker gene ntl, increased the expression of otx2/krox20, ectoderm mark genes, and left the expression of dorsal mesodermal marker gene gsc unaffected at 50% epiboly stage in zebrafish. In short, our results suggest that PoF-spondin functions in the development of the teleost nervous

  15. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus changes in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; Zhang, Tingrong; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent double-labeled technique was used to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The parameter of hydrostatic pressure treatment was 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase of the first mitosis. The data showed that nucleus and microtubule changes of the diploid control were basically similar to those of the haploid one (5 minutes behind those of the diploid control). Nuclear diameter of the haploid embryo was significantly smaller than that of the diploid one (P < 0.01). The ploidy of chromosome set could be determined basing on nuclear diameter. The results of nuclear diameter measurement and the ratio of developmentally delayed embryo showed that the chromosome set was not doubled during the second cell cycle, the first cleavage proceeded normally; but that of about 80% treated embryo was doubled during the third cell cycle, the second cleavage was inhibited. Microtubules were disassembled, and nucleation capacity of centrosome was just temporarily inhibited by pressure treatment. Centrosome renucleated microtubule, and a bipolar spindle reassembled 15 minutes after treatment, leading to occurrence of the first cleavage. During the second cell cycle, about 80% treated embryo had a single centrosome and formed a unipolar spindle in both blastomeres. After prometaphase, chromosomes spread around for about 20 minutes instead of aligning on the equatorial plane, then assembled and formed one large nucleus without anaphase separation. The second cleavage was inhibited, and the chromosome set was doubled. The data indicated that the chromosome set doubling of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, which performed at prometaphase of the first mitosis, mainly resulted from the inhibition of the second cleavage rather than the first one. This study is the first to adapt fluorescent double

  16. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus): molecular cloning and differential expression during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongjiang; Zang, Kun; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao; Li, Cunyu; Shi, Xueying

    2015-02-01

    In order to elucidate the possible roles of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the embryonic development of Platichthys stellatus, their cDNAs were isolated and their spatial expression pattern in adult organs and temporal expression pattern throughout embryonic development were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The IGF-I cDNA sequence was 1,268 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp, which encoded 185 amino acid residues. With respect to IGF-II, the full-length cDNA was 899 bp in length and contained a 648-bp ORF, which encoded 215 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of IGF-I and IGF-II exhibited high identities with their fish counterparts. The highest IGF-I mRNA level was found in the liver for both sexes, whereas the IGF-II gene was most abundantly expressed in female liver and male liver, gill, and brain. The sex-specific and spatial expression patterns of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs are thought to be related to the sexually dimorphic growth and development of starry flounder. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs were detected in unfertilized eggs, which indicated that IGF-I and IGF-II were parentally transmitted. Nineteen embryonic development stages were tested. IGF-I mRNA level remained high from unfertilized eggs to low blastula followed by a significant decrease at early gastrula and then maintained a lower level. In contrast, IGF-II mRNA level was low from unfertilized eggs to high blastula and peaked at low blastula followed by a gradual decrease. Moreover, higher levels of IGF-I mRNA than that of IGF-II were found from unfertilized eggs to high blastula, vice versa from low blastula to newly hatched larva, and the different expression pattern verified the differential roles of IGF-I and IGF-II in starry flounder embryonic development. These results could help in understanding the endocrine mechanism involved in the early development and growth of starry flounder. PMID:25424555

  17. In vitro study on cytotoxic effects of the organopho-sphorous pesticide profenofos on the gill cell line, FG-9307, of the flounder ( Paralichihys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Min

    2001-03-01

    The FG-9007 cell line derived from the gill of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was used in the present study to determine the acute cytotoxic effects of the organophosphorous pesticide, profenofos. It was found that the cell growth rate was markedly reduced by profenofos at the concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L tested; and that the fine structures of the cells were also altered by profenofos, as evidenced by dilation of nuclear membranes and mitochondria cristae, and presence of enlarged lysosomes with engulfed organelles and numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Probably, mitochondria, the cell energy-generating sites, are the most prominent sites of profenofos cytotoxity in the cells. This seems to be the first report of the use of marine fish cell line for evaluation of the acute in vitro cytotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticide.

  18. Metabolic responses to hypoxia of Lycenchelys verrillii (wolf eelpout) and Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (witch flounder): Sedentary bottom fishes of the Hatteras/Virginia middle slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, M.L.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    We collected wolf eelpouts Lycenchelys verrillii and witch flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus from Hatteras (North Carolina, USA) and Virginia (USA) Middle Slope sites using a submersible, and made shipboard measurements of their respiration rates and survival in hypoxic (<10% O2 saturation) and anoxic conditions. Both species from the Hatteras site reduced their respiration rates as ambient oxygen decreased, but eelpouts from the Virginia site maintained a constant respiration rate until oxygen saturation dropped below 20%. Moreover, eelpouts from the Hatteras site were significantly more tolerant of hypoxic conditions than fish from the Virginia site and survived anoxia for short periods. These results and our submersible observations of fish behavior support the hypothesis that the Hatteras Middle Slope fauna is exposed to short-term hypoxia events.

  19. Effects of different light wavelengths from LEDs on oxidative stress and apoptosis in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at high water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Seok; Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Cheol Young; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how different light spectra affect thermal stress in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), using light emitting diodes (LEDs; blue, 450 nm; green, 530 nm; red, 630 nm) at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5 W/m(2)) at relatively high water temperatures (25 and 30 °C, compared to a control condition of 20 °C). We measured the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, the levels and mRNA expression of caspase-3 were measured, and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of liver and comet assays were performed. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, as well as plasma H2O2 and LPO levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures, and significantly lower after exposure to green and blue light. Caspase-3 levels and mRNA expression showed a similar pattern. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis markedly increased at higher water temperatures, compared with the 20 °C control. In contrast, green light irradiation decreased apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the comet assays showed that nuclear DNA damage was caused by thermal stress, and that green light irradiation played a role in partially preventing this damage. Overall, these results suggest that light with green and blue wavelengths can reduce both high temperature-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and that particularly green light is efficient for this. Therefore, green light can play a role in protecting in olive flounder from thermal stress damage. PMID:27320868

  20. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083

  1. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.R.; Yevich, P.P.; Malcolm, A.R. ); Harshbarger, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 or 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 3, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters, deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, cocarcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain.

  2. Dietary Hizikia fusiformis glycoprotein-induced IGF-I and IGFBP-3 associated to somatic growth, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Kang-Woong; Han, Hyon-Sob; Nam, Taek Jeong; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of dietary glycoprotein extracted from the sea mustard Hizikia fusiformis (Phaeophyceae: Sargassaceae) as a dietary supplement on growth performance in association with somatotropin level, proximate compositions, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Water-ethanol extracted glycoprotein from H. fusiformis was supplemented to three fishmeal-based diets at the concentration of 0, 5, and 10gkg(-1) diet (designated as H0, H5, and H10, respectively). After a 12week-long feeding trial, growth performance and biochemical responses were analyzed including proximate composition, and whole body amino acids and fatty acids. We also measured plasma insulin like growth factor (IGF), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) and interleukin (IL). The fish fed H5 showed the greatest weight gain among the dietary treatments. In parallel with the growth, the fish fed the diets containing H. fusiformis glycoprotein showed an increased plasma IGF-I activity and increased expression of 43-kDa IGFBP-3 compared to that in the control, whereas an opposite trend was observed for 34-kDa IGFBP-1. Although no differences were found in the level of whole body linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) among treatments, increases in arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were observed in fish fed H5 compared to control. IL-2 and -6 levels increased significantly in fish fed H10 compared to those in the control indicating increased immunity. These results suggest that supplementation of H. fusiformis glycoprotein in fish diet may be beneficial for fish growth and immunity in juvenile olive flounder. PMID:24064233

  3. Morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of Diplostomum sp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae), off the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Pina, Susana; Russell-Pinto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Pedro; Formigo, Nuno E; Gibson, David I; Santos, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of a species of Diplostomum von Nordmann 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomidae), isolated from the European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) caught off the northwest coast of Portugal, are characterized. The metacercarial stage was found unencysted in the lens capsule of the eye. Light microscopical observations revealed the existence of some variability in specimen shape and size, with two morphotypes, referred to as "round" and "long", being apparent. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth, unarmed tegument, with the lappet region being the most irregular and porose. Both the oral and ventral suckers were provided with a series of papillae, which presented very distinctive ultrastructural features and were particularly conspicuous in the case of the ventral sucker. The two morphotypes detected were found to have 100% genetic correspondence in the 18S + ITS1 + 5.8S region of the rDNA. Since the genetic data for this metacercaria differed from those of the species of Diplostomum available in GenBank, a description of a new genotype (accession number GQ370809) is provided. The molecular phylogenetic analyses, in conjunction with principal components and cluster analyses based on morphometric data, revealed the existence of consistent differences between the Diplostomum sp. metacercariae from flounder compared with Diplostomum spathaceum, Diplostomum mergi, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, and Diplostomum paracaudum. The latter of these species was found to be the most similar to the present material. Our results do not support an evolutionary separation of the European and North American species of Diplostomum. PMID:21626424

  4. Poly(I:C) Induces Antiviral Immune Responses in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) That Require TLR3 and MDA5 and Is Negatively Regulated by Myd88

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-xia; Zhang, Bao-cun; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is a ligand of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans and mice against viral diseases based on its ability to enhance innate and adapt immunity. Antiviral effect of poly(I:C) has also been observed in teleost, however, the underling mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential and signaling mechanism of poly(I:C) as an antiviral agent in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with megalocytivirus. We found that poly(I:C) exhibited strong antiviral activity and enhanced activation of head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes. In vivo studies showed that (i) TLR3 as well as MDA5 knockdown reduced poly(I:C)-mediated immune response and antiviral activity to significant extents; (ii) when Myd88 was overexpressed in flounder, poly(I:C)-mediated antiviral activity was significantly decreased; (iii) when Myd88 was inactivated, the antiviral effect of poly(I:C) was significantly increased. Cellular study showed that (i) the NF-κB activity induced by poly(I:C) was upregulated in Myd88-overexpressing cells and unaffected in Myd88-inactivated cells; (ii) Myd88 overexpression inhibited and upregulated the expression of poly(I:C)-induced antiviral genes and inflammatory genes respectively; (iii) Myd88 inactivation enhanced the expression of the antiviral genes induced by poly(I:C). Taken together, these results indicate that poly(I:C) is an immunostimulant with antiviral potential, and that the immune response of poly(I:C) requires TLR3 and MDA5 and is negatively regulated by Myd88 in a manner not involving NK-κB. These results provide insights to the working mechanism of poly(I:C), TLR3, and Myd88 in fish. PMID:25393122

  5. Interferon regulatory factor 4b (IRF4b) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Sequencing, ubiquitous tissue distribution and inducible expression by poly(I:C) and DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahai; Chen, Jinjing; Zhang, Haiyan; Hu, Mengzhu; Lou, Huimin; Liu, Qiuming; Zhang, Shicui; Hu, Guobin

    2016-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in mammals is known to be critical in regulation of development and functions of lymphomyeloid cell lineages. Recent studies have demonstrated its involvement in immune responses to bacterial and viral challenges in teleosts. In this study, an IRF4 gene was cloned from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its expression in response to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) stimulations was studied in vivo. The cloned gene spans over 5.9 kb, comprises eight exons and seven introns and encodes a putative protein of 456 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence possesses a conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF-association domain (IAD) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF4b clade and, thus, it was named Paralichthys olivaceus (Po)IRF4b. The constitutive expression of PoIRF4b transcripts was detectable in all examined organs, with highest levels found in lymphomyeloid-rich tissues. They were induced by both poly(I:C) and LCDV with a similar inducibility in immune or non-immune organs. Two waves of induced expression of PoIRF4b were observed with the two stimuli during a 7-day time course in the immune organs, with the early-phase induction being stronger. The maximum increases of PoIRF4b transcript levels ranged from 1.3 to 4.0-fold and appeared at day 1-5 post-injection depending on different organs and stimuli. In both stimulation cases, the strongest induction was detected in spleen and the weakest in muscle. These results indicate that PoIRF4b may participate in regulation of immune responses of flounders to both RNA and DNA virus infections. PMID:27084058

  6. The influence of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of Japanese flounder reared for stock enhancement: Burying, feeding, and threat response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Michelle L.; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    Flatfish reared for stock enhancement often exhibit irregular behavioral patterns compared with wild conspecifics. These “deficits”, mostly attributed to the unnatural characteristics of the hatchery environment, are assumed to translate to increased predation risk. Initially releasing fish in predator-free conditioning cages may help flatfish adjust to the wild environment, establish burial skills, begin pigment change, recover from transport stress, and experience natural (live) food sources before full release into the wild. However, the impact of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of flatfish has yet to be fully assessed. We conducted video trials with 10-cm, hatchery-reared Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in sand-bottomed aquaria to assess four treatments of flounder: (1) reared fish cage conditioned for 7 d in the shallow coast, (2) reared fish directly from hatchery tanks, (3) wild fish, and (4) reared fish released directly from hatchery tanks into the wild and then recaptured after 6 d at large. Burying ability, predation, and threat response to a model predator were examined. Wild fish buried most, followed by cage conditioned, and released-then-recaptured and non-conditioned (directly from tank) fish. Wild and conditioned fish revealed much lower variation in total movement duration, which corresponded with lower levels and variation in prey vertical movement. Fish of all condition types exhibited a lower number of attacks and off-bottom swimming events, and a lower movement duration when the model predator was in motion versus when it was still. This study is the first to evaluate the behavioral mechanisms of hatchery-reared flatfish that have been cage-conditioned or released-then-recaptured. In addition, we provide evidence that cage conditioning can enhance the performance of released flatfish.

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 in the early life stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and potential consequences of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2014-03-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on marine fishes of high CO2 and associated acidification of oceans suggests that effects will differ across species, be subtle, and may interact with other stressors. This report is on the responses of an array of early life history features of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of the inshore and nearshore waters of the Mid-Atlantic Bight (USA), to experimental manipulation of CO2 levels. Relative survival of summer flounder embryos in local ambient conditions (775 μatm pCO2, 7.8 pH) was reduced to 48% when maintained at intermediate experimental conditions (1808 μatm pCO2, 7.5 pH), and to 16% when maintained at the most elevated CO2 treatment (4714 ppm pCO2, 7.1 pH). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at high-CO2 levels at constant temperature was consistent among offspring of three females used as experimental subjects. No reduction in survival with CO2 was observed for larvae during the first four weeks of larval life (experiment ended at 28 d post-hatching (dph) when larvae were initiating metamorphosis). Estimates of sizes, shapes, and developmental status of larvae based on images of live larvae showed larvae were initially longer and faster growing when reared at intermediate- and high-CO2 levels. This pattern of longer larvae - but with less energy reserves at hatching - was expressed through the first half of the larval period (14 dph). Larvae from the highest-CO2 conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from intermediate- and ambient-CO2 conditions. Tissue damage was evident in larvae as early as 7 dph from both elevated-CO2 levels. Damage included dilation of liver sinusoids and veins, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, and separation of the trunk muscle bundles. Cranio-facial features changed with CO2 levels in an age-dependent manner. Skeletal elements of larvae from ambient-CO2 environments were

  8. Expression and role of gap junction protein connexin43 in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Peng, Weijiao; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the best characterized gap junction protein that allows the direct exchange of signaling molecules during cell-to-cell communications. The immunological functions and ATP permeable properties of Cx43 have been insensitively examined in mammals. The similar biological significance of Cx43 in lower vertebrates, however, is not yet understood. In the present study we identified and characterized a Cx43 ortholog (termed PoCx43) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and investigated its role in immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP release. PoCx43 mRNA transcripts are widely distributed in all tested normal tissues and cells with predominant expression in the brain, and are significantly up-regulated by LPS, poly(I:C) and zymosan challenges and Edwardsiella tarda infections as well, suggesting that PoCx43 expression was modulated by the inflammatory stresses. In addition, cyclic AMP (cAMP), an essential second messenger, also plays an important role in regulating PoCx43 gene expression, by which the PoCx43-mediated gap junctional communication may be regulated. Furthermore, overexpression of PoCx43 in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells significantly potentiates the LPS- and poly(I:C)-induced extracellular ATP release and this enhanced ATP release was attenuated by pre-incubation with Cx43 inhibitor carbenoxolone. In a complementary experiment, down-regulation of PoCx43 endogenous expression in FG-9307 cells with small interfering RNA also significantly reduced the PAMP-induced extracellular ATP release, suggesting that PoCx43 is an important ATP release conduit under the immune challenge conditions. Finally, we showed that extracellular ATP stimulation led to an increased PoCx43 expression which probably provides a feedback mechanism in regulating PoCx43 expression at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that PoCx43 is an inducible immune response gene and an important conduit for immune challenge-induced extracellular ATP

  9. Purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and some properties of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) hepato-pancreas.

    PubMed

    Osatomi, K; Masuda, Y; Hara, K; Ishihara, T

    2001-04-01

    Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus hepato-pancreas. The purification of the enzyme was carried out by an ethanol/chloroform treatment and acetone precipitation, and then followed by column chromatographies on Q-Sepharose, S-Sepharose and Ultrogel AcA 54. On SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme gave a single protein band with molecular mass of 17.8 kDa under reducing conditions, and showed approximately equal proportions of 17.8 and 36 kDa molecular mass under non-reducing conditions. Three bands were obtained when the purified enzyme was subjected to native-PAGE, both on protein and activity staining, but the electrophoretic mobility of the purified enzyme differed from that of bovine erythrocyte Cu, Zn-SOD. Isoelectric point values of 5.9, 6.0 and 6.2, respectively, were obtained for the three components. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was determined for 25 amino acid residues, and the sequence was compared with other Cu, Zn-SODs. The N-terminal alanine residue was unacetylated, as in the case of swordfish SOD. Above 60 degrees C, the thermostability of the enzyme was much lower than that of bovine Cu, Zn-SOD. PMID:11290457

  10. Anti-microbial, anti-biofilm activities and cell selectivity of the NRC-16 peptide derived from witch flounder, Glyptocephalus cynoglossus.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ramamourthy; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Young Gwon; Kim, Myeong-Sun; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies had identified novel antimicrobial peptides derived from witch flounder. In this work, we extended the search for the activity of peptide that showed antibacterial activity on clinically isolated bacterial cells and bacterial biofilm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained from otitis media and cholelithiasis patients, while Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from otitis media patients. We found that synthetic peptide NRC-16 displays antimicrobial activity and is not sensitive to salt during its bactericidal activity. Interestingly, this peptide also led to significant inhibition of biofilm formation at a concentration of 4-16 μM. NRC-16 peptide is able to block biofilm formation at concentrations just above its minimum inhibitory concentration while conventional antibiotics did not inhibit the biofilm formation except ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. It did not cause significant lysis of human RBC, and is not cytotoxic to HaCaT cells and RAW264.7 cells, thereby indicating its selective antimicrobial activity. In addition, the peptide's binding and permeation activities were assessed by tryptophan fluorescence, calcein leakage and circular dichroism using model mammalian membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), PC/cholesterol (CH) and PC/sphingomyelin (SM). These experiments confirmed that NRC-16 does not interact with any of the liposomes but the control peptide melittin did. Taken together, we found that NRC-16 has potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities with less cytotoxicity, and thus can be considered for treatment of microbial infection in the future. PMID:23760014

  11. Transcriptional dynamics of immune, growth and stress related genes in skeletal muscle of the fine flounder (Paralichthys adpersus) during different nutritional statuses.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Cristián A; Escobar, Daniela; Perez, Lorena; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Estrada, Juan Manuel; Mercado, Luis; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The effects of stress on immune activity and growth in early vertebrates have not been studied in detail. The present study used fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) skeletal muscle as a model to evaluate molecules involved in the stress response, including the glucocorticoid receptors, foxo1/3, and the target genes of these. Additionally, immune markers (il-1β and tnfα) and effector molecules of atrophy (bnip3, caspase-3, and lc3) were assessed. These molecules were analyzed during periods of long-term fasting and refeeding. During fasting, gene expression related to the stress response and atrophy increased; whereas immune markers were down-regulated. During refeeding, atrophy- and stress-related gene expression significantly decreased. In contrast, immune markers were up-regulated. These results provide novel insight on the control of growth in the skeletal muscle of a non-mammalian species under a stressful condition, suggesting that growth, stress, and immune activity in muscle are closely related and coordinated by orchestrated transcriptional dynamics. PMID:26165160

  12. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Cha, Ji-Hoon; Rahimnejad, Samad; Jeong, Joon-Bum; Yoo, Byung-Woo; Lee, Bo-Kyeun; Ahn, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Soo-Il; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Park, Yong-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05) survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05) apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity. PMID:25049965

  14. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  15. Identification, molecular characterization and gene expression analysis of sox1a and sox1b genes in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinning; Zhang, Wei; Li, Peizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Song, Huayu; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-12-15

    The transcription factor, Sox1 has been implicated in neural determination and differentiation as well as in the maintenance of neural progenitor cell status in mammals. However, the molecular cloning and expression of sox1 gene in marine fish have not been reported yet. In this study, we first cloned and characterized the full-length cDNAs and the partial 5'-flanking regions of Paralichthys olivaceus sox1a (Posox1a) and sox1b (Posox1b). Phylogenetic, gene structure, and chromosome synteny analyses revealed that Posox1a and Posox1b were co-orthologs and homologous to mammalian Sox1. The promoter regions of Posox1a and Posox1b were also analyzed and several potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites were identified which might modulate gene expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that Posox1a and Posox1b were consistently expressed during embryogenesis, with the highest level at the neurula stage. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that Posox1a and Posox1b were abundant in the adult brain. Moreover, Posox1a had a faster evolution rate and much higher expression levels than Posox1b. These results provide a foundation for further surveying the function of PoSox1 genes during Japanese flounder development and neurogenesis. PMID:26260017

  16. Flavirhabdus iliipiscaria gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from intestine of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and emended descriptions of the genera Flavivirga, Algibacter, Bizionia and Formosa.

    PubMed

    Shakeela, Qismat; Shehzad, Ahmed; Zhang, Yunhui; Tang, Kaihao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, orange-coloured, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Th68(T), was isolated from the intestine of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The isolate required sea salts for growth. Gliding motility was not observed. Flexirubin-type pigments were present. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain Th68(T) represented a distinct phyletic line within the family Flavobacteriaceae with less than 96.1% similarity to members of the recognized genera of the family. The DNA G+C content was 33.0 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 1) G, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the only respiratory quinone. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain Th68(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae , for which the name Flavirhabdus iliipiscaria gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Flavirhabdus iliipiscaria is Th68(T) ( = JCM 18637(T) = KCTC 32141(T)). PMID:25667395

  17. New host records of monacanthid fish for three Kudoa spp. (K. septempunctata, K. thyrsites, and K. shiomitsui) prevalent in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), with the description of K. parathyrsites n. sp. from a black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus).

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Chun; Mafie, Eliakunda; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Kudoa septempunctata (Myxosporean: Multivalvulida) is known as a cause of foodborne disease associated with consumption of raw flesh of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Knowledge of its life cycle, particularly alternate annelid hosts and reservoirs or susceptible fish hosts in natural waters, may facilitate disease control in aquaculture farms. Our recent survey of myxosporean infection in monacanthid fish in natural waters around Japan revealed infection with three kudoid species prevalent in the olive flounder, i.e., K. septempunctata, Kudoa thyrsites, and Kudoa shiomitsui. Of the 51 black scrapers (Thamnaconus modestus) examined, five fish were infected: two fish with K. septempunctata and three with K. thyrsites. One of the fish infected with K. septempunctata was also infected with a K. thyrsites-like species. One of the 17 threadsail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two of four unicorn leatherjackets (Aluterus monoceros) were parasitized with K. shiomitsui. Three modest filefish (Thamnaconus modestoides) had no kudoid infection. K. septempunctata from a black scraper fished in the Inland Sea of Japan off Yamaguchi had 6-8 (predominantly 7) shell valves/polar capsules, whereas K. septempunctata found in another black scraper from the Sea of Japan off Tottori had 5 or 6 (predominantly 6). However, the two isolates displayed identical 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) nucleotide sequences, which were also identical to the isolates from the olive flounder. K. thyrsites from the Inland Sea of Japan off Yamaguchi and Sea of Japan off Tottori and K. shiomitsui from the Sea of Japan off Shimane and western Pacific Ocean off Kochi were also morphologically and genetically characterized. They were found to be coincident with the previous reports from olive flounders. Furthermore, the K. thyrsites-like species found in a black scraper from the Inland Sea of Japan off Yamaguchi was morphologically and genetically characterized; a new species, Kudoa

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of Poly(I:C) immunization with live vaccine and formalin-killed vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Jeong Su; Choi, Min Chul; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2016-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, causes significant economic loss for the flounder aquaculture industry in Korea. In this study, the immunogenicity of Poly(I:C) immunization with a live vaccine against the VHS virus (VHSV) was compared with that of a formalin-treated vaccine in the olive flounder. In vaccine trial I, fish pre-injected with Poly(I:C) were highly protected from VHSV infection 2 d later (survival rate: 96%) and the surviving fish (Poly(I:C)-VHSV group) showed a 100% survival rate against VHSV re-challenge. Mortality in fish pre-injected with diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water followed by injection with formalin-treated VHSV was only 2% (1 of 50 fish), whereas survivors (DEPC-FT VHSV group) showed an 80% survival rate. In vaccine trial II, 100% survival was observed in all Poly(I:C) vaccination groups-Poly(I:C)-VHSV 6, Poly(I:C)-VHSV 5, and Poly(I:C)-VHSV 4. In contrast, the survival rates of the groups administered the formalin-treated VHSV at a dose of 10(6), 10(5), and 10(4) TCID50 100 μL(-1) fish(-1) (DEPC-FT VHSV 6, DEPC-FT VHSV 5, and DEPC-FT VHSV 4) were only 8%, 12%, and 12%, respectively. The differences in the survival rates of the formalin-treated vaccine groups in trial I and trial II were attributed to the difference in the formalin-treatment period: the formalin-treated VHSV administered in trial I was not completely inactivated and worked as a live vaccine, which explains the 80% survival rate against VHSV challenge. Specific antibodies against VHSV were detected in sera from all vaccinated survivors, except the DEPC-VHSV 4 group. Furthermore, the specific antibody titers of fish vaccinated with the live and dead VHSV vaccines were similar, but the protective effects of the live and dead vaccines varied considerably. Our findings show that Poly(I:C) immunization with the live vaccine offers better protection than the formalin-treated vaccine against VHS in olive flounder and revealed that

  19. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Duck; Seo, Joo-Young; Lee, Sang-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO), 5% linseed oil (LO), 5% soybean oil (SO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX), no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP), 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO), and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC), respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g) were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than that of other

  20. Development of a stringent ELISA protocol to evaluate anti-viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-specific antibodies in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with improved specificity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2015-07-01

    Olive flounder were vaccinated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)] to prevent viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS). Vaccine efficacy was verified by detection of anti- VHS virus (VHSV) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the study, ELISA absorbance values of the negative control group [Poly (I:C)-MEM10] were saturated when an ELISA protocol, that includes pretreatment of the fish sera with 5% skim milk, was used. However, the saturated OD values in the negative control did not correlate with a specific immune response against VHSV, because the group showed low survival rate (only 10%) following the VHSV challenge. Also, OD values of Poly (I:C)- VHSV group were high, and the group showed high survival rate (97.5%) against VHSV challenge test. It was suggested that the high OD values were possibly due to the presence of anti-fetal bovine serum (FBS) cross-reactivity. To compensate this, we subtracted the absorbance of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV)-Ag plates from those of the VHSV-Ag plates. However, the average value for the Poly (I:C)-VHSV group (0.167) was lower than expected even though high survival rate. We used an advanced ELISA system to pre-treat fish sera with 5% skim milk and two novirhabdoviruses as capture antigens as well as 50% FBS. The corrected absorbance values for pre-treated fish sera from the negative control Poly (I:C)-MEM10 and experimental Poly (I:C)-VHSV groups averaged 0.033 and 0.579, respectively. The specific VHSV antibody response of the vaccinated group was assessed using fish sera pretreated with skim milk and FBS and by calculating the corrected absorbance values from ELISA with two novirhabdovirus capture antigens. PMID:26115998

  1. Histological change and heat shock protein 70 expression in different tissues of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in response to elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Yufu; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Teng, Zhaojun; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    High temperature influences the homeostasis of fish. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature on tissues of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) by analyzing the histology and heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70) expression of fish reared in warm conditions. In this study, temperature was increased at 1±0.5°C/day starting at 24±0.5°C, and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before the next rise. After raising temperature at the rate up to 32±0.5°C, tissue samples from midgut, spleen, stomach, liver, muscle, gill, heart, trunk kidney and brain were collected for histological analysis and mRNA assay. Almost all the tissues showed changes in morphological structure and hsp70 level at 32±0.5°C. Histological assessment of the tissues indicated that the gill had the most serious damage, including highly severe epithelial lifting and edema, curved tips and hyperemia at the ending of the lamellars, desquamation and necrosis. The next most severe damage was found in liver and kidney. The hsp70 levels in all the tissues first increased and then decreased. The gut, stomach, muscle, heart, and brain had the highest expressions in 6 h, whereas the spleen, liver, gill and kidney had the highest expressions in 2 h. Therefore, tissues with the most significant lesions (especially gill and liver) responded much earlier (2 h) in hsp70 expression than other tissues, and these tissues demonstrated the most marked histological disruption and elevated mRNA levels, making them ideal candidates for further studies on the thermal physiology of this species.

  2. Screening and analysis of PoAkirin1 and two related genes in response to immunological stimulants in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A member of the NF-κB signaling pathway, PoAkirin1, was cloned from a full-length cDNA library of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The full-length cDNA comprises a 5′UTR of 202 bp, an open reading frame of 564 bp encoding a 187-amino-acid polypeptide and a 521-bp 3′UTR with a poly (A) tail. The putative protein has a predicted molecular mass of 21 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.22. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that PoAkirin1 was 99% identical to the Scophthalmus maximus Akirin protein (ADK27484). Yeast two-hybrid assays identified two proteins that interact with PoAkirin1: PoHEPN and PoC1q. The cDNA sequences of PoHEPN and PoC1q are 672 bp and 528 bp, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that bacteria could induce the expressions of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN and PoC1q. However, the responses of PoHEPN and PoC1q to the bacterial challenge were slower than that of PoAkirin1. To further study the function of PoAkirin1, recombinant PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN were expressed in Escherichia coli and would be used to verify the PoAkirin1-PoHEPN binding activity. These results identified two proteins that potentially interact with PoAkirin1 and that bacteria could induce their expression. PMID:23651673

  3. Screening and analysis of PoAkirin1 and two related genes in response to immunological stimulants in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Geng; Wang, Xian-Li; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Bing; Liu, Shan-Shan; Chen, Song-Lin

    2013-01-01

    A member of the NF-κB signaling pathway, PoAkirin1, was cloned from a full-length cDNA library of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The full-length cDNA comprises a 5'UTR of 202 bp, an open reading frame of 564 bp encoding a 187-amino-acid polypeptide and a 521-bp 3'UTR with a poly (A) tail. The putative protein has a predicted molecular mass of 21 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.22. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that PoAkirin1 was 99% identical to the Scophthalmus maximus Akirin protein (ADK27484). Yeast two-hybrid assays identified two proteins that interact with PoAkirin1: PoHEPN and PoC1q. The cDNA sequences of PoHEPN and PoC1q are 672 bp and 528 bp, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that bacteria could induce the expressions of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN and PoC1q. However, the responses of PoHEPN and PoC1q to the bacterial challenge were slower than that of PoAkirin1. To further study the function of PoAkirin1, recombinant PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN were expressed in Escherichia coli and would be used to verify the PoAkirin1-PoHEPN binding activity. These results identified two proteins that potentially interact with PoAkirin1 and that bacteria could induce their expression. PMID:23651673

  4. Parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in biological effects monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Broeg, K.; von Westernhagen, H.; Dizer, H.; Hansen, P. D.; Skouras, A.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    In the frame of an integrated biological effect monitoring programme, the parasite community of flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated at different locations in the German Bight from 1995 to 2000. In order to assess the impact of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activities on the parasite community, selected parasitological parameters that displayed significant differences between the sampling sites were subjected to correlation analyses with site-specific contamination and individual pollution loads of their fish hosts. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted with the responses of selected genetic, biochemical, histopathological, physiological and immunological parameters of fish, used as potential biomarkers. In total, 802 flounder were analysed for these parameters. Information on the chemical background at the sampling sites was derived from sediment samples and from 120 samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue, collected at each of the sampling sites. Based on chemical data available from the sediment and blue mussel samples, a pollution gradient could be established between the sampling sites for individual contaminants. The relative abundance of Acanthochondria cornuta, Cucullanus heterochrous and Zoogonoides viviparus, and the community measures species richness and number of heteroxenous species decreased with increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals or hydrocarbons in sediment and blue mussel samples. Most of the parasitological parameters significantly reflected the established site-specific contamination gradient, when data were pooled over all sampling campaigns. Significant correlations were also found with the contamination level of individual flounder. The parasitological parameters included the parasite species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, which were not correlated to site-specific contamination. Several biomarkers were significantly correlated to the abundance of

  5. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. PMID:27302864

  6. Molecular cloning, structure and expressional profiles of two novel single-exon genes (PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B) in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yong-zhen; Xu, Wen-teng; Jia, Xiao-dong; Chen, Song-lin

    2016-05-01

    CCR6 is an important binding receptor of CCL20 and beta-defensins, and has multiple functions in the innate and acquired immune responses. In this study, we cloned the PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B genes of the Japanese flounder and studied the gene structure and expression patterns of these two genes in bacterial infection. The full-length PoCCR6A cDNA is 1415 bp and the open reading frame (ORF) is 1113 bp, encoding a 370-amino-acid peptide. The full-length PoCCR6B cDNA is 2193 bp and the ORF is 1029 bp, encoding a 363-amino-acid peptide. The structures of PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B indicate that they are single-exon genes. The predicted proteins encoded by PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B have the typical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family signature of seven transmembrane domains and several conserved structural features. A tissue distribution analysis showed that PoCCR6A is predominately expressed in the intestine, gill, and blood, and PoCCR6B in the gill, spleen, and liver. The expression patterns of the two chemokine receptors were analyzed during bacterial infection. In spleen and kidney, the expression of PoCCR6A was significantly upregulated at 24 h after infection, whereas the expression of PoCCR6B was steady at these time points. While in intestine, both of them were upregulated at 6 h-12 h after infection, and in gill the expression levels of them were upregulated at 24 h. The patterns of expression suggested that PoCCR6A and PoCCR6B play an important role in the immune response of the Japanese flounder, especially in the mucosal tissues. PMID:26997201

  7. DNA methylation level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene related to their expression patterns and reproduction traits during ovary development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Si, Yufeng; Ding, Yuxia; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Zhao, Junli; Huang, Zhengju

    2016-01-10

    Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes are crucial for the ovarian development, and Foxl2 could play a direct regulatory role on cyp19a1a transcription. In this study, we aimed to study DNA methylation status and mRNA expression patterns of Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes during ovarian development of female Japanese flounder. The relative expression level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Moreover, DNA methylation status in the promoter and coding regions of the two genes was detected by bisulfite sequencing. The estradiol-17β (E2) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed low expression levels of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 genes in stages II and V, while the highest expression levels were detected in stage IV. The variation trend of the methylation level of all CpG sites in promoter and exon 1 of cyp19a1a gene and three CpG rich regions in coding region of Foxl2 gene was negatively associated with their expression levels during the ovarian development. In addition, two CpG sites in promoter and seven CpG sites in exon 1 of cyp19a1a were on the putative transcription factors binding sequence. Further studies showed that the forkhead domain, which is important for Foxl2 binding to cyp19a1a was located in the F1 and F2 region. These results provide a powerful theoretical basis for the regulatory mechanism on Foxl2 regulating cyp19a1a and promoting gonadal differentiation towards the female pathway, and further reveal that Foxl2 and cyp19a1a play a vital role in the female Japanese flounder gonad development. PMID:26343797

  8. Identification and characterization of a novel NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3 gene in response to extracellular ATP stimulation and its role in regulating LPS-induced innate immune response in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) head kidney macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein is an important cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that negatively regulates innate immune response in mammals. Hitherto, the immunological significance of NLRC3 protein in fish remains largely uncharacterized. Here we identified and characterized a novel NLRC3 gene (named poNLRC3) implicated in regulation of fish innate immunity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The poNLRC3 protein is a cytoplasmic protein with an undefined N-terminal domain, a NACHT domain, a fish-specific NACHT associated domain, six LRR motifs, and a C-terminal fish-specific PYR/SPYR (B30.2) domain but only shares less than 40% sequence identities with the known Japanese flounder NLRC proteins. poNLRC3 gene is ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and is dominantly expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). We for the first time showed that poNLRC3 expression was significantly modulated by the stimulation of extracellular ATP, an important danger/damage-associated molecular pattern in activating innate immunity in P. olivaceus. Importantly, we revealed that poNLRC3 plays an important role in positively regulating ATP-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression, suggesting the involvement of poNLRC3 in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling. In addition, we showed that poNLRC3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in response to LPS and Edwardsiella tarda immune challenges. Finally, we showed that down-regulating the endogenous poNLRC3 expression with small interfering RNA significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the Japanese flounder HKM cells. Altogether, we have identified a novel inducible fish NLR member, poNLRC3, which is involved in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling and may positively regulate the LPS-induced innate immune response in the Japanese

  9. Effect of G gene-deleted recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔG) on the replication of wild type VHSV in a fish cell line and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-07-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a replicon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) particle that was lacking the G gene in the genome (rVHSV-ΔG), and proved the potential of it as a protective vaccine through the immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings. Safety is the most important preconsideration for the development of recombinant live vaccines, and a major concern of propagation-incompetent viral particles would be the possible harmful effect to hosts through the interaction with wild-type viruses. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the replication of rVHSV-ΔG in the presence of wild-type VHSV and the effect of rVHSV-ΔG on the replication of wild-type VHSV in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder fingerlings. The replication of wild-type VHSV in EPC cells was severely suppressed when the MOI of rVHSV-ΔG was 0.1 or 0.01, on the other hand, the titers of rVHSV-ΔG were not increased and stayed in a relatively constant according to time lapse. Furthermore, the replication of other novirhabdoviruses, IHNV and HIRRV, was also inhibited by co-infection with high titers of rVHSV-ΔG. There were no big differences in mortalities between groups infected with wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG and groups infected with wild-type VHSV alone, when the challenged wild-type VHSV was more than 10(2) PFU/fish. However, a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG showed significantly lower and slowly progressing cumulative mortality than a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV alone. This result suggests that rVHSV-ΔG has an ability to attenuate the disease progression caused by wild-type VHSV when co-infected with relatively low titers of wild-type VHSV. These results indicate that the propagation-incompetent rVHSV-ΔG would not worsen but attenuate the progression of a disease caused by wild-type VHSV infection. Therefore, rVHSV-ΔG-based vaccines can provide a

  10. Immune effects of R848: evidences that suggest an essential role of TLR7/8-induced, Myd88- and NF-κB-dependent signaling in the antiviral immunity of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Xia; Sun, Li

    2015-03-01

    The imidazoquinoline compound R848 is a specific agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/TLR8 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans against viral diseases. Although R848-induced immune response has been reported in teleost fish, the relevant mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the antiviral potential and the signaling pathway of R848 in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We found that R848 was able to inhibit the replication of megalocytivirus, stimulated the proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), enhanced the expression of immune genes, and reduced apoptosis of PBL. When endosomal acidification was blocked by chloroquine (CQ), R848-mediated antiviral activity and immune response were significantly reduced. Likewise, inhibition of Myd88 activation markedly impaired the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis effect of R848. Cellular study showed that cultured founder cells treated with R848 exhibited augmented NF-κB activity, which, however, was dramatically reduced in the presence of CQ and Myd88 inhibitor. Furthermore, when NF-κB was inactivated, the effect of R848 on cell proliferation and apoptosis was significantly decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that R848 is an immunostimulant with antiviral property in a teleost species, and that the immune response of R848 is mediated by, most likely, TLR7/TLR8 signaling pathway, in which Myd88 and NK-κB play an essential role. PMID:25475963

  11. Potential environmental and host gender influences on prevalence of Haemogregarina platessae (Adeleorina:Haemogregarinidae) and suspected Haemohormidium terraenovae (incertae sedis) in Brazilian flounder from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Davies, Angela J; Amado, Lílian L; Cook, Richard T; Bianchini, Adalto; Eiras, Jorge C

    2008-09-01

    Flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes), were captured in polluted and non-polluted sites within the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, over four seasons. Blood films showed a high prevalence of infection with a haemogregarine, or mixed parasitaemias of this and an organism resembling Haemohormidium terraenovae So, 1972. Haemogregarine gamont stages conformed to existing descriptions of Desseria platessae (Lebailly, 1904) Siddall, 1995 from flatfishes, but intraerythrocytic division of meronts was observed, leading to the recommendation for nomenclatural correction, placing the haemogregarine in the genus Haemogregarina (sensu lato) Danilewsky, 1885. Statistical analyses suggested that although sample sizes were small, infections with meront stages, immature and mature gamonts were all influenced by site, and possibly therefore, by pollution. Season also appeared to determine likelihood of infection with meronts and immature gamonts, but not mature gamonts, while adult fish gender apparently affected infection with immature and mature gamonts, but not meronts. The H. terraenovae-like organism exhibited unusual extracellular forms and did not match closely with the type description of H. terraenovae; precise identification was therefore difficult. Data analyses suggested that parasitism by this organism was influenced by site and fish gender, since females and males from non-polluted water were infected, but only females from the polluted site. Season was also important and significantly more adult fish of both sexes were infected with this parasite in the Brazilian summer and autumn, compared with winter and spring. Finally, these appeared to be the first observations of Haemogregarina platessae, and possibly H. terraenovae, from the southern hemisphere. PMID:19202674

  12. Relationships between toxicopathic hepatic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) from selected marine sites on the Pacific Coast, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M S; Stehr, C M; Olson, O P; Johnson, L L; McCain, B B; Chan, S L; Varanasi, U

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between hepatic lesions and chemical contaminant concentrations in sediments, stomach contents, liver tissue, and bile were statistically evaluated in three species of bottomfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), captured from 27 urban and nonurban sites on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to southern California. Lesions detected were neoplasms, preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, nonneoplastic proliferative lesions, unique or specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, nonspecific degenerative/necrotic lesions, and hydropic vacuolation of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. In general, lesion prevalences were significantly higher in all three species captured at chemically contaminated urban sites, and certain lesions had significantly higher relative risks of occurrence at urban sites in Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, the vicinity of Los Angeles, and San Diego Bay. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its derivatives, and chlordanes and dieldrin in sediment, stomach contents, liver, and fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile were significant risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic, preneoplastic, nonneoplastic proliferative, and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, as well as hydropic vacuolation. Fish age also had a significant influence on occurrence of several hepatic lesions, but gender was rarely a significant risk factor. These relationships provide strong evidence for the involvement of environmental contaminants in the etiology of hepatic lesions in several marine bottomfish species and clearly indicate the utility of these lesions as biomarkers of contaminant-induced effects in wild fish. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:8033852

  13. Ca2+-driven intestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion and CaCO3 precipitation in the European flounder in vivo: influences on acid-base regulation and blood gas transport.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher A; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Wilson, Rod W

    2010-04-01

    Marine teleost fish continuously ingest seawater to prevent dehydration and their intestines absorb fluid by mechanisms linked to three separate driving forces: 1) cotransport of NaCl from the gut fluid; 2) bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) secretion and Cl(-) absorption via Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange fueled by metabolic CO(2); and 3) alkaline precipitation of Ca(2+) as insoluble CaCO(3), which aids H(2)O absorption). The latter two processes involve high rates of epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion stimulated by intestinal Ca(2+) and can drive a major portion of water absorption. At higher salinities and ambient Ca(2+) concentrations the osmoregulatory role of intestinal HCO(3)(-) secretion is amplified, but this has repercussions for other physiological processes, in particular, respiratory gas transport (as it is fueled by metabolic CO(2)) and acid-base regulation (as intestinal cells must export H(+) into the blood to balance apical HCO(3)(-) secretion). The flounder intestine was perfused in vivo with salines containing 10, 40, or 90 mM Ca(2+). Increasing the luminal Ca(2+) concentration caused a large elevation in intestinal HCO(3)(-) production and excretion. Additionally, blood pH decreased (-0.13 pH units) and plasma partial pressure of CO(2) (Pco(2)) levels were elevated (+1.16 mmHg) at the highest Ca perfusate level after 3 days of perfusion. Increasing the perfusate [Ca(2+)] also produced proportional increases in net acid excretion via the gills. When the net intestinal flux of all ions across the intestine was calculated, there was a greater absorption of anions than cations. This missing cation flux was assumed to be protons, which vary with an almost 1:1 relationship with net acid excretion via the gill. This study illustrates the intimate link between intestinal HCO(3)(-) production and osmoregulation with acid-base balance and respiratory gas exchange and the specific controlling role of ingested Ca(2+) independent of any other ion or overall osmolality in marine

  14. Molecular cloning and differential expression of three GnRH genes during ovarian maturation of spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Liu, Xue-Zhou; Liao, Mei-Jie; Wang, Han-Ping; Wang, Qing-Yin

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes in spotted halibut were cloned and sequenced by isolating their cDNAs. The species expressed three molecular forms of GnRH in the brain: chicken-type GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), seabream-type GnRH (sbGnRH), and salmon-type GnRH (sGnRH). Phylogenetic analysis divided the molecular forms of GnRHs into three branches: cGnRH-II branch, sGnRH branch, and fish-specific GnRH branch. The spatial expression showed that they had the highest expression levels in the brain. cGnRH-II was exclusively detected in the brain, while sbGnRH had a global expression pattern in all examined organs. sGnRH was detected in the brain, pituitary, and ovary. The temporal changes of brain GnRH mRNA expression levels were examined during ovarian maturation and postspawning, and the serum steroid hormones and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were recorded. Amounts of sbGnRH mRNA substantially elevated (P < 0.05) during ovarian maturation, which concomitant with considerable elevation of GSI and serum steroids levels. On the contrary, neither sGnRH nor cGnRH-II mRNA levels showed significant changes during ovarian maturation in this study. These results suggested that these three GnRH genes are the important regulators for the differential expression of GnRH in spotted halibut, and would help us better understand the reproductive endocrine mechanism of spotted halibut. PMID:22674773

  15. Comparison of low-salinity adaptability and morphological development during the early life history of five pleuronectid flatfishes, and implications for migration and recruitment to their nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Aritaki, Masato; Yamashita, Yoh; Tanaka, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    The nursery habitats of flatfishes range from offshore areas to rivers, with salinity conditions varying significantly between the habitats selected by larvae and juveniles. Morphological characteristics of larvae also contribute to the successful recruitment to specific nursery areas. In the present study, ontogenetic developments of low-salinity tolerance and morphology of five pleuronectid flatfishes were examined, and compared with their previously described ontogenetic migrations. Species examined were starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus, spotted halibut Verasper variegatus, marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and slime flounder Microstomus achne. The first three were categorised as 'cross-shelf species', marbled flounder as 'demersal-egg species' and slime flounder as 'offshore species'. Their typical nurseries were rivers, estuaries, tidal flats, coastal areas and offshore areas, respectively. Low-salinity tolerance from hatching to juvenile stage was examined by survival 48 h after transfer (A to I stage) and seven days after transfer (I stage) from seawater to various salinities (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppt). High survival in 4 ppt was found in all yolk-sac larvae, but decreased in mid-larval development. During metamorphosis, starry flounder, stone flounder and spotted halibut developed strong low-salinity tolerance and juveniles were able to survive in 0, 1 and 2 ppt, respectively. In contrast, marbled flounder and slime flounder did not show these clear developments and juveniles could only survive in 4 and 8 ppt, respectively. In the morphological development, differences in standard length (SL) and relative body depth (BD) to SL (%BD/SL, an indicator of locomotive adaptation of flatfish larvae showing tilt swimming behaviour during the eye translocation) increased with larval development, and the greatest SL and %BD/SL were observed at the metamorphic climax H stage in the order of slime flounder

  16. Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus

    PubMed Central

    Panzarin, Valentina; Toffan, Anna; Abbadi, Miriam; Buratin, Alessandra; Mancin, Marzia; Braaen, Stine; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Bargelloni, Luca; Rimstad, Espen; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. The results indicate that the SJNNV and RGNNV are antigenically distinct, constituting serotypes A and C, respectively. The TPNNV and BFNNV, the latter representing cold-water betanodaviruses, are antigenically related and cluster within serotype B. The reassortant viruses RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV group within serotypes A and C, respectively, indicating that the coat protein encoded by RNA2 acts as major immunoreactivity determinant. Immunostaining of in vitro expressed wild type and chimeric capsid proteins between the RGNNV and the SJNNV species indicated that the C-terminal part of the capsid protein retains the immunoreactive portion. The amino acid (aa) residues determining RGNNV and SJNNV antigenic diversity were mapped to aa residues 217–256 and aa 257–341, respectively. Neutralization of reverse genetics derived chimeric viruses indicated that these areas determine the neutralizing epitopes. The data obtained are crucial for the development of targeted serological tests for the diagnosis of VNN, and informative for development of cross-protective vaccines against various betanodavirus genotypes. PMID:27438093

  17. Molecular Basis for Antigenic Diversity of Genus Betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Panzarin, Valentina; Toffan, Anna; Abbadi, Miriam; Buratin, Alessandra; Mancin, Marzia; Braaen, Stine; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Bargelloni, Luca; Rimstad, Espen; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a devastating disease for the Mediterranean mariculture. Four different betanodavirus species are recognized, Striped jack-, Redspotted grouper-, Tiger puffer-, and Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV), but there is little knowledge on their antigenic properties. In order to describe the serological relationships among different betanodavirus genotypes, serum neutralization assays were performed using rabbit polyclonal antisera against eight fish nodaviruses that cover a wide species-, temporal-, spatial- and genetic range. The results indicate that the SJNNV and RGNNV are antigenically distinct, constituting serotypes A and C, respectively. The TPNNV and BFNNV, the latter representing cold-water betanodaviruses, are antigenically related and cluster within serotype B. The reassortant viruses RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV group within serotypes A and C, respectively, indicating that the coat protein encoded by RNA2 acts as major immunoreactivity determinant. Immunostaining of in vitro expressed wild type and chimeric capsid proteins between the RGNNV and the SJNNV species indicated that the C-terminal part of the capsid protein retains the immunoreactive portion. The amino acid (aa) residues determining RGNNV and SJNNV antigenic diversity were mapped to aa residues 217-256 and aa 257-341, respectively. Neutralization of reverse genetics derived chimeric viruses indicated that these areas determine the neutralizing epitopes. The data obtained are crucial for the development of targeted serological tests for the diagnosis of VNN, and informative for development of cross-protective vaccines against various betanodavirus genotypes. PMID:27438093

  18. A hermaphroditic Arctic flounder, Liopsetta glacialis (Pleuronectidae), from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, S.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; West, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    We discovered a hermaphrodite Liopsetta glacialis while examining tissues from a sample of 30 representatives of this species for a histopathological survey of fishes from the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. L. glacialis occurs in the Arctic Ocean from Queen Maude Gulf in arctic Canada, along the North American and Siberian coasts to the White Sea and Barents Sea (Morrow, 1980). The specimen was collected from Beaufort Lagoon on July 29, 1984, weighed 15, measured 100 mm (total length) and was between 3 and 4 years old.

  19. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 648.102 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... conservation equivalent and precautionary default measures utilizing possession limits, minimum fish sizes, and... (15.68298); Connecticut (2.25708); New York (7.64699); New Jersey (16.72499); Delaware...

  20. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 648.102 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... conservation equivalent and precautionary default measures utilizing possession limits, minimum fish sizes, and... (15.68298); Connecticut (2.25708); New York (7.64699); New Jersey (16.72499); Delaware...

  1. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management... possession, e.g., fillets, except that party and charter vessels possessing valid state permits...

  2. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACL is exceeded, then the following procedure will be followed: (1) If biomass is below the threshold... of biomass is below the BMSY threshold (i.e., B/BMSY is less than 0.5), the stock is under a... single-year adjustment. (2) If biomass is above the threshold, but below the target, and the stock is...

  3. Evidence for and characterization of nervous necrosis virus infection in Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Wen, Shi-Hui; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Li, Hua; Jiang, Jie-Lan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xing; Sun, Hang; Lü, Hui-Qian

    2015-09-01

    A mortality rate higher than 90% was observed in a larva-rearing facility for Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, in China. Larvae showing clinical signs of infection were collected. Initial suspicion of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection was confirmed by sequencing, absolute quantification real-time PCR (A-qPCR), and electron microscopy. The nucleotide sequence of RNA2 was 1,375 bases long (GenBank no. KM576685), coding for a single ORF corresponding to the capsid protein from residues 21 to 1034. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein sequence showed that PCNNV belongs to the barfin flounder NNV (BFNVV) genotype. An amino acid sequence alignment revealed 39 differences between the cold- and warm-resistant viral groups, suggesting that PCNNV evolved under temperature selection. The 3-D structure of the predicted capsid protein was modeled to identify potential epitopes, and the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, yielding a protein with a molecular mass of 55 kDa. During PCNNV outbreaks, the viral copy number was found to reach 10(7) per ng of total RNA, which could be considered the lethal copy number of NNV in cod. The gonads, eggs, fertilized eggs and asymptomatic cod fry were all positive for PCNNV, indicating viral vertical transmission as the main source of the viral load. The amount of virus in the apparent healthy fry or survivors seemed to decrease gradually with development. These results might lead to efficient diagnostic methods to help farmers select NNV-free broodfish for cod breeding. PMID:26115691

  4. USE OF A RHODE ISLAND SALT POND BY JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a 1.75 m2 drop ring sampler in June and July of 2000 to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond, Rhode Island. The drop sampler was deployed in approximately 1 m of water from a boom mounted on the bow of a small boat. Abundance...

  5. 77 FR 48106 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...-5794. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29905), we published a final rule.... Correction Accordingly, the final rule published on May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29905), is corrected and is effective... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle...

  6. [Expression of Pleurocidin from winter flounder in Escherichia coli and optimization of culture conditions].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuejiao; Zha, Xiangdong; Che, Yuanyuan; Ma, Lijuan; Wu, Siqun; Yang, Peilong; Huang, Huoqing; Yao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To express Pleurocidin in Escherichia coli and to enhance the secretory efficiency of the fusion protein, the gene encoding Pleurocidin was ligated with Cherry DNA sequence via blunt-end ligation. Then this fusion gene was cloned into pET22b (+) vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Lactose was used to induce expression of fusion protein. The recombinant plasmid pET22b (+) -CP was successfully constructed and high-level expression of fusion protein was induced with lactose. Statistics showed that addition of glycine after 16 h of induction significantly enhanced the secretory efficiency of the fusion protein. After hydrolysis of the fusion protein by diluted hydrochloric acid and some further purification steps, r-Pleurocidin was obtained with antibacterial activity against E. coli DH5α and Bacillus subtilis BS168. In conclusion, the fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and biologically active r-Pleurocidin was obtained after hydrochloric acid cleavage and purification. PMID:27349119

  7. 77 FR 29905 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... 4 turtles to pass the ``small turtle test'' (55 FR 41092, October 9, 1990). The Boone Wedge Cut...) outside diameter aluminum or steel pipe with a wall thickness of at least \\1/8\\ inch (0.32 cm). Each of... piece of 3-inch (7.6-cm) inside diameter PVC pipe which measures 30 inches (76.2 cm) in length; the...

  8. 75 FR 53925 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... established to date include the ``small turtle test'' (55 FR 41092, October 9, 1990) and the ``wild turtle... thickness and 1\\1/2\\ inch (3.8 cm) in depth, was evaluated using the small turtle test protocol (55 FR 41092... of a length of 3-inch (7.6-cm) diameter PVC pipe positioned perpendicular to the flow of water...

  9. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2014-09-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  10. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen E dwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  11. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Point J to Point K along the southern coastline of Martha's Vineyard. 9 The western coastline of Martha's Vineyard. 10 The southern coastline of Rhode Island. 11 From Point M to Point B following the...) 70°27.03′ 1 The western coastline of Martha's Vineyard. 2 The southern coastline of Nantucket. 3...

  12. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... K along the southern coastline of Martha's Vineyard. 9 The western coastline of Martha's Vineyard...) LAGC Dredge SNEYT AM1 A 41°20′ N. (1) (8) 1 The western coastline of Martha's Vineyard. 2 The southern... Vineyard. (iii) Closure Area 2 is comprised of Northeast Region Statistical Area #613, and is defined...

  13. ELEMENTAL FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER OTOLITHS FROM NARRAGNSETT BAY, RI AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study we investigated whether elemental signatures in juve...

  14. Sequences analyses and expression profiles in tissues and embryos of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) PRDM1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Conghui; Liu, Wei; Fan, Lin; Liu, Jinxiang; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jinning; Li, Zan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2016-04-01

    PRDM1 (PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 1) appears to be a pleiotropic regulatory factor in various processes. It contains a PR (PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 homologous) domain protein and five zinc fingers. In the present study, a gene coding the homolog of prdm1 and the 5' regulatory region of prdm1 was identified from the Paralichthys olivaceus (denoted Po-prdm1). Results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) in embryos revealed that Po-prdm1 was highly expressed between the early gastrula and tail bud stages, with its expression peaking in the mid-gastrula stage, whereas the results of RT-qPCR and ISH in tissues demonstrated that Po-prdm1 transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all tissues, which indicates its pleiotropic function in multiple processes. ISH of gonadal tissues revealed that the transcripts were located in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovaries but only in the spermatogonia and not in the spermatocytes in the testes. The Po-prdm1 transcription factor binding sites and their conserved binding region among vertebrates were analyzed in this study. The combined results suggest that Po-PRDM1 has a conserved function in teleosts and mammals. PMID:26508172

  15. Exploring or Floundering? The Meaning of Employment and Educational Fluctuations in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahn, Harvey J.; Howard, Andrea L.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Youth today spend years moving in and out of different education and employment statuses until they settle into stable employment. This 14-year Canadian longitudinal study reveals how month-to-month fluctuations in employment and educational statuses from age 19 to 25 predict employment success at age 32. Early employment instability was linked to…

  16. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotopic ratios of fish otoliths have been used in numerous studies as natural tags or markers to aid the study of connectivity among fish populations. We investigated the use of spatial and temporal changes in the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of otoliths to different...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT ARRANGEMENT AND JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITY IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used aerial photography in conjunction with a 1-m beam trawl attached to a videocamera with GPS overwrite and a YSI water quality logger to quantify fish densities and characterize habitats in Narragansett Bay and in Rhode Island's coastal lagoons. We compared fish counts fro...

  18. Identification and Characterization of a PRDM14 Homolog in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Jiang, Jiajun; Gao, Jinning; Song, Huayu; Liu, Jinxiang; Yang, Likun; Li, Zan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2015-01-01

    PRDM14 is a PR (PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 homologous) domain protein with six zinc fingers and essential roles in genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming. This protein is required for the establishment of germ cells and the maintenance of the embryonic stem cell ground state. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of the Paralichthys olivaceus prdm14 (Po-prdm14) gene and isolated the 5' regulatory region of Po-prdm14 by whole-genome sequencing. Peptide sequence alignment, gene structure analysis, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Po-PRDM14 was homologous to mammalian PRDM14. Results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) in embryos demonstrated that Po-prdm14 was highly expressed between the morula and late gastrula stages, with its expression peaking in the early gastrula stage. Relatively low expression of Po-prdm14 was observed in the other developmental stages. ISH of gonadal tissues revealed that the transcripts were located in the nucleus of the oocytes in the ovaries but only in the spermatogonia and not the spermatocytes in the testes. We also presume that the Po-prdm14 transcription factor binding sites and their conserved binding region among vertebrates. The combined results suggest that Po-PRDM14 has a conserved function in teleosts and mammals. PMID:25915026

  19. US EPA WINTER FLOUNDER PROJECTS AND OTHER WORK IN RHODE ISLAND SALT PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will briefly summarize selected EPA research in Rhode Island's salt ponds from 2000 through 2003. In one project, during the summer of 2000, we used a 1.75 m2 drop sampler to quantify populations of juvenile flatfishes and other small nekton in Ninigret Pond. Mean abundance ...

  20. Understanding the interaction between Betanodavirus and its host for the development of prophylactic measures for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janina Z; Thompson, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Over the last three decades, the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) disease has become a serious problem of marine finfish aquaculture, and more recently the disease has also been associated with farmed freshwater fish. The virus has been classified as a Betanodavirus within the family Nodaviridae, and the fact that Betanodaviruses are known to affect more than 120 different farmed and wild fish and invertebrate species, highlights the risk that Betanodaviruses pose to global aquaculture production. Betanodaviruses have been clustered into four genotypes, based on the RNA sequence of the T4 variable region of their capsid protein, and are named after the fish species from which they were first derived i.e. Striped Jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV), Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), while an additional genotype turbot betanodavirus strain (TNV) has also been proposed. However, these genotypes tend to be associated with a particular water temperature range rather than being species-specific. Larvae and juvenile fish are especially susceptible to VER, with up to 100% mortality resulting in these age groups during disease episodes, with vertical transmission of the virus increasing the disease problem in smaller fish. A number of vaccine preparations have been tested in the laboratory and in the field e.g. inactivated virus, recombinant proteins, virus-like particles and DNA based vaccines, and their efficacy, based on relative percentage survival, has ranged from medium to high levels of protection to little or no protection. Ultimately a combination of effective prophylactic measures, including vaccination, is needed to control VER, and should also target larvae and broodstock stages of production to help the industry deal with the problem of vertical transmission. As yet there are no commercial vaccines for VER and the

  1. 77 FR 56798 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retained Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...NMFS proposes a regulatory amendment to increase the maximum retainable amounts (MRAs) of groundfish using arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (Atheresthes evermanni) as basis species in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action would allow the use of BSAI arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder as basis species for the retention of......

  2. Sexual dimorphism in scales of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae), with comments on the relevance to their spawning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, T

    2013-11-01

    Variation of scales on the blind side of Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in relation to sex, maturity and body size was examined. Immature males often have cycloid scales, while mature males have mostly ctenoid scales. Large females also often have ctenoid scales (but with fewer spines compared with males), and small females have mostly cycloid scales. The number of spines (ctenii) on the blind-side scale increases with body size in both sexes, indicating an ontogenetic change in scale morphology. As P. yokohamae spawn demersal eggs with males positioning themselves above the females on the ocular side, it is hypothesized that ctenoid scales on the blind side in mature males function for maintaining contact with females during spawning. PMID:24580668

  3. 78 FR 52458 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In... for Fisheries, NOAA (AA), finds good cause to waive the requirement to provide prior notice and... data only became available as of August 19, 2013. The AA also finds good cause to waive the...

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Elemental Signautres in Juvenile Winter Flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus): Implications for Natal Connectivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental signatures in otoliths (fish ear-stones) have become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, reconstructing environmental histories, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. Assessing connectivity between a...

  5. Transcriptomic response to water accommodated fraction of crude oil exposure in the gill of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Qu, Keming; Xia, Bin; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Bijuan

    2016-05-15

    Illumina-based RNA-seq was used to determine the short-term transcriptomic responses of Paralichthys olivaceus gill to an environmentally relevant level of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil. 213,979 transcripts and 128,482 unigenes were obtained. Differential expression analysis revealed that 1641 and 2142 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated. Enrichment analysis identified a set of GO terms and putative pathways involved in the response of P. olivaceus to WAF exposure. Analysis of the transcripts revealed the effective protective mechanisms of P. olivaceus to reduce the toxic effects of WAF. Moreover, WAF exposure induced the metabolism of energy substrates, and downstream pathway genes were modified to provide protection against toxic damage. Transcripts analysis demonstrated that the genes involved in circadian rhythm signaling were regulated in gills of P. olivaceus exposed to WAF. These results provide insights into the mechanisms of WAF-induced toxicity in fishes and into the WAF-sensitive biomarkers in P. olivaceus. PMID:27001715

  6. 77 FR 48916 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... to continue operating. It is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the fishery...

  7. 77 FR 44501 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... to continue operating. It is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the fishery...

  8. Floundering and Trial after High School. Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute of School Experimentation; Career Pattern Study: Monograph IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Super, Donald E.; And Others

    This monograph reports a 10 year followup study of approximately 200 junior high school boys to determine their transition from school to college and to work. The purpose of this monograph is to describe their careers and to analyze the possible determinants of their careers. All living subjects were located and 94 percent were contacted in person…

  9. The Effect of Elevated CO2 on the Growth and Food Consumption of Juvenile Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes Americanus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing changes in seawater chemistry in the world’s oceans. In estuarine waters, atmospheric CO2 exacerbates already declining pH due to high productivity and respiration caused by cultural eutrophication. These two sources o...

  10. 77 FR 41332 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Arrowtooth Flounder, Flathead Sole, Rex Sole...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). NMFS closed directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39649, July 5, 2012) and prohibited retention of Pacific ocean perch on July 10, 2012 (publication in FR pending). As of July 9, 2012, approximately 2,428 mt of Pacific ocean perch has...

  11. ELEMENTAL AND ISOTPOIC FINGERPRINTS OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER (PLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) FROM NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI (USA) AND SURROUNDING COASTAL PONDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental fingerprinting has become a powerful tool in fisheries science for identifying fish migration patterns, seasonal changes in habitat use, and for delineating the nursery origins of adult fish populations. In this study, we investigated whether elemental and isotopic sign...

  12. 75 FR 81498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... of the 2011 specifications for these fisheries was provided in the proposed specifications (75 FR....310. Consistent with the revised quota setting procedures for the FMP (67 FR 6877, February 14, 2002... basis. Consistent with the revised quota setting procedures established for the FMP (67 FR...

  13. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Fishing Permits (EFPs) as part of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Research Set... Fishery Management Plan (FMP) require NMFS to publish specifications for the upcoming fishing year for... the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), 16 U.S.C. 1801...

  14. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... research expenses, as well as to adequately compensate fishing industry participants harvesting research.... Although the derived ACLs are not split exactly at 60/40, the landing portions of the ACLs preserve the 60/40 allocation split, consistent with the FMP. This process results in a commercial ACL of...

  15. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... set aside each year in support of scientific research. For the 2012 fishing year, NMFS solicited... a typical year, the Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) reviews updated stock... ABC. This ABC is 81 percent of the OFL (i.e., scientific uncertainty offset is a 19-percent...

  16. 50 CFR 648.101 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer... fishing for summer flounder by commercial vessels for the remainder of the calendar year by publishing... available for landing summer flounder in that state....

  17. 75 FR 53871 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Modification of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... (FW) 44 (75 FR 18356, April 9, 2010) to the FMP, and modified by a subsequent rule (75 FR 29459, May... haddock, GB winter flounder, and GB yellowtail flounder on May 27, 2010 (75 FR 29678; May 27, 2010). On... yellowtail flounder by common pool vessels from exceeding their sub- ACLs (75 FR 44924; July 30, 2010)....

  18. 50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Possession restrictions. (a) Unless otherwise specified pursuant to § 648.107, no person shall possess more than two summer flounder in, or harvested from, the EEZ, unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a summer flounder moratorium permit,...

  19. 78 FR 42478 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... limit for Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic (SNE/MA) winter flounder for Northeast multispecies common... haddock. This action is intended to prevent the overharvest of the common pool's allocation of SNE/MA winter flounder and GOM haddock. DATES: The trip limit decrease for SNE/MA winter flounder is...

  20. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. PMID:26004356

  1. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  2. CARCINOGENICITY OF BLACK ROCK HARBOR SEDIMENT TO THE EASTERN OYSTER AND TROPHIC TRANSFER OF BLACK ROCK HARBOR CARCINOGENS FROM THE BLUE MUSSEL TO THE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. eoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days ...

  3. Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Ki; Kim, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-07-01

    Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period. For plasma components, calcium and magnesium levels in plasma were generally decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and glucose level was also mainly increased over 60mg Pb/kg. Total protein was significantly decreased over 120mg Pb/kg after 4 weeks exposure. Glucose and total protein showed the restoration after the depuration period in groups of fish exposed previously to over 60 and 120mg Pb/kg, respectively. However, other parameters that changed during the exposure over 60mg Pb/kg did not recovered. For enzymatic components in plasma, glutamic oxalate transminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased over 120mg Pb/kg, and there was only restoration observed after the depuration for ALP over 120mg Pb/kg. PMID:27362663

  4. [Ecological groups of flatfishes of Peter the Great Bay (Japan sea) based on the analysis od species composition of myxosporidian parasites].

    PubMed

    Antonenko, D V; Aseeva, N L

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of myxosporidian species compositions in different flatfish species fro Peter the Great Bay showed that the flatfishes should be divided into three ecological groups--deep water (scaly-eyed plaice Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi, Korean flounder Glyptocephalus stelleri, flatheaded flounder Hippoglossoides dubius, and pinewood flounder Cleisthenes herzensteini), relatively coastal (yellow-finned sole Limanda aspera and brown sole Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini), and coastal (Japanese flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, long-snouted flounder Limanda punctatissimus, starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, and white-bellied flounder Lepidopsetta mochigarei). This division coincides in general with the previously proposed ecological classification based on the characteristics of bathymetric distribution and preference to water layers during summer period in the fishes. PMID:20536006

  5. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the GOA—(1) Originally Qualifying Amendment 80 Vessels. An... arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in... flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA...

  6. 76 FR 16614 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... conducted by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Study Fleet Program. Regulations under the... impedance analysis (BIA), food habits, and genetic research. The yellowtail flounder retained would not..., fecundity, BIA, food habits, and genetic research. The summer flounder retained would not exceed 60 fish...

  7. 77 FR 7000 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Gulf of Maine Winter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...NMFS issues this final emergency rule under the Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). This action implements new stock status determination criteria for Gulf of Maine (GOM) winter flounder and associated increases in GOM winter flounder catch limits based on the most recent and best available scientific information. This action increases fishing year......

  8. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648.102... Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to § 648.107, vessels... possession limit may fish for summer flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may...

  9. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60626... flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures...

  10. 78 FR 26171 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... emergency involving a fishery exists (62 FR 44421; August 21, 1997). This guidance defines an emergency as a... account for the scientific uncertainty in the projections. If SNE/MA winter flounder stock size increases..., specified by ] the RA. The minimum fish size for SNE/MA winter flounder for both commercial and...

  11. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. (a) The minimum size for summer flounder is 14... carrying more than five crew members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to...

  12. 76 FR 18661 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...,814.5 kg) per trip. An inseason action published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2010 (75 FR 29678... winter flounder, and GB yellowtail flounder. A subsequent action (75 FR 44924, July 30, 2010) reduced the... September 2, 2010, inseason action (75 FR 53872) imposed 2:1 differential DAS counting in the Inshore...

  13. 76 FR 41767 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Bass, and Bluefish Industry Advisory Panels will hold public meetings. DATES: The meeting will be held...) 674-2331, extension 255. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Scup, Black Sea Bass, Summer Flounder, and... to achieve ACTs for the summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, and bluefish fisheries. Scup...

  14. 78 FR 67128 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will hold public meetings. DATES: The meeting... 255. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will... sea bass measures from 3:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Although non-emergency issues not contained in...

  15. 77 FR 66586 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will hold a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will discuss potential... provisions of Amendment 9 to the Summer Flounder, Scup and Black Sea Bass FMP. Based on input from...

  16. 75 FR 66072 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Council's (MAFMC) Summer Flounder Monitoring Committee, Scup Monitoring Committee, Black Sea Bass... Commission's Sumer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisors will hold public meetings. DATES: The meeting... sea bass fisheries. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this agenda may come before...

  17. 76 FR 69706 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ..., Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee, and the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Council's and the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission's Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisors will hold public... meeting agenda. ADDRESSES: The Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee...

  18. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop access area program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... yellowtail flounder TACs. A limited access scallop vessel that is declared into a trip and fishing within the..../Canada Area TAC availability. After declaring a trip into and fishing in the Closed Area I or Closed Area... Regional Administrator has not issued a notice that the U.S./Canada yellowtail flounder TAC specified...

  19. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop access area program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Reallocation of trips into open areas. If the yellowtail flounder TAC allocated for a Scallop Access Area... kg) 6,000 lb (2,722 kg) (ii) NE multispecies possession limits and yellowtail flounder TACs. A... size restrictions specified under § 648.83(a)(1). (1) (2) U.S./Canada Area TAC availability....

  20. 76 FR 70421 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... management measures for the recreational summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries. DATES: The meeting will begin on Friday, December 2, 2011 at 1 p.m. and will end on Saturday, December 3, 2011 no... on the summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fishery, and; (3) How the Council can work...

  1. Predator prey size relationship between Pseudopleuronectes americanus and Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, E. A.; Howell, W. H.

    2000-10-01

    Young-of-year flatfish grow through a series of critical periods in which they are vulnerable to different predators, including decapod crustaceans. The purpose of this study was to determine if winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were vulnerable to one such decapod, the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and to determine if vulnerability differed between wild and cultured fish. To examine the predator-prey size relationship, an experiment was conducted in which six cultured and three wild winter flounder size class treatments were tested against six crab size class treatments. Flounder of all size classes were preyed on by all size classes of green crabs; however, mortality was highest when the largest crabs were matched with the smallest flounder. The number of flounder killed per day was significantly higher (31%) in winter flounder <20 mm compared to all other larger fish size classes (4-8%). Additionally, these fish were attacked at a faster rate than any other fish size class. For the 31-60 mm fish size classes tested, more wild fish (11%) were killed per day by crabs than cultured fish (6.3%). These results suggest that in a winter flounder stock enhancement program, only fish >20 mm should be released to promote post-release survival.

  2. Climate and Demography Dictate the Strength of Predator-Prey Overlap in a Subarctic Marine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Mary E.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Zador, Stephani; Stige, Leif Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate and anthropogenic influences on marine ecosystems are largely manifested by changes in species spatial dynamics. However, less is known about how shifts in species distributions might alter predator-prey overlap and the dynamics of prey populations. We developed a general approach to quantify species spatial overlap and identify the biotic and abiotic variables that dictate the strength of overlap. We used this method to test the hypothesis that population abundance and temperature have a synergistic effect on the spatial overlap of arrowtooth flounder (predator) and juvenile Alaska walleye pollock (prey, age-1) in the eastern Bering Sea. Our analyses indicate that (1) flounder abundance and temperature are key variables dictating the strength of flounder and pollock overlap, (2) changes in the magnitude of overlap may be largely driven by density-dependent habitat selection of flounder, and (3) species overlap is negatively correlated to juvenile pollock recruitment when flounder biomass is high. Overall, our findings suggest that continued increases in flounder abundance coupled with the predicted long-term warming of ocean temperatures could have important implications for the predator-prey dynamics of arrowtooth flounder and juvenile pollock. The approach used in this study is valuable for identifying potential consequences of climate variability and exploitation on species spatial dynamics and interactions in many marine ecosystems. PMID:23824707

  3. 77 FR 69796 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2012 (77 FR 23326). Implementation of the restructured Observer... arrowtooth flounder, Pacific cod, shallow- water flatfish, deep-water flatfish, and rex sole. The...

  4. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  5. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2010, through 1200..., deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  6. 77 FR 24154 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through 1200...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  7. 75 FR 38939 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...(d), the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. After the effective date of this closure...

  8. 77 FR 46338 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1, 2012, through..., rockfish, deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  9. 78 FR 30242 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013), for the period 1200 hours, A.l.t., April 1, 2013, through..., rockfish, deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  10. 50 CFR 648.106 - Sea Turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 60629, Sept. 29, 2011. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and 223. Effective Date Note... fillet number by two. If summer flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet...

  11. 77 FR 44216 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... reports, receive Organizational Reports, Executive Director's Report, Science Report, Committee Reports... windowpane flounder, the Executive Director's Report, the Science Report, Committee Reports, and conduct any... action to address the emergency. Special Accommodations This meeting is physically accessible to...

  12. PATHOLOGY OF TWO SPECIES OF FLATFISH FROM URBAN ESTAURIES IN PUGET SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of field and laboratory investigations conducted between October 1978and October 1980. The field studies yielded data on the prevalence and geographical distribution of diseased bottom-dwelling flatfish, specially English sole and starry flounder...

  13. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conversion factors for pollock, arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, skate, yellowfin sole and rock sole... each other and the Database, in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Reduction...

  14. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conversion factors for pollock, arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, skate, yellowfin sole and rock sole... each other and the Database, in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Reduction...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conversion factors for pollock, arrowtooth flounder, Greenland turbot, skate, yellowfin sole and rock sole... each other and the Database, in compliance with the requirements set forth in the Reduction...

  16. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your child eats is safe. Choices that are lower in mercury include: Salmon Flounder Tilapia Trout Pollock Catfish Choices ...

  17. 50 CFR 648.100 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mesh selectivity analyses; impact of gear other than otter trawls on the mortality of summer flounder... reductions for research quota. (9) Restrictions on gear other than otter trawls. (10) Adjustments to...

  18. Bath immersion, booster vaccination strategy holds potential for protecting juvenile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...

  19. FISHERIES IN MOUNT HOPE BAY: NOTES ON A SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM FROM A SESSION MODERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This contribution represents a summary of talks presented during the afternoon session the Mount Hope Bay Syposium, focused directly on the issues surrounding observed winter flounder populations, as prepared by the session moderator.

  20. 75 FR 12462 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Removal of Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... yellowtail flounder was specified at 1,617 mt, by the 2009 interim final rule (72 FR 25709). The regulations... regulations implementing Amendment 13 to the NE Multispecies Fishery Management Plan (FMP) to optimize...

  1. 50 CFR 679.82 - Rockfish Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rockfish species initial rockfish QS pool established by NMFS. (2) Eligible rockfish harvester use cap. An...; (ii) Arrowtooth flounder; (iii) Flathead sole; (iv) Other flatfish; (v) Pacific ocean perch; (vi)...

  2. 50 CFR 679.82 - Rockfish Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rockfish species initial rockfish QS pool established by NMFS. (2) Eligible rockfish harvester use cap. An...; (ii) Arrowtooth flounder; (iii) Flathead sole; (iv) Other flatfish; (v) Pacific ocean perch; (vi)...

  3. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  4. Oil residues in Baltic sediment, mussel and fish. II. Study of the Finnish Archipelago 1979-81

    SciTech Connect

    Paasivirta, J.; Kaariainen, H.; Lahtipera, M.; Pellinen, J.; Sinkkonen, S.

    1982-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons and non-polar aromatic compounds have been analyzed after a spill of crude oil at Baltic Sea 1979 from drifting weathered oil glumps, sediment and sediment trap samples and bivalves at five areas of the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mytilus and flounder muscles and flounder livers were analyzed 1980 and 1981 from three of the previous five areas. The glumps were shown to be weathered crude oil. Sediment trap samples on the visibly contaminated area contained higher amounts of oil residues and in different ratios than the bottom sediments at the same areas. Extra local aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution was detected from the sediment traps at the reference area. Bivalves contained high amounts of oil residues at visibly polluted but in some visibly non-polluted areas also 1979. Any significant decontamination was not detected at summer 1979 but next year the Mytilus samples contained only traces if any and 1981 no detectable levels of aromatic oil residues. Aliphatic hydrocarbon residues in flounders showed no regional differences and no significant change of levels between 1980 and 1981. In contrary, the aromatic oil residues decreased to the non-detectable level in flounder muscles and to a significantly lower level in flounder livers 1981 related to 1980. Linear correlations of the analysis results are discussed.

  5. A "Mimic Octopus" in the Atlantic: Flatfish mimicry and camouflage by Macrotritopus defilippi.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Watson, Anya C; Barbosa, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    The sand-dwelling octopus Macrotritopus defilippi was filmed or photographed in five Caribbean locations mimicking the swimming behavior (posture, style, speed, duration) and coloration of the common, sand-dwelling flounder Bothus lunatus. Each species was exceptionally well camouflaged when stationary, and details of camouflaging techniques are described for M. defilippi. Octopuses implemented flounder mimicry only during swimming, when their movement would give away camouflage in this open sandy habitat. Thus, both camouflage and fish mimicry were used by the octopuses as a primary defense against visual predators. This is the first documentation of flounder mimicry by an Atlantic octopus, and only the fourth convincing case of mimicry for cephalopods, a taxon renowned for its polyphenism that is implemented mainly by neurally controlled skin patterning, but also-as shown here-by their soft flexible bodies. PMID:20203250

  6. Diet overlap between juvenile flatfish and the invasive round goby in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Florin, A. B.; Kruze, E.; Zilniece, D.; Elferts, D.; Knospina, E.; Uzars, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of changes in the abundance and diet composition of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus) and turbot (Psetta maxima), along with other dominant coastal fish species, before and after the establishment of the alien round goby off an exposed stretch of coast in the eastern Baltic Sea. In the study area, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was recorded for the first time in 2009. After a few years of low abundance, a sharp increase in the population occurred. After the round goby invasion, flatfish juveniles exhibited an increased diet overlap with other species and had a lower feeding success, reflecting an increase in resource competition. For juvenile turbot, the increase was mainly caused by the round goby, while for flounder it was due to both the round goby and the lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus). Juvenile turbot, whose dominant food item before the round goby establishment had been mysids, shifted their diet towards Crangon crangon, reflecting a decrease in mysid abundance by three orders of magnitude and a concurrent doubling in C. crangon abundance in the habitat. At the same time a significant decrease in turbot recruitment was observed. Juvenile flounder had the widest food spectrum of the studied species. When the availability of the primary food item, Bathyporeia pilosa, decreased, flounder juveniles adapted by increasing the share of zooplankton in their diets. No changes in flounder feeding success and recruitment were observed. However, the recruitment estimates of flounder and turbot show an increasing co-variation after the round goby invasion, suggesting that recruitment of the species may currently be regulated by processes in the common nursery habitat.

  7. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the GOA. Only an Amendment 80 vessel listed in column A of Table 39 to this part may be used to fish in the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by...

  8. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by the State of Alaska for which it adopts...

  9. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by the State of Alaska for which it adopts...

  10. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (c) Sideboard restrictions applicable to Amendment 80 vessels directed fishing for flatfish in the... 39 to this part may be used to fish in the directed arrowtooth flounder, deep-water flatfish, flathead sole, rex sole, and shallow-water flatfish fisheries in the GOA and in adjacent waters open by...

  11. 76 FR 61670 - Receipt of an Application for Incidental Take Permit (16230)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    .... 1259 to NCDMF (65 FR 65840, November 2, 2000), Permit No. 1348 (66 FR 51023, October 5, 2001), Permit No. 1398 (67 FR 67150, November 4, 2002), and Permit No. 1528 (70 FR 52984, September 6, 2005...), and catfishes (Ictalurus sp.). Large mesh gill net fisheries for flounder traditionally...

  12. The Effect of Adolescent Employment on Vocational Development: Public and Educational Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1998-01-01

    Review of research on adolescent employment found the following: (1) employment patterns were relatively unchanged in 40 years; (2) emerging literature challenges the assumption that "floundering" is necessarily bad; and (3) increasing amounts of work negatively affect school performance. Methodological issues include selection bias, sampling…

  13. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....12 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... (Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surfclams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  14. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....12 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... (Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surfclams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  15. 50 CFR 648.18 - Standardized bycatch reporting methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standardized bycatch reporting methodology. 648.18 Section 648.18 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass; Surfclam and Ocean Quahog; and Tilefish....

  16. Reform and Governance in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    The educational development programs of Latin American nations have frequently floundered because of an inability to plan, organize, and execute decisions effectively and to deliver resources with precision and dispatch. This study documents and analyzes Colombia's effort to resolve this problem in its educational institution through the process…

  17. 78 FR 41033 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary), has determined that the following stocks are subject to overfishing or are in an overfished state: Georges Bank (GB) yellowtail flounder is subject to overfishing and continues to be in an overfished condition; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) octopus complex was determined to be subject to......

  18. Launching or Revitalizing a Teaching Center: Principles and Portraits of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tara; Shadle, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Some teaching centers flounder while others flourish. This paper provides concrete suggestions for launching or revitalizing a teaching center, drawn from the experiences of these authors and from principles in the literature. Two center directors worked to apply the principles in the literature to their newly launched or revitalized centers. One…

  19. 76 FR 61995 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... 25, 2011 (76 FR 23042) is extended through April 30, 2012. Comments are accepted through November 7... implemented through emergency authority as published in the FW 45 final rule on April 25, 2011 (76 FR 23042... yellowtail flounder catch limits from those originally proposed in the FW 45 proposed rule (76 FR...

  20. Plugged in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Five years ago, Pearl Stewart, then a roving journalist for Freedom Forum, scoured the southern region of the United States to assess student newspapers at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to help them improve. To her dismay, Stewart found many student newspapers floundering under administrative red tape and budget cuts. She…

  1. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  2. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  3. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  4. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  5. 50 CFR 648.106 - Sea Turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Sea Turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea Turtle conservation. 648.106 Section 648.106 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  6. A Typology of Partnerships for Promoting Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Hall, Gene E.; Berg, Judith H.; Camarena, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    As educational partnerships and collaboratives have become more popular in the last several decades, researchers and practitioners have sought to understand why these arrangements flourish or flounder. Taking into consideration the contextual factors affecting partnerships, we have conceptualized a framework of the types of partnerships that can…

  7. Career Counseling Is Personal Counseling: A Constructivist Approach to Nurturing the Development of Gifted Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Millie

    2007-01-01

    Gifted individuals face many concerns when contemplating their futures. Often hindered by career indecision; perfectionism; and multiple personal, familial, and societal pressures, some gifted young people flounder when they have the ability to flourish. Many counselors and educators trust that a wealth of talents will propel these adolescents to…

  8. 75 FR 39170 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Recreational Management Measures for the Summer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... implemented by NMFS effective January 1, 2010 (74 FR 67978; December 22, 2009), for summer flounder and scup, and effective February 2, 2010, for black sea bass (75 FR 6586). The proposed rule to implement annual... published on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22087), along with proposed management measures (minimum fish...

  9. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  10. 75 FR 35768 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Council's (MAFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) and Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass... held on Tuesday, July 13, 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: The webinar will be held at the..., Black Sea Bass, and Bluefish Monitoring Committee's will meet to discuss the 2010 stock...

  11. 78 FR 64889 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...) yellowtail flounder and white hake specifications for fishing year (FY) 2013 and the GOM cod sector carryover... published May 3, 2013, (78 FR 26172) is extended through April 30, 2014. ADDRESSES: Copies of Framework 50... end of FY 2013 (April 30, 2014). The May 3, 2013, final rule (78 FR 26172) included...

  12. Nonfiction Reading Comprehension in Middle School: Exploring in Interactive Software Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Evelyn S.; Isecke, Harriet; Rhoads, Christopher; Madura, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The struggles of students in the United States to comprehend non-fiction science text are well documented. Middle school students, in particular, have minimal instruction in comprehending nonfiction and flounder on assessments. This article describes the development process of the Readorium software, an interactive web-based program being…

  13. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Reallocation of trips into open areas. If the yellowtail flounder TAC allocated for a Scallop Access Area... conducted during the last 60 days of the open period or season for the Access Area is terminated before... is open (March 1, 2012, through April 29, 2012). If an Access Area is not open in the...

  14. 50 CFR 648.103 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum fish sizes. 648.103 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Minimum fish sizes. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60628... members. (c) The minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found...

  15. Developmental defects in pelagic fish embryos from the western Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Westernhagen, H.; Dethlefsen, V.; Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Fürstenberg, G.

    1988-03-01

    In February/March 1983 and 1984 a survey of pelagic fish eggs was conducted in the western Baltic (Kiel Bight), employing a horizontally towed plankton net (1 m Ø and 300 μm mesh). Maximum egg numbers in the upper meter of the S=21×10-3 salinity layer were 200·100 m-3. The most abundant eggs were cod (up to 142 eggs·100 m-3), followed by plaice (up to 74 eggs·100 m-3) and flounder (20 eggs·100 m-3). A considerable percentage of embryos of all species displayed aberrant development. In 1983 18% of cod, 22% of flounder and 24% of plaice eggs caught contained defective embryos; in 1984 this number was larger, ranging from 28% in plaice over 32% in cod to 44% in flounder. Early developmental stages showed the highest malformation rates (up to 51% in the case of early flounder embryos). With progressive development, malformations decreased in numbers, being lowest prior to hatching. Highest rates of malformations were recorded in the Mecklenburg Bight in 1983. A second area with high incidence of malformation rates was located south and east of the island of Langeland. Several reasons, including environmental and anthropogenic factors, for the occurrence of malformed embryos in pelagic fish eggs are discussed. The potential of malformation rates in embryos of pelagic fish eggs as a tool for monitoring is considered.

  16. ClassMaps: Reliability and Validity of a School Wide Mental Health Consultation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth; Zucker, Steve; Brehm, Katherine

    A lack of supportive infrastructures in regular education classrooms can cause students with disabilities to flounder. Moving students with disabilities into inclusive classrooms has meant that special educators have less control over managing the factors that foster student success. "ClassMaps" is a strategy for reinstating supportive elements…

  17. Student Recruitment Practices: A Survey Yields Some Surprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Your name: F. Stanley Gogettum. Your job: Director of Admissions. Your institution: floundering University. Like all good admissions directors, you constantly ask yourself about your work and its effectiveness. Should you continue high school visits? Should you use Student Search Service, or maybe an unscreened (but perhaps cheaper) "commercial"…

  18. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW26 Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific Region... changed. These changes occurred in January 2010. On March 2, 2010, NMFS informed the Pacific...

  19. Education Myths: What Special Interest Groups Want You to Believe about Our Schools--And Why It Isn't So

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    How can we fix America's floundering public schools? The conventional wisdom says that schools need a lot more money, that poor and immigrant children cannot do as well as most American kids, that high-stakes tests just produce teaching to the test, and that vouchers do little to help students while undermining our democracy. But what if the…

  20. Resolve to Be an Advocate for School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2009-01-01

    Across America, school psychologists are reporting that as the economy has floundered, they have felt uncertain about their job security, and in some places school psychologists have reported that they are even being laid off. Commonly in these districts, the school psychologists also report that they have not had an active advocacy campaign for…

  1. Nancy McCormick Rambusch: A Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povell, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    Fall of 2005 marks the 12th anniversary of Nancy McCormick Rambusch's death. As the founder of the American Montessori Society and as its first president, Rambusch reintroduced Maria Montessori to America at a time--1960--when education for the young was floundering, and a second look at the Montessori method, which had changed the early childhood…

  2. Overexpression, Purification, Characterization, and Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin VHH

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Jixiang; Chi, Zhenghao; Sun, Boguang; Li, Yun; Austin, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide. PMID:16988279

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

  4. 75 FR 43149 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... items of discussion in the committee's agenda are as follows: The Committee will continue development of... Accommodations This meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language... flounder it is predicted it will catch, and defining the General Category IFQ fishery as a separate...

  5. 78 FR 29248 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retainable Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... the BSAI, more commonly known as the Amendment 80 sector (72 FR 52668, September 14, 2007). While this... protect the stock of Kamchatka flounder (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The impacts of the harvest... category in 1998 (63 FR 13009, March 17, 1998). This revision eliminates a potential source of...

  6. 78 FR 52505 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Council's (MAFMC) Bluefish Monitoring Committee and Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Monitoring..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee will meet on September 19 to discuss and recommend 2014..., scup, and black sea bass fisheries. Multi-year ACTs and management measures, applicable to...

  7. 78 FR 54442 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ..., and black sea bass recreational fisheries. DATES: Public comments must be received on or before... flounder, scup, black sea bass, golden tilefish, ocean quahog, and Atlantic surfclams. The AMs for the.... In 2012, the recreational black ] sea bass fishery significantly exceeded its RHL. The...

  8. 77 FR 66586 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will hold a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held on... 255. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Advisory Panel will... measures will be discussed from 1 p.m. to 2 p.m., scup measures from 2 p.m. to 3 p.m., and black sea...

  9. 77 FR 41704 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Adjustment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), implemented May 1, 2010 (75 FR 18356), established the current sub-ACL allocation to the scallop fishery at 307.5 mt. FW 47 to the FMP, implemented May 2, 2012 (77 FR 26104... targeting GB yellowtail flounder. During the April 25, 2012, Council meeting in Mystic, CT, members of...

  10. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, the Regional Administrator will issue a permit at any time during..., suspended, or modified under 15 CFR part 904, or otherwise expires, or ownership changes, or the applicant... herring, Atlantic sea scallop, Atlantic deep-sea red crab, spiny dogfish, summer flounder,...

  11. 76 FR 39074 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committees will meet on Friday, July 29, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committees will hold public meetings. DATES: The SSC meeting will be held... and acceptable biological catch (ABC) for bluefish, summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass for...

  12. 78 FR 65973 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., and Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee will hold a public meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held on Friday, November 22, 2013, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for meeting agenda... Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee will meet to recommend...

  13. Estimating Competition between Wildlife and Humans–A Case of Cormorants and Coastal Fisheries in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Östman, Örjan; Boström, Maria K.; Bergström, Ulf; Andersson, Jan; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Cormorants and other wildlife populations have come in real or perceived conflicts with humans over exploited fish stocks. From gut contents of cormorants, and using an extension of the Catch equation, we estimated the degree of short term competition between great cormorants and coastal fisheries in two areas along the Swedish Baltic Sea. Cormorants consumed 10 and 44%, in respective area, of the fish biomass of six fish species harvested by humans; eel, flounder, herring, perch, pike, and whitefish. On average, cormorants consumed smaller individuals than harvested in fisheries. But for perch, cod and flounder, cormorants consumed harvestable sized fish corresponding >20% of human catches. Our competition model estimated the direct decrease in fisheries catches due to cormorant predation to be <10% for all species except flounder (>30%) and perch (2–20%). When also including the indirect effects of cormorant predation on smaller fish that never reached harvestable size, the estimated decrease in fisheries catches at least doubled for perch (13–34%) and pike (8–19%). Despite large uncertainties, our model indicates that cormorants may locally have a direct impact on human catches of at least flounder, and when incorporating indirect effects also on perch and pike. The study indicates that the degree of competition between cormorants and humans varies substantially between areas. We also included economical values in the model and concluded that for the commercially most important species, eel and cod, the estimated economic impact of cormorants on fisheries was low. PMID:24386272

  14. 21 CFR 102.57 - Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). 102.57 Section 102.57 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS Requirements... Pleuronectidae right-eye flounders. The term “halibut” may be associated only with Atlantic halibut...

  15. 75 FR 48613 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Implementation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... implementing FW 44 (75 FR 18356, April 9, 2010) established ACLs for FY 2010, including the common pool sub-ACL for witch flounder of 25 mt. A subsequent emergency rule published on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 41996... July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44924), reduced the common pool landing limit for Gulf of Maine (GOM) cod by...

  16. 76 FR 38307 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Recreational Management Measures for the Summer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries was published on April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22350... previously established by rulemaking conducted in late 2010 (75 FR 81498; December 28, 2010). The 2011... recreational fishery. NMFS implemented Framework Adjustment 2 to the FMP on July 29, 2001 (66 FR 36208),...

  17. Influence of a thermal discharge on parasites of a cold-water flatfish, Pleuronectes americanus, as a bioindicator of subtle environmental change.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A; Hooper, R G

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to ascertain the influence of a thermal discharge on the health and parasites of a coastal cold-water flatfish, the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), a species sensitive to environmental change. Flounder were sampled in spring 1998 and 1999 beneath the plume and at reference sites north and south up to 1 km from the discharge. Species diversity and estimates of abundance of macroscopic algae, invertebrates, and fish were also recorded. After capture by scuba divers, a comparison of condition factor, organ indices, blood values, histology, and parasites was made between groups of fish from the discharge and reference sites. Diversity and abundance of algae, invertebrates, and fish were considerably greater beneath the plume than at the reference sites. The thermal water had no apparent effect on flounder taken beneath the plume, but it affected both its ecto- and endoparasites. Prevalence and mean abundance of Cryptocotyle lingua metacercariae were significantly greater, whereas Trichodina jadranica and Gyrodactylus pleuronecti were less on the gills of fish sampled beneath the plume than at the reference sites. Four endoparasites, i.e., Ceratomyxa drepanopsettae, Steringophorus furciger, Macvicarius soleae, and Lecithaster gibbosus were significantly more abundant in the reference samples. These results suggest that environmental change affected transmission of the parasites of winter flounder exposed to the thermal effluent. PMID:18163365

  18. HYPOXIA-INDUCED GROWTH LIMITATION OF JUVENILE FISHES IN AN ESTUARINE NURSERY: ASSESSMENT OF SMALL-SCALE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS USING RNA:DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ratio of RNA to DNA (RNA:DNA) in white muscle tissue of juvenile summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) was used as a proxy for recent growth rate in an estuarine nursery. Variability in RNA:DNA was examined relative to temporal changes in te...

  19. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Fees. Same as § 648.4(d). (e) Issuance. Except as provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, the...). (g) Duration. A permit is valid until it is revoked, suspended, or modified under 15 CFR part 904, or... deep-sea red crab, spiny dogfish, summer flounder, Atlantic surf clam, ocean quahog, Atlantic...

  20. NEKTON HABITAT QUALITY AT SHALLOW-WATER SITES IN TWO RHODE ISLAND COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated nekton habitat quality at five shallow-water sites in two Rhode Island systems by comparing nekton densities and biomass, number of species, prey availability and feeding, and abundance of winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Nekton density and biomass wer...