Science.gov

Sample records for barfin flounder verasper

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of opsins in barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Kanta; Murakami, Naoto; Andoh, Tadashi; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kawamura, Shoji; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-02-10

    Green light irradiation facilitates the somatic growth of barfin flounder (Verasper moseri). However, the V. moseri visual system, which may be associated with somatic growth by acting on the endocrine system upon exposure to this particular wavelength, remains largely unexplored. Herein, we characterized the visual opsin repertoire of V. moseri to understand the molecular basis underlying this effect. The five types of visual opsins that are found in vertebrates were cloned from RNA that was extracted from the eyes of V. moseri. Notably, V. moseri possessed one pseudogene (RH2-A) and two intact (RH2-B and RH2-C) copies of "green-sensitive" opsin genes. The wavelengths of maximum absorption spectra (λmax) for each of the reconstituted photopigments were 552nm for "red-sensitive" LWS, 506nm for RH2-B, 490nm for RH2-C, 482nm and 416nm for "blue-sensitive" SWS2A and SWS2B, respectively, 367nm for "ultraviolet-sensitive" SWS1, and 494nm for "dim-light sensitive rhodopsin" RH1. The λmax of SWS2A was longer than that of any other reported vertebrate SWS2 opsin. By measuring the expression level of these opsin genes with quantitative RT-PCR in 3-, 15-, and 27-month-old fish, we found that RH2-B and SWS2A were expressed at a constant level, whereas the expression of LWS, RH2-C, SWS2B, and SWS1 opsin genes decreased, and that of RH1 increased with age. Barfin flounders inhabit inshore waters at a young age and expand their habitat to deep sea areas as they age, and green light is relatively abundant in deep water compared to the lights of other wavelengths in shallow water. Our results indicate that gene repertoire and expression profile of the opsin genes of barfin flounder are adaptive to their habitat shift that occurs during development, with some opsins acquiring a distinct λmax. PMID:25433330

  2. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  3. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    Broodstock of Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert) aged 3-4 years old were selected, and reinforced cultivation was conducted to promote maturation under controlled water temperature and photoperiod conditions. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial fertilization, and the development of embryos, larvae and juveniles was observed continuously. The results showed that the fertilized eggs of V. moseri were spherical, with transparent yolk and homogeneous bioplasm, and had no oil globule inside. The average diameter of the eggs was 1.77±0.02 mm. The eggs of V. moseri were buoyant in water with salinity above 35. The cleavage type was typical discoidal. Young pigment cells appeared when olfactory plates began to form. Hatching occurred at 187 h after fertilization at a water temperature of 8.5°C. The newly hatched larvae, floating on the water surface, were transparent with an average total length of 4.69±0.15 mm. During the cultivation period, when the water temperature was raised from 9 to 14.5°C, 4-day old larvae showed more melanophores on the body surface, making the larvae gray in color. The pectoral fins began to develop, which enabled the larvae to swim horizontally and in a lively manner. On days 7-8, the digestive duct formed. The yolk sac was small and black. The yolk sac was absorbed on day 11. Larvae took food actively, and body length and body height clearly increased. The rudiments of dorsal and anal fin pterygiophores were discernible and caudal fin ray elements formed on day 19. On day 24, the larval notochord flexed upwards, and the rays of unpaired fins began to differentiate. Pigment cells converged on the dorsal and anal fin rays, and the mastoid teeth on the mandible appeared. On day 29, the left eyes of juveniles began to move upwards. Depigmentation began in some juveniles and they became sandy brown in color on day 37. Most juveniles began to settle on the bottom of the tank. The left eyes of juveniles migrated completely to the right

  4. Chronic effects of light irradiated from LED on the growth performance and endocrine properties of barfin flounder Verasper moseri.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Murakami, Naoto; Furufuji, Sumihisa; Kikuchi, Shigeto; Mizusawa, Kanta; Andoh, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of specific wavelengths of light on the growth of barfin flounder. The fish, reared in white tanks in a dark room, were irradiated with light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak wavelengths of 464nm (blue), 518nm (green), and 635nm (red) under a controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5, light-dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light). Fish were reared for four weeks in three independent experiments at three different water temperatures (averages of 14.9°C, 8.6°C, and 6.6°C). The fish irradiated with blue and green light had higher specific growth rates (% body weight⋅day(-1)) than fish irradiated with red light. Notably, green light had the greatest effect on growth among the three light wavelengths at 6.6°C. In the brains of fish reared at 6.6°C, the amounts of melanin-concentrating hormone 1 mRNA under green light were lower than those under red light, and amounts of proopiomelanocortin-C mRNA under blue and green light were higher than those under red light. No differences were observed for other neuropeptides tested. In the pituitary, no difference was observed in growth hormone mRNA content. In plasma, higher levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I were observed in fish under green light than those of fish under red light. These results suggest that the endocrine systems of barfin flounder are modulated by a specific wavelength of light that stimulates somatic growth. PMID:26795919

  5. Effects of background color on GnRH and MCH levels in the barfin flounder brain.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of background color on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) levels in the brain of the barfin flounder Verasper moseri were monitored to investigate the interaction of GnRH and MCH in the brain. Fish were reared in white or black tanks from one month after hatching for about 7 months. MCH levels in the brain and pituitary were higher in the white tank fish. In contrast, chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) levels in the brain were higher in the black tank fish. No significant differences between background colors were observed in the brain concerning salmon GnRH and seabream GnRH levels. Furthermore, six-month-old fish that had been reared in white tank were transferred to another white or black tank. Brain cGnRH-II levels were higher in black tank fish than those in white tank at 2 and 7 days after the transfer. Double-staining immunohistochemistry showed that some cGnRH-II-immunoreactive (ir) fibers were in close contact with MCH-ir cell bodies in the hypothalamus. These results indicate that background color affects not only MCH levels but also cGnRH-II levels in the brain and suggest that cGnRH-II may play a role in the regulation of MCH neural function, food intake, in the brain of the barfin flounder. PMID:17475262

  6. Changes in brain seabream GnRH mRNA and pituitary seabream GnRH peptide levels during ovarian maturation in female barfin flounder.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Pham, Ky Xuan; Amiya, Noriko; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    The pleuronectid barfin flounder Verasper moseri expresses three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), i.e., seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), salmon GnRH, and chicken GnRH-II. Among these, sbGnRH is the dominant form in the pituitary, indicating that sbGnRH regulates gonadal maturation. In order to clarify the physiological roles of sbGnRH during ovarian maturation in reared female barfin flounder, the changes in brain sbGnRH mRNA levels and pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, respectively. The fish hatched in April 2002. The gonadosomatic index remained low until August 2004 and increased thereafter until April 2005 when the fish began to ovulate. The sbGnRH mRNA levels per brain increased significantly from April 2004 to April 2005. Pituitary sbGnRH peptide levels also increased significantly during this period. These results indicate that sbGnRH is involved in ovarian maturation and ovulation in the barfin flounder. PMID:18662692

  7. Effects of tank color on melanin-concentrating hormone levels in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of the barfin flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2005-09-15

    A pleuronectiform fish, the barfin flounder Verasper moseri, reared in a white tank had a smaller ratio of pigmented area of the skin on non-eyed side, grew faster, and had greater melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-immunoreactive cell bodies and MCH gene expression in the brain than in the black tank, indicating that synthesis and release of MCH are higher in fish from a white tank. In the present study, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for MCH was developed. MCH levels were assessed in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of barfin flounders reared in a white or black tank. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, MCH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled MCH. Displacement curves of serially diluted extracts (brain, pituitary gland, and plasma) of the barfin flounder paralleled that of the MCH standard. MCH levels in the brain and plasma were higher in fish reared in the white tank for 5 months than in the black tank. These results suggest that synthesis and secretion of MCH are enhanced with the white background and that MCH is involved in both somatic growth and the skin pigmentation in the barfin flounder. PMID:15979616

  8. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species. PMID:17646149

  9. Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the Japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) and immunohistochemistry. A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-MSH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled Des-Ac-alpha-MSH. The sensitivity of the assay, defined as twice the standard deviation at a zero dose, was 0.98 ng/ml (49 pg/well). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the assay were 8.8% (n=8) and 17.3% (n=5), respectively, at about 50% binding. Cross-reactivities of Des-Ac-alpha-MSH and Di-Ac-alpha-MSH were about 100%. Cross-reactivities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II were less than 0.2%, and that of melanin-concentrating hormone was less than 2.0% at 50% binding. Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve. Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard. In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha

  10. An Early Warning System for Flounder Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Bin; Li, Daoliang; Wang, Jianqin; Duan, Qingling; Wen, Jiwen

    With the constant expansion of the scale and mismanagement in aquaculture,the diseases of flounder occur more and more frequently than before, which has brought great economic losses to fish farmers. For the sake of the problem described above, based on a great number of surveys, the early warning theory of flounder disease, the analysis of the outbreak and development of diseases and the relationship between disease and factors, the logic process of the early warning for flounder disease was confirmed. It consists of five parts: specifying the target, searching for the source, distinguishing the sign, predicting the degree and eliminating the menace. Using the expert survey method the early warning indexes which affect the normal life of the flounder and calculated the range of the water environment factors were also confirmed. Finally, an early warning system was implemented, which can reduce the damage from the flounder disease.

  11. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.103 Summer flounder accountability measures. (a... subsequent single fishing year recreational sector ACT. (d) Non-landing accountability measures, by...

  12. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  13. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  14. 50 CFR 648.105 - Summer flounder recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder recreational fishing season. 648.105 Section 648.105 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.105 Summer flounder recreational fishing...

  15. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  16. 50 CFR 648.104 - Summer flounder minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. 648... Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Summer flounder minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium... minimum sizes in this section apply to whole fish or to any part of a fish found in possession,...

  17. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  18. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  3. 50 CFR 648.102 - Summer flounder specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder specifications. 648.102 Section 648.102 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries §...

  4. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder gear restrictions. 648.108 Section 648.108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries...

  5. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder gear restrictions. 648.108 Section 648.108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries...

  6. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications published on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81498). An... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder...

  7. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  8. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  9. 75 FR 4490 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  10. 76 FR 19276 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of ] Virginia. Vessels were authorized by Virginia...

  11. 78 FR 77005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... both transferring a portion of their 2013 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth...

  12. 75 FR 22025 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  13. 77 FR 14481 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  14. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas and...

  15. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  16. 77 FR 75569 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  17. 78 FR 20037 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of New Jersey. NMFS...

  18. 50 CFR 648.107 - Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... summer flounder fishery. 648.107 Section 648.107 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.107 Conservation equivalent measures for the summer flounder fishery. (a) The Regional Administrator has determined that...

  19. 78 FR 13812 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS...

  20. 75 FR 30739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  1. 75 FR 76925 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action, NMFS adjusts the quotas...

  2. 77 FR 5414 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2011 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. By this action,...

  3. 77 FR 19951 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. The State of North Carolina is...

  4. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ..., which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. In addition, the State of Maine...

  5. Pigmentation development, defects, and patterning in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica A; Hakala, Tanya F; Quist, Judith E

    2005-01-01

    Flounders offer unique opportunities to study the cytological basis of vertebrate pigmentation. Individual skin pigment cells are clearly visible at hatching, and flounder ontogeny includes a dramatic shift in overall pigmentation (from symmetrical to asymmetrical) during metamorphosis. Moreover, several types of malpigmentation occur in hatchery populations; although much effort has gone into reducing the frequency of such defects, their etiology remains poorly understood, and they have rarely been described at the cellular level. In this paper, we use light and fluorescence microscopy to describe the cytological basis of normal developmental changes and of common types of malpigmentation. We then discuss the implications of these observations for underlying patterning mechanisms. PMID:16351966

  6. Dimerization of melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) and MC5R creates a ligand-dependent signal modulation: Potential participation in physiological color change in the flounder.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Hamamoto, Akie; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Saito, Yumiko

    2016-05-01

    Vertebrates produce α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which contains an N-terminal acetyl group, and desacetyl-α-MSH, which does not contain an N-terminal acetyl group. In teleosts and amphibians, α-MSH-related peptides stimulate pigment dispersion via melanocortin receptors 1-5 (MC1R-MC5R), which are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. We previously reported an interesting phenomenon associated with physiological color changes in the skin of a flatfish, barfin flounder (bf). Specifically, pigments in xanthophores expressing only the bfMC5R gene were dispersed by both α-MSH and desacetyl-α-MSH, whereas those in melanophores expressing both the bfMC1R and bfMC5R genes were dispersed by desacetyl-α-MSH, but not by α-MSH. In this study, we examined whether heterodimers of bfMC1R and bfMC5R can act as significant inhibitory receptors for the N-terminal acetylation of α-MSH in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that bfMC1R and bfMC5R were localized together at the plasma membrane when expressed in the same cells. Indeed, after coexpression of Flag-bfMC1R and HA-bfMC5R, immunoprecipitation with anti-Flag antibodies resulted in the presence of anti-HA immunoreactivity in the precipitate, and vice versa. Importantly, cyclic AMP assays showed that cotransfection of bfMC1R with bfMC5R inhibited the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by α-MSH to a greater extent than that observed after transfection of bfMC1R alone. Of note, this inhibitory response was not caused by desacetyl-α-MSH. Thus, we show a ligand-dependent signaling through functional heterodimerization of MC1R and MC5R in mammalian cells. The ligand-selective receptor complex also provide the first mechanistic implication that may play a role in the control of color change in teleosts. PMID:27080548

  7. Windowpane flounder (Scophthalmus aquosus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) responses to cold temperature extremes in a Northwest Atlantic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine M.; Gallo, Jenine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on flatfish includes not only the effects of warming on sensitive life history stages, but also impacts from more frequent or unseasonal extreme cold temperatures. Cold weather events can affect the overwintering capabilities of flatfish near their low temperature range limits. We examined the responses of two flatfish species, the thin-bodied windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) and cold-tolerant winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), to variable winter temperatures in a Northwest Atlantic estuary using abundance and size data collected during a monitoring study, the Aquatic Biological Survey, conducted from 2002 to 2010. Winter and spring abundances of small (50 to 120 mm total length) juvenile windowpane were positively correlated with adult densities (spawning stock) and fall temperatures (thermal conditions experienced during post-settlement development for the fall-spawned cohort) of the previous year. Windowpane abundances in the estuary were significantly reduced and the smallest size class was nearly absent after several consecutive years with cold (minimum temperatures < 1 °C) winters. Interannual variation in winter flounder abundances was unrelated to the severity of winter temperatures. A Paulik diagram illustrates strong positive correlations between annual abundances of sequential winter flounder life history stages (egg, larval, Age-1 juvenile, and adult male) within the estuary, reflecting residency within the estuary through their first year of life. Temperature variables representing conditions during winter flounder larval and post-settlement development were not significant factors in multiple regression models exploring factors that affect juvenile abundances. Likewise, densities of predators known to consume winter flounder eggs and/or post-settlement juveniles were not significantly related to interannual variation in winter flounder juvenile abundances. Colder estuarine temperatures through the

  8. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  9. Properties of proteolytic toxin of Vibrio anguilolarum from diseased flounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2002-12-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed gelatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin was detected. Bacterium M2 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25°C. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55°C; was completely inactivated by application of 80°C heat for 30 min; was completely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 μg protein/g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50°C decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heated at 100°C, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flounder, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerious lymphocytes in the liver. These results showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  10. 50 CFR 648.103 - Summer flounder accountability measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder accountability measures. 648.103 Section 648.103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  12. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  13. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  14. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flounder from November 1 through April 30, per trip, must fish with nets that have a minimum mesh size of 5... Administrator). Vessels fishing under the LOA shall not fish west of the line. Vessels issued a permit under.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  16. Spatial and temporal shifts in suitable habitat of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Rooker, Jay R.

    2013-02-01

    Factors influencing suitable habitats of juvenile southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) within the Galveston Bay Complex (GBC), Texas, were assessed using generalized additive models (GAM). Fishery independent data collected with bag seines throughout the GBC from 1999 to 2009 were used to predict the probability of southern flounder occurrence. Binomial GAMs were used to assess presence/absence of southern flounder and models included temporal variables, benthic variables such as distance to habitats generated within a geographic information system, and physicochemical conditions of the water column. Separate models were generated for newly settled southern flounder, young-of-the-year (YOY) southern flounder observed in the summer, and YOY southern flounder observed in fall based on size and collection month. Factors affecting southern flounder occurrence changed seasonally, as did the corresponding shifts in the spatial distribution of suitable habitat. Temporal effects (year and month) were retained in all models. Physicochemical conditions (temperature, turbidity, and measures of environmental variability), and the presence of seagrass beds were influential for newly settled southern flounder. Distance to marine and/or freshwater sources were found to be important for YOY southern flounder in the summer and fall seasons. The abundance of brown shrimp was found to only influence the distribution of YOY southern flounder in the fall, when intermediate abundances of the potential prey item increased the occurrence of southern flounder. After model completion, the availability and spatial distribution of suitable habitat within the GBC was predicted using available environmental and spatial data for 2005. Spatial distributions of predicted suitable habitat stress the relative importance of West Bay during the newly settled stage and in the fall season, and Upper Bay during the summer and fall of the first year of life. These models demonstrate the potential

  17. Pilot attempt to grow winter flounders commercially. Completion report 15 Feb 77-30 Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, P.J.; Hoornbeek, F.K.

    1980-09-01

    The first part of this report contains the details and results of laboratory efforts to raise flounders through the early developmental stages including metamorphosis. The second part reports the efforts to grow out newly metamorphosed flounders to commercial size. In order to produce marketable sized winter flounders in heated water, it will be necessary to assure availability of brood stock and an abundance of live food both prior and subsequent to metamorphosis.

  18. 77 FR 76950 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 24151). An error was found in the summer flounder commercial quota and recreational... Register of April 23, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-9755, on page 24152, Table 1 is corrected as follows: Table 1... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2012 Summer Flounder,...

  19. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  20. Transcriptional Responses of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

  1. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and 2 weeks later) of 17 -estra-diol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial in...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  3. 78 FR 78786 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2014 Commercial Summer Flounder Quota Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...NMFS is announcing the commercial summer flounder state quotas for fishing year 2014. The 2014 summer flounder specifications were established in December 2012. This notice incorporates any previously unaccounted for overages from fishing year 2012 and any known overages to date from fishing year 2013. These commercial state quotas may change as a result of a recent stock assessment and a......

  4. 75 FR 2820 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer flounder quota to be transferred from one state to... necessitate a state quota transfer (70 FR 53969). This rule specified that such late- season quota transfers... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  5. 76 FR 17032 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... and 2011 commercial summer flounder quotas to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Vessels were authorized...

  6. 78 FR 59626 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels landing... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  7. 78 FR 75267 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Available for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder commercial...

  8. 78 FR 25003 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the State of Rhode Island; and...

  9. 78 FR 66857 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  10. 77 FR 52262 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... quota for summer flounder for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer...

  11. 75 FR 52890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... for the 2010 calendar ] year was set equal to 13,278,001 lb (6,023 mt) (74 FR 67978, December 22, 2009... United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2010 summer flounder...

  12. 77 FR 73556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  13. 77 FR 69567 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Rhode Island. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  14. 77 FR 64239 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... for the 2012 fishing year is 13,136,001 lb (5,958,490 kg) (76 FR 82189, December 30, 2011). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New York...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 summer flounder...

  15. 78 FR 76766 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  16. 78 FR 76765 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the State of Connecticut. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and announcing...

  17. 78 FR 9849 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... of its 2012 commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting...

  18. 78 FR 33 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a mechanism for summer... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia, the State of North Carolina is...

  19. 77 FR 25103 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... commercial summer flounder quota to the Commonwealth of Virginia. NMFS is adjusting the quotas and...

  20. 78 FR 70890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to vessels... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the State of New Jersey...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer flounder...

  1. Pathogenicity comparison of high and low virulent strains of Vibrio scophthalmi in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio scophthalmi is a bacterial pathogen of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and virulence is different from various strains. There is not information available on pathogenicity to olive flounder caused by different strains of V. scophthalmi. In this study, the high and low virulent strains...

  2. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management action. The MAFMC may, at any time,...

  3. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (<3 km upriver from the mouth) and stone flounder were most abundant near the mouth. Recently settled starry flounder were first detected further upstream in areas characterized by low salinity <10 and by the absence of the predatory sand shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  4. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management action. The MAFMC may, at any time,...

  5. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  6. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2015-09-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low (< 13 °C) and high (> 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (< 10 psu) had a negative effect on fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As

  7. Liver lesions in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Jamaica Bay, New York: Indications of environmental degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Herman, R.L.; Tanacredi, J.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Liver sections of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from Jamaica Bay and Shinnecock Bay, New York, in 1989, were examined microscopically to determine the pervasiveness of liver lesions observed previously in Jamaica Bay winter flounder. Neoplastic lesions were not detected in fish from Jamaica Bay or the Shinnecock Bay reference site. Twenty-two percent of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined (n = 103) had unusual vacuolization of hepatocytes and biliary pre-ductal and ductal cells (referred to hereafter as the vacuolated cell lesion). The lesion, identical to that found in 25% of Jamaica Bay winter flounder examined in 1988, has previously been identified in fishes taken from highly polluted regions of the Atlantic coast (e.g., Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, and Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut). Prevalence of the vacuolated cell lesion in winter flounder from Jamaica Bay was significantly greater (p < 0.0001) than in 102 specimens collected from Shinnecock Bay. Current scientific literature indicates vacuolated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are chronically injured and that the extent of their deformity is consistent with the action of a hepatotoxicant. The high prevalence of vacuolated hepatocytes in Jamaica Bay winter flounder and absence of the lesion in flounder from reference sites strongly supports the hypothesis that this impairment is a manifestation of a toxic condition in at least some portions of Jamaica Bay.

  8. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat. PMID:24773542

  9. Temporal trends in nitrogen isotope ratios of winter flounder collected from Rhode Island coastal systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA, including Narragansett Bay, Narrow River and three coastal lagoons. Fish collect...

  10. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of male and female olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaofei; You, Feng; Wang, Lijuan; Weng, Shenda; Wu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinwei; Zou, Yuxia; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination. PMID:25121093

  11. 50 CFR 648.65 - Windowpane flounder sub-ACL and AM for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... width of the dredge, and is the rows of dredge rings that extend from the back edge of the twine top (i... windowpane flounder catch, overage, and projection that resulted in the gear restricted area. (2) If...

  12. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Rose, K.A. )

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  13. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section. The Regional Administrator shall implement the AM in accordance with the APA... APA. If a 2010 yellowtail flounder subcomponent catch allocation was exceeded in the 2010 fishing...

  14. Direct and indirect effects of southern flounder predation on a spot population: Experimental and model analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, L.B.; Wright, R.A.; Martin, T.H.; Rice, J.A.; Rose, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    We have previously shown that southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan and Gilbert) influence the survival and size-distribution of spot (Leiostomus xanthurus Lafayette) and other small estuarine fishes in experimental ponds. In this paper, we seek to determine whether these of effects can be accounted for by direct size-dependent predation or if there is also evidence for indirect behavioral effects on spot foraging which might alter their survival or population size structure. In our experiment, spot were allowed to grow in the presence and absence of southern flounder in an experimental estuarine pond for 101 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. We also apply a recently published simulation model of the flounder-spot interaction to this experiment to independently test the model and to estimate the direct effects of flounder predation on spot survival and size structure.

  15. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  16. Decline of flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) at the margin of the species' distribution range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Lappalainen, Antti; Ådjers, Kaj; Rask, Martti; Norkko, Alf

    2015-11-01

    The Baltic Sea is undergoing large-scale environmental change due to eutrophication, climate change, over-exploitation and habitat destruction, with subsequent degradation of living conditions for many fish species. Signs of this unfavorable development are seen as population declines in species affected. We provide the first synthesis and characterization of the recent population decline in European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea, using available fishery-independent data from the Finnish coast, which is at the margin of the distribution range of this species. The objective was to document recent changes in the flounder population, identify the onset and quantify the magnitude of the change. The results showed substantial decreases in flounder numbers and biomass across the whole study area during recent decades. Based on the time series data available, flounder abundances declined by 46-97% from the 1990s to the 2000s, with top values in the mid-1990s and current low levels reached in the early 2000s. Additionally, signs of decreasing flounder size and condition were also observed. We discuss potential reasons for the development in terms of environmental change and fishing, and identify potential bottlenecks for population maintenance and mechanisms behind population change, thereby contributing to our general understanding of marginal flounder populations.

  17. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  18. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  19. Fecundity of flounder, Pleuronectes flesus, in the Baltic Sea — Reproductive strategies in two sympatric populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Dahlman, Gry

    2010-10-01

    Two sympatric flounder populations with different reproductive strategies, offshore spawning at 10-20 psu producing pelagic eggs and coastal spawning at 5-7 psu with demersal eggs respectively, inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Salinity governs the reproductive success by irregular saline water inflows and hence stock abundance and distribution. The potential fecundity (the standing stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary) was assessed for fish sampled at five locations (two for offshore spawners and three for coastal spawners) along the salinity gradient (ICES SD 25, 27/28, 28 and 29). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in r2-values of 0.698-0.894 for the respective sampling location with somatic weight or total fish length as the main predictor, and otolith weight (proxy for age) and oocyte density (by gravimetric counting) as additional predictors. Analysis by univariate regressions using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity for coastal spawning- than offshore spawning flounder (˜ 69% more oocytes for an intermediate sized fish) but no intra-population differences. Similarly, gonad dry weight was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder. Further, growth estimations indicated higher growth in offshore spawning- than in coastal spawning flounder suggesting that the coastal spawning population allocate relatively more resources into reproductive growth than somatic, potentially a result of strong selection for high fecundity of flounder producing demersal eggs due to poor egg survival for this spawning strategy. Earlier studies on fecundity of Baltic flounder are reviewed and discussed with consideration of inter-population differences questioning the idea of in general higher fecundity of flounder in the Baltic Sea.

  20. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: On December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82189), NMFS published interim specifications for the summer flounder... revised quota setting procedures for the FMP (67 FR 6877, February 14, 2002), summer flounder overages are... following Federal Register documents: 77 FR 14481 (March 12, 2012); and 77 FR 19951 (April 3, 2012). Table...

  1. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  2. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riqin; Zhang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-like factor in the supernatant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes ( P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2, (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74±0.67%.

  3. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( P<0.05). Food deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( P<0.05) and a 91.7% decrease in the 48 h fasted group ( P<0.05). Therefore, our study demonstrates that NPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  4. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  5. Differential Expression Patterns of Crystallin Genes during Ocular Development of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Lee, Young Mee; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul Ji; Park, Jong Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2012-12-01

    Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most widely cultured fish species in Korea. Although olive flounder receive attention from aquaculture and fisheries and extensive research has been conducted eye morphological change in metamorphosis, but little information was known to molecular mechanism and gene expression of eye development- related genes during the early part of eye formation period. For the reason of eyesight is the most important sense in flounder larvae to search prey, the screening and identification of expressed genes in the eye will provide useful insight into the molecular regulation mechanism of eye development in olive flounder. Through the search of an olive flounder DNA database of expressed sequence tags (EST), we found a partial sequence that was similar to crystallin beta A1 and gamma S. Microscopic observation of retinal formation correspond with the time of expression of the crystallin beta A1 and gamma S gene in the developmental stage, these result suggesting that beta A1 and gamma S play a vital role in the remodeling of the retina during eye development. The expression of crystallin beta A1 and gamma S were obviously strong in eye at all tested developing stage, it is also hypothesized that crystallin acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein aggregation during maturation and aging in the eye. PMID:25949104

  6. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  7. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology, thus providing a perfect "host/guest" interaction that simultaneously satisfies both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The results also show the relation among binding energy, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the activity. The activity is correlated to the binding energy, and in the case of the mutants we have studied the number of hydrogen bonds. The greater the number of the hydrogen bonds the greater the antifreeze activity. The roles van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic

  8. Investigation on health conditions of flounder and smelt in the Elbe estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, A.; Hölzel, F.

    1980-03-01

    Since 1958 the occurrence of flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) and smelt ( Osmerus eperlanus L.) in the lower River Elbe has shifted gradually toward the mouth of the river into the North Sea; this may be due to periodical deprivation of oxygen and fluctuating peaks of toxic nitrite concentrations. The interior organs of both fish species caught in the Elbe estuary were examined. Macroscopic inspections revealed discolouring of the liver to be most pronounced in specimens 2 3 years of age. Cross-sections of the liver demonstrated histopathological symptoms of oedematous degeneration in smelt, and extreme lipoid vacuolation in flounder increasing with size and age of the fishes. The intestine of both species investigated showed massive desquamation defects of the mucosa, occurring in smelts shortly after hatching, and in flounders after immigration into the estuary. The observations made suggest the influence of toxic compounds distributed in the aquatic environment on the health of both species.

  9. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  10. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part...

  12. Detection of alternative splice and gene duplication by RNA sequencing in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of "omics" data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 "single-nucleotide polymorphisms" were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

  13. Detection of Alternative Splice and Gene Duplication by RNA Sequencing in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenji; Wang, Jing; You, Feng; Ma, Liman; Yang, Xiao; Gao, Jinning; He, Yan; Qi, Jie; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-01-01

    Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the economic important fish in China. Sexual dimorphism, especially the different growth rates and body sizes between two sexes, makes this fish a good model to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism for both fundamental questions in evolution and applied topics in aquaculture. However, the lack of “omics” data has hindered the process. The recent advent of RNA-sequencing technology provides a robust tool to further study characteristics of genomes of nonmodel species. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for a double haploid Japanese flounder individual using Illumina sequencing. A single lane of paired-end sequencing produced more than 27 million reads. These reads were assembled into 107,318 nonredundant transcripts, half of which (51,563; 48.1%) were annotated by blastx to public protein database. A total of 1051 genes that had potential alternative splicings were detected by Chrysalis implemented in Trinity software. Four of 10 randomly picked genes were verified truly containing alternative splicing by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Notably, using a doubled haploid Japanese flounder individual allow us to analyze gene duplicates. In total, 3940 “single-nucleotide polymorphisms” were detected form 1859 genes, which may have happened gene duplicates. This study lays the foundation for structural and functional genomics studies in Japanese flounder. PMID:25512620

  14. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high k(cat), while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low k(cat), as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  15. Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths Differentiate Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus) Habitats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios were measured in otoliths of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from 18 nursery areas along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. Samples were obtained during June and July of 2002 from locations tha...

  16. THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF 17B-ESTRADIOL IN SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol has been shown to cause increased vitellogenin (VtG) concentrations in male fish. The intent of this study was to evaluate the pathobiology associated with exposure to 17 -estradiol (E2) on liver, gonad, and kidney tissues of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Juve...

  17. 50 CFR 648.64 - Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Yellowtail flounder sub-ACLs and AMs for the scallop fishery. 648.64 Section 648.64 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE...

  18. Stabel Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Otoliths from Juvenile and Adult Winter Flounder

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to determine if stable carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios in otoliths could be used to differentiate the locations that serve as important nursery areas for winter flounder along the Rhode Island, USA coastline. In recent years the populations ...

  19. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  20. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (kcat) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high kcat, while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low kcat, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  2. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES TO ASSSESS HABITAT QUALITY IN RHODE ISLAND'S COASTAL LAGOONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used growth rates of juvenile winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, to assess habitat quality in 3 of Rhode Island's coastal salt ponds that had differing levels of nutrients and human development. In each pond, 1 m2 cages were placed in vegetated and unvegetated habi...

  3. Intestinal helminth parasites in flounder Platichthys flesus from the River Thames: an infracommunity analysis.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Hernandez, S; Whitfield, P J

    2004-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken of intestinal helminth communities in flounder Platichthys flesus from two sites on the River Thames. A comparison was made between helminth community richness and diversity from these sites at the component and infracommunity levels. At the component community level, a richer and more diverse parasite community was found in flounder from the Tilbury location (marine influence) than that from the Lots Road location (freshwater influence). At the infracommunity level, more parasite species and parasite individuals per host were found at Lots Road and the percentage of similarity values were low at both locations. Helminth species with high prevalence values in the parasite communities of the flounder are the dominant species in any individual fish, harbouring multi-specific infections. The presence of more invertebrate species, which are intermediate hosts in the helminth life cycle in the Thames, fish vagility and the high prevalence and abundance values of Pomphorhynchus laevis in the flounder, may explain the differences between the two locations. PMID:15575985

  4. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE...

  5. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures. 648.110 Section 648.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  10. 76 FR 29670 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... (76 FR 23206). The difference is 590 lb (268 kg) less of summer flounder to be transferred; therefore..., Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA403 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States;...

  11. 76 FR 23206 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Sea Bass Fishery Management Plan, which was published on December 17, 1993 (58 FR 65936), provided a... included in the quota transfer effective April 4, 2011 (76 FR 19277). This correction accounts for 2,805 lb... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  12. 78 FR 72585 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... for the 2013 fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  13. 78 FR 51096 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... fishing year is 11,793,596 lb (5,349,575 kg) (77 FR 76942, December 31, 2012). The percent allocated to... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder Fishery; Commercial Quota Harvested for the Commonwealth of... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2013 summer...

  14. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... specifications for these fisheries was provided in the proposed specifications (77 FR 68723; November 16, 2012... rule (77 FR 68723). Comment 1: One commenter suggested that the quotas should be reduced by 50 percent... the 2011 determination that summer flounder has been rebuilt are based on the best available...

  15. USING WINTER FLOUNDER GROWTH RATES AND STABLE ISOTOPES TO ASSESS HABITAT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used winter flounder growth rates and stable isotopes to assess habitat quality across an anthropogenic gradient in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Cages (1 m2) were placed in the Providence River which had the highest nutrient concentrations and greatest development, Prudence...

  16. Difficult Cases in Career Counseling: IV-Floundering and Occupational Moratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Mangicaro, Laura L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents fourth in series of articles about difficult counseling problems for career counselors. Focuses on young adults in career transition, underscoring their needs for self-understanding. Considers underlying causes of floundering behavior and reasons that propel clients to retreat to career and psychological moratorium. Notes resource for…

  17. Differentially expressed genes after viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Do, Jung Wan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Jung, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2016-09-25

    A strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during epizootics in South Korean. This strain showed high mortality to olive flounder in in vivo challenge experiment. The complete genomic RNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of glycoprotein revealed that this isolate was grouped into genotype IVa of genus Novirhabdovirus. Expression profile of genes in olive flounder was analyzed at day 1 and day3 after infection with this VHSV isolate by using cDNA microarray containing olive flounder 13K cDNA clones. Microarray analysis revealed 785 up-regulated genes and 641 down-regulated genes by at least two-fold in virus-infected fish compared to healthy control groups. Among 785 up-regulated genes, we identified seven immune response-associated genes, including the interferon (IFN)-induced 56-kDa protein (IFI56), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), cluster of differentiation 83 (CD83), α-globin (HBA), VHSV-induced protein-6 (VHSV6), and cluster of differentiation antigen 9 (CD9). Our results confirm previous reports that even virulent strain of VHSV induces expression of genes involved in protective immunity against VHSV. PMID:27599933

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in the muscle tissues of young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems along the coast of Rhode Island, USA. These systems included three coastal lagoons (Ni...

  19. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jung-Ha; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, GunDo; Chung, Jongkyeong; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish. PMID:18578892

  1. Wild and hatchery populations of Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) compared using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Byun, Soon Gyu; Kim, Yi Cheong; Lee, Jang Wook; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) is an important sport and food fish found around the margins of the North Pacific. Aquaculture production of this species in Korea has increased because of its commercial value. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of starry flounder populations. In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic starry flounder DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery starry flounder populations in Korea. All loci were readily amplified and demonstrated high allelic diversity, with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 18 in the wild population and from 2 to 12 in the farmed population. A total of 136 alleles were detected at the 12 microsatellite loci in the two populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.62 and 0.68, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.67 and 0.75, respectively, in the wild samples. These results indicate lower genetic variability in the hatchery population as compared to the wild population. Significant shifts in allelic frequencies were detected at eight loci, which resulted in a small but significant genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.043, P < 0.05). Further studies with additional starry flounder sample collections are needed for comprehensive determinations of the genetic varieties between the wild and hatchery populations. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future population genetic studies, monitoring the genetic variation for successful aquaculture management and the preservation of aquatic biodiversity. PMID:22272127

  2. Molecular cloning and sexually dimorphic expression of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Weng, Shenda; You, Feng; Fan, Zhaofei; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia

    2016-08-01

    WNT4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4) is regarded as a key regulator of gonad differentiation in mammalians. However, the potential role of wnt4 in teleosts during gonad differentiation and development is still unclear. The full-length cDNA sequence of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The wnt4 ORF contains 1059 nucleotides, encoding a protein with a signal peptide domain and a wnt family domain. Expression in tissues of adult flounders was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that wnt4 was widely expressed in multiple tissues of flounders, and the expression level was significantly higher in ovary than in testis. Then wnt4 expression pattern was investigated during gonadal differentiation period and at gonadal development stages (I-V). The results showed the expression levels were significantly higher in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. Notably, wnt4 expression had a very significant increase before testis differentiation. At gonad different developmental stages, there was no expression signal at stage I or stage II, and the expression of wnt4 was much stronger in ovary than in testis at stage III and stage IV, followed by a faint expression in stage V in both sexes. Our results imply that cloned wnt4 could be wnt4a. It is a sex-related gene and its expression pattern in gonadal differentiation period of flounder is different from that in mammalians or other teleosts. Flounder wnt4 might play more important role in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. PMID:26920537

  3. Isolation, characterization and seasonal variations in the concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine isodipeptide in the blood plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed Central

    Squires, E J; Feltham, L A

    1980-01-01

    A ninhydrin-positive compound was isolated from the plasma of the winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and identified as the isodipeptide N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine. Wide seasonal variations in plasma concentration of this compound are found in the male flounder, whereas it is present only in trace amounts in the plasma of the female flounder throughout the year. In the male flounder the plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine rises from January to a peak in May and June. It is during these latter months that the flounder spawn. After spawning, the plasma concentration of the isodipeptide decreases to low basal values in October. These changes in plasma concentration of N-epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine may be related to changes in testes weight, spermatogenesis and spawning activity of the winter flounder. PMID:7387633

  4. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  5. Use of imaging analysis for modeling growth and development of hatchery-reared southern flounder and Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, and Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, are prime candidates for aquaculture. Hatchery methods have been developed for each species, but rearing larvae through metamorphosis is difficult. We investigated the early life history of these fishes using ...

  6. COMPARISON OF A REFERENCE STRAIN AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' AS FOOD FOR WINTER FLOUNDER (PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reference strain and four commercially available geographical strains of Artemia nauplii were each tested as a diet for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae. The Reference strain was provided by the Artemia Reference Center, Ghent, Belgium. The geographical st...

  7. Assessment of Dredge-induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  8. Assessment of Dredging-Induced Sedimentation Effects on Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Hatching Success: Results of Laboratory Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically of significant commercial and recreational value, winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) stocks have declined steadily over the last 20 years and are currently at an all-time low. Although overfishing and climate change have been implicated, habitat alterat...

  9. Kudoa septempunctata-induced gastroenteritis in humans after flounder consumption in Japan: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Yuichiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Toyokawa, Takao; Nakamura, Naomi; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Raw fish consumption is increasing worldwide. Since around the year 2000, western regions of Japan have reported a foodborne disease of unknown cause that occurred after the consumption of flounder. In October 2010, a particularly large outbreak was reported in these regions among individuals who consumed flounder fish that had been raised in aquaculture systems. The median incubation period was 5 h (range, 4-19 h), and the most frequently reported symptom was diarrhea (80%). The risk estimate of the consumption of flounder was significantly higher than that of the development of symptoms (odds ratio=9.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-∞). According to a trace-back investigation, all of the flounder responsible for the outbreak were raised in aquaculture systems. Microscopic examination revealed that the median amount of Kudoa septempunctata present in the muscle of flounder fish from the aquaculture farm was 4.5×10(3) spores/g (range, 1.0×10(3)-9.6×10(6) spores/g). The number of K. septempunctata spores required for the development of illness, as estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, was 7.2×10(7) spores/g; therefore, thus this might be the minimum ingestion threshold for the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. As a public health measure, the current study results should be referred to for the prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms related to the consumption of flounder; the national public health authority has disseminated these results. We concluded that K. septempunctata-contaminated flounder fish were associated with the gastrointestinal symptoms of this recent outbreak. PMID:25420663

  10. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  11. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  12. Dynamics of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, seasonal migrations based on ultrasonic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Able, Kenneth W.; Grothues, Thomas M.

    2007-08-01

    Migrations of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, to and from estuaries to the continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) occur seasonally but their dynamics are poorly understood. Ultrasonic telemetry, both passive and active, was used during 2003-2005 to determine timing and rate of juvenile and adult summer flounder (268-535 mm TL) migrating to and from the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary in southern New Jersey. Additionally, 7 years of inner continental shelf surveys off New Jersey were used to assess complementary seasonal movements. Most tagged fish emigrated from the estuary between July and September, though emigration lasted into December and appeared to be influenced by a number of factors. In July 2004, more tagged fish emigrated, at increased rates of movement, at low barometric pressure during a storm event. Trawl collections on the inner shelf demonstrated the same approximate immigration times as seen with telemetry. Later in the fall, increased numbers of tagged summer flounder emigrated from the estuary when dissolved oxygen was decreasing. Fall trawl surveys showed increased numbers of fish on the inner shelf when dissolved oxygen was decreasing in the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary, supporting the telemetry results. Fish emigrated from the estuary during the day and night but nighttime movements were in deeper water at slightly slower rates of movement. Exit and re-entry also occurred during the fall emigration. Ultrasonically tagged individuals demonstrated homing by returning to the same estuary, in March through June, in the second and third year of the study (39-6%, respectively). In summary, immigration may result from homing for a large proportion of summer flounder. Emigration may be associated with storms on an episodic scale, and dissolved oxygen and temperature on a seasonal scale.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  14. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach.

    PubMed

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  15. VITELLOGENIN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN MALE SUMMER FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) were given two injections (initially and two weeks later) of 17 b-estradiol (E2) totaling 0.2 (2 x 0.1), 2.0 (2 x 1.0) or 20.0 (2 x 10.0) mg E2/kg body weight. Blood and tissue samples were collected 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the initial ...

  16. Further observation of the spermatozoa of lefteye flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by electronic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Tian; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Xie, Jia-Lin; Jiang, Ming

    2002-06-01

    The spermatozoon ultrastructure of left-eye flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, was observed by electronic microscopy, and shown to consist of head, midpiece and tail. Some nuclear vacuoles were observed inside and along the outer part of the nucleus and double-membrane structures were observed between the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane. The sperm sleeve consisted of four independent parts and had more than four mitochondria. Along the sperm tail there were wing-like lateral fins.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jing-Yun; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2014-08-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) in mammals is known to be involved in antiviral response. In this study, we studied the structure, mRNA tissue distribution and regulation of IRF9 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The cDNA sequence of IRF9 is 3305 bp long, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1308 bp that encodes a peptide of 435 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence shares 33.7-72.0% identity to other fish IRF9s. Japanese flounder IRF9 possesses a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF association domain (IAD), two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and a proline-rich domain (PRD). The IRF9 transcripts were detectable in all examined tissues of healthy Japanese flounders, with higher levels in the head kidney, kidney, liver and spleen. The IRF9 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle when challenged with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). The up-regulations were stronger and arose earlier in the case of poly I:C treatment in most tested organs in a 7-day time course, with maximum increases ranging from 1.37- to 8.59-fold and peak time points from 3 h to 3 d post injection depending on different organs, relative to those in the case of LCDV treatment which ranged from 1.32- to 3.21-fold and from 18 h to 3 d post injection, respectively. The highest and earliest inductions were detected in the spleen in both challenge cases, while the inductions by LCDV in the muscle were quite faint. These results demonstrate a role of Japanese flounder IRF9 in the host's antiviral responses. PMID:24837327

  19. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  20. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P < 0.05). Daily growth rates of flounder larvae were higher (0.391 mm) from the high CO2 concentration (1297 μatm) than those (0.361 mm and 0.360 mm) from the lower ones (988 and 574 μatm).The measurement on some chemical elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr) in fish tissue also revealed the increasing tendency of element concentration with increasing CO2 in seawater, although statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist with environmental impact assessments. From 1935 to 1980, the annual commercial landings of winter flounder in New England ranged from 6000 to 15000 t; the sport catch exceeded the commercial catch in some years. Winter flounder are found in waters with temperatures of 0 to 25 /degree/C and they usually spawn at 0 to 3 /degree/C. Reported fecundities are 0.5 to 1.5 million eggs per female. Metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete in 49-80 days, depending on temperature. Juveniles remain in or near shallow natal waters for much of their first 2 years. Adults of some populations move more than 3 miles offshore to cooler waters in summer. These adults live in shallow inshore waters in winter and early spring. Adult winter flounder feed largely on annelids, cnidariids, and mollusks. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianlei; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Peng

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5'-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder. PMID:25431413

  4. In Vitro Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata Spores Infecting the Muscle of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Funaguma, Naoko; Kobayashi, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite infecting the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), has been recently reported to be the causative agent of a type of food poisoning in humans. Patients exhibited acute diarrhea and vomiting after ingestion of the raw flesh of infected flounder. A recent increase in the number of food-poisoning cases has prompted us to develop a control strategy of this parasite. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of several temperature and chemical treatments for inactivating K. septempunctata spores in vitro using the vital staining assay with the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI). Screening tests of treatment methods against K. septempunctata suggested that 25% ethanol for 5 min, 80°C for 10 s, limonene at 10 μL/mL for 5 min, and salinities at 0‰ and 160‰ for 5 min were effective for killing spores. To verify toxicity loss in K. septempunctata spores after the treatments, tight junction barrier integrity assays with Caco-2 cells were conducted. The results of the Caco-2 assays corresponded well with those of the Hoechst 33342-PI staining assay. Further studies are required to determine a practical treatment procedure for inactivating spores considering the treatment application in the production process of cultured olive flounder. PMID:26540185

  5. Measuring some flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) innate immune responses to be incorporated in effect biomonitoring concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    For an implementation of innate immune responses of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in an integrated biological effect monitoring concept, leucocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, head kidney and spleen, and analysed for their capacity to mount a respiratory burst response upon phorbol ester stimulation. Responding cells were identified by reduced nitro-blue-tetrazolium salt deposits and by dihydro-rhodamine fluorescence in light microscope and flow cytometric analysis. Responding cells were found in head kidney derived cell suspensions rather than in peripheral blood or spleen. Parallel cytometric and microscopic analysis indicated that responding cells had a granulocyte or monocyte morphology, were alpha-naphtyl-esterase or myeloperoxidase positive and in flow cytometry exhibited a characteristic forward and side scatter (FSC/SSC) pattern. These cells represented 30-40% of head kidney derived cell suspensions and only 4-5 % of peripheral blood and spleen. In order to reduce sampling effort in field studies, leucocyte cell suspensions derived from flounder head kidney could be used in respiratory burst assays without further enrichment protocols. This paper combines, for the first time, conventional and cytometric analysis of phagocytes derived from flounder peripheral blood and head kidney.

  6. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/). PMID:26096292

  7. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus): molecular characterization, distribution and effects of fasting.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is primarily related to reproductive processes in vertebrates. However other physiological roles, including functions in food intake regulation and energy status, have been demonstrated for GnRH in animals. The ten amino acid active peptide is relatively conserved throughout chordates, more specifically in fish species. Teleosts generally have at least two variants of GnRH present in their genomes. GnRH2 (commonly termed chicken-GnRH) is common to all fish, whereas other prevalent forms include GnRH1 and/or GnRH3 (also known as salmon-GnRH). The mRNAs of all three forms were identified in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder GnRH1 appears to be ubiquitously and strongly expressed throughout the brain. GnRH2 mRNA is highly expressed in the optic tectum/thalamus. Finally, GnRH3 mRNA is expressed throughout the brain, but not in the pituitary, with apparent highest expression in the telencephalon/preoptic area. Flounder GnRH1 mRNA is found in most peripheral tissues examined, including the foregut, midgut and gonads. GnRH2 mRNA appears to be expressed throughout the periphery, with apparent highest transcript expression in male gonads. Finally, winter flounder GnRH3 transcript is found at low levels in the skin, heart, and gonads. The effect of fasting on the expression of each of the three isoforms was assessed. Fasting reduces GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNA expression in the optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus, and telencephalon/preoptic area, respectively, compared with fed fish. GnRH1 mRNA expression does not appear to be altered by feeding status. GnRH mRNAs do not seem to regulate food intake peripherally through the gut based on our preliminary findings. Our preliminary results suggest that the GnRH system could play a central role in food intake regulation of winter flounder. PMID:23298570

  8. A New PCR-Based Method Shows That Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) Consume Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum))

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jackie L.; Fitzgerald, Sean P.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Frisk, Michael G.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  9. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    PubMed

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species. PMID:24454797

  10. Spatial patterns in markers of contaminant exposure, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and immunological response in juvenile winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    McElroy, A E; Hice, L A; Frisk, M G; Purcell, S L; Phillips, N C; Fast, M D

    2015-06-01

    Inshore winter flounder (Pseudoplueronectes americanus) populations in NY, USA have reached record low numbers in recent years, and recruitment into the fishery appears to be limited by survival of post-settlement juvenile fish. In order to identify cellular pathways associated with site-specific variation in condition and mortality, we examined differential mRNA expression in juvenile winter flounder collected from six different bays across a gradient in human population density and sewage inputs. Illumina sequencing of pooled samples of flounder from contrasting degraded sites and less impacted sites was used to guide our choice of targets for qPCR analysis. 253 transcripts of >100bp were differentially expressed, with 60% showing strong homology to mostly teleost sequences within the NCBI database. Based on these data, transcripts representing nine genes of interest associated with contaminant exposure, immune response and glucose and glycogen metabolism were examined by qPCR in individual flounder from each site. Statistically significant site-specific differences were observed in expression of all but one gene, although patterns in expression were complex with only one (vitellogenin), demonstrating a west to east gradient consistent with known loadings of municipal sewage effluent. Principal components analysis (PCA) identified relationships among the genes evaluated. Our data indicate that juvenile winter flounder are responding to estrogenic chemicals in more urbanized coastal bays, and suggests potential mechanistic links between immune response, contaminant exposure and energy metabolism. PMID:25946204

  11. The effects of combined dietary probiotics Lactococcus lactis BFE920 and Lactobacillus plantarum FGL0001 on innate immunity and disease resistance in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Sun-Min; Kim, Hui Kwon; Kim, Oi-Jin; Lee, Jae Il; Suh, Byung Sun; Do, Hyung Ki; Lee, Kwan Hee; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Song, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a dietary probiotic mixture containing Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis BFE920 isolated from bean sprout and autochthonous Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum FGL0001 originally isolated from the hindgut of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated for the purpose of improving the probiotic effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 on the olive flounder. The immunostimulatory, disease protective, and weight gain effects of Lc. lactis BFE920 were significantly improved when olive flounder (average weight 37.5±1.26 g) were fed the probiotic mixture (log10 7.0 CFU each/g feed pellet) for 30 days. Flounder fed the mixture showed improved skin mucus lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity of innate immune cells compared to flounder fed a single probiotic agent or a control diet. While the levels of neutrophil activity in flounder fed the single probiotic agent or the mixture were similar, they were significantly higher than levels in a control group. Additionally, probiotic-fed flounder showed significantly increased expressions of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to the control group. Following a 30-day period of being fed probiotics or a control diet, the olive flounder were challenged with an i.p. injection of Streptococcus iniae (log10 6.0 CFU/fish). The groups fed the mixed probiotics, Lc. lactis BFE920, Lb. plantarum FGL0001, and the control diet had survival rates of 55%, 45%, 35%, and 20%, respectively. Flounder fed the probiotic mixture gained 38.1±2.8% more body weight compared to flounder fed the control diet during the 30-day study period. These data strongly suggest that a mixture of Lc. lactis BFE920 and Lb. plantarum FGL0001 may serve as an immunostimulating feed additive useful for disease protection in the fish farming industry. PMID:25449382

  12. Comparison of common persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Vistula (Poland) and Douro (Portugal) River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Komar-Szymczak, Katarzyna

    2014-04-15

    Groups of flounder (Platichthys flesus) females were collected in 2011 from the Vistula River and the Duoro River estuaries and corresponding reference sites in the southern Baltic Sea and Portuguese coast of the Atlantic Ocean to measure and compare the levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The estuaries' sediments were also investigated. Several differences were found in the POPs between the estuaries and between the two marine regions, which were highlighted by PCA. The Vistula River estuary POPs, significantly higher than in the Douro River estuary, were dominated by DDTs followed by PCBs. PBDEs levels, indifferent between the estuaries, were relatively low. The POP levels in flounder and sediment evaluated against environmental assessment criteria (EACs) indicated that none of the measured contaminants for which EAC had been established exceeded the criterion, except for CB-118 in flounder from the Vistula River estuary. PMID:24492155

  13. Variation in otolith macrostructure of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus): A method to discriminate between wild and released fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, S.; Isshiki, T.

    2007-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a method to discriminate between wild and hatchery-produced Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, based on variations in otolith macrostructure. Otoliths of wild flounder were more elliptical than those of hatchery-produced fish, whereas otolith area and marginal coarseness showed no clear differences. Otolith morphometry did not vary significantly with water temperature or feeding conditions in rearing experiments. Reduced ellipticity in the otoliths of hatchery-produced fish could be caused by biotic and abiotic conditions after release. Throughout the study, it was found that otoliths of Japanese flounder reared at 15 and 20 °C regimes showed opaque zones regardless of feeding condition, while otolith of fish reared at 25 °C had translucent zones. The potential of thermal marks and secondary zones as a new mass-marking system is presented.

  14. Assessment of the European flounder responses to chemical stress in the English Channel, considering biomarkers and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Célie; Galland, Claire; Pichereau, Vianney; Sanchez, Wilfried; Riso, Ricardo; Labonne, Maylis; Amara, Rachid; Charrier, Grégory; Fournier, Michel; Laroche, Jean

    2015-06-30

    A multi-biomarker approach was developed to evaluate responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in three contrasted estuaries over the English Channel: the Canche (pristine site), Tamar (heavy metals and PAHs contamination) and Seine (heavily pollution with a complex cocktail of contaminants). The condition factor and several biomarkers of the immune system, antioxidant enzymes, energetic metabolism and detoxification processes were investigated in young-of-the-year (0+) and one-year-old (1+) flounder. Results underlined the difference between the pristine site and the Seine estuary which showed a lower condition factor, a modulation of the immune system, a higher Cytochrome C oxidase activity, and an up-regulation of BHMT expression. The moderate biomarker responses in the Tamar fish could be linked to the specific contamination context of this estuary. Flounder life history traits were analyzed by otolith microchemistry, in order to depict how the fish use their habitat and thus respond to chemical stress in estuaries. PMID:25499967

  15. Selective agars for the isolation of Streptococcus iniae from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and its cultural environment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; Kanai, K

    1999-05-01

    Two kinds of selective agar were developed for the isolation of Streptococcus iniae, the causal agent of streptococcosis, from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and from culture tanks in flounder farms. The selective agars were heart infusion agar with added thallium acetate and oxlinic acid (TAOA), and colistin sulphate and oxolinic acid (CSOA). For samples containing various bacterial flora, selective agars were supplemented with defibrinated horse blood in order to distinguish beta-haemolytic colonies of Strep. iniae. Streptococcus iniae was quantitatively isolated from the brain and kidney of diseased flounders in pure culture. Two-thirds of isolates picked up from selective blood agars inoculated with intestinal samples were identified as Strep. iniae. The bacterial colony numbers of deposits and water from culture tanks on selective blood agars were about 10-10(5) times smaller than those on control heart infusion agar; Strep. iniae was isolated from few deposit and water samples. PMID:10347871

  16. A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Seung Min; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeong, Joon Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic. PMID:26921543

  17. A low molecular weight peptide from snow mold with epitopic homology to the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Newsted, W J; Polvi, S; Papish, B; Kendall, E; Saleem, M; Koch, M; Hussain, A; Cutler, A J; Georges, F

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for a small size protein (ca. 3500 kDa) exhibiting epitopic homology to the Atlantic winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) is found in the snow molds Coprinus psychromorbidus, Myriosclerotinia borealis, and Typhula incarnata. The protein shows strong cross-reactivity with antisera specific for the flounder AFP. Preliminary studies suggest that the protein is synthesized in response to lowering the culture temperature, and that it is membrane associated and, therefore, may function in an analogous capacity to the fish AFP. Also, the protein is shown to have antifreeze properties as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging experiments. PMID:7818849

  18. The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  20. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  1. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yong; Awji, Elias Gebru; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2016-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder and its activity against pathogenic bacteria of olive flounder were investigated. 2. Intramuscular administration (12.5 or 125 mg/kg, n = 160) and HPLC analysis of sera were used. 3. Rapid absorption (Tmax 2.6 and 2.2 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 15.52 and 10.42 h; MRT, 18.79 and 14.44 h), and dose-proportional exposure (AUC0-∞, 273.69 and 2755.37 h. μg/ml) were observed after 12.5 and 125 mg/kg doses. 4. The withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium from muscle plus skin of olive flounder (n =40, water temperature, 23 °C) was 12 d (276 degree days). 5. Amoxicillin sodium had small MICs against Streptococcus iniae (0.008-0.06 μg/ml) and Streptococcus parauberis (0.03-1.0 μg/ml), whereas higher concentrations were required to inhibit Edwardsiella tarda isolates (0.06-16 μg/ml). 6. While large AUC0-24 h/MIC90 and Cmax/MIC90 ratios were obtained for S. iniae and S. parauberis, with drug concentrations in serum greater than MICs for the entire dosing interval (T > MIC90 of 100%), the lower dose (12.5 mg/kg) could not achieve target values of the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for E. tarda isolates, suggesting the need for higher doses to combat pathogenic bacteria with large MICs. PMID:26407038

  3. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  4. Transport and retention of flounder larvae ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard nursery (Ems estuary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Zwanette

    2001-05-01

    Variability in tidal transport of larval flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dollard was investigated to estimate the quantity of larvae that are annually retained in the nursery based on simultaneous measurements of water transport and larval concentrations. Sampling was done three times per hour in the main channel in the Dollard, during 35 tidal cycles divided over 1993, 1994 and 1995. In 1993, additional sampling was carried out simultaneously during eight tidal cycles in a subsidiary channel. Larval concentrations showed marked tidal variations at all time scales and indicated a patchy spatial distribution. The estimated net tidal transport of larvae was not correlated to the net tidal transport of water. However, a higher net water transport coincided with higher retention, defined as the percentage of net larval transport divided by the flood larval transport. Also, relatively longer duration of the flood than the ebb period (tidal asymmetry) was positively correlated with both net tidal water transport and larval retention. The wind direction significantly affected the net water transport at the cross-section in the main channel, whereas wind speed was not significant. The flood transport, but not the ebb or net transport, was significantly higher during spring tide following full moon than during the other lunar phases. The net tidal transport of larvae was much more variable in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995, frequently resulting in ebb surpluses in larval transport. Despite higher mean concentrations, the estimated net larval input was lower in 1994 than in 1993. This corresponded neither with the observed abundance estimates of juvenile flounder in the Dollard in these two years, nor with the abundance index obtained from routine surveys. The total larval input better reflects the juvenile flounder abundance. Variability in water circulation, influenced by varying wind conditions, and its effect on larval transport and retention is an important source

  5. Physiology of acute silver toxicity in the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) in seawater.

    PubMed

    Hogstrand, C; Ferguson, E A; Galvez, F; Shaw, J R; Webb, N A; Wood, C M

    1999-10-01

    Physiological effects of exposure to silver (AgClnn-1; 250 micrograms Ag l-1 or 1000 micrograms Ag l-1) in seawater fish were investigated using adult starry flounders. While all fish survived up to 10 days in 250 micrograms Ag l-1, flounders started to die after day 4 in 1000 micrograms l-1. Dose-dependent increases in plasma and hepatic silver concentrations showed that silver was available for uptake. There were minimal negative effects on hematological parameters, acid-base status, and blood gases. Plasma ammonia showed a pronounced (three- to four-fold), but transient increase in flounders exposed to either 250 micrograms Ag l-1 or 1000 micrograms Ag l-1. Whole body ammonia and acid equivalent efflux measurements indicated that ammonia retention was due to a combination of stimulated production and inhibited excretion. In the 1000-microgram Ag l-1 group there was a similar transient increase in plasma [magnesium], which was restored by day 4. In contrast, plasma chloride and sodium levels increased gradually towards the point when fish began to die. At 250 micrograms Ag l-1, the Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity of the intestine was unaffected but there was a two-fold increase in branchial Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. The latter effect was interpreted as compensation for an elevated chloride and sodium load. The increases in plasma chloride and sodium concentrations were accompanied by a marked suppression of drinking, thereby indicating that acute silver toxicity was likely caused by a combination of elevated electrolyte concentrations and dehydration. PMID:10595315

  6. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuyan; Guo, Huarong; Xiao, Qin; Su, Feng; Yin, Licheng

    2007-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder (FG cell line) was examined in this study. It was found that the exposure of FG cells to abamectin caused the decreases of both cell growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the increase of intracellular O2 - content. It was proposed that the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in FG cells caused the accumulation of O2 - content in FG cells, leading to the change of cell morphology and even the death of cells. The results showed that FG cell line is suitable for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of abamectin.

  7. A comparison of physical and rheological properties of Arrowtooth Flounder protein made using three different extraction processes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble(s) and insoluble(s) fish protein powders were made from arrowtooth flounder (AF) fillets using three methods, which were heating and fractionation (HF), enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), and alkali protein extraction (AE). The AF powders were compared and physical, chemical and rheological properti...

  8. Characterization of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD5 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Yongli

    2012-03-01

    As one member of winged helix domain transcription factors, FoxD5 was reported to be a trunk organizer. Recent study showed that zebrafish foxd5 is expressed in the somites. To further understand the function of FoxD5 in fish muscle development, the FoxD5 gene was isolated from flounder. Its expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization, while its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD, was analyzed by ectopic expression. It showed that flounder FoxD5 was firstly expressed in the tailbud, adaxial cells, and neural plate of the head. In flounder embryo, FoxD5 is expressed not only in forebrain but also in somite cells that will form muscle in the future. When flounder FoxD5 was over-expressed in zebrafish by microinjection, the expression of zebrafish MyoD in the somites was reduced, suggesting that FoxD5 is involved in myogenesis by regulating the expression of MyoD.

  9. Quantitative comparison of the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos and adult tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Tan, Xungang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin are myogenic regulatory factors that play important roles during myogenesis. It is thought that MyoD and Myf5 are required for myogenic determination, while myogenin is important for terminal differentiation and lineage maintenance. To better understand the function of myogenic regulatory factors in muscle development of flounder, an important economic fish in Asia, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the expression patterns of MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin at early stages of embryo development, and in different tissues of the adult flounder. The results show that, Myf5 is the first gene to be expressed during the early stages of flounder development, followed by MyoD and myogenin. The expressions of Myf5, yoD, and myogenin at the early stages have a common characteristic: expression gradually increased to a peak level, and then gradually decreased to an extremely low level. In the adult flounder, the expression of the three genes in muscle is much higher than that in other tissues, indicating that they are important for muscle growth and maintenance of grown fish. During embryonic stages, the expression level of MyoD might serve an important role in the balance between muscle cell differentiation and proliferation. When the MyoD expression is over 30% of its highest level, the muscle cells enter the differentiation stage.

  10. EFFECTS OF LARVAL STOCKING DENSITY ON LABORATORY-SCALE AND COMMERICAL-SCALE PRODUCTION OF SUMMER FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS DENTATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three experiments investigating larval stocking densities of summer flounder from hatch to metamorphosis, Paralichthys dentatus, were conducted at laboratory-scale (75-L aquaria) and at commercial scale (1,000-L tanks). Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities...

  11. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4-5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  12. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  13. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  14. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  15. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Edwardsiellosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuguo; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4–5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection. PMID:27420049

  16. Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

  17. IMPACT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL, AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS OF WINTER FLOUNDER LARVAE: A MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) is a dominant commercial fish in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and yet factors controlling its recruitment remain unclear. An experiment was conducted with six 13-m3 land-based mesocosms (5 m deep) from February to April 1997 to a...

  18. Distribution, condition, and growth of newly settled southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) in the Galveston Bay Estuary, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lindsay A.; Rooker, Jay R.; Kraus, Richard T.; Holt, G. Joan

    2008-08-01

    Several flatfish species, including southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruit to estuaries during early life. Therefore, evaluation of estuarine sites and habitats that serve as nurseries is critical to conservation and management. The present study used density data in conjunction with biochemical condition and growth measurements to evaluate settlement sites used by southern flounder in the Galveston Bay Estuary (GBE). In 2005, beam-trawl collections were made in three major sections of the GBE (East Bay, Galveston Bay, West Bay). Three sites were sampled in each bay. Within each sampling site, replicate collections were taken from three habitats: 1) marsh edge (< 1 m depth), 2) intermediate zone (10-20 m from marsh interface; ˜ 1 m depth), and 3) bay zone (typically > 100 m from marsh interface; depth > 1 m). Average size of southern flounder collected was 12-19 mm standard length, and peak densities occurred in January and February. Catch data indicated that densities of southern flounder were significantly greater in East Bay (2.75 per 100 m 2) than in Galveston Bay (0.91 per 100 m 2) or in West Bay (0.45 per 100 m 2). Densities were statistically similar among habitats. Otolith-based estimates of age indicated that the majority of southern flounder collected were 35-45 days old and derived from early December to early January hatch-dates. Growth rates were similar among bays and among habitats, with the average growth rate being 0.40 mm day - 1 (range: 0.21-0.76 mm day - 1 ). RNA:DNA was above the established baseline value for nutritional stress, indicating that newly settled southern flounder in the GBE were in relatively high condition. Habitat-specific differences in RNA:DNA ratios were not observed; however, ratios were significantly lower in West Bay (average 8.0) than in East Bay (average 9.5) or in Galveston Bay (average 9.8), suggesting the condition of new recruits may vary spatially within the GBE. Findings from the current study

  19. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-01-01

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family. PMID:26109358

  20. Identification of endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhe-Zhe; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2016-03-01

    The mRNA level of the endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene (Jf_ENDOD1) in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus kidney was significantly increased after injection of formalin-killed bacteria cells (FKC) in the previous microarray study. ENDOD1 is a member of the DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases family, and its role in fish immunity has not been reported. The open reading frame of Jf_ENDOD1 cDNA was 912 bp, encoding 303 amino acids. The first 27 amino acids were predicted to be a signal peptide and the mature Jf_ENDOD1 was calculated as 32 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Jf_ENDOD1 showed 76% identity to that of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Transcripts of Jf_ENDOD1 were marginally detected in all sampled tissues from healthy fish, while they were significantly detected in brain, kidney, spleen and intestine at 6 h post FKC injection. Jf_ENDOD1 recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli showed DNase activity. Furthermore, to evaluate the DNase activities in vivo, total proteins from Japanese flounder kidney and spleen were extracted at 12, 24 and 72 h post Edwardsiella tarda FKC injection. The DNase activity of extracted protein was higher in treated fish than in untreated fish. Since the mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated after the FKC treatment, Jf_ENDOD1 might be responsible for the activities. PMID:26784919

  1. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  2. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Ilona; Dabrowska, Henryka; Góra, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were examined in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and sediment in three southern Baltic Sea sites, representing a range of exposure conditions, in order to evaluate spatial differences in PBDE contamination. Additionally, PBDEs were measured in muscle, liver, and gonads of flounder from one of the sites in order to examine inter-tissue distribution. Mean muscle Σ(7)PBDE levels, in the range of 10-21 ng g(-1) lipid, showed inter-site differences attributed to the distance from the Gulf of Gdańsk, and were overall lower than reported earlier in herring, sprat, and salmon. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for Σ(7)PBDE and individual BDE congeners, in the range of 0.5-24.5, were generally consistent with predicted models for persistent hydrophobic halogenated contaminants. Wet weight (wet wt) PBDE levels in muscle and liver, but not in gonads, were related to tissue lipid content and did not correlate with the fish length and weight. These tissues differed in PBDE levels and profiles as a result of varying lipid content and presumably lipid composition and congener-specific physico-chemical properties. PMID:22763178

  3. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  4. Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Arimoto, Takafumi

    2000-12-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10 11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated upforward. The resolving power of the retina in 40 530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of juvenile winter flounder as indicators of inputs to estuarine systems.

    PubMed

    Pruell, Richard J; Taplin, Bryan K

    2015-12-30

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured in young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several Rhode Island, USA estuarine systems. These included three coastal lagoons, an estuarine river and Narragansett Bay. The δ(13)C trends observed along transects in several systems showed isotopically depleted terrestrial signals in the upper reaches of the estuaries. Significant differences (P<0.05) in δ(15)N were observed among all estuarine systems and these differences correlated (P<0.01) with human population densities in the watersheds. Although Narragansett Bay has a strong north-south gradient in nutrient concentrations this trend was not reflected in flounder δ(15)N. The northernmost station with the highest nutrient concentrations unexpectedly had significantly lower δ(15)N values. Depleted δ(15)N values at this nutrient-rich station may indicate that concentration-dependent fractionation needs to be considered when using nitrogen isotope ratios in biota to monitor anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in systems with high nitrogen loadings. PMID:26541984

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  7. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  8. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) liver to a brominated flame retardant mixture.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer M; Gubbins, Matt; Collins, Catherine; Matejusova, Iveta; Kerr, Rose; Chipman, James K; Kuiper, Raoul; Vethaak, A Dick; George, Stephen G

    2013-10-15

    Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder. PMID:23948077

  9. Transcriptional Onset of Lysozyme Genes during Early Development in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The immune system in teleost fish is not completely developed during embryonic and larval stages, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival in such an environment. However, the knowledge of the development of immune system assumed to be restricted. In many species, lysozymes have been considered as important genes of the first line immune defense. The early detection of lysozyme mRNA in previous reports, led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. As a result, c-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes indicating maternal transfer. Therefore, we investigated the expression patterns of lysozymes in flounder, including the matured oocyte. In our results, c-type lysozyme mRNA was first detected in unfertilized oocyte stage, observed the significantly decreased until hatching stage, and was significantly increased after hatching stage. On the other hand, g-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were first detected at late neurula stage, and the mRNA level was significantly increased after 20 dph. It may be suggest that maternally supplied mRNAs are selectively degraded prior to the activation of embryonic transcription. This study will be help in understanding the maturation and onset of humoral immunity during development of olive flounder immune system. PMID:25949197

  10. Cytochrome P4501A indices as biomarkers of contaminant exposure: A field study with plaice and flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Eggens, M.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of two flatfish species, flounder (Platichthys flesus) and plaice (Pleurnectus platessa), were collected during August/September 1991 and May/June 1992 in the southern North Sea. The induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A) in both species was examined, when exposed to environmental PCBs and PAHs. CYP1A was measured by a semi-quantitative ELISA technique and by the activity of its catalyst, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). In plaice, both hepatic CYP1 protein level and EROD activity were significantly higher at offshore sampling locations than at coastal locations, by a factor of 1.5 to 2. In flounder, which were only collected at coastal locations, the range of values of EROD activity was much greater than in plaice, but the range in CYP1A protein content was comparable in both species. multiple regression analysis of data from plaice and flounder did not show any significant correlation between CYP1A indices, water temperature and contaminant concentrations in fish tissues. CYP1A indices also appeared to be unrelated to food type, as determined by visual screening of fish intestines. It is concluded that the induction of CYP1A in plaice and flounder from the southern North Sea is not related in a simple manner to exposure to PCBs and PAHs. From the point of view-of use as a biomarker, the measurement of CYP1A protein level and EROD activity in plaice and flounder from the open North Sea cannot be applied straightforwardly for monitoring exposure to PCBs and/or PAHs.

  11. Immune responses of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus vaccinated by immersion of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda following hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Li; Tang, Xiao-Qian; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wen-Bin

    2015-10-16

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hyperosmotic immersion (HI) vaccination and determine the optimum hyperosmotic salinity for flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by investigating its immune responses following vaccination. Flounder were immersed in 1 of 3 hyperosmotic solutions at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinity, then transferred into 30‰ salinity normal seawater containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for vaccination (3 HI groups), or were immersed in normal seawater as direct immersion (DI group). The results showed that the percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen leukocytes induced by HI were significantly higher than that with DI (p < 0.05), and the 50‰ salinity group showed the strongest response among the HI groups, which reached peaks at Week 4. ELISA assay showed that the specific serum antibodies gradually increased after vaccination and reached peak at Day 32, and the fish treated with HI showed stronger antibody responses; among the HI groups, a significantly higher specific antibody level was detected in the 50‰ salinity group at Day 32 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the fish treated with HI showed higher specific mucosal antibody levels compared to the DI group, and the mucosal antibody showed a faster response, with peak time arriving 1 wk earlier than for the serum antibody. The relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder treated with HI at 50, 60 and 70‰ salinities were 79, 71 and 57% respectively, while this was 43% in the DI group. These results demonstrated that HI, especially the 50‰ salinity, could efficiently enhance the immune response of flounder and show higher RPS. This has significant value for immunological prevention of edwardsiellosis in flounder. PMID:26480914

  12. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  13. Influence of long (16L:8D) and short (8L:16D) photoperiods on blood metabolites and hepatic metabolism in Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huafeng; Bai, Xianshou; Feng, Yuhong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Youji; Lu, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the influence of long photoperiod (LP, 16L:8D) and short photoperiod (SP, 8L:16D) on hepatic energy metabolism in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated. Flounders were maintained under LP or SP conditions for 2 weeks then plasmatic and hepatic parameters were assessed. At the plasmatic level, the concentration of cortisol was enhanced in flounder maintained under LP compared to SP. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities in plasma also increased in LP flounder. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels between the two experimental groups. Plasma osmotic pressure, Na and Cl levels were significantly higher in LP compared to the SP group. In liver, a significant decrease of triglycerides together with an increase in glycogen was observed in the LP group. Hepatic hsl and pepck and muscle hsl mRNA expression in LP was significantly higher in the SP group. Overall the results indicate that the LP treatment caused a mild stress response and increased hepatic energy metabolism in the flounder, which in turn could affect osmoregulation. In conclusion, it would appear that LP treatment can adversely influence hepatic energy metabolism in adult olive flounder under fasting condition. PMID:27386368

  14. Rapid amyloid fibril formation by a winter flounder antifreeze protein requires specific interaction with ice.

    PubMed

    Dubé, André; Leggiadro, Cindy; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya

    2016-05-01

    A typically α-helical antifreeze protein (wflAFP-6) from winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, forms amyloid fibrils during freezing. In this study, the effects of distinct components of the freezing process were examined. Freezing of wflAFP-6 in the presence of template ice was shown to be necessary for rapid conversion to an amyloid conformation. Neither subfreezing temperature nor phase change was sufficient. Thus, specific interaction with the ice surface was essential. The ice-induced formation of amyloid appeared to be unique to this helical antifreeze, it required high concentrations of protein and it occurred over a range of pH values. These results define a method for rapid formation of amyloid by wflAFP-6 on demand under physiological conditions. PMID:27086686

  15. Effects of Starvation in Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Gwang Yeol; Oh, Ji Su

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of various dietary conditions on the growth, phenotypic traits, and morphometric dimensions of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and on the morphometric dimensions of sectioned olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Rock bream in the fed group increased in body weight, standard length, and condition factor, but these parameters decreased significantly for fish in the starved group (P < 0.05). The head connection dimensions of fish in the fed group decreased, while for starved fish there was increase in external morphometric dimensions (P < 0.05). In both species, sectioned morphometric analysis revealed that fish in the fed group had a larger body circumference and cross-cut sectional area, and greater cross-cut section height, relative to the starved group (P < 0.05). PMID:27004266

  16. Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-12-01

    The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

  17. Morphological Analysis of Blind-Side Hypermelanosis of the Starry Flounder, Platichthys stellatus during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Duk-Young; Byun, Soon-Gyu; Myeong, Jeong-In; Kim, Hyo-Chan; Min, Byoung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In Pleuronectiformes, blind-side malpigmentation (hypermelanosis) is common in cultured flatfishes, and is economically important. To understand the mechanism of blind-side hypermelanosis in flatfishes, we examined when the malpigmentation initially occurred, and studied how the symptoms proceeded during early development of the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. To assess quantitative pattern changes of blind-side skin, we observed morphological development of the whole body from 22 (total length [TL] 10.0±0.2 mm and body weight [BW] 8.8±0.57 mg) to 110 days (TL 23.4±0.7 mm, BW 193.6±23.3 mg) after hatching (DAH), and also examined the malpigmented area rate of blind-side skin and the malpigmented fish ratios. The experimental animals were reared in fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks in water at a temperature of 18.9±1.9°C and salinity of 32.6±0.6 psu and were fed with rotifer and Artemia nauplii from 22 to 48 DAH, and with A. nauplii and commercial feed from 49 to 110 DAH. As results, the first staining patch seen by the naked eye was observed around the area between the anus and pelvic fin or caudal edge of the trunk at 80 DAH (TL 20.6±0.5 mm, BW 112.5±8.8 mg). The pigmented area and the pigmented fish ratios were significantly increased from 80 to 110 DAH. These results indicated that malpigmentation on the blind side of starry flounder was initially observed at about 2 cm in length and 100 mg in weight, and the pigmented domain on the blind-side skin was continually broadened by the differentiation of pigmented cells (melanophores and xanthophores) with growth. PMID:25949175

  18. Juvenile nursery colonization patterns for the European flounder (Platichthys flesus): A latitudinal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, Filipe; van der Veer, Henk W.; Cabral, Henrique N.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we analysed the latitudinal trends in the nursery habitat colonization processes of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). This was accomplished by estimating the duration of the pelagic and metamorphic stages, as well as the duration of the spawning period, in several nursery areas across its geographical distribution range in the European Atlantic Coast: Mondego estuary (Portugal), Vilaine estuary (France), Slack estuary (France), Wadden Sea (Netherlands) and the Sørfjord (Norway). All juvenile flounders were captured with beam trawls in June/July 2010, and otolith microstructure was used to determine the duration of each stage by means of daily growth increments. The pelagic and metamorphic stages were longer at the middle of the distribution range, and lasted in total up to two months after hatching. The spawning period occurred between mid-January and early-July over the species' distribution range, with a time lapse of nearly two months between the Mondego estuary and the Sørfjord, as a consequence of warmer water temperature earlier in the season in southern areas. In general, total length of the captured fish showed a latitudinal cline between the northernmost and southernmost sampling sites, with higher values at the middle of the distribution range. The results also suggested the existence of a countergradient growth compensation mechanism in the northernmost populations. Apart from temperature, which sets the general metabolic pace of organisms, differences between sites were also related with local features, such as the extension of the continental platform and adaptations to transport and retention mechanisms.

  19. On the ecology of two sympatric flounders of the genus Paralichthys in the Bay of Coquimbo, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, Enzo; Cid, Luis

    The ecology of two flounders belonging to the genus Paralichthys was studied in the Bay of Coquimbo (29°57'S), Chile. P. adspersus grows larger than P. microps. In both species, the females were significantly larger than the males. The species differed in their reproductive cycles as revealed by their gonadosomatic indices. This difference was also reflected in larval abundance and spatial distribution of the species. No significant changes were found in the abundances of juveniles and adults in the Bay of Coquimbo either throughout the year or interannually. However, when the analysis included the proportion of specimens between the two species and sex by season, the differences were apparent in most cases. The results show that the environmental characteristics of the marine system which the Bay of Coquimbo is a part of provide good feeding, spawning and nursery grounds for these two species of flounder.

  20. Radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder inhabiting the Fukushima accident-affected Pacific coastal waters of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aono, Tatsuo; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) originating from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP) has contaminated coastal waters and been subsequently transferred to the marine biota along the Pacific coastal region of eastern Japan. To clarify the mechanism of radiocesium biokinetics in olive flounder, a commercially valuable and piscivorous predator, the biokinetics of (137)Cs was simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model and then validated with the measured concentrations in available monitoring data. The (137)Cs concentrations in seawater of the Pacific coastal sites of eastern Japan, from Kesen-numa (170 km north from the 1FNPP) to Choshi (190 km south from the 1FNPP), were reconstructed by fitting the simulated levels to the observed concentrations. Simulated values were verified by measured radiocesium levels in sedentary organism such as macro-algae and mussels inhabiting each study site which had accumulated radiocesium in their ambient environment from the beginning of the accident. Using reconstructed (137)Cs concentrations in seawater, the (137)Cs levels in olive flounder and its main planktivorous prey fish, e.g. anchovy, sand lance, whitebait, etc., were simulated and compared with observed concentrations to clarify the biokinetics of radiocesium in these organisms. This assessment showed that the determining factor for the maximum radiocesium concentrations in fish in the plankton food chain is likely to be the initial radiocesium concentration which they were exposed to during the contamination stage. Furthermore, the simulated (137)Cs concentrations in gut contents of olive flounder were verified by measured (137)Cs concentrations in the stomach contents of this fish collected within 30 km from the 1FNPP. These results indicated that the decrease of (137)Cs levels in their prey organisms was the primary determining factor of radiocesium depuration, and the resultant ecological half-lives were 140-160 d in the olive flounder

  1. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  2. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-hao; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. According to myosatellite cell lines (MSCs) established in vitro from diploid and triploid flounder, we compared the characters of growth and differentiation of their MSCs. The results would be useful for learning the muscle development mechanism in teleosts. Materials and Methods. The skeletal muscle cells from the diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were isolated and cultured in vitro, respectively, and the cells were characterized at the morphology and molecular level; meanwhile, the performance of these cells’ proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Results. Two new skeletal muscle cell lines (POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n)) from diploid and triploid flounder have been respectively subcultured for 67 times and 66 times. The cultured cells were mostly spindle-like mononuclear cells. They have normal flounder diploid karyotype (2n=48t) and triploid karyotype (3n=72t), respectively. Muscle satellite cell gene marker (pax7b) and myogenic cell protein marker (Desmin) were all expressed in cells of two cell lines. Both of the cells could differentiate into the large polynucleated muscle fibre cells, and immunofluorescence reactions of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were positive. There were more cells of POMSCS(3n) to differentiate into the muscle fibre cells than that of POMSCS(2n). However, POMSCS(2n) cells proliferated more rapidly than those of POMSCS(3n) (P < 0.05). The significant fluorescent signals were observed in both POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n) cells after transfected with pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid. Conclusions. The two cell lines have been established and characterized as MSCs. We suppose that it might be the differentiation capacity, rather than the proliferation activity of MSCs to play a key role in the better growth of triploid ones than diploid. Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. PMID

  3. Molecular Response of Estuarine Fish to Hypoxia: A Comparative Study with Ruffe and Flounder from Field and Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Thiel, Ralf; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the flounder (Platichthys flesus). We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that – with the exception of the heart of flounder – that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature. PMID:24595439

  4. Identification and characterization of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Li, Xuejing; Gen, Xuyun; Chen, Yue; Wei, Junli; Sun, Jinsheng

    2014-02-15

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor participating in innate immunity through regulating TNF-α and other inflammatory cytokines expression. However, the expression and biological relevance of LITAF in fish is still very limited. In this study, a full-length LITAF cDNA, termed PoLITAF, was identified from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. PoLITAF contains a 67 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 435 bp open reading frame, and a 647 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. PoLITAF protein is comprised of 144 amino acids with a conserved C-terminal LITAF-like domain and shows 51-76% sequence similarity and 40-65% sequence identity with other LITAF homologues. Characterization of this new gene revealed that PoLITAF mRNA was detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression in gill. In head kidney primary culture, the expression of Japanese flounder PoLITAF and TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in response to Poly(I:C) and bacterial endotoxin LPS stimulation. Further in vivo experiments demonstrated that PoLITAF expression was up-regulated in head kidney, gill and spleen post bacterial challenge with Edwardsiella tarda. Moreover, the up-regulated expression of Japanese flounder TNF-α following the enhanced expression of PoLITAF was detected as early as 4h in both gill and head kidney tissues and 12h in spleen after the bacterial infection in vivo. Our findings suggest that PoLITAF is a novel inducible gene possibly involved in Japanese flounder innate immunity. PMID:24359872

  5. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) estuarine habitat use and the association between spring temperature and subsequent year class strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, Dara H.; Davis, David; Clarke, Douglas G.; Alcoba, Catherine J.; Gallo, Jenine

    2013-11-01

    Winter flounder habitat use in New York/New Jersey Harbor was examined through a long-term (2002-2010) bottom trawl sampling program (Aquatic Biological Survey) in which 5234 winter flounder were captured in 2069 samples collected at approximately 26 stations throughout the harbor. Interannual variability in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) primarily was attributable to fluctuations in Year-1 juvenile CPUE, which was positively correlated with total annual egg abundances from the previous year. Adult male CPUE during the spawning season was positively correlated with total egg abundances of the same year, whereas adult female CPUE was unrelated to annual egg abundances in the harbor. Annual variation in adult male densities in the harbor during the spawning season reflects the intensity of estuarine spawning activity, whereas adult female densities may include non-reproductive, foraging individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in condition indices reflected energy use during the spawning season, with relatively high condition in January, reduced levels in March and April, and elevated condition again in May. Adult CPUE peaked in April, coincident with the critical feeding period that follows spawning. Mean April water temperatures were positively correlated with egg abundances the following year and Year-1 juvenile CPUE two years later. A similar correlation between April temperatures and Year-1 juvenile abundances two years later was demonstrated using published data for winter flounder collected in Niantic Bay, CT. Higher April water temperatures may enhance benthic secondary production during the critical feeding period, and thus increase prey availability for foraging adults that need to restore energy reserves in order to reproduce the following year. A direct examination of benthic secondary production and variation in winter flounder estuarine foraging and subsequent spawning activity is needed to more fully understand this relationship.

  6. Changes in metallothionein mRNA and protein after sublethal exposure to arsenite and cadmium chloride in juvenile winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen-Eller, K.; Crivello, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) from a Long Island Sound site within the Niantic River region contain elevated levels of liver As and Cd. Previous work in mammals suggests that a reduced species of As, NaAs{sup 3+}, is as potent a metallothionein (MT) inducer as CdCl{sub 2}. The authors investigated whether this is also the case in winter flounder by subcutaneously exposing juveniles to a sublethal range of NaAs{sup 3+} (0, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 {micro}mol/g fish) or CdCl{sub 2} (0, 0.045, 0.09, and 0.18 {micro}mol/g). Both metals rapidly induced MT protein within 24 h of exposure, but only the highest dose of CdCl{sub 2} elicited a significant increase in MT mRNA. The magnitude of the MT protein response to CdCl{sub 2} (7.25-fold) demonstrates that elevated liver As and Cd do not narrow the MT response window in juvenile flounder from the Niantic River region. These fish have relatively low liver MT protein levels (46 {micro}g/g) and will be a useful reference population for future metal studies within Long Island Sound.

  7. Bacterial enteritis and the development of the larval digestive tract in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel).

    PubMed

    Kim, D-H; Han, H-J; Kim, S-M; Lee, D-C; Park, S-I

    2004-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates obtained from diseased olive flounder larvae, Paralichthys olivaceus, were identified as Vibrio ichthyoenteri based on the results of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Bacterial enteritis was reproduced in 16 and 22 days post-hatch (dph) larvae by administering brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia salina, dosed with the environmental isolates and reference strains of V. ichthyoenteri. To investigate the effect of the disease on development of the stomach, a pepsin activity assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the expression of the pepsinogen gene were performed. Expression of olive flounder pepsinogen was detected from 30-dph larvae and the increased level of pepsin activity coincided with reduced susceptibility to the disease. Growth rates of V. ichthyoenteri, V. anguillarum and Edwardsiella tarda were tested in artificial stomach conditions using HCl and porcine pepsin. All the strains of V. ichthyoenteri were inhibited by low pH conditions which corresponded with an increase in pepsin levels. This suggests that differentiation of the stomach in olive flounder larvae and juveniles, an essential physiological development, also provides the host with a non-immunological defence mechanism. PMID:15357708

  8. Immune response of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was associated with the concentration of inactivated Edwardsiella tarda and immersion time.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-09-15

    In the optimization of immersion strategy, vaccine concentration and immersion time are two key factors needed to be considered, which largely determined the immune efficacy. In this work, the healthy flounder were vaccinated in formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda at four concentrations (10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9) CFU ml(-1)) for three immersion times (30, 60, 90 min), respectively. At the 6th week post vaccination, the flounders were challenged with live E. tarda, and the relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder in 10(9)-30, 10(8)-60, 10(8)-90 and 10(7)-90 min groups were 70%, 78%, 74% and 65%, respectively, which were much higher than the other vaccination groups. Meanwhile, the sIg(+) cells in the leucocytes of peripheral blood (PBL), spleen (SL), head kidney (HKL) were monitored by flow cytometry, and the specific sera and mucosal antibodies were measured by indirect ELISA for 6 weeks. The results showed that the proportions of sIg(+) cells in PBL, SL and HKL of vaccinated fish were significantly higher than the untreated fish since the 2nd week (P<0.05), and the fish in 10(9)-30, 10(8)-60, 10(8)-90 and 10(7)-90 min groups exhibited stronger responses than other groups, especially the 10(8)-60 min group displayed the strongest response, which reached the peaks (54.63% in PBL, 37.21% in SL, 36.51% in HKL) at the 5th week. ELISA assay showed that the kinetics of specific antibodies in sera were similar to the variation of sIg(+) cells, and the higher antibody levels were also detected in the four groups with higher RPS and stronger sIg+ response, whereas the mucosal antibody showed a faster response, which were significantly higher than the control since the 1st week (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that the higher RPS was closely associated with stronger immune response, and immersion with formalin-inactivated E. tarda under 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for 60 min induced the highest immune response of flounder against E. tarda bacterin, which might be applied for the

  9. Clonal xenobiotic resistance during pollution-induced toxic injury and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in liver of female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)).

    PubMed

    Koehler, Angela; Alpermann, Tilmann; Lauritzen, Bjarne; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile and adult female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) were caught either in the estuary of the most polluted European river, the Elbe, or as controls in a reference site to study pollution-induced xenobiotic resistance in their livers in relation to pathological alterations. In juvenile fish, livers displayed reversible and irreversible degenerative toxipathic lesion types but never showed (pre)neoplastic changes. Tumour frequencies up to 70% were found macroscopically in livers of adult female flounder which had progressed to adenomas and carcinomas in the most polluted site. Because male adult flounder show only up to 50% of livers containing early preneoplastic foci but never malignancies, we focussed our study on female individuals. (Pre)neoplastic changes ranged from early eosinophilic foci to basophilic foci, adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Adenomas were generally eosinophilic whereas carcinomas were mainly basophilic. These phenotypical sequential changes strongly resemble those found in chemically-induced liver carcinogenesis in mammals. Characteristic mutations known from mammalian cancers have not been found so far in these flounder livers. Therefore, we investigated whether epigenetic events had induced a metabolic "resistant phenotype" of (pre)malignant cancer cells during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. With a quantitative immunohistochemical approach, we studied expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), cytochrome P4501A1, glutathione-S-transferase-A which are key proteins in xenobiotic metabolism and elimination. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the major source of the reducing power NADPH which is needed for biotransformation, oxyradical scavenging and biosynthesis, was detected as well. We observed upregulation of G6PDH activity already in early preneoplastic eosinophilic foci and subsequent further upregulation in basophilic foci and carcinomas. P-gp started to become

  10. Metabolism, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) in relation to fish size and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, M.; Cronie, R.; Vethaak, A. D.; Van Der Puyl, P.

    Daily rates of oxygen consumption, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) have been measured in the laboratory at various constant temperatures. Oxygen consumption was related to body weight of the fish as a power function, with a weight exponent of between 0.71 and 0.85. No significant effects of temperature or feeding on this exponent were found. Flounder showed a significantly higher metabolic rate and a higher temperature coefficient for metabolism than plaice. Maximum daily rates of food consumption and the weight increment of fish fed with excess rations of fresh mussel meat could also be related to fish weights by means of power functions. For plaice these exponents decreased from about 0.9 at low temperatures (2-6 C°) to about 0.7 at high temperatures (18-22°C). Such a temperature effect on the weight exponent indicates that small juvenile fish eat more and grow faster at higher temperatures than do large older fish, and that large fish do better at low temperatures. After scaling of daily food consumption and growth in proportion to metabolic weights of the fish (W 0.78), feeding and growth at different fish sizes and temperatures can be compared and temperature-growth rate models can be used for investigations of feeding in natural populations. Compared to plaice, young flounder ate more and grew faster at higher temperatures (> 14°C). This may partly explain the preference of flounder for the shallower parts of coastal areas and estuaries, where summer temperatures and food densities are higher. Energy budgets of young plaice and flounder fed with excess rations of mussel meat indicate that at least 29% of the food energy is used for metabolism while about 37% of the food energy is converted into growth. The net conversion efficiency was estimated at 0.45 for food and growth in units of ash-free dry weight, and at 0.53 for food and growth in energy units. Analysis of the energy budget showed

  11. The role of blood glucose in the restoration of muscle glycogen during recovery from exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus).

    PubMed

    Pagnotta, A; Milligan, C L

    1991-11-01

    The role of blood-borne glucose in the restoration of white muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in the active, pelagic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the more sluggish, benthic winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were examined. During recovery from exhaustive exercise, the animals were injected with a bolus of universally labelled [14C]glucose via dorsal aortic (trout) or caudal artery (flounder) catheters. The bulk of the injected label (50-70%) remained as glucose in the extracellular fluid in both species. The major metabolic fates of the injected glucose were oxidation to CO2 (6-8%) and production of lactate (6-8%), the latter indicative of continued anaerobic metabolism post-exercise. Oxidation of labelled glucose could account for up to 40% and 15% of the post-exercise MO2 in trout and flounder, respectively. Exhaustive exercise resulted in a reduction of muscle glycogen stores and accumulation of muscle lactate. Glycogen restoration in trout began 2-4h after exercise, whereas in flounder, glycogen restoration began within 2h. Despite a significant labelling of the intramuscular glucose pool, less than 1% of the infused labelled glucose was incorporated into muscle glycogen. This suggests that blood-borne glucose does not contribute significantly to the restoration of muscle glycogen following exhaustive exercise in either trout or flounder and provides further evidence against a prominent role for the Cori cycle in these species. PMID:1757776

  12. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1) multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and (3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2) when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2), and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves) to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching) from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  13. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with the majority of the individuals being found during the spring (30.1%) and in S3 and S4 (72.6%). Males and females presented an even distribution, with a higher proportion of males observed during summer. Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus

  14. Application of a food chain model to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the lobster and winter flounder food chains in New Bedford Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.P. Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site a model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lobster and winter flounder food chains was developed. This model successfully reproduces tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyl concentrations observed at all levels of the food chain and across the 2 order of magnitude concentration gradient in the system. The model indicated that PCB concentrations in the flounder and, to a lesser extent, in the lobster are derived from the sediment. Dietary uptake exceeds uptake across the gill for all four homologues and becomes the dominant route at the higher chlorinated homologues. The assimilation efficiency of ingested PCB apparently declines from relatively high values for tri-chlorobiphenyl to relatively low values for hexachlorobiphenyl. Differences in observed lobster and flounder PCB concentrations appear to be due to differences in the importance of the benthic component of the food chains of these animals and differences in whole body lipid content.

  15. Development and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers from an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Database in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    To successful molecular breeding, identification and functional characterization of breeding related genes and development of molecular breeding techniques using DNA markers are essential. Although the development of a useful marker is difficult in the aspect of time, cost and effort, many markers are being developed to be used in molecular breeding and developed markers have been used in many fields. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers were widely used for genomic research and breeding, but has hardly been validated for screening functional genes in olive flounder. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from expressed sequence tag (EST) database in olive flounder; out of a total 4,327 ESTs, 693 contigs and 514 SNPs were detected in total EST, and these substitutions include 297 transitions and 217 transversions. As a result, 144 SNP markers were developed on the basis of 514 SNP to selection of useful gene region, and then applied to each of eight wild and culture olive flounder (total 16 samples). In our experimental result, only 32 markers had detected polymorphism in sample, also identified 21 transitions and 11 transversions, whereas indel was not detected in polymorphic SNPs. Heterozygosity of wild and cultured olive flounder using the 32 SNP markers is 0.34 and 0.29, respectively. In conclusion, we identified SNP and polymorphism in olive flounder using newly designed marker, it supports that developed markers are suitable for SNP detection and diversity analysis in olive flounder. The outcome of this study can be basic data for researches for immunity gene and characteristic with SNP. PMID:25949198

  16. Cloning and characterization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) gene from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Peng, Weijiao; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-07-01

    Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) is a critical adaptor molecule in multiple inflammasome protein complexes that mediate inflammation and host defense. However, few studies have been performed in lower vertebrates such as in teleost. Here we identified and characterized a novel ASC gene (namely PoASC) from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The complete cDNA sequence of PoASC contains a 22 bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 612 bp open reading frame, and a 438 bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced PoASC protein is comprised of 203 amino acids with a conserved N-terminal PYD domain and a C-terminal CARD domain and shows 35-62% sequence identity with other vertebrate ASC proteins. PoASC mRNA transcripts was detected in various Japanese flounder tissues and is dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Oligomeric speck-like structures were observed when PoASC was exogenously expressed in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells. Immune challenge experiments revealed that PoASC gene expression was significantly induced in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes by the canonical TLR ligands LPS, Poly(I:C) and zymosan stimulations. In addition, the induction of PoASC was also observed in Edwardsiella tarda challenged head kidney and gill tissues. Furthermore, we for the first time showed that extracellular ATP, an important signaling molecule in triggering innate immune response and activation of NLR inflammasome, significantly up-regulates PoASC expression in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these findings addressed the involvement of PoASC in TLR and extracellular ATP-mediated innate immune signaling in the Japanese flounders. PMID:27103005

  17. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder

    SciTech Connect

    Posten, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Moya, J.; Garrahan, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The consumption of contaminated fish has been shown to be a significant, pathway for human exposure. Risk assessors often assume that humans are exposed to the levels of contaminants in edible tissue of fish measured prior to preparation and cooking. This assumption may lead to overestimation or underestimation of risk since a particular cooking method may remove or transform toxic constituents in the flesh by thermal denaturation, vaporization, dissolution in aqueous tissue fluids or lipids that drip off the flesh, or extraction into cooling oil during deep fat frying. This paper presents and discusses the results of a study conducted to quantify the effect of preparation and cooking on PCB concentrations in the edible portion of winter flounder. The effects of broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish. The change in total PCB concentrations and 18 specific PCB congeners was estimated using a mass-balance approach using the precooked PCB concentration on a wet-weight basis and the cooked concentration taking into account any change in fillet weight resulting from cooking. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue, while pan frying and broiling did not result in a statistically significant difference in total PCB levels.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-11-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  19. Polluted harbor sediment and the annual reproductive cycle of the female flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, P.A.H.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Goos, H.J.T.; Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),and pesticides are metabolized by enzyme systems, which are also involved in steroid metabolism. Disturbances of reproduction may therefore occur through the interference of these compounds with the endocrine system. Several aspects of reproduction were studied in the flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.), an euryhaline flatfish which inhabits coastal waters and is therefore a suitable biomonitor for the effects of chemical pollutants. Fish were kept during three years in mesocosm systems of which the first provided a control, while the second one contained polluted sediment, derived from the Rotterdam harbor. In November, all ovaries from both mesocosms contained vitellogenic oocytes. In May, all the control fish were previtellogenic, while the ovaries of fish from the polluted mesocosm contained, besides previtellogenic oocytes, a large number of vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that an estrogenic induction had occurred. The in vitro tissue incubations with androstenedione as precursor revealed that the ovarian capacity to synthesize testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 2}) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) didn`t differ between both mesocosms. In May, however, the levels of T and E{sub 2} as well as the level of the yolk-precursor vitellogenin were significantly higher in the polluted mesocosm. The conclusion from this study was that polluted harbor sediment contains compounds that effect normal reproductive development, i.e. the induction of premature vitellogenesis.

  20. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-09-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  1. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  2. Effects of silver on eggs and larvae of the winter flounder. [Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-MacPhee, G.; Cardin, J.A.; Berry, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Embryos and yolk-sac larvae of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were exposed to 0(control), 54, 92, 180, and 386 ..mu..g/liter silver (Ag/sup +/) during an 18-day flow-through bioassay. Percent hatch was signficantly reduced only at the 386-..mu..g/liter exposure level (24%). Embryos exposed to 180 and a 386 ..mu..g/liter hatched earlier than those exposed to lower concentrations, and many exhibited physical abnormalities. Larva mortality was significantly higher at 386, 180, and 92 ..mu..g/liter (100, 97, and 31%, respectively) than in the control (6%). The mean total lengths of larvae at hatch were significantly greater in control (3.56 mm) than in 386 ..mu..g/liter (1.98 mm) and 180 ..mu..g/liter (3.25 mm). At yolk-sac absorption, the mean total length of control larvae (4.27 mm) was significantly greater than that of larvae exposed to 180 ..mu..g/liter (4.15 mm). The highest concentration of silver not significantly reducing either survival or growth was 54 ..mu..g/liter.

  3. Distribution of mucous cells on the body surface of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kawai, K; Oshima, S

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of mucous cells was examined in the skin on the ocular and blind sides of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Observations were performed on both body sides at the following regions: cheek, lower jaw (blind side), gill cover (ocular side), dorsal side, lateral line, belly and caudal peduncle. The mucous cells observed were elliptic and positively stained for periodic acid Schiff reaction and Mayer's mucicarmine and showed a higher density and larger size on the ocular side compared to the blind side. Low densities of mucous cells were observed on the lower jaw compared with other regions of the body. The depth of the crack located between scales was deeper on the ocular side than the blind side, which might reflect total epidermis area and total number of mucous cells. Bacterial infection elucidated some information on the effect on the density and size of mucous cells, where the density and size decreased slightly after infection. Only the lower jaw, however, showed an increased number of mucous cells. The results show that the potential of skin to secrete mucus is higher on the ocular than on the blind side and bacterial infection decreases mucous secretion. PMID:21366577

  4. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  5. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  6. Etropus crossotus, an annual flatfish species; age and growth of the fringed flounder in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.

    1998-12-01

    Fringed flounder, Etropus crossotus, a small flatfish common along the southeastern coast of the US, were collected along the South Carolina coast in the fall of 1992, and in the North Inlet estuary from August 1992 until July 1994. Standard length was 82% of total length and the relationship between standard length and wet weight showed near-isometric growth with no significant differences between males and females. Dry weight was 21% of wet weight and ash-free dry weight 14% of wet weight with no significant differences between sexes. Daily increments in the sagittal otoliths were used for age determination. No annual structures could be identified. The maximum age was about 14.5 months. Age-at-length was not different between the sexes. The relationship between age and length was exponential, with age (in days) equalling an e power of 4.242 + 0.135 × standard length (in cm). Back-calculated hatch dates and catches of early juveniles indicated a spawning season that lasted from March to October. Females started to be sexually mature at 7 to 7.5 cm standard length, but 50% maturity was reached at 8 to 8.5 cm. Females could grow to that size within one spawning season. Individuals hatched early in the spawning season could produce eggs in the latter portion of that season's spawning period.

  7. Philometrids of the southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma: a multidimensional approach to determine their diversity.

    PubMed

    de Buron, Isaure; France, Scott G; Connors, Vincent A; Roumillat, William A; Tsoi, Lam C

    2011-06-01

    Two species of philometrid nematode, Philometra overstreeti and Philometroides paralichthydis, infect the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. Individuals of P. overstreeti are located between the teeth and inside the bony part of the branchial arches of the fish. Individuals of P. paralichthydis are associated with the bones of the buccal cavity and among muscles that control the dorsal and anal fins. Sequencing of part of the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed 4 distinct genetic clades, each corresponding exactly to the 4 respective locations of the parasites in the host, suggesting the need for taxonomic revision. We hypothesized that each clade represented a separate species and, because the worms are morphologically indistinguishable, compared population level parameters of the clades comprising each currently recognized species. For each currently recognized species, the presence of worms from 1 clade was negatively correlated with the presence of worms from the other. Results also indicated significant differences between the clades in prevalences relative to both biotic and abiotic factors. Results clearly indicated major differences in the ecology of the philometrids constituting each clade. Taken as a whole, molecular and ecological data support the contention that the 4 genetic clades are likely 4 distinct species. PMID:21506857

  8. Fishing mortality in North Carolina's southern flounder fishery: direct estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality from a tag return experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of harvest rates is often a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management. These assessments are often based on catch-at-age data sets generated over many years, but estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality (F) can also be obtained from a shorter-term tag return study. We conducted a 2-year tag return experiment to generate direct estimates of F for southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in a North Carolina estuary. The southern flounder supports lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries within the state and has experienced heavy fishing pressure for more than a decade. During 2005 and 2006, fish were captured and tagged with the assistance of commercial harvesters in the New River estuary. Tag returns were used to generate monthly estimates of F, which demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern that was consistent between years. Several important assumptions of the tag return model were accounted for through the use of double-tagged individuals, the distribution of both high- and standard-reward tags, and the completion of an independent controlled experiment to evaluate mortality related to tagging. Annual estimates of F exceeded the short-term management target in both years. Residual patterns suggest that the estimates may actually have been biased low, possibly due to delayed mixing of tagged fish. Thus, despite recently amended fishery regulations, F in the North Carolina southern flounder gill-net fishery still has the potential to greatly exceed targeted levels, which may delay stock recovery. Tag return studies can provide reliable (and nearly real-time) information about F and natural mortality as long as the experimental design addresses specific assumptions related to tagging-induced mortality, tag shedding, and nonreporting of tags.

  9. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  10. Diseases of flounder ( Platichthys Flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea, and their relation to stress factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick Vethaak, A.

    In 1988 a survey was conducted on the occurrence of gross pathologies in flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea in relation to stress factors, especially near fresh-water drainage sluices. A total of 9608 flounder were collected from 16 sites in June and September. Diseases recorded were: skin ulcers (affecting 7.7% of fish); fin rot (2.8%; only included in the study in September); lymphocystis (3.7%); skeletal deformities (0.3%); liver nematode infections (5.0%); intestinal cysts of the parasite Glugea sp. (0.4%); and liver nodules (pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions) (< 0.1%). Prevalences of skin ulcers and fin rot in Wadden Sea flounder are considerably higher than in those captured off the Dutch North Sea coast or in the Elbe estuary in Germany. These high disease levels in the Wadden Sea, however, are largely due to extremely high prevalences of skin ulcers observed near the drainage sluices of Lake IJssel, indicating a localized effect. Fin rot occurs at relatively high prevalences over the whole study area, but the data should be interpreted with some caution, due to diagnostic problems. Associations with possible disease determinants were investigated and causal hypotheses formulated. In general fish seem to develop skin diseases at sites with strong salinity fluctuations. Nutritional deficiencies possibly related to strong salinity fluctuations, high bacterial loads in the environment and obstacles to fish migration through sluices are amongst the most likely factors determining the locally high levels of skin ulcers. Although not established, it is possible that pollution-related factors and contaminant bioavailability are important. The stress imposed by a combination of these factors may adversely affect the immune system, making the fish vulnerable to opportunistic bacterial infection.