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Sample records for barium copper iron

  1. Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.

    2004-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.

  2. Synthesis and assembly of barium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles and nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liheng; Shen, Bo; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-10-01

    A facile organic-phase synthesis of monodisperse barium-doped iron oxide (Ba-Fe-O) nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The Ba-Fe-O NPs can be converted into hexagonal barium ferrite NPs at 700 °C, showing strong ferromagnetic properties with Hc reaching 5260 Oe and Ms at 54 emu g(-1). Moreover, the Ba-Fe-O NPs can be assembled into densely packed magnetic arrays, providing a unique model system for studying nanomagnetism and for nanomagnetic applications. PMID:26377439

  3. Verification of d-wave pairing symmetry by microwave intermodulation distortion measurements in yttrium barium copper oxide

    E-print Network

    Park, Sang-Hoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the temperature and power dependence of the microwave frequency intermodulation distortion (IMD) in high quality pulsed laser deposition (PLD) Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) on LaAlO3 substrate. ...

  4. Electrically and magnetically tunable phase shifters based on a barium strontium titanate-yttrium iron garnet layered structure

    E-print Network

    Electrically and magnetically tunable phase shifters based on a barium strontium titanate-yttrium by the growth of a yttrium iron garnet YIG layer on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate by liquid phase

  5. Copper and nickel partitioning in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.; Smith, J. V.; Prinz, M.

    1987-10-01

    Trace element analyses using proton induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence have been made on metal and troilite from nine iron meteorites representing five geochemical groups. Nickel and copper distribution coefficients D (troilite/metal) vary by factors of 600 and 20, respectively, correlate positively with kamacite bandwidth and correlate negatively with bulk nickel content. Meteorites with bulk Ni of less than 10 percent have Cu-enriched troilite while those with Ni greater than 10 percent have Cu-depleted troilite. Since magmatic evolution and partial melting will produce Cu-enriched troilite only, the observation of Cu-depleted troilite in Ni-rich meteorites is evidence for subsolidus reequilibration, a process which reduces D(Cu) by transfer of Cu to exsolving metal. Elemental redistribution may have played an important role in establishing the present chemical trends in iron meteorites.

  6. Synthesis and assembly of barium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles and nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liheng; Shen, Bo; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-10-01

    A facile organic-phase synthesis of monodisperse barium-doped iron oxide (Ba-Fe-O) nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The Ba-Fe-O NPs can be converted into hexagonal barium ferrite NPs at 700 °C, showing strong ferromagnetic properties with Hc reaching 5260 Oe and Ms at 54 emu g-1. Moreover, the Ba-Fe-O NPs can be assembled into densely packed magnetic arrays, providing a unique model system for studying nanomagnetism and for nanomagnetic applications.A facile organic-phase synthesis of monodisperse barium-doped iron oxide (Ba-Fe-O) nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The Ba-Fe-O NPs can be converted into hexagonal barium ferrite NPs at 700 °C, showing strong ferromagnetic properties with Hc reaching 5260 Oe and Ms at 54 emu g-1. Moreover, the Ba-Fe-O NPs can be assembled into densely packed magnetic arrays, providing a unique model system for studying nanomagnetism and for nanomagnetic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, and Fig. S1-S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05291b

  7. Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

  8. Short-term effects of intratracheal installations of yttrium barium copper oxide

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Newkirk, L.R.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    Inhalation exposures to the new high-temperature ({Tc}) superconductor (SC) materials can occur during manufacturing and fabrication processes. In this exploratory study, we examined the pulmonary response to the deposition of an yttrium barium copper oxide SC powder. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with either 10 mg or 20 mg of SC in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or with PBS only. The animals were sacrificed 60 days later for histopathologic assessments of their lungs. Lung lesions in the 10-mg SC group were found mainly in alveolar ducts and proximal alveoli. The lesions consisted of variably sized foci of interstitial thickening involving accumulations of macrophages. These interstitial aggregates were often times centered around one or more extracellular crystals, which, presumably, were retained SC product. Trichome stains also demonstrated the presence of fibrosis in the walls of alveoli surrounding the granulomas. Similar interstitial-macrophage accumulations and fibrosis were observed in rats instilled with 20 mg of SC. However, alveolus like structures lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium near interstitial granulomas were additionally found in the lungs of some of the animals in this latter group. These results suggest SC material of the yttrium barium copper oxide type may represent a potential exposure hazard to the lung.

  9. Copper Stress Affects Iron Homeostasis by Destabilizing Iron-Sulfur Cluster Formation in Bacillus subtilis?

    PubMed Central

    Chillappagari, Shashi; Seubert, Andreas; Trip, Hein; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Miethke, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeostasis were initially observed in microarray studies showing upregulation of Fur-dependent genes under conditions of copper excess. This effect was found to be relieved in a csoR mutant showing constitutive copper efflux. In contrast, stronger Fur-dependent gene induction was found in a copper efflux-deficient copA mutant. A significant induction of the PerR regulon was not observed under copper stress, indicating that oxidative stress did not play a major role under these conditions. Intracellular iron and copper quantification revealed that the total iron content was stable during different states of copper excess or efflux and hence that global iron limitation did not account for copper-dependent Fur derepression. Strikingly, the microarray data for copper stress revealed a broad effect on the expression of genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (suf genes) and associated pathways such as cysteine biosynthesis and genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Since these effects suggested an interaction of copper and iron-sulfur cluster maturation, a mutant with a conditional mutation of sufU, encoding the essential iron-sulfur scaffold protein in B. subtilis, was assayed for copper sensitivity, and its growth was found to be highly susceptible to copper stress. Further, different intracellular levels of SufU were found to influence the strength of Fur-dependent gene expression. By investigating the influence of copper on cluster-loaded SufU in vitro, Cu(I) was found to destabilize the scaffolded cluster at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, by interfering with iron-sulfur cluster formation, copper stress leads to enhanced expression of cluster scaffold and target proteins as well as iron and sulfur acquisition pathways, suggesting a possible feedback strategy to reestablish cluster biogenesis. PMID:20233928

  10. The crystallization and structure features of barium-iron phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingwei; Wang, Fu; Chen, Kuiru; Dai, Yunya; Liao, Qilong; Zhu, Hanzhen

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization and structure features of xBaO·(90-x)(60P2O5-40Fe2O3)·10CaF2 glasses, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%, are investigated in details by using X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. It is found that the major crystalline phase of barium iron phosphate glasses annealed between 650 °C and 850 °C is FePO4, and the crystallization is restrained by barium. The predominant infrared absorption band is attributed to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of (PO3)2- in Q1 units. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal that the glasses' main structural networks are Q1 and Q0 tetrahedrons connected by P-O-P linkages. Moreover, the glass transition temperature increases with BaO content, which suggests that barium can strengthen the thermal stability of the iron phosphate glass.

  11. Chemical synthesis of battery grade super-iron barium and potassium Fe(VI) ferrate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Stuart; Naschitz, Vera; Liu, Bing; Ghosh, Susanta; Halperin, Nadezhda; Halperin, Leonid; Rozen, Dmitri

    The chemical preparation of high purity potassium and barium ferrates for alkaline electrochemical storage are presented. The synthesized salts are used to demonstrate a variety of high capacity super-iron (Zn anode) alkaline AAA cell configurations which utilize these Fe(V) salts. Results of 500 days, full stability, of the synthesized K 2FeO 4 are presented. Synthetic pathways yielding 80-100 g of 96.5-99.5% pure K 2FeO 4 and BaFeO 4 are presented, and the products of these syntheses are demonstrated to provide a high energy electrochemical discharge in a variety of AAA alkaline cells. BaFeO 4 super-iron alkaline AAA cells provide over 0.8 W h during 2.8 ? discharge, yielding over 200% higher capacity than conventional alkaline batteries. The barium super-iron cell configurations studied provide higher capacity than the potassium super-iron alkaline cell configurations studied.

  12. Effect of zinc on copper and iron bioavailability as influenced by dietary copper and fat source

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.C.; Jones, B.P.; Lin, F.; Sinthusek, G.; Frimpong, N.A.; Wu, S.

    1986-03-05

    In a number of experiments, they have observed that liver copper levels of young male rats fed low zinc diets were essentially the same as liver copper levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Liver iron levels of rats fed low zinc diets, however, tended to be markedly higher than liver iron levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Increases in dietary zinc (up to 200 ppm) were generally associated with decreases in liver iron deposition, but had little effect on liver copper deposition. Iron bioavailability appeared to be enhanced when fat sources high in saturated fatty acids were used, and there was evidence that the type of dietary fat influenced the effect of zinc on iron bioavailability. Liver copper deposition, however, did not appear to be markedly affected by the type of dietary fat suggesting that copper bioavailability is less affected by fat source. Increases in dietary copper were associated with increases in liver copper levels and decreases in liver iron levels of rats fed increasing levels of zinc. These data suggest that potential interrelationships between dietary factors not being considered as experimental variables could have significant effects on results and on the interrelationships between dietary variables which are being studied.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth doped barium fluoride nanoparticles and derivatized copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Christopher Mark

    1998-12-01

    Nanoparticles of neodymium doped barium fluoride (Nd:BaFsb2) were synthesized for use as the inorganic component of an optical amplifier composite. Microemulsions were used to maintain domain size in the nano-regime (˜100 nm), and decreasing the volume fraction of the aqueous content, while simultaneously increasing the volume fraction of the cosurfactant (methanol), gave a linear relationship between decreasing domain size and increasing volume fraction of alcohol. As Nd was added to the BaFsb2 host, direct incorporation was observed at low dopant levels (0-10 mol-%), a two-phase mixture was observed at intermediate dopant levels (10-50 mol-%), and a nearly amorphous product resulted with very high Nd-dopant levels (>50 mol-%). Fluorescence measurements of the solids showed that concentration quenching was delayed until unusually high levels, probably as a result of the lost crystallinity. Praseodymium and ytterbium codoped barium fluoride (Pr,Yb:BaFsb2) were also synthesized in microemulsions. Though as-prepared powders did not fluoresce, treatment with high temperatures (900sp°C) and dynamic vacuum resulted in products which would fluoresce at 1.3 mum. Lower temperature treatments (500-750sp°C) were used to decrease sintering, however this resulted in Ybsp{3+} products in which Ybsp{3+} fluorescence was quenched by exposure to air. Contamination due to water and hydroxide is believed to be the reason. Ethanolic microemulsions were used to make copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), which was modified with either zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or copper phthalcyaninesulfonic acid by means of a flow system. The sulfonic acid derivative was lost upon aqueous washing. The zinc derivatized product gave a dispersion in n-hexylamine, which was stable for seven days. The mole ratio of Cu:Zn was 1:1 for the solids dispersed in n-hexylamine, and was 6:1 for the solids that were not dispersed. Because underivatized CuPc formed by the same method did not result in a dispersed product, the dispersion mechanism is postulated to be due to interaction between the ZnPc on the surface and the n-hexylamine.

  14. Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

  15. Static and dynamic photoinduced magnetic effects in yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V. Khalilov, R. Z.

    2012-04-15

    In yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium, direct measurements of the photoinduced changes in magnetostrictive strains disagree with those in magnetostriction constants at 78-100 K. This is attributed to a considerable photoinduced modification of the initial state in this sample due to a redistribution of the charge (during illumination) between cations of the ferromagnetic octahedral sublattice. In the same sample, the temperature dependence of the photoinduced disaccomodation of magnetic permeability characterizing the initial demagnetized state is measured and calculated. A change in the electron mechanism of the phenomenon during the transition to room temperature is shown. The conclusion about the promising prospects for using such samples for remagnetization by light is advanced.

  16. Retronasal smell and detection thresholds of iron and copper salts.

    PubMed

    Epke, Effie M; Lawless, Harry T

    2007-10-22

    Iron and copper salts, when placed in the mouth, may give rise to odorous compounds which complicate their functioning as chemical stimuli. The contribution of retronasal smell to perception of these metal salts at threshold has not been determined. Detection thresholds of the sulfate and chloride salts of ferrous iron and copper, and sodium chloride (as a control) were determined using a modified forced-choice ascending method of limits, with and without nasal occlusion. Threshold values were calculated from geometric means of individual estimates, and from interpolation on logistic regression and percent correct plots. Nasal occlusion raised thresholds for iron salts and copper but not sodium. The geometric mean detection thresholds with the nose open were 30, 64, 7.8, and 8.2 microM for FeSO(4), FeCl(2), CuSO(4), CuCl(2), respectively but rose to 160, 227, 24.6 and 15.6 with the nose closed. Metal salts of both iron and copper create a retronasally perceived olfactory stimulus at low concentration levels, probably arising from lipid oxidation products generated in the mouth. PMID:17532013

  17. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Yang, J. C.; Li, L.; Dong, J. Q.; Zhao, H. X.; Liu, S.

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass.

  18. A three-dimensional hydrodynamical line profile analysis of iron lines and barium isotopes in HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, A. J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Ryan, S. G.; Aoki, W.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Heavy-elements, i.e. those beyond the iron peak, mostly form via two neutron capture processes: the slow (s-) and the rapid (r-) process. Metal-poor stars should contain fewer isotopes that form via the s-process, according to currently accepted theory. It has been shown in several investigations that theory and observation do not agree well, raising questions on the validity of either the methodology or the theory. Aims: We analyse the metal-poor star HD 140283, for which we have a high quality spectrum. We test whether a three-dimensional (3D) local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) stellar atmosphere and spectrum synthesis code permits a more reliable analysis of the iron abundance and barium isotope ratio than a one-dimensional (1D) LTE analysis. Methods: Using 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres, we examine 91 iron lines of varying strength and formation depth. This provides us with the star's rotational speed. With this, we model the barium isotope ratio by exploiting the hyperfine structure of the singly ionised 4554 Å resonance line, and study the impact of the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Results: The star's rotational speed was found to be 1.65 ± 0.05 km s-1. Barium isotopes under the 3D paradigm show a dominant r-process signature as 77 ± 6 ± 17% (fodd = 0.38 ± 0.02 ± 0.06) of barium isotopes form via the r-process, where errors represent the assigned random and systematic errors, respectively. We find that 3D LTE fits reproduce iron line profiles better than those in 1D, but do not provide a unique abundance (within the uncertainties). However, we demonstrate that the isotopic ratio is robust against this shortcoming. Conclusions: Our barium isotope result agrees well with currently accepted theory regarding the formation of the heavy-elements during the early Galaxy. The improved fit to the asymmetric iron line profiles suggests that the current state of 3D LTE modelling provides excellent simulations of fluid flows. However, the abundances they provide are not yet self-consistent. This may improve with non-LTE considerations and higher resolution models. Based on observations taken using the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS), operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  20. Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

  1. Quenching of cast iron with a high copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Natalia; Bataev, Anatoly; Razumakov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    The structure, hardness, and microhardness of hypoeutectic white cast iron alloyed with copper after quenching at 1000 and 1120°C is studied. Features of cupric inclusion separation are detected and its size distribution is shown. After quenching the structure consists of martensite, residual austenite, and vermicular graphite. A decrease in the size and volume fraction of globular cupric inclusions is detected, along with the complete dissolution of nanoscale cupric inclusions, which are located in the ferrite of pearlite colonies. The result of these structural changes is a 30% increase in iron hardness. Cast iron quenching at 1120° C is followed by an increase in the austenite volume fraction to 69%. This effect is due to a decrease in the volume fraction of graphite and a corresponding increase in the carbon content in ?-Fe. Cupric inclusions are located mainly along boundaries of austenitic grains.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron and copper disease states

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, F.W.; Hutchison, J.; Mallard, J.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-11-01

    The tissue levels of paramagnetic ions are an important factor in the determination of T/sub 1/ values as observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The increased levels of iron present in human disease states such as hemochromatosis lead to decreased T/sub 1/ values. The mean liver T/sub 1/ of three patients with iron storage disease was determined to be 130 msec, significantly different from the value of 154 msec, the mean for 14 normal controls. Whether NMR will be able to detect the increased copper levels in liver and brain in Wilson disease remains for further clinical trials to evaluate. NMR imaging, however, does serve as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of states of iron overload and as a technique to follow progression of disease or response to medical therapy.

  3. Promotion of atherogenesis by copper or iron-Which is more likely?

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Reshmi; Ren, Minqin; Ning, Pan; Tan Kwong Huat, Benny; Halliwell, Barry . E-mail: bchbh@nus.edu.sg; Watt, Frank

    2007-02-02

    Iron levels increase in atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol fed-rabbits and play a role in atherosclerosis. We investigated whether copper also rises. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed high-cholesterol diets for 8 weeks. After sacrifice, lesion sizes were determined, and elemental analyses of the lesion and unaffected artery wall performed using nuclear microscopy. Unlike iron, lesion copper is decreased by about half compared with the unaffected artery wall, and much less copper than iron is present. Our data suggest that iron may be more likely to play a role in the promotion of atherosclerosis than copper.

  4. A three-dimensional hydrodynamical line profile analysis of iron lines and barium isotopes in HD140283

    E-print Network

    Gallagher, A J; Ryan, S G; Aoki, W

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-elements, i.e. those beyond the iron peak, mostly form via two neutron capture processes: the s- and r-process. Metal-poor stars should contain fewer isotopes that form via the s-process, according to currently accepted theory. It has been shown in several investigations that theory and observation do not agree well, raising questions on the validity of either the methodology or the theory. We analyse the metal-poor star HD140283, for which we have a high quality spectrum. We test whether a 3D LTE stellar atmosphere and spectrum synthesis code permits a more reliable analysis of the iron abundance and barium isotope ratio than a 1D LTE analysis. Using 3D model atmospheres, we examine 91 iron lines of varying strength and formation depth. This provides us with the star's rotational speed. With this, we model the barium isotope ratio by exploiting the hyperfine structure of the singly ionised 4554 resonance line, and study the impact of the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. HD140283's vsini = 1.65 ...

  5. Isoflavones Reduce Copper with Minimal Impact on Iron In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karlí?ková, Jana; Macáková, Kate?ina; ?íha, Michal; Pinheiro, Liliane Maria Teixeira; Filipský, Tomáš; Hor?asová, Veronika; Hrdina, Radomír; Mlad?nka, P?emysl

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are commonly consumed in many Asian countries and have potentially positive effects on human being. Only a few and rather controversial data on their interactions with copper and iron are available to date. 13 structurally related isoflavones were tested in the competitive manner for their Cu/Fe-chelating/reducing properties. Notwithstanding the 5-hydroxy-4-keto chelation site was associated with ferric, ferrous, and cupric chelation, the chelation potential of isoflavones was low and no cuprous chelation was observed. None of isoflavones was able to substantially reduce ferric ions, but the vast majority reduced cupric ions. The most important feature for cupric reduction was the presence of an unsubstituted 4?-hydroxyl; contrarily the presence of a free 5-hydroxyl decreased or abolished the reduction due to chelation of cupric ions. The results from this study may enable additional experiments which might clarify the effects of isoflavones on human being and/or mechanisms of copper absorption. PMID:26273421

  6. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  7. Iron supplementation does not affect copper and zinc absorption in breastfed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron supplements are commonly recommended for infants but were suggested to inhibit zinc and copper absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate potential effects of iron supplementation, infant age, and mineral status on zinc and copper absorption in infants at 6 and 9 mo of age. Twen...

  8. Copper Accumulates in Hemosiderins in Livers of Patients with Iron Overload Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yukiya; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Hayashi, Hisao; Kumagai, Kotaro; Morotomi, Natsuko; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Kawanaka, Miwa; Watanabe, Minemori; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Tai, Mayumi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Kentarou; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-06-28

    In biology, redox reactions are essential and sometimes harmful, and therefore, iron metabolism is tightly regulated by cuproproteins. Since the state of copper in iron overload syndromes remains unclear, we investigated whether copper metabolism is altered in these syndromes. Eleven patients with iron overload syndromes participated in this study. The clinical diagnoses were aceruloplasminemia (n=2), hemochromatosis (n=5), ferroportin disease (n=2), and receiving excess intravenous iron supplementation (n=2). Liver specimens were analyzed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with an X-ray analyzer. In addition to a large amount of iron associated with oxygen and phosphorus, the iron-rich hemosiderins of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contained small amounts of copper and sulfur, regardless of disease etiology. Two-dimensional imaging clearly showed that cuproproteins were distributed homogenously with iron complexes within hemosiderins. Copper stasis was unlikely in noncirrhotic patients. The enhanced induction of cuproproteins by excess iron may contribute to copper accumulation in hemosiderins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that copper accumulates in hemosiderins in iron overload conditions, perhaps due to alterations in copper metabolism. PMID:26356991

  9. 1. Introduction Copper, along with iron active sites dominate the field of

    E-print Network

    Chen, Peng

    heme ± iron centers).[8] The known copper proteins which are involved in dioxygen binding, activation-translational modification of a protein residue by the copper center. In the case of amine oxidase, this involves proteins include hemocya- nin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase.[5, 7] The binuclear copper centers

  10. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280?K) compared with that of bulk iron (?1000?K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  11. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension. PMID:26408942

  12. The effect of copper and protein on iron metabolism in rats fed a cereal diet.

    PubMed

    Resurreccion, A V; Doster, J M; Wang, M; Caster, W O

    1981-08-01

    Weanling male white rats were fed a diet containing a commercially available breakfast cereal. In 28 days they developed a mild anemia coupled with an increased amount of iron in the liver. In parallel work, this same diet was supplemented in a factorial fashion with casein, iron, copper and zinc. The zinc had no effect. Copper supplementation increased the hemoglobin level. Casein decreased liver iron. The copper and casein, when fed together, produced results approaching normal control levels. Supplementation of the diet with additional iron did not increase the hemoglobin or hematocrit but it did further increase iron storage in the liver. It is suggested that cereal enrichment programs might do well to consider copper and protein rather than focus total attention to additional iron and zinc. PMID:7280660

  13. Hyperfine Field and Hyperfine Anomalies of Copper Impurities in Iron

    E-print Network

    V. V. Golovko; F. Wauters; S. Cottenier; M. Breitenfeldt; V. De Leebeeck; S. Roccia; G. Soti; M. Tandecki; E. Traykov; S. Van Gorp; D. Zákoucký; N. Severijns

    2011-07-29

    A new value for the hyperfine magnetic field of copper impurities in iron is obtained by combining resonance frequencies from experiments involving {\\beta}-NMR on oriented nuclei on 59-Cu, 69-Cu, and 71-Cu with magnetic moment values from collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on these isotopes. The resulting value, i.e., Bhf(CuFe) = -21.794(10) T, is in agreement with the value adopted until now but is an order of magnitude more precise. It is consistent with predictions from ab initio calculations. Comparing the hyperfine field values obtained for the individual isotopes, the hyperfine anomalies in Fe were determined to be 59{\\Delta}69=0.15(9)% and 71{\\Delta}69=0.07(11)%.

  14. Hyperfine field and hyperfine anomalies of copper impurities in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, V. V.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; De Leebeeck, V.; Roccia, S.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Severijns, N.; Cottenier, S.; Zakoucky, D.

    2011-07-15

    A new value for the hyperfine magnetic field of copper impurities in iron is obtained by combining resonance frequencies from experiments involving {beta}-NMR on oriented nuclei on {sup 59}Cu, {sup 69}Cu, and {sup 71}Cu with magnetic moment values from collinear laser spectroscopy measurements on these isotopes. The resulting value, i.e., B{sub hf}(CuFe) = -21.794(10) T, is in agreement with the value adopted until now but is an order of magnitude more precise. It is consistent with predictions from ab initio calculations. Comparing the hyperfine field values obtained for the individual isotopes, the hyperfine anomalies in Fe were determined to be {sup 59{Delta}69}=0.15(9)% and {sup 71{Delta}69}=0.07(11)%.

  15. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  16. Brillouin light scattering study of transverse mode coupling in confined yttrium iron garnet/barium strontium titanate multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Bublikov, K. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Using the space-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy we study the transformation of dynamic magnetization patterns in a bilayer multiferroic structure. We show that in the comparison with a single yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film magnetization distribution is transformed in the bilayer structure due to the coupling of waves propagating both in an YIG film (magnetic layer) and in a barium strontium titanate slab (ferroelectric layer). We present a simple electrodynamic model using the numerical finite element method to show the transformation of eigenmode spectrum of confined multiferroic. In particular, we demonstrate that the control over the dynamic magnetization and the transformation of spatial profiles of transverse modes in magnetic film of the bilayer structure can be performed by the tuning of the wavevectors of transverse modes. The studied confined multiferroic stripe can be utilized for fabrication of integrated dual tunable functional devices for magnonic applications.

  17. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  18. Analysis of Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide by x ray diffraction and mechanical characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arsenovic, Petar

    1992-01-01

    The efforts in developing high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) YBa2Cu3O7 electrical leads are to benefit future NASA missions that will carry payloads with sensitive instruments operating at cryogenic temperatures. Present-day leads made of copper or magnesium are responsible for as much as 50 percent of the parasitic heat load on cryogenic systems. A reduction of this load could be achieved by replacing the conventional materials with HTSC ceramic electrical leads. Superconductor quality has become a concern in the industry, as has the development of effective evaluation methods. The factors that need to be examined for these materials include material purity, mechanical properties, and superconducting ability below the critical temperature. We applied several methods to study these factors: thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, tensile testing, and laser-generated ultrasound. Our objectives were to determine the average tensile strength and Young's modulus of the HTSC material and to compare them to those values for copper and manganin.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of yttrium-barium-copper-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of the copper oxide high temperature superconductors, it is important to grow high quality thin films of them. Thin film growth is also important for many of the applications that make use of superconductors. In this thesis, the authors report on methods of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] film growth, on characterization of these films, and on preliminary work on device fabrication from them. The authors have grown films by metal cosputtering, by on-axis high magnetic field sputtering from a composite target, and by off-axis sputtering from a composite target. The effects of oxygen ion bombardment of the growing film and of low oxygen partial pressure during growth are described. As a means of film characterization, resistive and inductive transitions, crystal structure, and critical current density are reported. Film growth through a mechanical contact mask as a means of patterning the films is also described.

  20. Iron, Manganese and Copper Release from Synthetic Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic stir-flow dissolution experiments were performed on iron- (Fe-SHA), manganese- (Mn-SHA), and copper- (Cu-SHA) containing synthetic hydroxyapatites. Solution treatments consisted of de-ionized water, citric acid and DTPA. Initially, Mn concentrations were higher than Cu concentrations and Fe concentrations were the lowest in all treatments. At later times Mn and Cu concentrations dropped in the DTPA treatment while Fe rose to the concentration similar to Mn and Cu. At all times, metal release concentrations in the water and citric acid treatments followed the trend of Mn>Cu>Fe. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data and ^31P NMR indicated that the metals substituted for Ca in the SHA structure. However, EPR data suggested that a metal (hydr)oxide phase existed either on the SHA surface or between the SHA crystallites. The metal concentration trend of Mn>Cu>Fe suggested that the initial solution metal concentrations are dependent on the dissolution of (hydr)oxides from SHA surfaces or between SHA crystallites. Similar metal concentrations at later times in the DTPA experiments suggests that metal concentrations were controlled by the release of Mn, Cu, or Fe from the SHA structure.

  1. The diverse roles of FRO family metalloreductases in iron and copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshika; Wilson, Grandon T; Connolly, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential for plants and are important for the function of a number of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis and respiration. As the molecular mechanisms that control uptake, trafficking and storage of these nutrients emerge, the importance of metalloreductase-catalyzed reactions in iron and copper metabolism has become clear. This review focuses on the ferric reductase oxidase (FRO) family of metalloreductases in plants and highlights new insights into the roles of FRO family members in metal homeostasis. Arabidopsis FRO2 was first identified as the ferric chelate reductase that reduces ferric iron-chelates at the root surface-rhizosphere interface. The resulting ferrous iron is subsequently transported across the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells by the ferrous iron transporter, IRT1. Recent work has shown that two other members of the FRO family (FRO4 and FRO5) function redundantly to reduce copper to facilitate its uptake from the soil. In addition, FROs appear to play important roles in subcellular compartmentalization of iron as FRO7 is known to contribute to delivery of iron to chloroplasts while mitochondrial family members FRO3 and FRO8 are hypothesized to influence mitochondrial metal ion homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have underscored the importance of plasma membrane-localized ferric reductase activity in leaves for photosynthetic efficiency. Taken together, these studies highlight a number of diverse roles for FROs in both iron and copper metabolism in plants. PMID:24711810

  2. Biochemical Evolution of Iron and Copper Proteins, Substances Vital to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes studies in the area of biochemical evolution of iron, copper, and heme proteins to provide an historical outline. Included are lists of major kinds of proteins and enzymes and charts illustrating electron flow in a cytochrome electron transport system and interconversion of jerrous to ferric ion in iron metabolism. (CC)

  3. A zinc-copper couple for the reduction of iron for permanganate titration

    E-print Network

    Jones, William Albert

    1916-01-01

    FOR THE REDUCTION OF IRON FOR PERMANGANATE TITRATION. by William A. Jones ,A thesis submitted to the department of Chemistry and the Faculty of the Graduate School in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Masterfs degree. , y Approved: ' ^ 4... Department of Chemistry. May 13th, 1916. A ZING - COPPER COUPLE FOR THE REDUCTION OF IRON FOR PERMANGANATE TITRATION. By William A. Jones. The following work was undertaken to determine the practical value of electrolysis for the reduction of iron...

  4. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  5. IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

  6. Influence of polarization and iron content on the transport properties of praseodymium-barium manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmouni, H.; Cherif, B.; Khirouni, K.; Baazaoui, M.; Zemni, S.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization and iron effects on the electrical properties of Pr0.67Ba0.33Mn1-xFexO3 have been studied using impedance measurements. When iron is introduced, the insulator-metal transition (MI), observed in free compound, disappears and destroying such transition needs an iron concentration less than 5%. We also found that electrical conductance decreases when increasing Fe content. Such results are attributed to the decrease of Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio. Also, they are ascribed to the high probability of encountering Fe3+-O-Fe3+ and Mn3+-O-Fe3+ interactions, which greatly weakens the influence of Mn3+-O-Mn4+ interactions. The AC conductivity studies indicate that different types of hopping are involved. The contribution of hopping mechanism is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent 's'. Conductivity analysis shows that small polaron hopping (SPH) and variable range hopping (VRH) models are present in the conduction process. For small iron concentrations (x<0.1), we found that activation energy (Ea) does not changes significantly. Such result is in good agreement with the literature. But, for high iron concentrations (x>0.1), we found that Ea depend strongly in Fe content. We also found in this work that DC-bias does not affect the conduction process but proves its thermal activation. The variation of the conductance with polarization is a proof of an electro-resistance effect.

  7. Distribution and Remobilization of Iron and Copper in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    GARNETT, TREVOR P.; GRAHAM, ROBIN D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The amount of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) that is loaded into grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum) depends on both the amount of nutrient taken up by the plant post-anthesis and the amount that is remobilized from vegetative organs as they senesce. Previous reports have shown that these two micronutrients behave quite differently in wheat in that Cu is readily remobilized to the grain whilst Fe shows poor remobilization. The object was to quantify the distribution of Fe and Cu in wheat and to show how this distribution changes from anthesis to grain maturity. • Methods The uptake and distribution of both Fe and Cu were investigated in wheat grown at two levels, adequate and low, of both micronutrients. Plants were grown in sand culture and the main culms were harvested at anthesis, 18 days post-anthesis and at maturity. Plants were separated into various organs and analysed for Fe and Cu using ICP-OES. • Key Results There was good remobilization of Fe from the rest of the shoot to the grain with 77 % of the total shoot Fe in the grain at maturity. In the adequate-Cu treatment there was 62 % of the total plant Cu in the grain at maturity, whereas in the low-Cu treatment this was only 40 %. There was no net Fe taken up into the above-ground plant parts post-anthesis whilst for Cu there was. The remobilization evident for Fe and Cu was greater than that found for zinc and much greater than evident for manganese in the same material. • Conclusions The results reported here represent good evidence for the high reproductive mobility of both Fe and Cu in wheat. PMID:15701664

  8. Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

  9. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  10. Novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics in the solid solution (1-x) bismuth iron oxide-barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontsev, Serhiy

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used in many areas of science and technology due to their electromechanical properties. The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals and vice versa based on the piezoelectric effect has led to the development of sensor devices and piezoelectric actuators used in accelerometers, pressure and vibration meters, micropositioning devices, ultrasound generators, motors etc. The most technologically important piezoelectric material is lead zirconate titanate PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT), however, the commercial manufacture and application of PZT as a lead-based material represent serious health hazards. The need to reduce environmental contamination by lead-based substances has created the current drive to develop alternative lead-free piezoelectric materials. The present work describes a detailed investigation of the novel multifunctional ceramic material in a solid solution of bismuth iron oxide and barium titanate (1-x)BiFeO 3-xBaTiO3 (BFBT) with an emphasis on the room temperature piezoelectric properties and structural study. BFBT ceramics were prepared via the metal oxide solid-state preparation route. Addition of manganese oxide MnO2 increased the DC resistance by one to five orders of magnitude allowing high-field poling and piezoelectric strain measurements in Mn-modified BFBT ceramics. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients of 116 pC/N (low-field, Berlincourt) and 326 pC/N (effective, high-field) are reported for the compositions with x=0.25 and 0.33 respectively. Piezoelectric measurements using the Rayleigh law under applied large DC electric field indicated an increased low-field piezoelectric d33 coefficient to 150 pC/N (x=0.33). The DC bias is believed to stabilize the ferroclectric domain structure leading to stronger intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response in BFBT. Bright field TEM imaging confirmed formation of macroscopic domains following high field poling from initially frustrated domain state indicating the ability to induce long-range polarization order in BFBT ceramics. It is believed that the results of this work will contribute to the development of a family of lead-free piezoelectric materials based on BiFeO3-BaTiO3 system. KEYWORDS: Bismuth ferrite, Barium titanate, Lead-free, Piezoelectric ceramics, Crystal Structure

  11. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper. PMID:18959951

  12. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 copper, Rare Earth Magnet. 3.9 tin, and 0.6 iron...10-37 iron, Hot Shot[supreg] or Rare Earth Magnet. 9-16 copper, and 5-7...any proportions of Rare Earth Magnet. tungsten, tin, and...

  13. Phormidium autumnale Growth and Anatoxin-a Production under Iron and Copper Stress

    PubMed Central

    Harland, Francine M. J.; Wood, Susanna A.; Moltchanova, Elena; Williamson, Wendy M.; Gaw, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40–4000 ?g L?1) and copper (2.5–250 ?g L?1) on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell?1 measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001); however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 ?g L?1, the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 ?g L?1 copper or either 40 or 4000 ?g L?1 iron, growth was suppressed. PMID:24351714

  14. Effects of Copper and Austempering on Corrosion Behavior of Ductile Iron in 3.5 Pct Sodium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Kuan-Ting

    2013-10-01

    Although alloying and heat treatments are common industrial practices to obtain ductile irons with desired mechanical properties, related information on how the two practices affect corrosion behavior is scarce. In this study, two ductile irons—with and without 1 wt pct copper addition—were austempered to obtain austempered ductile irons (ADIs). Polarization tests and salt spray tests were conducted to explore how both copper-alloying and austempering heat treatments influenced the corrosion behavior of ductile irons. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 1 wt pct copper-alloyed ductile iron was better than that of the unalloyed one, while ADI had improved corrosion resistance compared with the as-cast. In particular, the ductile iron combined with the copper-alloying and austempering treatments increased the corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 84 pct as tested in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.

  15. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium, and barium may have been affected by competition with Fe+2 for sorption sites on hydrous ferric oxide minerals. ?? 2010.

  16. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  17. MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and ?-iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Voskoboinikov, Roman E

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and {alpha}-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, E{sub p}, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with E{sub p} = 25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

  18. [Iron, copper, manganese and zinc metabolism in athletes under high physical pressures].

    PubMed

    Rusin, V Ia; Nasolodin, V V; Vorob'ev, V A

    1980-01-01

    Following the 50-kilometer ski race qualified athletes showed a significant decrease in the iron plasma content and formed elements of the blood. Concurrently the copper blood content also tended to decrease. The zink content had an opposite line of changes. The reduced zink blood content was associated with the augmented zink concentration in plasma. High physical exertion apart from the diet which was not balanced in trace elements produced the increased excretion of iron, copper, manganese and zink from the body of skiers with feces and partly with urine. Retention of trace elements supplied with the diet and their decreased excretion with feces were seen during rest after high physical exertion. There was also a partial making for trace element losses. The results suggest that the diet of athletes be enriched with trace elements, especially with iron in the course of rehabilitation after intensive training and competitions. PMID:7405143

  19. Zinc pyrithione inhibits yeast growth through copper influx and inactivation of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Nancy L; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D; Schwartz, James R; Grant, Raymond A; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L; Saunders, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  20. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on iron metabolism and cytochrome oxidase activity in copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A.; Henderson, J.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of iron and the activity of cytochrome oxidase were examined in Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats. Male rats (n = 36) were fed one of six diets which varied in copper level (Cu-: < 0.6 ppm or Cu+: 8.2 ppm) and carbohydrate type (cornstarch, sucrose or fructose). After 31 days, Cu- rats had 50% more iron in the liver and 38, 30 and 18% less iron in the tibia, spleen and kidneys, respectively, than Cu+ rats. The activity of cytochrome oxidase in the bone marrow, heart, and liver were 59%, 51%, and 43%, respectively, of the levels in Cu/sup +/ rats. The type of dietary carbohydrate significantly affected the development of anemia during copper deficiency. Cu-rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose had hematocrit levels which were 92, 83 or 73%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. Similarly, the levels of iron in the tibias of Cu- rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose were 69, 66 or 54%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. The hematocrit levels of Cu- rats were positively correlated to both tibia iron levels (r = 0.64, p < 0.005) and liver cytochrome oxidase activities (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Thus, it appears that changes in the metabolism of iron may be involved with the development of anemia in Cu- rats fed fructose or sucrose.

  1. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  2. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore »and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  3. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  4. Summary of ENDF/B-V evaluations for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and ENDF/B-V Revision 2 for calcium and iron

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y

    1982-09-01

    This report, together with documents already published, describes the ENDF/B-V evaluations of the neutron and gamma-ray-production cross sections for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and the ENDF/B-V Revision 2 evaluations for calcium and iron.

  5. Dietary intake of iron, zinc, copper, and risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Yu, Jia; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhigang; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the associations between specific metal element intake and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), the associations between specific metal element intake such as iron intake and PD are still conflicted. We aimed to determine whether intake of iron, zinc, and copper increases/decreases the risk of PD. PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched. We pooled the multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios using random effects. Study quality was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five studies including 126,507 individuals remained for inclusion, pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate dietary iron intake was 1.08 (95 % CI 0.61-1.93, P = 0.787), and for high dietary iron intake was (1.03, 95 % CI 0.83-1.30, P = 0.766), respectively. The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for the highest compared with the lowest dietary iron intake were 1.47 (95 % CI 1.17-1.85, P = 0.001) in western population and in males (RR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.01-2.01, P = 0.041). The pooled RRs of Parkinson's disease for moderate or high intake of zinc, and copper were not statistically different (P > 0.05). PD increased by 18 % (RR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.02-1.37) for western population by every 10-mg/day increment in iron intake. Higher iron intake appears to be not associated with overall PD risk, but may be associated with risk of PD in western population. Sex may be a factor influencing PD risk for higher iron intake. However, further studies are still needed to confirm the sex-selective effects. PMID:26265293

  6. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  7. The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2014-09-01

    Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

  8. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...51.1 tungsten, 44.4 Rare Earth copper, 3.9 tin, and Magnet...supreg] iron, 9-16 copper, or Rare Earth and 5-7 nickel. Magnet. Tungsten-matrix...any proportions of Rare Earth tungsten, tin, and Magnet....

  9. Toxicological characterization of bio-active drugs on basis of Iron Fe, Co, and Copper Cu nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishuk, S.; Nazarova, A.; Stepanova, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents investigations of toxicological parameters (acute and chronic toxicity, cumulative coefficient) of iron, cobalt, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles with white rats in labs. We have estimated the optimal concentrations of the above mentioned substances with rabbits. We have also studied morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the animals when adding the optimal doses to the diet for a long term.

  10. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

  11. Copper and iron are mobilized following myocardial ischemia: possible predictive criteria for tissue injury.

    PubMed Central

    Chevion, M; Jiang, Y; Har-El, R; Berenshtein, E; Uretzky, G; Kitrossky, N

    1993-01-01

    Direct evidence for substantial mobilization of copper in the coronary flow immediately following prolonged, but not short, cardiac ischemia is presented. In the first coronary flow fraction (CFF) of reperfusion (0.15 ml), after 35 min of ischemia, the level of copper (as well as of iron) was 8- to 9-fold higher than the preischemic value. The levels in subsequent CFFs decreased and reached the preischemic value, indicating that both metals appear in a burst at the resumption of coronary flow. When the first CFF was used in a reaction mixture containing ascorbate and salicylate, the latter underwent chemical hydroxylation and was converted to its dihydroxybenzoate derivatives. Likewise, this CFF promoted the ascorbate-driven DNA degradation. Subsequent 150 CFFs were serially collected and demonstrated low activities. Following 18 min of ischemia, the copper level in the first CFF of reperfusion was only 15% over the preischemic value. In contrast, the mobilization of iron into coronary flow was significant but markedly lower than after 35 min. The levels of copper and the redox activity of the first CFF correlated well with the degree of loss of cardiac function, after 18 and 35 min of ischemia, respectively. After 18 min of ischemia, cardiac function was about 50% and the damage is considered reversible, whereas after 35 min the functional loss exceeded 80% and is considered irreversible. These results are in accord with the causative role that copper and iron can play in heart injury following ischemia, by virtue of their capacity to catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals, and could lead to the development of new modalities for intervention in tissue injury. Images PMID:8430081

  12. Effects of Copper and Malleablizing Time on Mechanical Properties of Austempered Malleable Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lu, Jung-Kai; Chen, Fan-Shiong

    2007-10-01

    In this study, both the unalloyed and 1 wt pct copper alloyed white irons were successively treated with a duplex heating process consisting of malleablizing and austempering, and then the effects of copper and processing variables on microstructure and mechanical properties of the austempered malleable iron (AMI) were investigated. The results showed that AMI could effectively shorten malleablizing time to obtain the constituents of irregular graphite, acicular ferrite, and retained austenite in the microstructure. Moreover, 1 pct Cu-AMI had a higher retained austenite content than unalloyed AMI. This is because copper is an austenite stabilizer and acts to delay the start of the transformation into ausferrite. In the case of mechanical properties, AMI increased tensile strength (1083 to 1190 MPa) and impact toughness (16 to 22 J) by 2 to 3 times after 930 °C 20 hours malleablizing treatment as compared to as-cast (572 to 580 MPa and 5 to 6 J). In particular, 1 pct Cu-AMI had better performance than unalloyed AMI except for hardness. In comparison with conventional malleable irons, AMI was found to possess better tensile and impact properties.

  13. A chemical potentiator of copper-accumulation used to investigate the iron-regulons of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W; Dainty, Samantha J; Patterson, Carl J; Pohl, Ehmke; Blackburn, Hannah; Wilson, Clare; Hess, Corinna R; Rutherford, Julian C; Quaranta, Laura; Corran, Andy; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    The extreme resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to copper is overcome by 2-(6-benzyl-2-pyridyl)quinazoline (BPQ), providing a chemical-biology tool which has been exploited in two lines of discovery. First, BPQ is shown to form a red (BPQ)2Cu(I) complex and promote Ctr1-independent copper-accumulation in whole cells and in mitochondria isolated from treated cells. Multiple phenotypes, including loss of aconitase activity, are consistent with copper-BPQ mediated damage to mitochondrial iron–sulphur clusters. Thus, a biochemical basis of copper-toxicity in S. cerevisiae is analogous to other organisms. Second, iron regulons controlled by Aft1/2, Cth2 and Yap5 that respond to mitochondrial iron–sulphur cluster status are modulated by copper-BPQ causing iron hyper-accumulation via upregulated iron-import. Comparison of copper-BPQ treated, untreated and copper-only treated wild-type and fra2? by RNA-seq has uncovered a new candidate Aft1 target-gene (LSO1) and paralogous non-target (LSO2), plus nine putative Cth2 target-transcripts. Two lines of evidence confirm that Fra2 dominates basal repression of the Aft1/2 regulons in iron-replete cultures. Fra2-independent control of these regulons is also observed but CTH2 itself appears to be atypically Fra2-dependent. However, control of Cth2-target transcripts which is independent of CTH2 transcript abundance or of Fra2, is also quantified. Use of copper-BPQ supports a substantial contribution of metabolite repression to iron-regulation. PMID:24895027

  14. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... approval for copper-clad iron shot in the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36980), and one for the fluoropolymer shot coatings on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39983). Having completed our review of the application... assessment, which we are making available for public review (see ADDRESSES). The iron core of the shot...

  15. Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, U.; Ray, S.; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2004-10-01

    A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 °C for 120 min and was subsequently austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C. The samples were also austempered at 330 °C for austempering times of 30 150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X ? ), average carbon content (C ? ), the product X ? C ? , and the size of the bainitic ferrite needle (d ? ) were determined using x-ray diffraction. The effect of austempering temperature and time has been studied with respect to tensile properties such as 0.2% proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percentage of elongation, and quality index. These properties have been correlated with the structural parameters of the austempered ductile iron microstructure. Fracture studies have been carried out on the tensile fracture surfaces of the austempered ductile iron (ADI).

  16. Recovery and recycle of copper from wastewater using iron coated GAC

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.P.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to prepare composite adsorbents that could be packed into a column and have adsorption characteristics similar to Fe oxide. This adsorbent was targeted to remove low levels of copper from water to the adsorbent surface, subsequently desorb material at a different pH, and reuse the adsorbent. GAC (0.5 mm diameter) was coated with various amounts of Fe oxide, from 37 mg Fe/g GAC (37FeGAC) to 72 mg Fe/g GAC (72FeGAC). Adsorption characteristics were studied for copper removal. As the amount of iron coating on the adsorbent was increased the capacity and rate for copper adsorption increased. Experiments were carried out for short-term and long-term adsorption time periods of 2 and 24 h, respectively. Desorption efficiency (amount of adsorbed material recovered) of copper from GAC was 100% after 2 h adsorption time and dropped to 60% after 24 h adsorption time. Time did not have much effect on Fe oxide desorption efficiency but the FEGAC adsorbents showed the same trend as the GAC with even lower recovery after 24 h. The composite adsorbent can be packed into columns and used for copper removal and reuse.

  17. Ultrastructural identification of iron and copper accumulation in the liver of a male patient with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Y; Hayashi, H; Wakusawa, S; Yano, M

    2001-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that ceruloplasmin, a copper-containing protein with ferroxidase activity, plays an important role in iron metabolism. Reduction of ferroxidase activity secondary to ceruloplasmin deficiency may induce iron accumulation in various organs as the result of impaired iron transport. A 37-year-old man presented with intention tremor of the right hand. Liver function tests were almost normal, but parameters of trace elements were abnormal: hypocupremia, hypoceruloplaminemia, and hyperferritinemia. Imaging of the abdomen showed a cirrhotic liver with increased density. A diagnosis of the neurological form of Wilson disease was confirmed by copper deposits in the liver obtained by a blind biopsy, and the patient was diagnosed as compound heterozygous for ATP7B mutations. He was treated with 2500 mg/day trientine hydrochloride per os. The second examination was performed after 20 months of treatment. The treatment further reduced serum ceruloplasmin level from 8.9 to less than 4.0 mg/dl. Serum ferroxidase activity was as low as 70 U/l during treatment. Posttreatment liver histology became negative for copper but remained positive for iron. Copper X-rays from hepatocyte lysosomes were no longer detected, but the iron X-ray was still very high post treatment. Thus, microanalysis confirmed compound overload of copper and iron in this male patient with Wilson disease. PMID:11479773

  18. Property and microstructural nonuniformity in the yttrium-barium-copper-oxide superconductor determined from electrical, magnetic, and ultrasonic measurements. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was the following: (1) to characterize the effect of pore fraction on a comprehensive set of electrical and magnetic properties for the yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) high temperature ceramic superconductor; and (2) to determine the viability of using a room-temperature, nondestructive characterization method to aid in the prediction of superconducting (cryogenic) properties. The latter involved correlating ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature with property-affecting pore fraction and oxygen content variations. The use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating pore fraction in YBCO is presented, and other polycrystalline materials are reviewed, modeled, and statistically analyzed. This provides the basis for using ultrasonic velocity to interrogate microstructure. The effect of pore fraction (0.10-0.25) on superconductor properties of YBCO samples was characterized. Spatial (within-sample) variations in microstructure and superconductor properties were investigated, and the effect of oxygen content on elastic behavior was examined. Experimental methods used included a.c. susceptibility, electrical, and ultrasonic velocity measurements. Superconductor properties measured included transition temperature, magnetic transition width, transport and magnetic critical current density, magnetic shielding, a.c. loss, and sharpness of the voltage-current characteristics. An ultrasonic velocity image constructed from measurements at 1mm increments across a YBCO sample revealed microstructural variations that correlated with variations in magnetic shielding and a.c. loss behavior. Destructive examination using quantitative image analysis revealed pore fraction to be the varying microstructural feature.

  19. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  20. Free amino acids, copper, iron and zinc composition in sera of patients with thyrometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; al-Awqati, M A; Issac, D; Yadav, G K; Bahman, M A

    1990-02-01

    Free amino acids together with copper, iron and zinc were measured in sera of 67 adult patients with thyrotoxicosis (n = 29) or hypothyroidism (n = 38). In contradistinction to the almost indifferences exhibited by the three metals, many amino acids displayed significant relationships with the thyrometabolic activity (mainly tyrosine and arginine with r values of 0.5 and 0.44, respectively). Additional analyses revealed certain patterns, between trace metals and amino acids, which conferred challenging difficulties to interpretation. Thus while zinc was associated positively with some amino acids (such as glutamic acid and alanine), copper correlated almost invariably in a negative manner with citrulline, alpha-amino-butyric acid, proline, glycine and valine. This new information should contribute to our knowledge of the complex metabolism of both trace metals and amino acids. PMID:2323728

  1. Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

    2013-01-01

    To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium deficiencies in animals with Map infection and ELISA positive results. PMID:24159298

  2. Properties of iron sulphides from a copper mine in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussel, Wagner N.; Murad, Enver; Magalhães, Natalie C.; Abrahão, Walter A. P.; Mello, Jaime W. V.; Fabris, José D.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed two iron sulphide samples from a copper mine in Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to consist of essentially pure pyrite and chalcopyrite associated with a minor amount of pyrite and possibly some cubanite. While the pyrite was well crystallized and of simple mineralogy, Mössbauer data indicated the chalcopyrite contained in the second sample to consist of coexisting tetragonal and (remnant) cubic modifications, as has been previously described for another sample from this locality.

  3. Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions. PMID:23396344

  4. Content of trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, nickel) in canned variegated scallops (Chlamys varia).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Angel J; González-Weller, Dailos; González, Tomás; Burgos, Antonio; Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2008-09-01

    This article presents the results obtained through a study of the concentration of trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, nickel) in some conserves of variegated scallops (Chlamys varia, Bivalvia, Mollusca). A total of 300 samples of seven different commercial brands (named A, B, D, H, J, L and M) and one processing type, 'scallop sauce', were analysed. Samples were collected weekly in a large shopping centre in Santa Cruz de Tenerife during a 12-month period. Variegated scallops have considerable concentrations of zinc, cupper and manganese, so that their dietary intake constitutes an important source of these metals. However, they have low concentrations of chrome and nickel, and the levels of iron are similar to those found in other bivalve molluscs. PMID:19086337

  5. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... cladding up to 44.1 of the shot mass. Tungsten-bronze 51.1 tungsten, 44.4 copper, Rare Earth Magnet. 3.9........... 40-76 tungsten, 10-37 iron, Hot Shot or Rare Earth Magnet. 9-16 copper, and 5-7 nickel. Tungsten.... Tungsten-tin-bismuth any proportions of Rare Earth Magnet. tungsten, tin, and bismuth....

  6. Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ray M.

    2011-12-01

    Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

  7. Friction and transfer of copper, silver, and gold to iron in the presence of various adsorbed surface films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with the noble metals copper, silver, and gold and two binary alloys of these metals contacting iron in the presence of various adsorbates including, oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride. A pin on disk specimen configuration was used with a load of 100 grams, sliding velocity of 60 mm/min; at 25 C with the surfaces saturated with the adsorbates. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor surface films. Results of the experiments indicate that friction and transfer characteristics are highly specific with respect to both the noble metal and surface film present. With all three metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron occurred very rapidly. With all metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron continuously increased with repeated passes except for silver and copper sliding on iron sulfide.

  8. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  9. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 ?mol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 ?mol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  10. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

  11. Association of serum levels of iron, copper, and zinc, and inflammatory markers with bacteriological sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Milena Lima de; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Dos Anjos, Marcelino José; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-08-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are key micronutrients that play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between serum levels of those micronutrients, inflammatory markers, and the smear and culture conversion of M. tuberculosis during 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Seventy-five male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (mean age, 40.0?±?10.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and again at 30 and 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Serum levels of iron, copper, zinc, albumin, globulin, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin, and smear and cultures for M. tuberculosis in sputum samples were analyzed. Compared to healthy subjects, at baseline, patients with PTB had lower serum iron levels, higher copper levels and copper/zinc ratio, and similar zinc levels. During the tuberculosis treatment, no significant changes in the serum levels of iron, zinc, and copper/zinc were observed. Lower serum copper levels were associated with bacteriological conversion in tuberculosis treatment (tuberculosis-negative) at 30 days but not at 60 days (tuberculosis-positive). C-reactive protein levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio were lower in tuberculosis-negative patients than in tuberculosis-positive patients at 30 and 60 days after treatment. Albumin and hemoglobin levels and the albumin/globulin ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis increased during the study period, regardless of the bacteriological results. High serum globulin levels did not change among pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the study. Serum copper levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio may be important parameters to evaluate the persistence of non-conversion after 60 days of tuberculosis treatment, and they may serve as predictors for relapse after successful treatment. PMID:24958018

  12. The effect of iron and copper as an essential nutrient on mitochondrial electron transport system and lipid peroxidation in Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2013-08-01

    Iron and copper are essential nutrients for all living organisms as cofactors of many enzymes and play important roles in electron transport system (ETS) enzymes which have heme and iron-sulfur centers. In the present study, ETS enzymes, namely, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), activities as well as adenine nucleotides and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of eukaryotic model Trichoderma harzianum grown in varied concentrations of iron (0-20 mg/l) and copper (0-25 mg/l) mediums have been examined. SDH and COX activities increased up to 10 mg/l of iron. COX and SDH activities increased significantly up to 15 and 1 mg/l of copper, respectively. ATP and ADP levels showed a positive correlation with SDH activity with respect to iron-copper concentrations. The trends of AMP were similar with those of ATP and ADP for iron concentrations, while AMP levels elevated until 5 mg/l of copper. As an indicative marker of membrane damage, LPO levels increased with iron and copper concentration. In conclusion, iron and copper concentrations are of critical importance on activities of the ETS enzymes besides adenine nucleotides and LPO levels by maintenance of this metal homeostasis. PMID:23716140

  13. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  14. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

  15. Dislocation mechanics of copper and iron in high rate deformation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Ronald W.; Arnold, Werner; Zerilli, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Different dislocation processes are shown to be operative under high rate loading by impact-induced shock tests as compared with shockless isentropic compression experiments (ICEs). Under shock loading, the plastic deformation rate dependence of the flow stress of copper is attributed to dislocation generation at the propagating shock front, while in shockless ICEs, the rate dependence is attributed to drag-controlled mobile dislocation movement from within the originally resident dislocation density. In contrast with shock loading, shockless isentropic compression can lead to flow stress levels approaching the theoretical yield stress and dislocation velocities approaching the speed of sound. In iron, extensive shock measurements reported for plate impact tests are explained in terms of plasticity-control via the nucleation of deformation twins at the propagating shock front.

  16. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  17. Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Gabriel B.; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M. de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

  18. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Bioremediation of copper-containing wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria coupled with iron.

    PubMed

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-11-15

    In order to treat copper-containing wastewater effectively using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron (Fe(0)) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. The SRB system and the SRB + Fe(0) system were operated under continuous operation. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the SRB + Fe(0) system was twice as much as that of the SRB system with the sulfate loading rate at 125  mg L(-1) h(-1). The effect of COD/SO4(2-) on sulfate reduction indicates an enhanced activity of SRB by adding Fe(0). 99% of total sulfate was deducted in both systems at pH 4.0-7.0, and temperature slightly influenced the removal of sulfate in the SRB + Fe(0) system. In the copper-containing wastewater treatment, the SRB + Fe(0) system shows a better performance since sulfate removal in this system was higher than the SRB system, and the removal ratio of Cu(2+) was held above 95% in SRB + Fe(0) system at all influent Cu(2+) concentrations. PMID:23981707

  20. Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc concentrations in kidneys of grey wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S R; Blunck, S A; Petersen, K N; Jones, E M; Koval, J C; Misek, R; Frick, J A; Cluff, H D; Sime, C A; McNay, M; Beckman, K B; Atkinson, M W; Drew, M; Collinge, M D; Bangs, E E; Harper, R G

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc levels were measured in the kidneys of 115 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from Idaho, Montana and Alaska (United States), and from the Northwest Territories (Canada). No significant differences in the levels of iron or copper were observed between locations, but wolf kidneys from more northern locations had significantly higher cadmium levels (Alaska > Northwest Territories > Montana ? Idaho), and wolves from Alaska showed significantly higher zinc than other locations. Additionally, female wolves in Alaska had higher iron levels than males, and adult wolves in Montana had higher copper levels than subadults. PMID:20972865

  1. Diffusion bonding of iron aluminide Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} using a copper interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, O.; Celikyuerek, I.; Guerler, R.

    2008-07-15

    An Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} alloy was diffusion-bonded using a copper interlayer under vacuum at 1075 deg. C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h durations at 3.2 MPa applied pressure. The bond microstructure was found to be composed of the copper rich interlayer, copper rich precipitates and the base metal. SEM-EDS studies indicated major diffusion of aluminium and iron atoms from Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} into the copper interlayer and copper atoms from the copper interlayer into the Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} matrix. SEM observations of fractured surfaces of the diffusion-bonded samples showed some plastic deformation and signs of good bonding. Cu{sub 3}Al and B{sub 2}-FeAl-based phases were identified by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction studies at the bond and on the fracture surfaces of all samples investigated. Good bonding was achieved with a maximum shear strength of 298 MPa which is 65% of the parent material shear strength for a sample diffusion-bonded for 6 h.

  2. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ADJUSTMENT VASCULAR AND CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX IN EXPOSURE TO BODY SULFATES OF COPPER, ZINC AND IRON].

    PubMed

    Grintsova, N; Vasko, L; Kiptenko, L; Gortinsky, A; Murenets, N

    2015-09-01

    In order to analyze the morphological and morphometric reconstructions of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex of rats in long-term action (for 90 days) on the body of sulphates of copper, zinc and iron, an experiment was conducted on 48 adult white male rats weighing 200-250 g in age 5-7 months. We used anatomical, morphometric, statistical and common methods of microanatomical research. It was found that the combined effect on the body of sulphates of copper and zinc, and iron in the cerebellum has enough expressive toxicity, which affects the condition of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells. The degree of morphological transformations is in direct proportion to the duration of the experiment. In the pathogenesis of violations leading role played by hypoxia, develop signs of swelling of the cerebellar cortex with signs hemorrhagic infiltration, the severity of which is maximum on the 60th day of the experiment. PMID:26355321

  3. Effects of zinc, iron and copper deficiencies on cadmium in tissues of Japanese quail. [Coturnix coturnix japonica

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Stone, C.L.; Fry, B.E. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments with young Japanese quail were conducted to determine whether combined moderate deficiencies of zinc, iron and copper would cause greater uptake and tissue retention of cadmium than the single deficiencies. Birds were fed the experimental diets containing 62 ppb cadmium from hatching to 16 days of age. On day 9 each bird received a dose of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ in its diet. On day 10, the duodenal and jejunal-ileal tissues contained large amounts of cadmium, and there were many significant effects of treatment on cadmium-109 retention in the livers and kidneys. At day 16, zinc deficiency caused increased cadmium in the liver, whereas iron and copper deficiencies each caused increased cadmium in the kidneys. Combined deficiencies had little or no greater effect than single deficiencies and in some cases the combined effect was less than that of a single deficiency. 13 references, 11 tables.

  4. Expression profiling of the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase (FRO) gene family reveals differential regulation by iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Campbell, Nathan H; Ash, Joshua S; Connolly, Erin L

    2006-05-01

    The Arabidopsis FRO2 gene encodes the iron deficiency-inducible ferric chelate reductase responsible for reduction of iron at the root surface; subsequent transport of iron across the plasma membrane is carried out by a ferrous iron transporter (IRT1). Genome annotation has identified seven additional FRO family members in the Arabidopsis genome. We used real-time RT-PCR to examine the expression of each FRO gene in different tissues and in response to iron and copper limitation. FRO2 and FRO5 are primarily expressed in roots while FRO8 is primarily expressed in shoots. FRO6 and FRO7 show high expression in all the green parts of the plant. FRO3 is expressed at high levels in roots and shoots, and expression of FRO3 is elevated in roots and shoots of iron-deficient plants. Interestingly, when plants are Cu-limited, the expression of FRO6 in shoot tissues is reduced. Expression of FRO3 is induced in roots and shoots by Cu-limitation. While it is known that FRO2 is expressed at high levels in the outer layers of iron-deficient roots, histochemical staining of FRO3-GUS plants revealed that FRO3 is predominantly expressed in the vascular cylinder of roots. Together our results suggest that FRO family members function in metal ion homeostasis in a variety of locations in the plant. PMID:16362328

  5. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghi??, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases with increasing applied load and relative speed, but in the same conditions, the frictional coefficients slowly decrease.

  6. Copper in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Copper is an essential trace mineral present in all body tissues. ... Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, ...

  7. Influence of Copper Addition and Temperature on the Kinetics of Austempering in Ductile Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Yogev; Katsman, Alexander; Schaaf, Peter; Bamberger, Menachem

    2010-10-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material that exhibits excellent mechanical properties because of its special microstructure, combining ferrite and austenite supersaturated with carbon. Two ADI alloys, Fe-3.5 pct C-2.5 pct Si and Fe-3.6 pct C-2.7 pct Si-0.7 pct Cu, austempered for various times at 623 K (350 °C) and 673 K (400 °C) followed by water quenching, were investigated. The first ferrite needles nucleate mainly at the graphite/austenite interface. The austenite and ferrite weight fractions increase with the austempering time until stabilization is reached. The increase in the lattice parameter of the austenite during austempering corresponds to an increase of carbon content in the austenite. The increase in the ferrite weight fraction is associated with a decrease in microhardness. As the austempering temperature increases, the ferrite weight fraction decreases, the high carbon austenite weight fraction increases, but the carbon content in the latter decreases. Copper addition increases the high carbon austenite weight fraction. The results are discussed based on the phases composing the Fe-2Si-C system.

  8. Iron, copper, and zinc concentrations in normal skin and in various nonmalignant and malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Sheskin, J.; Weinreb, A.

    1986-09-01

    The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in the skin have been noninvasively determined in vivo by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry. The skin of healthy controls was divided into two major groups based upon the distribution of the concentrations of these elements. In the face and upper neck, the following wet weight concentrations were recorded: Fe, 14.2 +/- 3.3 ppm; Cu, 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 6.7 +/- 1.1 ppm. In the chest, abdomen, arm, axilla, and lower neck, the concentrations of these elements were as follows: Fe, 10.2 +/- 2.5 ppm; Cu, 0.8 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 4.5 +/- 1.7 ppm. In most lesions of solar dermatitis, solar keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, variable elevations of Zn and Fe (up to significant levels) were recorded in most of the contralateral, apparently uninvolved skin. In the majority of pigmented nevi and malignant melanomas, the levels of Fe and Zn were elevated. In some of these, the Cu concentration also was increased.

  9. The Potential Role of Iron and Copper in Pediatric Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Alexandra; Aigner, Elmar; Weghuber, Daniel; Paulmichl, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem and is paralleled by a multitude of comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease in both adults and children. The current understanding of NAFLD is still fragmentary. While simple steatosis is characterized by the interplay between excessive free fatty acid accumulation and hepatic insulin resistance, the progression to NASH has been related to oxidative stress and a proinflammatory state with dysbalanced adipokine, cytokine levels, and endotoxin-mediated immune response. In addition, oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role for the sequelae leading to NASH. Trace elements are critical in regulatory, immunologic, and antioxidant functions resulting in protection against inflammation and peroxidation and consequently against the known comorbidities of obesity. Disruptions of the metal detoxification processes located in the liver are plausibly related to NAFLD development via oxidative stress. Perturbations of iron and copper (Cu) homeostasis have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This review presents current data from pediatric studies. In addition, data from adult studies are summarized where clinical relevance may be extrapolated to pediatric obesity and NAFLD. PMID:26273604

  10. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  11. Comparative Study of Serum Copper, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al Jameil, Noura; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Tabassum, Hajera; Alenzi, Naif; Hijazy, Sereen; Alenzi, Samyah; Subaie, Sahar; Fatima, Sabiha

    2015-12-01

    Trace element (TE) disturbances are well noted in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated complications. In present study, the effect of proteinuria on serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in T2DM patients with and without proteinuria was seen. Total subjects were aged between 30 and 90 years; 73 had proteinuria, 76 had T2DM with proteinuria, 76 had T2DM, and 75 were controls. Serum Cu(II), Fe(III), Mg(II), and Zn(II) were assayed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Urinary albumin estimation was performed by turbidimetric method. Other biochemical parameters were analyzed by ROCHE Module COBAS 6000 analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P?

  12. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville; Emily K. Lesher; Daniel J. Diedrich; Diane M. McKnight; Ruth M. Sofield

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 ?g Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 ?g Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  13. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  14. Determination of copper, iron and zinc in spirituous beverages by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, T.; Marcó, L. M.; Alvarado, J.; Greaves, E. D.

    1999-10-01

    The concentration of copper in traditional homemade alcoholic distillates produced in Venezuela (Cocuy de Penca) were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) using vanadium as internal standard. The results were compared to those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three preparative methods of addition of vanadium were compared: classical internal standard addition, 'layer on layer' internal standard addition and in situ addition of internal standard. The TXRF procedures were accurate and the precision was comparable to that obtained by the FAAS technique. Copper levels were above the maximum allowed limits for similar beverages. Zinc and iron in commercial and homemade distilled beverages were also analyzed by TXRF with in situ addition of internal standard demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for trace metal determination in distillates.

  15. In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rakhshinda; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Mobeen, Ameena; Hashmat, Amer Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p?Copper NPs also induced DNA strand breaks at 10?µg/mL and oxidative DNA damage at 5 and 10?µg/mL. We consider these findings very useful in evaluating the genotoxic potential of NPs especially because of their increasing applications in human health and environment with limited knowledge of their toxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:24896217

  16. Geology of the Fishtie deposit, Central Province, Zambia: iron oxide and copper mineralization in Nguba Group metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Michael D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Wood, David; Humphrey, John D.; Wendlandt, Richard F.

    2015-08-01

    The Fishtie copper deposit, located in the Central Province of Zambia, contains approximately 55 Mt of 1.04 % Cu at a 0.5 % Cu cut-off in oxide, sulfide, and mixed oxide-sulfide ores. The deposit is hosted in Neoproterozoic diamictites and siltstones of the Grand Conglomérat Formation and overlying Kakontwe Limestone Formation of the lower Nguba Group. The Grand Conglomérat Formation at Fishtie directly overlies basement schists and quartzites. Mineralized zones are located adjacent to high-angle normal faults that appear to control thickness variations in the Grand Conglomérat Formation suggesting synsedimentary fault movement. Iron-rich rocks consisting of nearly monomineralic bands of magnetite and ankerite occur within the Grand Conglomérat Formation. The absence of magnetite-rich clasts in overlying diamictites and the presence of disseminated magnetite, ankerite, and apatite in adjacent diamictites suggest this iron-rich rock formed by replacement of siltstone beds. These magnetite-rich rocks thicken towards normal faults suggesting the faults formed conduits for oxidized hydrothermal solutions. The magnetite-ankerite-quartz rock was overprinted by later hydrothermal alteration and sulfide mineralization. Copper sulfide precipitation was associated with growth of both muscovite and chlorite, together with weak silicification. Sulfides are zoned relative to normal faults with bornite more common in proximity to faults and ore stage pyrite most common in an outer zone with chalcopyrite. Copper sulfides display generally heavy sulfur isotopic values, suggesting sulfide derivation from thermochemical reduction of Neoproterozoic seawater sulfate. Copper mineralized zones in the Grand Conglomérat at Fishtie are megascopically similar to those observed in the newly discovered Kamoa deposit in the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Alteration and mineralization at Fishtie display lateral zoning relative to normal faults unlike the broad vertical zonation observed at the giant Kamoa deposit. The small size of the known mineralized zones at the Fishtie deposit relative to Kamoa is probably due to the absence of a thick siliciclastic palaeoaquifer beneath the Grand Conglomérat Formation as is present at Kamoa.

  17. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  18. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  19. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; McGill, Ian R

    2008-05-15

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r>0.974; all P<0.001. The mean rate of release of copper, tin, and iron was 30.4 mg, 2.74 mg, and 0.38 mg per g tungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested. PMID:18313729

  20. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  1. Characterization of Precious Metal Resources in Copper Slag and Their Implications in Beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Angadi, S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

    2015-04-01

    Studies have been carried out on precious metal association, on a typical Indian copper slag sample using SEM-EDS. The studies revealed the presence of platinum as well as gold, reported here for the first time, in the copper metal as well as different types of metallic sulphides phases of the copper slag. These phases are either entrapped in the silicate minerals or are present as free liberated grains within the slag sample. The platinum content varies in the range of 1.24-1.95 wt% whereas gold values range from 2.41 to 5.90 wt% in some phases. The phases of copper slag, which contain gold and platinum are present in very less quantity with respect to volume percentage. The major phases, in the copper slag are fayalite and magnetite while spinel, ulvospinel, metallic iron, calcium oxide and barium sulphide are minor phases and all these are devoid of gold or platinum.

  2. The effect of consumption of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plant Senecio jacobaea on iron and copper metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Swick, R A; Cheeke, P R; Miranda, C L; Buhler, D R

    1984-07-01

    The effect of dietary tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plant, on mineral metabolism in rats was studied. In experiment 1, rats were fed a dietary level of 5% tansy ragwort. At intervals of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks animals were killed and tissue mineral levels determined. As compared to comparable controls, rats fed tansy ragwort showed by 6 weeks elevated liver and spleen copper and iron levels. Experiment 2 was a 3 X 4 factorial experiment with added dietary copper levels of 0, 50 and 250 ppm, and tansy ragwort levels of 0, 1, 2.5 and 5%. Liver copper levels increased markedly with increasing levels of tansy ragwort; at 0, 50 and 250 ppm added copper, liver copper levels were 4, 18 and 21 times greater in rats fed 5% tansy ragwort as compared to those with no tansy ragwort. Increases in liver iron and spleen copper were noted with consumption of tansy ragwort. Higher liver copper levels were observed when a casein-based diet rather than a soybean meal diet was used, suggesting an effect of phytate in soybean meal in reducing copper absorption. In the last experiment, 59Fe was administered to rats fed diets with or without tansy ragwort. After 5 weeks on tansy ragwort, rats showed very low levels of 59Fe in erythrocytes, tibia and liver, and elevated levels in spleen and kidney, suggesting either an impairment of hematopoesis or accelerated erythrocyte destruction as a result of PA consumption. These results indicate that PA's cause increased liver copper content, and disturbances in iron metabolism. PMID:6520740

  3. Enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal from effluent by sulfate-reducing bacteria with copper-iron bimetallic particles support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Chen, Yongzhe; Yang, Ming; Li, Wenkai; Deng, Le

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of copper-iron bimetallic particles supported sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in enhancing the reduction of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in effluent. The results showed that the copper-iron bimetallic particles can enhance Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal and the resistance of the sulfate-reducing bacteria towards metals toxicity, the inhibiting concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) for SRB was significantly increased (from 100 to 200 mg/L for Cu(2+) and 300 to 400 mg/L for Zn(2+)). The removal efficiencies of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (initial concentration 100 mg/L) were 98.17% and 99.67% in SRB-Cu/Fe system after 48 h, while only 29.83% Cu(2+), 90.88% Zn(2+) and 63.81% Cu(2+), 72.63% Zn(2+) were removed in the SRB and Cu/Fe system at the same condition. PMID:23567710

  4. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  5. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are available? Iron is available in many multivitamin-mineral supplements and in supplements that contain only iron. Iron in supplements is often in the form of ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, ferric citrate, or ferric sulfate. Dietary ...

  6. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  7. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  8. Determination of copper, lead and iron in water and food samples after column solid phase extraction using 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide on Dowex Optipore L-493 resin.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ozden; Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    A novel solid phase extraction procedure for determination of copper, lead and iron in natural water and food samples has been established in the presented work. 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) as ligand and Dowex Optipore L-493 resin as adsorbent were used in a mini chromatographic column. Various analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions including pH, amounts of adsorbent, eluent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The recovery values for analyte ions were higher than 95%. The determination of copper, lead and iron was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of analyte ions were investigated. The preconcentration factor was 62.5. The limit of detections of the understudied analytes (k=3, N=21) were 0.64 ?g L(-1) for copper, 0.55 ?g L(-1) for lead and 0.82 ?g L(-1) for iron. The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 6%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference material (GBW 07605 Tea). The method was successively applied for the determination of copper, lead and iron in water and some food samples including cheese, bread, baby food, pekmez, honey, milk and red wine after microwave digestion. PMID:21111769

  9. Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B.

    1995-09-10

    Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

  10. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  11. Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide. PMID:25736576

  12. Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide.

  13. Barium release system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A chemical system is described for releasing a good yield of free barium neutral atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. The barium is released in the vapor phase so that it can be ionized by solar radiation and also be excited to emit resonance radiation in the visible range. The ionized luminous cloud of barium becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electrical characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas at a given time.

  14. Sputtered (barium(x), strontium(1-x))titanate, BST, thin films on flexible copper foils for use as a non-linear dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, Brian James

    Ferroelectric thin film dielectrics have a non-linear DC bias dependent permittivity and can be used as the dielectric between metal electrodes to make tunable Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors. Varactors can be used to change the resonance frequency of a circuit allowing high speed frequency switching intra- and inter-band. 2-D geometric arrays of circuitry, where resonant frequency is independently controlled by tunable elements in each section of the array, allow electromagnetic radiation to be focused and the wave front spatial trajectory controlled. BST thin films varactors allow large DC fields to be applied with modest voltages providing large tunabilities. If ferroelectric thin film based devices are to complement or supplant semiconductor varactors as tunable elements then devices must be synthesized using a low cost processing techniques. The Film on Foil process methodology for depositing BST thin films on copper foil substrates was used to create BST/Cu specimens. Sputtering conditions were determined via BST deposition on platinized silicon. Sputtered BST thin films were synthesized on Cu foil substrates and densified using high T, controlled pO2 anneals. XRD showed the absence of Cu2O in as-deposited, post crystallization annealed, and post "re-ox" annealed state. Data showed a polycrystalline BST microstructure with a 55--80 nm grain size and no copper oxidation. HRTEM imaging qualitatively showed evidence of an abrupt BST/Cu interface free from oxide formation. Dielectric properties of Cu/BST/Pt MIM devices were measured as a function of DC bias, frequency, and temperature. A permittivity of 725 was observed with tunability >3:1 while zero bias tan delta of 0.02 saturating to tan delta < 0.003 at high DC bias. No significant frequency dispersion was observed over five decades of frequency. Temperature dependent measurements revealed a broad ferroelectric transition with a maximum at -32°C which sustains a large tunability over -150°C to 150°C. Sputtered BST thin films on copper foils show comparable dielectric properties to CVD deposited films on platinized silicon substrates proving sputtered BST/Cu specimens can reproduce excellent properties using a more cost-effective processing approach. A concept for reducing the temperature dependence was explored. Stacks of multiple compositions of BST thin films were considered as an extension of core-shell structures to a thin film format. Temperature profiles of BST/Cu films were modeled and mathematically combined in simulations of multi-composition film stacks. Simulations showed singular composition BST thin films could meet X7R specifications if a film has a 292 K < TC < 330 K. Simulations of series connected film stacks show only modest temperature profile broadening. Parallel connected dual composition film stacks showed a 75°C temperature range with essentially flat capacitance by simulating compositions that create a DeltaTC = 283°C. Maximum permittivity and temperature profile shape independent of film thickness or composition were assumed for simulations. BST/Cu thickness and compositions series were fabricated and dielectric properties characterized. These studies showed films could be grown from 300 nm and approaching 1 mum without changing the dielectric temperature response. In studying BST composition, an increasing TC shift was observed when increasing Ba mole fraction in BST thin films while tunability >3:1 was maintained. These results provide a route for creating temperature stable capacitors using a BST/Cu embodiment. An effort to reduce surface roughness of copper foil substrates adversely impacted BST film integrity by impairing adhesion. XPS analysis of high surface roughness commercially obtained Cu foils revealed a surface treatment of Zn-Cu-O that was not present on smooth Cu, thus an investigation of surface chemistry was conducted. Sessile drop experiments were performed to characterize Cu-BST adhesion and the effects of metallic Zn and ZnO in this system. The study revealed the work of adhesio

  15. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoid taking it with foods containing dairy products, coffee, tea, or cereals. There are many forms of ... Coffee and teaTaking iron supplements with coffee or tea can reduce the amount of iron the body ...

  16. Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected heteronuclear iron-copper carbonyl cluster anions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Mingbiao; Chi, Chaoxian; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jieming; Zhou, Mingfei

    2015-05-01

    Mass-selected heteronuclear iron-copper carbonyl cluster anions CuFe(CO)n(-) (n = 4-7) are studied by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy in the carbonyl stretching frequency region in the gas phase. The cluster anions are produced via a laser vaporization supersonic cluster ion source. Their geometric structures are determined by comparison of the experimental spectra with those calculated by density functional theory. The experimentally observed CuFe(CO)n(-) (n = 4-7) cluster anions are characterized to have (OC)4Fe-Cu(CO)n-4 structures, each involving a C3v symmetry Fe(CO)4(-) building block. Bonding analysis indicates that the Fe-Cu bond in the CuFe(CO)n(-) (n = 4-7) cluster anions is a ? type single bond with the iron center possessing the most favored 18-electron configuration. The results provide important new insight into the structure and bonding of hetronuclear transition metal carbonyl cluster anions. PMID:25871820

  17. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  18. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  19. Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of arsenic in concentrates and copper-base alloys by the molybdenum blue method after separations by iron collection and xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1977-02-01

    A method for determining 0.0001-1% of arsenic in copper, nickel, molybdenum, lead and zinc concentrates is described. After sample decomposition, arsenic is separated from most of the matrix elements by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide from an ammoniacal medium. Following reprecipitation of arsenic and iron, the precipitate is dissolved in approximately 2 M hydrochloric acid and the solution is evaporated to a small volume to remove water. Arsenic(V) is reduced to the tervalent state with iron(II) and separated from iron, lead and other co-precipitated elements by chloroform extraction of its xanthate from an 11M hydrochloric acid medium. After oxidation of arsenic(III) in the extract to arsenic(V) with bromine-carbon tetrachloride solution, it is back-extracted into water and determined by the molybdenum blue method. Small amounts of iron, copper and molybdenum, which are co-extracted as xanthates, and antimony, which is co-extracted to a slight extent as the chloro-complex under the proposed conditions, do not interfere. The proposed method is also applicable to copper-base alloys. PMID:18962035

  1. Modeling of copper(II) removal by iron oxide-coated granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Anderson, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    Although Fe oxides (includes oxide, hydroxide, and oxyhydroxide Fe minerals) are recognized as effective adsorbents for heavy metals, oxide adsorbent-based treatment processes have been limited by their small particle size. When present as a discrete mineral phase in waste streams, Fe oxide particles are typically in a colloidal size range that is difficult to remove from aqueous solution. To overcome this limitation, some possible alternatives were described which used sand or activated carbon as the supporting medium for iron oxide precipitates, or cemented iron oxide with a proprietary binding material. These adsorbents can solve the particle size problem associated with iron oxide for use in a column process with promising abilities for both cationic and anionic metals removal and recovery. Because the capacity of these adsorbents for metals depends on the amount of iron oxide on the adsorbent surface, activated carbon would seem to have an advantage as a substrate because of its large surface area. Therefore, the authors present some results of their work with a composite adsorbent made from Fe oxide and granular activated carbon. A major objective of this work was to select an appropriate equilibrium model to describe the adsorption isotherm, and to show how a first or second order reaction or homogeneous surface diffusion models could be used to model the adsorption process in the batch system.

  2. Technology and social process : oscillations in Iron Age copper production and power in Southern Jordan

    E-print Network

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2010-01-01

    bottom from slagging), or preheating with iron ore flux (to flux the ashbottom) at KAG Area E. Inside the structure we found several hearths and ashand ash was found. The fill layer is depicted in Figure 5.116 towards the bottom

  3. Rosette iron deficiency transcript and microRNA profiling reveals links between copper and iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; McInturf, Samuel A; Stein, Ricardo J

    2012-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential plant micronutrient, and its deficiency limits plant growth and development on alkaline soils. Under Fe deficiency, plant responses include up-regulation of genes involved in Fe uptake from the soil. However, little is known about shoot responses to Fe deficiency. Using microarrays to probe gene expression in Kas-1 and Tsu-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and comparison with existing Col-0 data, revealed conserved rosette gene expression responses to Fe deficiency. Fe-regulated genes included known metal homeostasis-related genes, and a number of genes of unknown function. Several genes responded to Fe deficiency in both roots and rosettes. Fe deficiency led to up-regulation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes CSD1 and CSD2, and down-regulation of FeSOD genes FSD1 and FSD2. Eight microRNAs were found to respond to Fe deficiency. Three of these (miR397a, miR398a, and miR398b/c) are known to regulate transcripts of Cu-containing proteins, and were down-regulated by Fe deficiency, suggesting that they could be involved in plant adaptation to Fe limitation. Indeed, Fe deficiency led to accumulation of Cu in rosettes, prior to any detectable decrease in Fe concentration. ccs1 mutants that lack functional Cu,ZnSOD proteins were prone to greater oxidative stress under Fe deficiency, indicating that increased Cu concentration under Fe limitation has an important role in oxidative stress prevention. The present results show that Cu accumulation, microRNA regulation, and associated differential expression of Fe and CuSOD genes are coordinated responses to Fe limitation. PMID:22962679

  4. Bioaccumulation of lead, copper, iron, and zinc by fish in a transect of the Santa Catarina River in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Changes have been observed in the ichthyic species community, upriver in the San Juan River in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A disappearance of Notropis amabilis, Notropis stramineus, Dionda episcopa and Campostoma anomalum and an increased mortality of Astyanax mexicanus, Lepomis macrochirus and Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum have been found. These changes were probably due to industrial and domestic discharges which produced high levels of lead, copper, iron and detergents in the water. The investigation reported here was done in order to detect the possible presence of lead, copper, iron and zinc in the river waters and also, to determine a probable bioaccumulation of these metals in fish species of the Santa Catarina River in the state of Nuevo Leon in northeastern Mexico, since this river transports domestic and industrial wastes of urban and suburban zones.

  5. [Study on the compositions in the interface of corrosion inhibition membrane/copper plating layer/iron substrate by depth etching and photoelectron spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shao-bin; Shang, Shi-bo; Feng, Li-ting; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Jing-wei; Li, Zong-hui

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the reason for the weak bond intensity between pyro-phosphate copper plating layer and iron substrate, spectrum technology was adopted. The compositions of various elements in the perpendicular interface were analyzed. The effect of surface roughness in the metal substrate on various elements distribution was discussed. According to etching time, the membrane layer was divided into three portions: surface layer with nitrogen and oxygen content decreasing quickly, mesosphere of basic fixed composition, and mix disturbing layer with substrate element appearing and occupying a half thickness. Through analyzing oxygen content in the mix layer, it was concluded that the oxygen layer in the interface of copper layer/iron substrate was the main cause of influencing the bond intensity between the plating layer and substrate. PMID:16827371

  6. Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin, and tungsten miners.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Z; Hearl, F J; Odencrantz, J; Chen, W; Chen, B T; Chen, J Q; McCawley, M A; Gao, P; Soderholm, S C

    2001-11-01

    Collaborative studies of Chinese workers, using over four decades of dust monitoring data, are being conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Tongji Medical University in China. The goal of these projects is to establish exposure-response relationships for the development of diseases such as silicosis or lung cancer in cohorts of pottery and mine workers. It is necessary to convert Chinese dust measurements to respirable silica measurements in order to make results from the Chinese data comparable to other results in the literature. This article describes the development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers. Ambient total dust concentrations (n>17000) and crystalline silica concentrations (n=347) in bulk dust were first gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, side-by-side airborne dust samples (n=143 pairs) were collected using nylon cyclones and traditional Chinese samplers in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and Chinese total dust concentrations. Based on the analysis of the available evidence, conversion factors derived from the 1988-1989 sampling campaign are assumed to apply to other time periods in this paper. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron/copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. Conversion factors for individual facilities within each industry were also calculated. Analysis of variance revealed that mean conversion factors are significantly different among facilities within the iron/copper industry and within the pottery industry. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry-wide conversion factors, or a weighted average of the two are discussed. The exposure matrix of the historical Chinese total dust concentrations was multiplied by these conversion factors to obtain an exposure matrix of historical respirable crystalline silica concentrations. PMID:11718659

  7. Structural features and the reaction mechanism of cytochrome oxidase: iron and copper X-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed Central

    Powers, L; Chance, B; Ching, Y; Angiolillo, P

    1981-01-01

    X-ray edge absorption of copper and extended fine structure studies of both copper and iron centers have been made of cytochrome oxidase from beef heart, Paracoccus dentrificans, and HB-8 thermophilic bacteria (1-2.5 mM in heme). The desired redox state (fully oxidized, reduced CO, mixed valence formate and CO) in the x-ray beam was controlled by low temperature (-140 degrees C) and was continuously monitored by simultaneous optical spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) monitoring every 30 min of x-ray exposure. The structure of the active site, a cytochrome a3-copper pair in fully oxidized and in mixed valence formate states where they are spin coupled, contains a sulphur bridge with three ligands 2.60 +/- 0.03 A from Fea3 and 2.18 +/- 0.03 A from Cua3. The distance between Fea3 and Cua3 is 3.75 +/- 0.05 A, making the sulphur bond angle 103 degrees reasonable for sp3 sulphur bonding. The Fea3 first shell has four typical heme nitrogens (2.01 +/- 0.03 A) with a proximal nitrogen at 2.14 +/- 0.03 A. The sixth ligand is the bridging sulphur. The Cua3 first shell is identical to oxidized stellacyanin containing two nitrogens and a bridging sulphur. Upon reduction with CO, the active site is identical to reduced stellacyanin for the Cua3 first shell and contains the sulphur that forms the bridge in fully oxidized and mixed valence formate states. The Fea3 first shell is identical to oxyhemoglobin but has CO instead of O2. The other redox centers, Fea and the other "EPR detectable" Cu are not observed in higher shells of Fea3. Fea has six equidistant nitrogens and Cua has one (or two) nitrogens and three (or two) sulphurs with typical distances; these ligands change only slight on reduction. These structures afford the basis for an oxygen reduction mechanism involving oxy- and peroxy intermediates. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6264990

  8. Nickel-cobalt-iron-copper sulfides and arsenides in solution-collapse breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J. ); Hlava, P.F. )

    1993-04-01

    An extensive suite of Ni-Co-Fe-Cu sulfides and arsenides lies within the matrix of solution-collapse breccias buried deep within the plateaus of the Grand Canyon region. Ceilings over large caverns in the Redwall collapsed, brecciating the overlying sandstone and forming cylindrical breccia pipes up to 300 ft in diameter that extend vertically as much as 3,000 ft. These highly permeable breccias served as a host for the precipitation of a suite of over 100 minerals, including uraninite, sphalerite, galena and various copper phases, in addition to the Ni-Co-bearing-phase discussed here. Intricately zoned crystals of small (<1 mm), euhedral Ni-Co-Fe-As-S minerals were the first to form during the second major episode of mineralization in these pipes. Several of these phases replace minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, from the first episode. Extensive microprobe work has been done on samples from two breccia pipe mines, the Hack 2 and Orphan, which are about 50 miles apart. Mineral compositions are similar except that no copper is found in the Ni-Co-Fe phases from the Hack 2 mine, while pyrites containing 1 wt % Cu are common from the Orphan, which was mined for copper. In some of these pyrites', Cu is dominant and the mineral is actually villamaninite. Pyrites from both mines characteristically contain 0.5 to 3 wt % As. Metal contents in zones pyrite-bravoite-vaesite (M[sub 1]S[sub 2]) crystals at the Hack 2 mine range from Fe[sub 1] to Fe[sub .12], Ni[sub 0] to Ni[sub .86], and Co[sub 0] to Co[sub .10]. The metal content for polydymite-siegenite-violarite averages about (Ni[sub 2.33]Co[sub .39]Fe[sub .23])(S[sub 3.9]As[sub .1]). Orphan mine pyrite-bravoite-vaesite-villamaninite ranges in composition from pure FeS[sub 2] to (Ni[sub .6]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .17])S[sub 2], and (Cu[sub .46]Ni[sub .27]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .13])S[sub 2]. Of all the sulfides or arsenides found in these breccia pipes, only nickeline consistently occurs as the pure end member.

  9. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Cassels, Bruce K.; Pérez, Claudio; Mena, Natalia; Núñez, Marco T.; Martínez, Natalia P.; Pavez, Paulina; Aliaga, Margarita E.

    2014-01-01

    Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E)-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1) and (E)-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)amino)-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2), were synthesized and their detection of copper(II) and iron(III) ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II) or iron(III) ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10?5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes. PMID:24419164

  10. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... on food sources of iron: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for Iron ( ...

  11. Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: Production-scale applications in radioactive waste treatment and iron control in copper electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Dreisinger, D.B.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-12-31

    Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin has been phased through synthetic scale-up, pilot testing, and production installation in radioactive waste treatment and hydrometallurgical applications. The geminal diphosphonic acid groups of Diphonix resin allow selective retention by cation-exchange and/or chelation. The resin is effective at low pH where sulfonic and carboxylic acid resins are ineffective. Diphonix resin has been used in nuclear facilities to reduce actinide concentrations in radioactive waste effluents and to reduce waste volumes. The high retention of iron(III) by Diphonix resin in acidic sulfate media has led to an installation capable of removing one ton of iron per day from a copper electrowinning stream. This iron control process diminishes cobalt losses in the electrowinning circuit and significantly reduces operating costs. The authors will discuss the development of these Diphonix resin applications.

  12. Adsorption and decomposition of hydrazine on metal films of iron, nickel, and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haydari, Y.K.; Saleh, J.M.; Matloob, M.H.

    1985-07-18

    The interaction of hydrazine with evaporated metal films of Fe, Ni, and Cu has been investigated in the temperature range 243-393 K. Dissociative chemisorption of hydrazine occurred on Fe and Ni films at 243 K with liberation of NH/sub 3/, N/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/ gases. Adsorption on Cu film at the same temperature was molecular and a significant fraction of the adsorption was reversible. Two different mechanisms have been suggested for the adsorption and the subsequent formation of the decomposition products. Ammonia was the main gaseous product of hydrazine decomposition on the films at all temperatures. The desorption of the products was more extensive in the case of Ni film as compared with the other two metals. The activation energy (E/sub a/) of hydrazine adsorption as well as the pre-exponential factor (A) in the rate equation remained independent of extent of adsorption. The relationship which was found to exist between the values of log A and those of E/sub a/ indicated the operation of a compensation effect in the hydrazine adsorption on the films. Copper film was found to have a greater capability for hydrazine adsorption than the other two films. The geometric requirements for appropriate hydrazine adsorption on this metal are probably more satisfied than on the other two metals. 27 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Analysis of 26 Barium Stars I. Abundances

    E-print Network

    Dinah M. Allen; Beatriz Barbuy

    2006-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of 26 barium stars, including dwarf barium stars, providing their atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], vt) and elemental abundances. We aim at deriving gravities and luminosity classes of the sample stars, in particular to confirm the existence of dwarf barium stars. Accurate abundances of chemical elements were derived. Abundance ratios between nucleosynthetic processes, by using Eu and Ba as representatives of the r- and s-processes are presented. High-resolution spectra with the FEROS spectrograph at the ESO-1.5m Telescope, and photometric data with Fotrap at the Zeiss telescope at the LNA were obtained. The atmospheric parameters were derived in an iterative way, with temperatures obtained from colour-temperature calibrations. The abundances were derived using spectrum synthesis for Li, Na, Al, alpha-, iron peak, s- and r-elements atomic lines, and C and N molecular lines. Atmospheric parameters in the range 4300 barium stars, were derived and showed that [X/Ba] vs. [Ba/H] and [X/Ba] vs. [Fe/H] present different behaviour as compared to [X/Eu] vs. [Eu/H] and [X/Eu] vs. [Fe/H], reflecting the different nucleosynthetic sites for the s- and r-processes.

  14. Effect of Copper and Nickel on the Transformation Kinetics of Austempered Ductile Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Marcin; Tyra?a, Edward; Lopez, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of reaction occurring during the austempering treatment of ductile iron (DI) containing different additions of Cu and Ni was investigated in this work. DI bars were heat treated in an instrumented dilatometer in order to follow the exhibited transformation kinetics. The dilatometric results indicated that the addition of Cu alone did not have a significant effect on the incubation times for the austempering transformation. Also, the addition of both, Cu and Ni resulted in a significant effect on reducing the transformation rates. It was found that the austempering process is characterized by two clearly distinguished transformation stages. In the initial stage, the addition of Cu, and to a greater extent, additions of both Cu and Ni led to reductions in the transformation rates shifting the maximum transformation rate values toward longer times. The outcome of this work indicates that during the first stage of austempering, nucleation of the ferrite plates occurs via a diffusionless mechanism while their growth is diffusion controlled. Moreover, after the maximum in the transformation rate has been reached, the growth of ferrite plates becomes dominant with the rate-limiting step becoming the diffusion of C into the surrounding austenite. A qualitative model for the austempering transformation is proposed in this work to account for the experimental observations.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  16. Solid state 31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Taylor, R. E.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for Lunar or Martian outposts. Solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to examine the paramagnetic effects of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ to determine if they were incorporated into the SHA structure. Separate Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ containing SHA materials along with a transition metal free SHA (pure-SHA) were synthesized using a precipitation method. The proximity (<1 nm) of the transition metals to the 31P nuclei of SHA were apparent when comparing the integrated 31P signal intensities of the pure-SHA (87 arbitrary units g-1) with the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (37-71 arbitrary units g-1). The lower integrated 31P signal intensities of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials relative to the pure-SHA suggested that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were incorporated in the SHA structure. Further support for Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ incorporation was demonstrated by the reduced spin-lattice relaxation constants of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (T'=0.075-0.434s) relative to pure-SHA (T1=58.4s). Inversion recovery spectra indicated that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were not homogeneously distributed about the 31P nuclei in the SHA structure. Extraction with diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that between 50 and 80% of the total starting metal concentrations were incorporated in the SHA structure. Iron-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu in the ALS cropping system.

  17. Effect of ultrasonic agitation on the release of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from soil and sediment using the BCR three-stage sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Delevoye, G

    2001-08-01

    An ultrasonic bath and an ultrasonic probe have been used to develop rapid versions of the three-stage Community Bureau of Reference (BCR, now the Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme) sequential extraction procedure. The effect of the ultrasonic treatments on the extraction of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from a sewage sludge-amended soil has been assessed. Recoveries similar to those of conventional shaking (i.e., conventional value, +/- 30%) could generally be obtained for copper, manganese and zinc, but not for the important matrix element iron. With the use of compromise sonication conditions, steps 1, 2 and 3 of the sequential extraction (excluding the hydrogen peroxide digestion in step 3, which was not performed with sonication) could be completed in 3, 5 and 1 min, respectively, using the ultrasonic probe, and in 3, 1 and 1 h, respectively, using the bath. The extraction procedures developed using the soil performed well when applied to lake sediment BCR CRM 601. Analyte partitioning was generally similar to that obtained with mechanical shaking, and overall metal recoveries were 84-98% of those obtained with the conventional BCR protocol, except for copper extracted with the probe (74%). Poorer performance (analyte recoveries, 58-104%) was obtained when the methods were applied to an intertidal sediment. This highlights the difficulty of developing a version of the BCR extraction, with ultrasonic assistance, which gives a performance equivalent to conventional shaking when applied to different substrates. PMID:11523440

  18. Effect of gradual accumulation of iron, molybdenum and sulfur, slow depletion of zinc and copper, ethanol or fructose ingestion and phlebotomy in gout.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    1999-11-01

    Gout affects mostly males over 40 years old and, occasionally, postmenopausal women. This pattern coincides with the pattern of iron accumulation. On the other hand, menstruating women are seldom afflicted by gout, because the monthly blood loss causes them to accumulate iron to a much lesser degree. Gout involves seven aspects: (1) uric acid overproduction from increased purines in the diet; (2) uric acid overproduction from ATP degradation; (3) uric acid overproduction from increased de novo synthesis of purines; (4) uric acid overproduction from increased DNA breakdown from cell damage; (5) decreased uric acid elimination, caused by molybdenum and sulfur binding to copper in the kidneys; (6) precipitation of sodium urate-iron crystals in the joints due to high ferritin and saturated transferrin and low CuZn-SOD and Cu-thionein in the joint; (7) development of inflammation, triggered by tyrosine bonding to the sodium-urate-iron crystals and being transformed by tyrosine kinase. Alcohol and iron greatly affect most of these aspects. Therefore, phlebotomy is suggested as therapy for gout patients, in order to eliminate the accumulated Fe. Furthermore, yearly blood donation is recommended for males with a family history of gout, so as to prevent Fe accumulation and avoid gout. PMID:10616042

  19. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg?1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  20. Barium and Yttrium abundance in intermediate-age and old open clusters

    E-print Network

    Mishenina, T; Carraro, G; Kovtyukh, V V; Yegorova, I A

    2013-01-01

    Barium is a neutron capture element, that, in open clusters, is frequently over-abundant with respect to the Iron. A clear explanation for this is still missing. Additionally, its gradient across the Galactic disk is poorly constrained. We measure the abundance of yttrium and barium using the synthetic spectrum method from UVES high-resolution spectra of eight distant open clusters, namely Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, Berkeley 75, NGC 6192, NGC 6404, and NGC 6583. The barium abundance was estimated using NLTE approximation. We confirm that Barium is indeed over-abundant in most clusters, especially young clusters. Finally, we investigated the trend of yttrium and barium abundances as a function of distance in the Galaxy and ages. Several scenarios for the barium over-abundance are then discussed.

  1. Effects of Excess Sb on Thermoelectric Properties of Barium and Indium Double-Filled Iron-Based p-Type Skutterudite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Zhao, Wen-yu; Wei, Ping; Tang, Ding-guo; Zhang, Qing-jie

    2012-06-01

    A series of Ba and In double-filled iron-based p-type skutterudite thermoelectric (TE) materials with nominal composition BaInFe3.7Co0.3Sb12+ m (0.72 ? m ? 2.4) have been prepared by melting, quenching, annealing, and spark plasma sintering (SPS) methods. The effects of excess Sb on the phase composition, microstructure, and TE transport properties of these materials were investigated in this work. All the SPS bulk materials are composed of the main skutterudite phase and trace InSb and FeSb2. The content of FeSb2 in the SPS bulk materials gradually decreased and that of InSb remained nearly invariable with increasing m. The impurities InSb and metallic Sb are found at grain boundaries. The amount of metallic Sb at grain boundaries gradually increased with increasing m. The excess Sb had no effect on the growth of grains. The dependence of the TE properties on m indicates that preventing the formation of FeSb2 by adjusting the excess Sb value may significantly improve the TE properties of Ba and In double-filled iron-based p-type skutterudite materials. The significant increases in the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity as well as the remarkable reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of the sample with m = 0.96 are due to the significant reduction in the FeSb2 content induced by the excess Sb. The gradual increase in ZT with increasing m from 0.72 to 1.44 is attributed to the gradual decrease of the FeSb2 content, and the gradual decrease in ZT in the m range of 1.44 to 2.4 is due to the gradual increase of the Sb content in the Sb-In alloy impurity occurring at grain boundaries. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity of 0.31 W m-1 K-1 and the highest ZT value of 0.63 were obtained at 800 K for the sample with m = 1.44.

  2. Iron and copper isotope fractionation during filtration and ultrafiltration of boreal organic-rich waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Viers, Jerome; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Poitrasson, Franck; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.

    2010-05-01

    Typical feature of all boreal surface waters is high concentration of dissolved (< 0.22 µm) organic matter (DOM) and iron, notably in the form of Fe(III)-OM complexes. Organic and organo-mineral colloids are the most likely carriers of trace metals such as Cu in rivers of the boreal zone. This work addresses colloidal speciation of Cu and Fe using conventional size separation technique, on-site frontal ultrafiltration. Specifically, we aimed to test the possibility of the presence of different pools of metal having specific isotopic signatures in different colloidal fractions using stable isotope measurements. We have chosen Cu for its high affinity to colloidal DOM and Fe for its tendency to form stable organo-mineral colloids of various size. Samples of natural waters were collected from small rivers, lakes, bogs, groundwater and soil environments in the Northern Karelia (NW Russia) during summer baseflow period. Large volumes (20-40 L) of water were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size filters: 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.45, 0.22, 0.1 µm and 100, 10 and 1 kDa (1 kDa ~ 1 nm) using nylon and regenerated cellulose membranes and frontal ultrafiltration (Millipore, Amicon) devises. The homogeneity of the sample was verified by tracing radiogenic Sr isotopes in each fraction. In all filtrates and ultrafiltrates (permeates), and in selected retentates, stable isotopic composition of Cu and Fe was measured using double focusing high resolution MC-ICP MS (Neptune). We observe rather constant Cu isotopic ratio in all filtrate series and a systematic enrichment of heavy isotope of Fe with decreasing poresize. These preliminary results can be explained by strong complexation of Cu with small-size organic ligands of fulvic nature and its partial association with organo-mineral colloids. Both Fe(III) - OM complxeation and Fe(III) oxyhydroxides precipitation can be invoked to explain Fe isotope fractionation. This work allows, for the first, time, multi-isotopic approach to trace the origin of colloids in surficial waters and it provides new constrains on chemical speciation (and, thus, bioavailability) of metals in colloids of various size. The work is executed at a Russian Federal Property Fund and CNRS support (?? 08-05-00312_a, 07-05-92212-CNRS_a).

  3. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the wrought alloy AA6061. At present, there is simply no known application for pressure die-cast alloy with 206 (Liquid Die-casting). This is mainly due to the high propensity to hot cracking and limitations facing the part geometry and the subsequent assembly. This study demonstrated that in addition to pieces produced by semi-solid die-casting using large variations in chemical composition, the SEED process allows obtaining spare sound (sound part) and more complex geometry. Moreover, as the semi-solid parts have less porosity, they can also be machined and welded for some applications. The conclusions of this study demonstrate significant progress in identifying the main issues related to the feasibility of die-casting good parts with high performance using the modified 206 alloy combined with SEED process. This work is therefore a baseline work in the development of new Al-Cu alloys for industries of semi-solid and, at the same time, for the expansion of aluminum for high performance applications in the industry. N.B. This thesis is part of a research project developed by the NSERC / Rio Tinto Akan Industrial Research Chair in Metallurgy of Innovative Aluminum Transformation (CIMTAL).

  4. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also used for improving athletic performance and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and canker sores. Some people also use ... body when taken by women who are pregnant.Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Developing research shows that taking iron sulfate ( ...

  5. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  6. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  7. Direct functionalization processes: a journey from palladium to copper to iron to nickel to metal-free coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, James J; Charette, André B

    2013-02-19

    The possibility of finding novel disconnections for the efficient synthesis of organic molecules has driven the interest in developing technologies to directly functionalize C-H bonds. The ubiquity of these bonds makes such transformations attractive, while also posing several challenges. The first, and perhaps most important, is the selective functionalization of one C-H bond over another. Another key problem is inducing reactivity at sites that have been historically unreactive and difficult to access without prior inefficient prefunctionalization. Although remarkable advances have been made over the past decade toward solving these and other problems, several difficult tasks remain as researchers attempt to bring C-H functionalization reactions into common use. The functionalization of sp(3) centers continues to be challenging relative to their sp and sp(2) counterparts. Directing groups are often needed to increase the effective concentration of the catalyst at the targeted reaction site, forming thermodynamically stable coordination complexes. As such, the development of removable or convertible directing groups is desirable. Finally, the replacement of expensive rare earth reagents with less expensive and more sustainable catalysts or abandoning the use of catalysts entirely is essential for future practicality. This Account describes our efforts toward solving some of these quandaries. We began our work in this area with the direct arylation of N-iminopyridinium ylides as a universal means to derivatize the germane six-membered heterocycle. We found that the Lewis basic benzoyl group of the pyridinium ylide could direct a palladium catalyst toward insertion at the 2-position of the pyridinium ring, forming a thermodynamically stable six-membered metallocycle. Subsequently we discovered the arylation of the benzylic site of 2-picolonium ylides. The same N-benzoyl group could direct a number of inexpensive copper salts to the 2-position of the pyridinium ylide, which led to the first description of a direct copper-catalyzed alkenylation onto an electron-deficient arene. This particular directing group offers two advantages: (1) it can be easily appended and removed to reveal the desired pyridine target, and (2) it can be incorporated in a cascade process in the preparation of pharmacologically relevant 2-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines. This work has solved some of the challenges in the direct arylation of nonheterocyclic arenes, including reversing the reactivity often observed with such transformations. Readily convertible directing groups were applied to facilitate the transformation. We also demonstrated that iron can promote intermolecular arylations effectively and that the omission of any metal still permits intramolecular arylation reactions. Lastly, we recently discovered a nickel-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of sp(3) C-H bonds. Our mechanistic investigations of these processes have elucidated radical pathways, opening new avenues in future direct C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:23098328

  8. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  9. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, Adam C.; Wang, Qianlong; Weller, Mark T.

    2014-02-15

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42{sub 1}m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2?} with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO{sub 4} tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 4?} diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO{sub 8} square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d{sup 9} Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2?}, formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO{sub 4} tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d{sup 9} Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d{sup 10} distorted coordinations.

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. PMID:24837932

  11. Effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper in synthesized Fe(III) minerals and Fe-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaohua; Zhang, Youchi; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Wensui

    2014-04-01

    The effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper were investigated in a high concentration of sulfate with synthesized Fe(III) minerals and red earth soils rich in amorphous Fe (hydr)oxides. Batch microcosm experiments showed that red earth soil inoculated with subsurface sediments had a faster Fe(III) bioreduction rate than pure amorphous Fe(III) minerals and resulted in quicker immobilization of Cu in the aqueous fraction. Coinciding with the decrease of aqueous Cu, SO4(2-) in the inoculated red earth soil decreased acutely after incubation. The shift in the microbial community composite in the inoculated soil was analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results revealed the potential cooperative effect of microbial Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction on copper immobilization. After exposure to air for 144 h, more than 50% of the immobilized Cu was remobilized from the anaerobic matrices; aqueous sulfate increased significantly. Sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the organic matter/sulfide-bound Cu increased by 52% after anaerobic incubation relative to the abiotic treatment but decreased by 32% after oxidation, indicating the generation and oxidation of Cu-sulfide coprecipitates in the inoculated red earth soil. These findings suggest that the immobilization of copper could be enhanced by mediating microbial Fe(III) reduction with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions. The findings have an important implication for bioremediation in Cucontaminated and Fe-rich soils, especially in acid-mine-drainage-affected sites. PMID:24448165

  12. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds and Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper Based Multi-Component Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey David

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently utilized materials, a comprehensive welding strategy must be developed under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. The following dissertation is presented as a series of four chapters. Chapter one is a review of the relevant literature on the iron-copper system including the precipitation of copper in steel, the development of the NUCu family of alloys, and the formation of acicular ferrite in steel weldments. Chapter two is a detailed study of the precipitate, microstructural, and mechanical property evolution of NUCu-140 fusion welds. Microhardness testing, tensile testing, local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography, MatCalc kinetic simulations, and Russell-Brown strengthening results for gas-tungsten and gas-metal arc welds are presented. Chapter three is a thorough study of the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs in the four critical regions of the HAZ. Simulated HAZ specimens were produced and evaluated using microhardness, tensile testing, and charpy impact testing. MatCalc simulations and R-B strengthening calculations were also performed in an effort to model the experimentally observed mechanical property trends. Chapter 4 is a brief investigation into the capabilities of MatCalc and the R-B model to determine if the two techniques could be used as predictive tools for a series of binary iron-copper alloys without the aid of experimentally measured precipitate data. The mechanical property results show that local softening occurs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) as a result of either full or partial dissolution of the copper-rich precipitates responsible for strengthening. Re-precipitation of the copper-rich precipitates was observed during the cooling portion of the weld thermal cycle but the resultant precipitate phase fractions were too low to fully recover the lost strength. The coarse-grained HAZ and fusion zone exhibited an acicular type microstructure which led to improved tensile properties when compared to the other regions of the HAZ. MatCalc simulations displayed excellent agreement with the precipitate parameters measured experimentally using the LEAP. The R-B model was shown to provide reasonable agreement under select conditions, but in general was determined to be overly sensitive to small variations in precipitate parameters. As a result in should be considered a qualitative tool only for precipitate radii less than ˜2 nm. Finally, it was determined that the current generation of MatCalc software was unable to accurately capture the precipitate evolution of various binary iron-copper alloys when experimental data sets were not available for calibration of the model parameters.

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to...4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No....

  14. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  15. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  16. The barium iron ruthenium oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmler-Sack, S.; Ehmann, A.

    1986-01-01

    In the system BaFe(1-x)Ru(x)O(3-y), three phases, separated by immiscibility gaps, are present: an Fe-rich phase (x = 0 to 0.75) with hexagonal BaTiO3 structure (6H; sequence (hcc)2), a Ru-rich phase (x = 0.9) of hexagonal 4H-type (sequence (hc)2), and the pure Ru compounds BaRuO3 with rhombohedral 9R structure (sequence (hhc)3). By vibrational spectroscopic investigations in the 6H phase a transition from n-type semiconduction (Fe-rich compounds with complete O lattice) can be detected. The 4H and 9R stacking polytypes are good, metal-like conductors. The lattice parameters are given.

  17. Removal of Tin and Copper from Liquid Iron by Al2O3-Saturated Ca-CaCl2 Slags at 1448 to 1648 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2009-08-01

    The removal of tin and copper from liquid iron by Al2O3-saturated Ca-CaCl2 slags was carried out in separate alumina crucibles at 1448 to 1648 K that showed small partition ratios of less than 1. The tin content of the liquid iron typically decreased from its initial value of 50 to 40 wt pct and the (gross) copper content of the iron-copper mixture from 50 to 45 wt pct, at equilibrium. The small refining efficiencies (37 pct, maximum) of the slags, the initial composition of which were, in most cases, Ca-50 wt pct CaCl2, may be attributed to the significant dissolution in them of alumina, up to 42.0 wt pct (29.6 mol pct), in experiments with Sn, and up to 54.4 wt pct (38.6 mol pct), in experiments with Cu. Treating Ca as the solvent, a number of interaction coefficients such as \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{text{Sn}} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }}^{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }}^{text{Sn}} , and \\varepsilon_{text{Sn}}^{text{Sn}} as well as the activity coefficient ?_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}0 were all determined at 1448 K. The activity of Ca (relative to pure liquid Ca) was obtained as approximately 0.65 to 0.75 in the system. Further, the two partial molar mixing/excess properties of alumina bar{H}_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}M and bar{S}_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{XS} in the alumina-saturated Ca-17 pct CaCl2- 37 pct Al2O3 (molar basis) slag were evaluated and found to be -118.3(±10.8) kJ/mol and -0.062(±0.007) kJ/K·mol, respectively, at 1448 to 1648 K. In addition, in view of the reported success of CaC2 as a refining agent, some experiments were carried out with CaC2-CaF2 mixtures in alumina, magnesia, and graphite crucibles at 1873 K, to remove tin from liquid Fe-2 wt pct Sn. However, alumina and magnesia crucibles leaked owing to their dissolution in calcium fluoride; in graphite crucibles, only a small transfer of tin, 3 to 7 pct of its initial mass, to the slag phase took place.

  18. Table of interplanar spacings for crystal-structure determinations by X-ray diffraction with molybdenum, copper, cobalt, iron, and chromium radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, J Howard

    1945-01-01

    For a simple diffraction pattern, the time required to calculate interplanar distances from measurements of the pattern is not excessive. If more than a few lines are present, however, or if several patterns are to be studied, it is very advantageous to have available a table giving interplanar spacings directly in terms of the linear measurements made on the film of the lines appearing on the diffraction pattern. The preparation of the table given here was undertaken when the expansion of research activities involving X-ray diffraction techniques indicated that such a table would greatly decrease the time required to analyze diffraction patterns. The table was prepared for use with K alpha(sub 1) radiation from the following target materials: molybdenum, copper, cobalt, iron, and chromium.

  19. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY61 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad...INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S...C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties between the United States...

  20. Evaluating In-Situ Reactions of Chlorine and Chloramines at the Surface of Copper and Iron using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion of drinking water plumbing materials is a significant cause of deterioration of treated drinking water quality and a failure to supply safe water to the public. As a result of the Lead and Copper Rule, many water utilities in the US have developed and evaluated corrosio...

  1. Studies of concentration and temperature dependences of precipitation kinetics in iron-copper alloys using kinetic Monte Carlo and stochastic statistical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Khromov, K. Yu.; Vaks, V. G. Zhuravlev, I. A.

    2013-02-15

    The previously developed ab initio model and the kinetic Monte Carlo method (KMCM) are used to simulate precipitation in a number of iron-copper alloys with different copper concentrations x and temperatures T. The same simulations are also made using an improved version of the previously suggested stochastic statistical method (SSM). The results obtained enable us to make a number of general conclusions about the dependences of the decomposition kinetics in Fe-Cu alloys on x and T. We also show that the SSM usually describes the precipitation kinetics in good agreement with the KMCM, and using the SSM in conjunction with the KMCM allows extending the KMC simulations to the longer evolution times. The results of simulations seem to agree with available experimental data for Fe-Cu alloys within statistical errors of simulations and the scatter of experimental results. Comparison of simulation results with experiments for some multicomponent Fe-Cu-based alloys allows making certain conclusions about the influence of alloying elements in these alloys on the precipitation kinetics at different stages of evolution.

  2. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a mineralizing agent and a ligand.

  3. Barium iron arsenide, barium cobalt arsenide, barium nickel arsenide single crystals and superconductivity upon cobalt doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ronning, Filip; Sefat, A S; Mcguire, M M; Sales, B; Jin, R; Mandrus, D

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure and physical properties of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2}, and BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals are surveyed. BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} gives a magnetic and structural transition at T{sub N} = 132(1) K, BaCo{sub 2}As{sub 2} is a paramagnetic metal, while BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a structural phase transition at T{sub 0} = 131 K, followed by superconductivity below {Tc} = 0.69 K. The bulk superconductivity in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} below {Tc} = 22 K is demonstrated by resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat data. In contrast to the cuprates, the Fe-based system appears to tolerate considerable disorder in the transition metal layers. First principles calculations for BaFe{sub 1.84}Co{sub 0.16}As{sub 2} inter-band scattering due to Co is weak.

  4. Environmental application of millimeter-scale sponge iron (s-Fe(0)) particles (II): the effect of surface copper.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yongming; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Runlong; Li, Guohua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yanyan; Wei, Dongyang; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-04-28

    To enhance the catalytic reactivity of millimeter-scale particles of sponge iron (s-Fe(0)), Cu(2+) ions were deposited on the surface of s-Fe(0) using a simple direct reduction reaction, and the catalytic properties of the bimetallic system was tested for removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from an aqueous solution. The influence of Cu(0) loading, catalyst dosage, particle size, initial RhB concentration, and initial pH were investigated, and the recyclability of the catalyst was also assessed. The results demonstrate that the 3?5 millimeter s-Fe(0) particles (s-Fe(0)(3?5mm)) with 5wt% Cu loading gave the best results. The removal of RhB followed two-step, pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) showed excellent stability after five reuse cycles. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) possesses great advantages compared to nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron power, and iron flakes as well as its bimetals. The surface Cu(0) apparently catalyzes the production of reactive hydrogen atoms for indirect reaction and generates Fe-Cu galvanic cells that enhance electron transfer for direct reaction. This bimetallic catalyst shows great potential for the pre-treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Additionally, some oxides containing iron element are selected to simulate the adsorption process. The results prove that the adsorption process of FeOOH, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 played minor role for the removal of RhB. PMID:25668301

  5. Discovery of the Barium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Shore; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

    2009-08-13

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of the barium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-11-15

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Barium light source method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  8. Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

    2001-06-15

    A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

  9. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    E-print Network

    R. Smiljanic; G. F. Porto de Mello; L. da Silva

    2007-04-02

    High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the FeI and FeII lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant Eps Vir as the standard star. The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence of barium and mild barium to having different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclassified as mild barium stars. The relevance of this finding is discussed. Concerning the suggested nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process, for elements like Cu, Mn, V and Sc, we found no evidence for an anomalous behavior in any of the s-process enriched stars analyzed here. However, further work is still needed since a clear [Cu/Fe] vs. [Ba/H] anticorrelation exists for other s-process enriched objects.

  10. Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets--iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    The diets of over two-thirds of the world's population lack one or more essential mineral elements. This can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentrations and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in produce (biofortification). This article reviews aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop biofortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se). Two complementary approaches have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in food crops. First, agronomic approaches optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or improving the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil have been implemented. Secondly, crops have been developed with: increased abilities to acquire mineral elements and accumulate them in edible tissues; increased concentrations of 'promoter' substances, such as ascorbate, beta-carotene and cysteine-rich polypeptides which stimulate the absorption of essential mineral elements by the gut; and reduced concentrations of 'antinutrients', such as oxalate, polyphenolics or phytate, which interfere with their absorption. These approaches are addressing mineral malnutrition in humans globally. PMID:19192191

  11. Improvement of the trace metal composition of medium for nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria: Iron (II) and copper (II) make a difference.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Pan, Yawei; Cai, Chaoyang; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Liqiao; Liu, Shuai; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua; Hu, Baolan

    2015-11-15

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a potential bioprocess for treating nitrogen-containing wastewater. This process uses methane, an inexpensive and nontoxic end-product of anaerobic digestion, as an external electron donor. However, the low turnover rate and slow growth rate of n-damo functional bacteria limit the practical application of this process. In the present study, the short- and long-term effects of variations in trace metal concentrations on n-damo bacteria were investigated, and the concentrations of trace metal elements of medium were improved. The results were subsequently verified by a group of long-term inoculations (90 days) and were applied in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) (84 days). The results indicated that iron (Fe(II)) and copper (Cu(II)) (20 and 10 ?mol L(-1), respectively) significantly stimulated the activity and the growth of n-damo bacteria, whereas other trace metal elements, including zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), had no significant effect on n-damo bacteria in the tested concentration ranges. Interestingly, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that a large number of dense, large aggregates (10-50 ?m) of n-damo bacteria were formed by cell adhesion in the SBR reactor after using the improved medium, and to our knowledge this is the first discovery of large aggregates of n-damo bacteria. PMID:26340061

  12. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Ju, Shaohua; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Peiyi; Wang, Yihui

    2011-08-30

    A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650°C for 1h. The sintered residue was leached in 6mol L(-1) aqueous NH(4)Cl solution at 105°C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH(4)Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1h at 160°C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration. PMID:21684683

  13. Hydrogen bonding of sulfur ligands in blue copper and iron-sulfur proteins: detection by resonance raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mino, Y.; Loehr, T.M.; Wada, K.; Matsubara, H.; Sanders-Loehr, J.

    1987-12-15

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the blue copper protein azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans exhibits nine vibrational modes between 330 and 460 cm/sup -1/, seven of which shift 0.4-3.0 cm/sup -1/ to lower energy after incubation of the protein in D/sub 2/O. These deuterium-dependent shifts have been previously ascribed to exchangeable protons on imidazole ligands or to exchangeable protons on amide groups which are hydrogen bonded to the cysteine thiolate ligands (a feature common to all blue copper proteins of known structure). In order to distinguish between these two possibilities, a systematic investigation of Fe/sub 2/S/sub 2/(Cys)/sub 4/-containing proteins was undertaken. Extensive hydrogen bonding between sulfur ligands and the polypeptide backbone had been observed in the crystal structure of ferredoxin from Spirulina platensis. The resonance Raman spectrum of this protein is typical of a chloroplast-type ferredoxin and exhibits deuterium-dependent shifts of -0.3 to -0.5 cm/sup -1/ in the Fe-S modes at 283, 367, and 394 cm/sup -1/ and -0.6 to -0.8 cm/sup -1/ in the Fe-S modes at 328 and 341 cm/sup -1/. Considerably greater deuterium sensitivity is observed in the Raman spectra of spinach ferredoxin and bovine adrenodoxin, particularly for the symmetric stretching vibration of the Fe/sub 2/S/sub 2/ moiety at approx. 390 cm/sup -1/. This feature decreases of 9.8 and 1.1 cm/sup -1/, respectively, for the two oxidized proteins in D/sub 2/O and by 1.8 cm/sup -1/ for reduced adrenodoxin in D/sub 2/O. These results suggest that the bridging sulfido groups may be more extensively hydrogen bonded in spinach ferredoxin and adrenodoxin than in S. platensis ferredoxin, with a further increase in hydrogen-bond strength in the reduced form of adrenodoxin.

  14. Interaction between Barium Oxide and Barium Containing Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Korzun, Iraida V.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Antonov, Boris D.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal analysis was applied to determine the liquidus temperatures in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2-BaO system, with BaO concentration varied from 0 to 6 mole%. The temperature dependence of the BaO solubility in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic melt was investigated; the thermodynamic parameters of BaO dissolution were calculated. The caloric effects of melting of the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic with barium oxide and barium oxychloride additions were studied. The type, morphology, and composition of oxychloride ionic groupings in the melt were determined in situ using Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich A dissertation submitted in partial of the manuscript made from microform." Signature Date #12;#12;University of Washington Abstract Barium Ions Department of Physics Barium ion is investigated as a hyperfine qubit. 137Ba+ is trapped in a linear Paul

  16. Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Rasti, Mohsen; Ranjbari, Ahmad Reza; Shirvani, Edris

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial Holstein dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 blood serum samples (60 in each season) and 24 diet samples (12 in each season) were collected in the summer and winter. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the summer, the mean concentrations of Cu and Fe in serum samples were lower and higher than the critical level, respectively (P?

  17. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterode, W.; Falkenberg, G.; Höftberger, R.; Wrba, F.

    2007-07-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 ± 54, 20.1 ± 4.3 and 88.919.5 ?g/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 ± 539, 35.9 ± 14.6 and 27.2 ± 6.7 ?g/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 ?m in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20× light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  18. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2011-09-15

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm{sup 3}. The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the {Delta}n=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  19. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; de Carvalho, Emerson R.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Johnson, Craig A.; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Torresi, Ignácio

    2008-02-01

    The Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista-Sequeirinho-Baiano and Sossego-Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW-ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano-sedimentary units of the ˜2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ˜2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista-Sequeirinho-Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite-hematite) alteration and later sodic-calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite-(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile-brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego-Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic-sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite-quartz-epidote-chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego-Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with subsidiary siegenite, and millerite. Pyrrhotite and pyrite are minor constituents of ore in the Sequerinho orebodies while pyrite is relatively abundant in the Sossego-Curral bodies. Oxygen isotope partitioning between mineral pairs constrains temperatures in the deposit spatially and through time. In the Sequeirinho orebody, the early sodic-calcic alteration stage was characterized by temperatures exceeding 500°C and ? ^{{{text{18}}}} {text{O}}_{{{text{H}}_{{text{2}}} {text{O}}}} values for the alteration fluid of 6.9 ± 0.9‰. Temperature declines outward and upward from the zone of most intense alteration. Paragenetically later copper-gold mineralization displays markedly lower temperatures (<300°C) and was characterized by the introduction of 18O-depleted hydrothermal fluids -1.8 ± 3.4‰. The calculated ?DH2O and ? ^{{{text{18}}}} {text{O}}_{{{text{H}}_{{text{2}}} {text{O}}}} values suggest that the fluids that formed the early calcic-sodic alteration assemblage were of formational/metamorphic or magmatic origin. The decrease of ? ^{{{text{18}}}} {text{O}}_{{{text{H}}_{{text{2}}} {text{O}}}} values through time may reflect influx of surficially derived waters during later alteration and mineralization events. Influx of such fluids could be related to episodic fluid overpressure, resulting in dilution and cooling of the metalliferous fluid, causing deposition of metals transported as metal chloride complexes.

  20. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano–sedimentary units of the ?2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ?2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite–hematite) alteration and later sodic–calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite–(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile–brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego–Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic–sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite–quartz–epidote–chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego–Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with subsidiary siegenite, and millerite. Pyrrhotite and pyrite are minor constituents of ore in the Sequerinho orebodies while pyrite is relatively abundant in the Sossego–Curral bodies. Oxygen isotope partitioning between mineral pairs constrains temperatures in the deposit spatially and through time. In the Sequeirinho orebody, the early sodic–calcic alteration stage was characterized by temperatures exceeding 500°C and ?18OH2O values for the alteration fluid of 6.9?±?0.9‰. Temperature declines outward and upward from the zone of most intense alteration. Paragenetically later copper–gold mineralization displays markedly lower temperatures (<300°C) and was characterized by the introduction of 18O-depleted hydrothermal fluids ?1.8?±?3.4‰. The calculated ?DH2O and ?18OH2O values suggest that the fluids that formed the early calcic–sodic alteration assemblage were of formational/metamorphic or magmatic origin. The decrease of ?18OH2O values through time may reflect influx of surficially derived waters during later alteration and mineralization events. Influx of such fluids could be related to episodic fluid overpressure, resulting in dilution and cooling of the metalliferous fluid, causing deposition of metals transported as metal chloride complexes.

  1. Noble gas and halogen constraints on fluid sources in iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization: Mantoverde and La Candelaria, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschik, Robert; Kendrick, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    The noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) composition of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz and calcite related to the hypogene iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) mineralization at Mantoverde and Candelaria, Chile, have been investigated to provide new insights of fluid and salinity sources in Andean IOCG deposits. A combination of mechanical extraction by crushing and thermal decrepitation methods was applied and collectively indicate that fluid inclusions with salinities ranging from 3.4 up to 64 wt% NaCl equivalent have molar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of between 0.5 × 10-3 and 3.0 × 10-3 and I/Cl of between 8 × 10-6 and 25 × 10-6 in the majority of samples, with maximum values of 5.2 × 10-3 obtained for Br/Cl and 64 × 10-6 for I/Cl in fluid inclusions within individual samples. The fluid inclusions have age-corrected 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from the atmospheric value of 296 up to 490 ± 45, indicating the presence of crustal- or mantle-derived excess 40Ar in the fluid inclusions of most samples. The fluid inclusions have 84Kr/36Ar and 130Xe/36Ar ratios intermediate of air and air-saturated water. However, 40Ar/36Ar is not correlated with either 84Kr/36Ar or 130Xe/36Ar, and the fluid inclusion 36Ar concentrations of 0.2-3.5 × 10-10 mol/g (calculated from measured Cl/36Ar and thermometric salinity measurements) extend below the seawater value of 0.34 × 10-10 mol/g, suggesting that contamination with modern air is a minor artifact. The range of fluid inclusion Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios overlap those previously documented for the mantle and magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits, and the fluids' unusually low 36Ar concentration is consistent with the involvement of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Input of additional non-magmatic fluid components is suggested by the spread in Br/Cl and I/Cl to values characteristic of bittern brine sedimentary formation waters and near atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar. These data are compatible with mixing of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and evaporated seawater, which was modified by interaction with back-arc basin sediments as the major control on ore formation. Low Br/Cl (<0.5 × 10-3) and I/Cl (<5.0 × 10-6) values that would provide evidence for evaporite dissolution as an important source of fluid salinity were not detected.

  2. Are There Any Stars Lacking Neutron-Capture Elements? Evidence from Strontium and Barium

    E-print Network

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The cosmic dispersion in the abundances of the heavy elements strontium and barium in halo stars is well known. Strontium and barium are detected in most cool, metal-poor giants, but are these elements always detectable? To identify stars that could be considered probable candidates for lacking these elements, I examine the stellar abundance data available in the literature for 1148 field stars and 226 stars in dwarf galaxies, 776 of which have metallicities lower than [Fe/H]Strontium or barium have been detected in all field, globular cluster, and dwarf galaxy environments studied. All upper limits are consistent with the lowest detected ratios of [Sr/H] and [Ba/H]. The frequent appearance of these elements raises the intriguing prospect that at least one kind of neutron-capture reaction operates as often as the nucleosynthesis mechanisms that produce lighter elements, like magnesium, calcium, or iron, although the yields of heavy elements may be more variable.

  3. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  4. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  5. Cloud point extraction of copper, lead, cadmium, and iron using 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and nonionic surfactant, and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in water and canned food samples.

    PubMed

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    A cloud point extraction procedure was optimized for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), and iron(III) ions in various water and canned food samples. The metal ions formed complexes with 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine that were extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. LOD values based on three times the SD of the blank (3Sb) were 0.38, 0.48, 1.33, and 1.85 microg/L for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II), and iron(III) ions, respectively. The precision (RSD) of the method was in the 1.86-3.06% range (n=7). Validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST-SRM) 1568a Rice Flour and GBW 07605 Tea. The method was applied to water and canned food samples for determination of metal ions. PMID:22970587

  6. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  7. REMOVAL OF BARIUM AND RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to investigate processes for removing barium and radium from drinking water. Special emphasis was placed on ion exchange processes that can be used without adding large concentrations of sodium to the water. The wastes from radium and barium remo...

  8. Placing Iron on Test Plate 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    copper and aluminum for carrying the electricity and iron for use in magnets and motors. A different history exists where electricity has been used in information and signal processing. The electronics revolution has occurred because of new phenomena...

  9. Communications to the Editor Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles of Barium

    E-print Network

    Communications to the Editor Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles of Barium Titanate: Toward of barium titanate, BaTiO3, with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 nm. Barium titanate is a room,10 In the synthesis developed here, barium titanium ethyl hexano-isopropoxide (A

  10. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-04-02

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  11. Effets thermoelectrique et thermomagnetique du yttrium barium copper oxide monocristallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamlouche, Hassan

    1998-09-01

    Des la decouverte des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique, les recherches se sont intensifiees afin de comprendre les mecanismes qui sont a l'origine des proprietes de ces materiaux L'etat mixte, tout comme l'etat supraconducteur pur et l'etat normal, a fait l'objet de nombreux travaux de recherche. En particulier, la structure des vortex a l'etat mixte, et leur mouvement sous l'effet d'une force quelconque, etaient et restent le centre de preoccupation. Les effets thermoelectrique (Seebeck) et thermomagnetique (Nernst) sont parmi les differentes mesures qui peuvent donner de l'information sur les etats des vortex a l'etat mixte. L'avantage essentiel de ces deux effets est l'absence d'un courant electrique applique. Ce dernier peut donner des perturbations indesirables durant les mesures. D'autre pari, nous avons utilise la methode CA (Courant Alternatif) pour effectuer nos mesures. Cette methode est caracterisee par une meilleure resolution par rapport a la methode CC (Courant Continu) conventionnelle. Nous avons etudie autant des echantillons macles que des echantillons sans macles. D'abord nous avons teste notre montage a champ magnetique nul. Nous avons alors montre que le pic rapporte par certains dans l'effet Seebeck a la transition supraconductrice ne correspond pas a une realite physique mais a un artefact experimental. On avait associe ce pic aux fluctuations. Par la suite, nous avons mis en evidence et etudie pour la premiere fois avec les effets Seebeck et Nernst le phenomene de la fusion du reseau de vortex grace a des mesures sur les echantillons sans macles. Cette etude s'est faite pour deux concentrations d'oxygene differentes et pour un gradient de temperature parallele, consecutivement, aux deux axes cristallographiques dans le plan ab. Finalement, nous avons etudie l'effet des plans de maclage sur le mouvement des vortex. Ceci a ete realise en appliquant le gradient de temperature selon trois directions differentes (0, 45 et 90°) avec les plans de maclage. Nous avons observe, pour le premier angle un mouvement libre du vortex, pour le second angle une contribution de l'effet Nernst a l'effet Seebeck et pour la troisieme direction un phenomene d'activation. Dans ce dernier cas, les plans de maclage font un obstacle qui s'oppose au mouvement des vortex. De ce qui precede, nous concluons qu'avec la bonne resolution de notre technique nous sommes capables d'observer des phenomenes que la technique CC ne met pas en relief. D'autre part, la variete d'echantillons que nous avons etudies et les phenomenes que nous avons observes valorisent la presente etude.

  12. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R. (Lemont, IL); Sengupta, Suvankar (Columbus, OH); Shi, Donglu (Cincinnati, OH)

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  13. Copper and Barium Abundances in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    E-print Network

    S. Castro; G. F. Porto de Mello; L. da Silva

    1999-01-15

    We present Cu and Ba abundances for 7 G-K dwarf stars, members of the solar-metallicity, 0.3 Gyr old Ursa Major Moving Group. All analyzed member stars show [Ba/Fe] excesses of +0.3-plus, associated with [Cu/Fe] deficiencies of up to -0.23 dex. The present results suggest that there is an anti-correlation between the abundances of Cu and the heavy elements produced by the main component of the neutron capture s-process. Other possible anomalies are Na and C deficiencies with respect to normal solar-metallicity stars. The new data do not confirm the recent claim that the group member HR6094 is a Ba dwarf star.

  14. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    E-print Network

    Y. C. Liang; G. Zhao; Y. Q. Chen; H. M. Qiu; B. Zhang

    2003-12-15

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the theoretical results show that wind accretion scenario can explain the abundance patterns of HD 50082 and HD 27271 well, but fail to explain the abundances of HD 26886. It means that the mild Ba star HD 26886, with shorter orbital period (P11000 d), may be either a star with the heavy elements enriched by itself or a "true Ba" star.

  15. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents. PMID:25527987

  16. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  17. Abundance Analysis of Barium Stars

    E-print Network

    G. Q. Liu; Y. C. Liang; L. Deng

    2008-11-13

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neutron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Eu show obvious overabundance relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] cover a range from $-$0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to Galactic disk. The predicts of the theoretical model of wind accretion for binary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of the present white dwarf companions in the binary systems.

  18. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  19. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Comparing Two Different Types of Anaerobic Copper

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Comparing Two Different Types of Anaerobic Copper Biocorrosion by Sulfate- and Nitrate MIC mechanisms of copper by sulfate-re- ducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria. It is said of elemental metal such as elemental iron (Fell), Microbes such as sulfate-reducing bacLeria (SRn) utilize Fell

  1. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  2. Entrainment behavior of copper and copper matte in copper smelting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, S. W.; Toguri, J. M.

    1992-06-01

    In copper smelting, the loss of copper to the slag due to entrainment is largely influenced by the flotation of copper metal and/or matte in the slag phase. To evaluate this behavior, the surface tension of copper as a function of temperature and oxygen pressure and the interfacial tension of the copper-iron matte-slag system as a function of matte grade were measured. From the surface and interfacial tension values, the spreading and flotation coefficients of the copper, matte, and slag system were calculated. Ternary interfacial energy diagrams were also con-structed using these data. It is shown that matte droplets containing higher than 32 mass pct Cu will not form a film on rising gas bubbles when they collide in the slag phase. However, matte droplets will attach to gas bubbles upon collision and thus can be floated over the entire range of matte composition. Spreading of copper on bubbles is not possible at oxygen pressures between 10-12 and 10-8 atm. Flotation of copper by gas bubble in slag is possible at oxygen pressure higher than 10-9 atm. However, it is feasible for rising matte droplets (attached to rising bubble) to trap and float copper irrespective of the matte grade.

  3. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  4. Iron Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  5. Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium niobate M of the photorefractive light-induced scattering (beam fanning) in Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (strontium barium niobate) doped

  6. Constraining the oceanic barium cycle with stable barium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhimian; Siebert, Christopher; Hathorne, Ed C.; Dai, Minhan; Frank, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of barium (Ba) concentrations in seawater resembles that of nutrients and Ba has been widely used as a proxy of paleoproductivity. However, the exact mechanisms controlling the nutrient-like behavior, and thus the fundamentals of Ba chemistry in the ocean, have not been fully resolved. Here we present a set of full water column dissolved Ba (DBa) isotope (?137BaDBa) profiles from the South China Sea and the East China Sea that receives large freshwater inputs from the Changjiang (Yangtze River). We find pronounced and systematic horizontal and depth dependent ?137BaDBa gradients. Beyond the river influence characterized by generally light signatures (0.0 to + 0.3 ‰), the ?137BaDBa values in the upper water column are significantly higher (+ 0.9 ‰) than those in the deep waters (+ 0.5 ‰). Moreover, ?137BaDBa signatures are essentially constant in the entire upper 100 m, in which dissolved silicon isotopes are fractionated during diatom growth resulting in the heaviest isotopic compositions in the very surface waters. Combined with the decoupling of DBa concentrations and ?137BaDBa from the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate this implies that the apparent nutrient-like fractionation of Ba isotopes in seawater is primarily induced by preferential adsorption of the lighter isotopes onto biogenic particles rather than by biological utilization. The subsurface ?137BaDBa distribution is dominated by water mass mixing. The application of stable Ba isotopes as a proxy for nutrient cycling should therefore be considered with caution and both biological and physical processes need to be considered. Clearly, however, Ba isotopes show great potential as a new tracer for land-sea interactions and ocean mixing processes.

  7. PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE

    E-print Network

    Malovichko, Galina

    PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE G.MALOVICHKO, V@uos.de; vgrachev@uos.de; schirmer@uos.de Abstract The results of the study of charge transfer processes in barium of crystals from barium titanate (BT) family make them promising candidates for various applications

  8. Experiments with remote entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Experiments with remote entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz A dissertation submitted entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Dr. Boris B. Blinov Physics Department Barium ion qubits are trapped and Doppler cooled in a linear Paul trap and the tasks

  9. Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated by Scanned Probe on the ferroelectric properties of individual single-crystalline barium titanate nanowires. We show that nonvolatile report the scanned probe characterization of individual single-crystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  15. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect. PMID:24367764

  16. Barium adsorption on hydrogenated ? surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. S.; Papageorgopoulos, C. A.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental study of Ba and H adsorption on 0953-8984/8/45/015/img2 by Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and work function measurements has been made. Measurements of hydrogen adsorption on a clean silicon surface have been made mainly for reference purposes. H on Si forms two different states, known as monohydride state 0953-8984/8/45/015/img3 and dihydride state 0953-8984/8/45/015/img4. Preadsorption of H made the surface order more stable without changing the sticking coefficient of Ba on the Si surface. The results supported the double-layer (DL) model for the first Ba layer on the monohydrided Si surface. Ba adatoms up to 0953-8984/8/45/015/img5 ML on the dihydride phase were relaxed at symmetric and equivalent sites following the 0953-8984/8/45/015/img6 symmetry of the restored Si surface. TDS measurements showed that during Ba adsorption on the monohydride phase some of the H atoms were removed from their initial adsorption sites, and a new H energy state was formed at 0953-8984/8/45/015/img7 which was attributed to the weakening of the Si - H bond in the presence of Ba adatoms. When Ba deposition took place on the dihydride phase, two new H states were successively developed. The first state at 0953-8984/8/45/015/img8 was attributed to 0953-8984/8/45/015/img9 formation, and the subsequent one to a complex Ba - H - Si compound near 0953-8984/8/45/015/img10. The presence of hydrogen caused a considerable delay of barium overlayer metallization, in contrast to the early metallization of alkali on hydrogenated surfaces.

  17. Barium Titanate and Bismuth Oxide Nanocomposites Barium titanate, BaTiO3, and bismuth oxide Bi2O3 are transparent materials with

    E-print Network

    Harmon, Julie P.

    Barium Titanate and Bismuth Oxide Nanocomposites Barium titanate, BaTiO3, and bismuth oxide Bi2O3 Wall in Tetragonal Barium Titanate", H. Chaib, F. Schlaphof, T. Otto and L. M. Eng, Journal of Physics

  18. Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:22468357

  19. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  20. Highly aluminium doped barium and strontium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by citrate auto-combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J. . E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; Thompson, Simon; O'Keefe, Eoin S.; Appleton, Steve; Perry, Carole C. . E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aluminium doped barium and strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles BaAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} and SrAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using citric acid to complex the ions followed by an auto-combustion reaction. This method shows promise for the synthesis of complex ferrite powders with small particle size. It was found that around half of the iron could be substituted for aluminium in the barium ferrite with structure retention, whereas strontium aluminium ferrites could be produced with any aluminium content including total substitution of the iron. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials show structural and morphological changes as they move from iron to aluminium ferrites. Such materials may be promising for imaging applications.

  1. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  2. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  3. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  4. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

  5. Antimicrobial and mutagenic activity of some carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands and their copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Carcelli, M; Pelagatti, P; Pelizzi, C; Pelizzi, G; Zani, F

    1999-06-15

    Several mono- and bis- carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands have been synthesised and characterised; the X-ray diffraction analysis of bis(phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone is reported. The coordinating properties of the ligands have been studied towards Cu(II), Fe(II), and Zn(II) salts. The ligands and the metal complexes were tested in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. In general, the bisthiocarbonohydrazones possess the best antimicrobial properties and Gram positive bacteria are the most sensitive microorganisms. Bis(ethyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone, bis(butyl 2-pyridyl ketone)thiocarbonohydrazone and Cu(H2nft)Cl2 (H2nft, bis(5-nitrofuraldehyde)thiocarbonohydrazone) reveal a strong activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.7 microgram ml-1 against Bacillus subtilis and of 3 micrograms ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus. Cu(II) complexes are more effective than Fe(II) and Zn(II) ones. All bisthiocarbono- and carbonohydrazones are devoid of mutagenic properties, with the exception of the compounds derived from 5-nitrofuraldehyde. On the contrary a weak mutagenicity, that disappears in the copper complexes, is exhibited by monosubstituted thiocarbonohydrazones. PMID:10450607

  6. Copper Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contaminate the sample with an external source of copper. Talk to the health practitioner and/or the laboratory that will perform ... about necessary precautions. If a urine or blood copper test result is higher than expected, the health practitioner may have the test repeated with a ...

  7. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  8. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25%. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (<35%). Hydrolysis of Fe(3+) and CO3 (2-) leading to the generation of Fe(OH)3 and conversion to FeOOH that precipitated on the surface and strongly adsorbed the products of reduction caused the inhibition of CO3 (2-). The 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The operational conditions and common ions affected the 2,4-DNT reduction and its products by enhancing the corrosion of iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites. PMID:25663339

  9. ARE THERE ANY STARS LACKING NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS? EVIDENCE FROM STRONTIUM AND BARIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.

    2013-01-01

    The cosmic dispersion in the abundances of the heavy elements strontium and barium in halo stars is well known. Strontium and barium are detected in most cool, metal-poor giants, but are these elements always detectable? To identify stars that could be considered probable candidates for lacking these elements, I examine the stellar abundance data available in the literature for 1148 field stars and 226 stars in dwarf galaxies, 776 of which have metallicities lower than [Fe/H] <-2.0. Strontium or barium have been detected in all field, globular cluster, and dwarf galaxy environments studied. All upper limits are consistent with the lowest detected ratios of [Sr/H] and [Ba/H]. The frequent appearance of these elements raises the intriguing prospect that at least one kind of neutron-capture reaction operates as often as the nucleosynthesis mechanisms that produce lighter elements, such as magnesium, calcium, or iron, although the yields of heavy elements may be more variable.

  10. Occupational Exposure to Welding Fume among Welders: Alterations of Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Copper, and Lead in Body Fluids and the Oxidative Stress Status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guojun Jane; Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Wu, Ping; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Welders in this study were selected from a vehicle manufacturer; control subjects were from a nearby food factory. Airborne manganese levels in the breathing zones of welders and controls were 1.45 ± SD1.08 mg/m3 and 0.11 ± 0.07 ?g/m3, respectively. Serum levels of manganese and iron in welders were 4.3-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, higher than those of controls. Blood lead concentrations in welders increased 2.5-fold, whereas serum zinc levels decreased 1.2-fold, in comparison with controls. Linear regression revealed the lack of associations between blood levels of five metals and welder’s age. Furthermore, welders had erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum malondialdehyde levels 24% less and 78% higher, respectively, than those of controls. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to welding fumes among welders disturbs the homeostasis of trace elements in systemic circulation and induces oxidative stress. PMID:15091287

  11. Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum Computation V.Mirgon, G.Shu, A.Avril, M.Dietrich N.Kurz, E. Shahar, and B.B.Blinov

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum Computation V.Mirgon, G of Washington Seattle WA 98195 Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum

  12. Copper staves in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Helenbrook, R.G.; Kowalski, W.; Grosspietsch, K.H.; Hille, H.

    1996-08-01

    Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

  13. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Methods Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18–35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca2+ release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Results Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element. PMID:26451108

  14. LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 The Iodometric Determination of Copper in Brass

    E-print Network

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 7 The Iodometric Determination of Copper in Brass Discussion The method is relatively simple and applicable to brasses with less than 2% iron. A weighed sample is treated with nitric

  15. Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiangyu

    Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals piezoelectric responses of barium titanate single crystals under different crystallographic orientations, and use it to explain the ultrahigh piezoelectric response recently observed in a 270 cut barium titanate

  16. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  17. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, O.; Posada, O. M.; Hondow, N. S.; Wälti, C.; Saunders, M.; Murray, C. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L3-edge energy separation of the t2g, eg peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t2g and eg peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers.

  18. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Hammad, Ahmed H

    2015-02-25

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data. PMID:25194319

  19. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  20. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ORTHO- AND POLYPHOSPHATE ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON PARTICLES AND SUSPENSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Orthophosphate and polyphosphates are used widely by drinking water utilities to reduce lead, copper and iron release from distribution system materials, and reduce visible iron precipitation and related discolored-water complaints. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evalu...

  2. Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Nanorods Composed of Barium Titanate and Strontium Titanate

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Nanorods Composed of Barium Titanate and Strontium alkoxide precursors and 1 mmol of oleic acid (Aldrich, 99+%). The precursors, barium titanium isopropoxide

  3. Inhibition of copper uptake in yeast reveals the copper transporter Ctr1p as a potential molecular target of saxitoxin

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen D.; Minkin, Steven C.; Dodani, Sheel C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Saxitoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria which targets voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in higher vertebrates. However, its molecular target in planktonic aquatic community members that co-occur with the toxin producers remains unknown. Previous microarray analysis with yeast identified copper and iron-homeostasis genes as being differentially regulated in response to saxitoxin. This study sought to identify the molecular target in microbial cells by comparing the transcriptional profiles of key copper and iron homeostasis genes (CTR1, FRE1, FET3, CUP1, CRS5) in cells exposed to saxitoxin, excess copper, excess iron, an extracellular Cu(I) chelator, or an intracellular Cu(I) chelator. Protein expression and localization of Ctr1p (copper transporter), Fet3p (multicopper oxidase involved in high-affinity iron uptake), and Aft1p (iron regulator) were also compared among treatments. Combined transcript and protein profiles suggested saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake. This hypothesis was confirmed by intracellular Cu(I) imaging with a selective fluorescent probe for labile copper. Based on the combined molecular and physiological results, a model is presented in which the copper transporter Ctr1p serves as a molecular target of saxitoxin and these observations couched in the context of the eco-evolutionary role this toxin may serve for species that produce it. PMID:22304436

  4. A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Imke

    A Novel Copper A Containing Menaquinol NO Reductase from Bacillus azotoformans Suharti, Marc J. F of one non-heme iron, two copper atoms and of two b-type hemes per enzyme complex. Heme c was absent features of this enzyme that distinguish it from other NO reductases. First, the enzyme contains copper

  5. COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 , Amber L. Annett3

    E-print Network

    COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 Jian Guo2 , Amber L. Annett3 , Rebecca L We investigated copper (Cu) acquisition mecha- nisms and uptake kinetics of the marine diatoms organic Cu complexes. Key index words: copper; Cu; diatom; Fe; iron; kinetics; Thalassiosira; transport

  6. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species have adapted on such stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of copper in plants and to assess its potential effect on the surrounding environment. To detect copper in biological samples electrochemical methods were employed particularly differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Copper gave signals at 0.02 V measured by DPV. The obtained calibration dependence was linear (R2 = 0.995). Further, this method was utilized for determination of copper in real soil samples obtained from previously mentioned heavy-metal-polluted mining area. The content varied within range from tens to hundreds of mg of copper per kg of the soil. Moreover, we focused on investigation of copper influence on seedlings of Norway spruce. The seedlings were treated with copper (0, 0.1, 10 and 100 mM) for four weeks. We observed anatomical-morphological changes and other biochemical parameters in plants. We determined that seedlings synthesized more than 48 % protective thiols (glutathione and phytochelatins) compared to control ones. We investigated copper distribution in plant tissues by diphenylcarbazide staining. We found out that copper is highly accumulated in parenchymal stalk cells. In needles, change in auto-fluorescence of parenchymal cells of mesoderm similarly to endodermis cells. Besides, we analyzed samples of plants from the polluted area (spruce, pin, birch). The data obtained well correlated with previously mentioned. Acknowledgement The work on this experiment was supported by grant: INCHEMBIOL MSM0021622412.

  7. BARIUM IN TEETH AS INDICATOR OF BODY BURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the biological availability of naturally occurring barium in a municipal drinking water by the analysis of barium in deciduous teeth of children. The grade school children of two Illinois towns were chosen for the study. The towns were chosen ba...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. The possible role of gradual accumulation of copper, cadmium, lead and iron and gradual depletion of zinc, magnesium, selenium, vitamins B2, B6, D, and E and essential fatty acids in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2000-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a much higher incidence among caucasians that in any other race. Furthermore: females are much more susceptible than males and white females living in colder, wetter areas are much more susceptible than those living in warmer areas. On the other hand, menstruating women have increased copper (Cu) absorption and half-life, so they tend to accumulate more Cu than males. Moreover, rapidly growing girls have an increased demand for zinc (Zn), but their rapidly decreasing production of melatonin results in impaired Zn absorption, which is exacerbated by the high Cu levels. The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide. Menstruating females also often present with low magnesium (Mg) and vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 moderates intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production and extracellular Mg is required for NO release from the cell, so that a deficiency of these nutrients results in increased NO production in the cell and reduced release from the cell. The trapped NO combines with superoxide to form peroxinitrite, an extremely powerful free radical that leads to the myelin damage of MS. Iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation also increase superoxide production. Which explains MS in males, who tend to accumulate Fe much faster and Cu much less rapidly than females. Since vitamin D is paramount for Mg absorption, the much reduced exposure to sunlight in the higher latitudes may account for the higher incidence in these areas. Moreover, vitamin B2 is a cofactor for xanthine oxidase, and its deficiency exacerbates the low levels of uric acid caused by high Cu levels, resulting in myelin degeneration. Finally Selenium (Se) and vitamin E prevent lipid peroxidation and EPA and DHA upregulate CuZnSOD. Therefore, supplementation with 100 mg MG, 25 mg vit B6, 10 mg vit B2, 15 mg Zn and 400 IU vit D and E, 100 microg Se, 180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA per day between 14 and 16 years of age may prevent MS. PMID:10985916

  14. Effects of methionine chelate- or yeast proteinate-based supplement of copper, iron, manganese and zinc on broiler growth performance, their distribution in the tibia and excretion into the environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhay Kumar; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Haldar, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    A straight-run flock of 1-day-old Cobb 400 chicks (n?=?432) was distributed into four treatment groups (9 replicate pens in each group, 12 birds in a pen) for a 38-day feeding trial evaluating the effects of a methionine chelate (Met-TM)- or a yeast proteinate (Yeast-TM)-based supplement of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) on growth performance, bone criteria and some metabolic indices in commercial broiler chickens. The diets were either not supplemented with any trace elements at all (negative control, NC) or supplemented with an inorganic (sulphate) trace element premix (inorganic TM (ITM), 1 g/kg feed), the Met-TM (1 g/kg feed) and the Yeast-TM (0.5 g/kg feed). Body weight, feed conversion ratio and dressed meat yield at 38 days were better in the Yeast-TM-supplemented group as compared with the NC, ITM and Met-TM groups (p?

  15. Extraction of copper from an oxidized (lateritic) ore using bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution.

    PubMed

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined. PMID:24687752

  16. Proper Management for Morbid Iatrogenic Retroperitoneal Barium Insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Vahedian-Ardakani, Jalal; Nazerani, Shahram; Saraee, Amir; Sarmast, Ali; Saraee, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A barium enema is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure commonly used for colon and rectum problems. Rectal perforation with extensive intra- and/or extraperitoneal spillage of barium is a devastating complication of a barium enema that leads to a significant increase in patient mortality. Due to the low number of reported cases in recent scientific literature and the lack of experience with the management of these cases, we would like to present our treatment approach to a rare case of retroperitoneal contamination with barium, followed by its intraperitoneal involvement during a diagnostic barium enema. Our experience with long-term management of the patient and the good outcome will be depicted in this paper. PMID:25580416

  17. Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  18. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    E-print Network

    U. Dammalapati; L. Willmann; S. Knoop

    2011-10-25

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba), in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed 40Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  19. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed {sup 40}Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  20. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  1. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  2. Barium dierbium(III) tetra-sulfide.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Stojko, Wojciech; Ibers, James A

    2013-03-01

    Barium dierbium(III) tetra-sulfide, BaEr2S4, crystallizes with four formula units in the ortho-rhom-bic space group Pnma in the CaFe2O4 structure type. The asymmetric unit contains two Er, one Ba, and four S atoms, each with .m. site symmetry. The structure consists of channels formed by corner- and edge-sharing ErS6 octa-hedra in which Ba atoms reside. The resultant coordination of Ba is that of a bicapped trigonal prism. PMID:23476480

  3. 154 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. altogether against the unprotected iron, which is electro-positive to

    E-print Network

    is electro-positive to magnetic oxide. It appears, however, that the neighborhood of copper or its compounds of copper, nickel, silver, or ether metal electro-negativeto the magnetic oxide of iron in presence of sea

  4. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger antibacterial activity than copper vermiculite against E. coli. With 200 ppm exfoliated copper vermiculite in bacteria suspension (4.68 ppm of metal copper), the reduction of viable bacteria are 99.8% at 1 hour, and >99.9% at 2 hours. With 10 ppm exfoliated copper vermiculite in bacteria dilution (0.234 ppm of copper atoms), the reduction of viable E. coli reached 98.7% at 1 hour, and >95.6% at 2 hours. Molds have the potential to cause health problems, such as allergic reactions, irritations, and mycotoxins, and damage to buildings, historic relics, properties, etc. Since copper has better antifungal property, an initial antifungal activity of copper vermiculite was evaluated in this study. Fat-free milk was used to develop molds in the test samples by saturated samples. Incubated at 36°C for 48 hours, all of the surfaces of untreated control samples, including micron-sized vermiculite, exfoliated vermiculite, bentonite, and kaolin, have been covered by thick mold layers. However, there were no mold showed on copper vermiculite and exfoliated copper vermiculite. Even after the incubation was lasted for 10 days, copper vermiculite and exfoliated copper vermiculite did not show any mold on the surface. These results exhibited copper vermiculite has excellent antifungal activities against mold. Stability of copper ions in copper vermiculite was measured by aqueous leaching process. Copper vermiculite and exfoliated copper vermiculite were put into distilled water in a ratio of 2.0g/100ml, and then implemented leaching processes by continuously shaking (leaching) and statically storing (soaking) for desired periods of time, respectively. According to the analytic result by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), the major metals released were copper, magnesium, iron, silicon, and aluminum. The release rate of copper depends on the environmental conditions. Under the dynamic leaching condition, all the major elements had shown linear leaching rates, and slowly increases along with the leaching time. Copper concentration in 1 hour leached solutions had suffi

  6. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals. PMID:25051614

  7. Fluid seepage along the San Clemente Fault scarp: basin-wide impact on barium cycling

    E-print Network

    Huh, Chih-An

    Fluid seepage along the San Clemente Fault scarp: basin-wide impact on barium cycling Marta E present evidence that the barium released at cold seeps along the San Clemente Fault zone may significantly impact the geochemical budget of barium within the basin. Barium fluxes at seep localities

  8. Cobalt distribution during copper matte smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, T. S.; Swinbourne, D. R.; Lehner, T.

    2006-04-01

    Many smelter operators subscribe to the “precautionary principle” and wish to understand the behavior of the metals and impurities during smelting, especially how they distribute between product and waste phases and whether these phases lead to environmental, health, or safety issues. In copper smelting, copper and other elements are partitioned between copper matte, iron silicate slag, and possibly the waste gas. Many copper concentrates contain small amounts of cobalt, a metal of considerable value but also of some environmental interest. In this work, the matte/slag distribution ratio (weight percent) of cobalt between copper matte (55 wt pct) and iron silicate slag was thermodynamically modeled and predicted to be approximately 5. Experiments were performed using synthetic matte and slag at 1250 °C under a low oxygen partial pressure and the distribution ratio was found to be 4.3, while between industrial matte and slag, the ratio was found to be 1.8. Both values are acceptably close to each other and to the predicted value, given the errors inherent in such measurements. The implications of these results for increasingly sustainable copper production are discussed.

  9. Influence of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), dietary copper, and feed restriction on the subcellular distribution of minerals in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Miranda, C L; Henderson, M C; Buhler, D R

    1984-10-01

    Young male rats were pair-fed diets containing 0 or 5% tansy ragwort (TR), with each diet containing 0 or 50 micrograms/g copper. Other animals given TR-free diets were also maintained as ad libitum controls. After 5 weeks of feeding these diets, the rats were killed for the determination of the trace metal contents of liver fractions. TR with no dietary copper supplement increased the calcium content of all hepatic fractions except nuclei and debris, but had no effect on the subcellular concentrations of copper, zinc, or iron. When 50 micrograms/g copper was included in the TR diet, the subcellular distribution of copper, iron, and calcium was altered. This alteration was shown by an increase (as compared to pair-fed controls given copper-supplemented diet with no TR) in the copper content of all fractions except cytosol, the iron content of all fractions, and the calcium content of mitochondria, microsomes, lysosomes, and cytosol. Feed restriction (pair-fed versus ad libitum controls) using diets with no additional copper produced an increase in the copper and calcium contents of mitochondria; the copper, zinc, and calcium contents of cytosol; and the calcium content of lysosomes. Addition of 50 micrograms/g copper to the diets abolished these effects of feed restriction. These findings suggest that the subcellular distribution of copper, zinc, iron, and calcium in rat liver is subject to perturbation by pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing diet, dietary copper, and feed restriction. PMID:6484992

  10. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  11. Copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    A number of oxidizing agents, including chlorine, bromine, ozone and other peroxides, were allowed to act on copper solutions with the intention of forming copper peroxide. The only successful agent appears to be hydrogen peroxide. It must be used in a neutral 50 to 30 percent solution at a temperature near zero. Other methods described in the literature apparently do not work. The excess of hydrogen must be quickly sucked out of the brown precipitate, which it is best to wash with alcohol and ether. The product, crystalline under a microscope, can be analyzed only approximately. It approaches the formula CuO2H2O. In alkaline solution it appears to act catalytically in causing the decomposition of other peroxides, so that Na2O2 cannot be used to prepare it. On the addition of acids the H2O2 is regenerated. The dry substance decomposes much more slowly than the moist but is not very stable.

  12. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  13. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  14. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  15. Extraperitoneal perforation of the rectum during barium enema.

    PubMed

    Rosenklint, A; Buemann, B; Hansen, P; Baden, H

    1975-01-01

    During barium enema, barium pentrated the rectum to the perirectal extraperitoneal tissue in six patients. Four of these died, and the two survivors have permanent colostomies. The incidence of this rare complication may be further reduced if barium enema is postponed after instrumentation of the rectum, the enema can not lifted more than one meter, the balloon not distended too much, the tip of the balloon catheter made very short, and the personnel in the radiological department made aware of the complication. The complication is probably best treated by prompt diverting colostomy, drainage of perirectal tissue, and antibiotics. PMID:1124343

  16. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoxiang; Tao Shanwen; Irvine, John T.S.

    2010-01-15

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} at 600 deg. C is 2.2x10{sup -3} S/cm in wet 5% H{sub 2}. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H{sub 2} and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H{sub 2}. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at 718 deg. C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10 %. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. Five percent doping of potassium at A-site can double the total conductivity.

  17. Radium and barium removal through blending hydraulic fracturing fluids with acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kondash, Andrew J; Warner, Nathaniel R; Lahav, Ori; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-21

    Wastewaters generated during hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale typically contain high concentrations of salts, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), and metals, such as barium, that pose environmental and public health risks upon inadequate treatment and disposal. In addition, fresh water scarcity in dry regions or during periods of drought could limit shale gas development. This paper explores the possibility of using alternative water sources and their impact on NORM levels through blending acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent with recycled hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFFs). We conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which the chemistry and NORM of different mix proportions of AMD and HFFF were examined after reacting for 48 h. The experimental data combined with geochemical modeling and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that several ions, including sulfate, iron, barium, strontium, and a large portion of radium (60-100%), precipitated into newly formed solids composed mainly of Sr barite within the first ? 10 h of mixing. The results imply that blending AMD and HFFF could be an effective management practice for both remediation of the high NORM in the Marcellus HFFF wastewater and beneficial utilization of AMD that is currently contaminating waterways in northeastern U.S.A. PMID:24367969

  18. Ion beam synthesis and investigation of nanocomposite multiferroics based on barium titanate with 3 d metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalitov, N. I.; Lyadov, N. M.; Valeev, V. F.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Faizrakhmanov, I. A.; Dulov, E. N.; Tagirov, L. R.; Ibragimov, Sh. Z.; Prikhodko, K. E.; Roddatis, V. V.; Maksutoglu, M.; Kazan, S.; Mikailzade, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of nanocomposite multiferroics have been synthesized by implantation of Co+, Fe+, and Ni+ ions with an energy of 40 keV into ferroelectric barium titanate plates to doses in the range (0.5-1.5) × 1017 ions/cm2. It has been found that nanoparticles of metallic iron, cobalt, or nickel are formed in the barium titanate layer subjected to ion bombardment. With an increase in the implantation dose, the implanted samples sequentially exhibit superparamagnetic, soft magnetic, and, finally, strong ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. The average sizes of ion-synthesized 3 d-metal nanoparticles vary in the range from 5 to 10 nm depending on the implantation dose. Investigation of the orientation dependence of the magnetic hysteresis loops has demonstrated that the samples show a uniaxial ("easy plane") magnetic anisotropy typical of thin granular magnetic films. Ferromagnetic BaTiO3: 3 d metal samples are characterized by a significant shift of the ferromagnetic resonance signal in an external electric field, as well as by a large (in magnitude) magnetodielectric effect at room temperature. These results indicate that there is a strong magnetoelectric coupling between the ferroelectric barium titanate matrix and ion-synthesized nanoparticles of magnetic metals.

  19. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  20. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-17

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above T(C) and up to T*?200-225?°C. Above T*, however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization. PMID:26230825

  1. Theoretical isotope shifts in neutral barium

    E-print Network

    Nazé, Cédric; Godefroid, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a set of problems in isotope shifts of neutral barium spectral lines. Some well known transitions ($6s^2~^1S_0-6s6p~^{1,3}P^o_1$ and $6s^2~^1S_0-6p^2~^3P_0$) are first investigated. Values of the changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radius are deduced from the available experimental isotope shifts using our ab initio electronic factors. The three sets $\\{ \\delta\\langle r^2\\rangle^{A,A'}\\} $ obtained from these lines are consistent with each other. The combination of the available nuclear mean-square radii with our electronic factors for the $6s5d~^3D_{1,2} -6s6p~^{1}P^o_1$ transitions produces isotope shift values in conflict with the laser spectroscopy measurements of Dammalapati et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 1 (2009)).

  2. Iron overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  3. Calculated emission rates for barium releases in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The optical emissions from barium releases in space are caused by resonance and fluorescent scattering of sunlight. Emission rates for the dominant ion and neutral lines are calculated assuming the release to be optically thin and the barium to be in radiative equilibrium with the solar radiation. The solar spectrum has deep Fraunhofer absorption lines at the primary barium ion resonances. A velocity component toward or away from the sun will Doppler shift the emission lines relative to the absorption lines and the emission rates will increase many-fold over the rest value. The Doppler brightening is important in shaped charge or satellite releases where the barium is injected at high velocities. Emission rates as a function of velocity are calculated for the 4554, 4934, 5854, 6142 and 6497 A ion emission lines and the dominant neutral line at 5535 A. Results are presented for injection parallel to the ambient magnetic field, B, and for injection at an angle to B.

  4. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  5. Evolution of structure in the PLACES barium clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, D. J.; Lebeda, C. F.; Pongratz, M. B.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Dupre, R. R.

    1984-02-01

    The PLACES (Position Location and Communication Effects Simulations) experiment is discussed. Intensified optical instruments are used to examine the barium ion and neutral resonance fluorescence light from the four barium ionospheric thermite releases. The effects of structured ionospheric plasmas on transionospheric radio communication lines are determined. As part of this experiment, it was necessary to characterize the evolution of the structure (striations) in the barium ionospheric plasma. The motivation for using barium to simulate these effects is examined. The theoretical and empirical basis for using optical diagnostics for deriving the electron column content of the ion clouds is discussed. The time evolution of the power spectral density (PSD) of striations for the electron column density perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived for the two clouds.

  6. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  7. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 ; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non-orthovanadate phase with spin S = 1/2.

  8. The preparation of a novel polymer film based on salicylaldoxime and its influence on aqueous copper electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Vaughan, D.H.; Cardosi, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The metal complexing ligand salicylaldoxime was electropolymerized onto platinum electrodes and the resulting film characterized by reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy. The modified electrode response to aqueous iron, copper, cobalt and lead ions was investigated with the iron(III) and copper (II) ions showing significantly altered electrochemistry. The response of the modified electrode towards aqueous copper ion was found to be directly proportional to copper concentration with little interference from lead ions. The retention of copper ions, film stability and the nature of the film action are discussed along with its potential use in sensor construction.

  9. Elaboration and characterization of doped barium titanate films for gas sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Romh, M. A. El Fasquelle, D. Mascot, M.; Députier, S.

    2014-11-05

    Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) thick films were prepared from commercial powder to develop and optimize the film elaboration. Then, BaTiO{sub 3} was doped by strontium and iron to increase the conductivity by a double substitution on site A and B of the perovskite structure in view to develop semiconductor gas sensors. Film inks were prepared by mixing BT and BSTF powder with an organic vehicle, using a ratio of 50:50; 60:40, respectively and deposited on alumina substrates. The BT and BSTF films were sintered at 1100°C for 2h. The structural and physical properties of the films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric measurements showed a huge increase in the a.c. conductivity for the BSTF films, by a factor of 10000 at low frequency, when the temperature ranges from 25°C to 500°C.

  10. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

  11. 'Skidding' of the CRRES G-9 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Mitchell, H. G.; Fedder, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study and experimental data of the CRRES G-9 ionospheric barium release are presented. The simulation study is based on a 2D electrostatic code that incorporates time-dependent coupling to the background plasma. It is shown that the densest portion of the barium ion cloud 'skids' about 15 km within the first three seconds following the release, consistent with the optical data analyses.

  12. A search for technetium (Tc II) in barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little-Marenin, Irene R.; Little, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched without success for the lines of Tc II at 2647.02, 2610.00 and 2543.24 A in IUE spectra of the barium stars HR 5058, Omicron Vir, and Zeta Cap. The lack of Tc II implies that the observed s-process enhancements were produced more than half a million years ago and supports the suggestion that the spectral peculiarities of barium stars are probably related to the binary nature of the stars.

  13. [Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen: the three multicopper oxidases important for human iron metabolism].

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Diana; Gromadzka, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases are a group of proteins which demonstrate enzymatic activity and are capable of oxidizing their substrates with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. For some multi-copper oxidases there has been demonstrated ferroxidase activity which is related to their specific structure characterized by the presence of copper centres and iron-binding sites. Three multi-copper oxidases have been included in this group: ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Multi-copper oxidases which are expressed in different tissues are capable of oxidizing a wide spectrum of substrates. Multi-copper oxidases are capable of oxidizing a wide spectrum of substrates. Ceruloplasmin exhibits antioxidant activity as well as being involved in many other biological processes. The observations of phenotypic effects of absence or low expression of multi-copper ferroxidase-coding genes suggest that the main role of these proteins is taking part in iron metabolism. The main role of ceruloplasmin in iron turnover is oxidizing Fe2+ into Fe3+, a process which is essential for iron binding to transferrin (the main iron-transporting protein), as well as to ferritin (the main iron-storage protein). The function of hephaestin as ferroxidase is essential for iron binding to apotransferrin in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa, a process that is important for further transport of iron to the liver by the portal vein. Available data indicate that zyklopen is responsible for the placental iron transport. The presence of three multi-copper oxidases with ferroxidase activity emphasizes the significance of oxidation for iron metabolism. The distribution of multi-copper ferroxidases in many tissues ensures the proper iron turnover in the body as well as preventing toxic effects related to the presence of Fe2+ ions. These ions contribute to generation of free radicals, including the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, through the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions. PMID:24988611

  14. Transition-metal prion protein attachment: Competition with copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2012-02-01

    Prion protein, PrP, is a protein capable of binding copper ions in multiple modes depending on their concentration. Misfolded PrP is implicated in a group of neurodegenerative diseases, which include ``mad cow disease'' and its human form, variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that attachment of non-copper metal ions to PrP triggers transformations to abnormal forms similar to those observed in prion diseases. In this work, we use hybrid Kohn-Sham/orbital-free density functional theory simulations to investigate copper replacement by other transition metals that bind to PrP, including zinc, iron and manganese. We consider all known copper binding modes in the N-terminal domain of PrP. Our calculations identify modes most susceptible to copper replacement and reveal metals that can successfully compete with copper for attachment to PrP.

  15. Iron Oxide-Supported Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (Nanocat-Fe-CuO): Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts for the Synthesis of Pyrazole Derivatives, 4-Methoxyaniline, and Ullmann-type Condensation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and benign protocol is reported for the synthesis of 4-methoxyaniline, medicinally important pyrazole derivatives, and Ullmann-type condensation reaction using magnetically separable and reusable magnetite-supported copper (nanocat-Fe-CuO) nanoparticles under mild co...

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Iron, Manganese, and Selected Trace Elements in Ground Water in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.; Arnold, Terri L.; Morrow, William S.; Warner, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved trace elements, including iron and manganese, are often an important factor in use of ground water for drinking-water supplies in the glacial aquifer system of the United States. The glacial aquifer system underlies most of New England, extends through the Midwest, and underlies portions of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements in ground water can vary over several orders of magnitude across local well networks as well as across regions of the United States. Characterization of this variability is a step toward a regional screening-level assessment of potential human-health implications. Ground-water sampling, from 1991 through 2003, of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey determined trace element concentrations in water from 847 wells in the glacial aquifer system. Dissolved iron and manganese concentrations were analyzed in those well samples and in water from an additional 743 NAWQA land-use and major-aquifer survey wells. The samples are from monitoring and water-supply wells. Concentrations of antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, thallium, uranium, and zinc vary as much within NAWQA study units (local scale; ranging in size from a few thousand to tens of thousands of square miles) as over the entire glacial aquifer system. Patterns of trace element concentrations in glacial aquifer system ground water were examined by using techniques suitable for a dataset with zero to 80 percent of analytical results reported as below detection. During the period of sampling, the analytical techniques changed, which generally improved the analytical sensitivity. Multiple reporting limits complicated the comparison of detections and concentrations. Regression on Order Statistics was used to model probability distributions and estimate the medians and other quantiles of the trace element concentrations. Strontium and barium were the most frequently detected and usually were present in the highest concentrations. Iron and manganese were the next most commonly detected and next highest in concentrations. Iron concentrations were the most variable with respect to the range of variations (both within local networks and aquifer-wide) and with respect to the disparity between magnitude of concentrations (detections) and the frequency of samples below reporting limits (nondetections). Antimony, beryllium, cadmium, silver, and thallium were detected too infrequently for substantial interpretation of their occurrence or distributions or potential human-health implications. For those elements that were more frequently detected, there are some geographic patterns in their occurrence that primarily reflect climate effects. The highest concentrations of several elements were found in the West-Central glacial framework area (High Plains and northern Plains areas). There are few important patterns for any element in relation to land use, well type, or network type. Shallow land-use (monitor) wells had iron concentrations generally lower than the glacial aquifer system wells overall and much lower than major-aquifer survey wells, which comprise mostly private- and public-supply wells. Unlike those for iron, concentration patterns for manganese were similar among shallow land-use wells and major-aquifer survey wells. An apparent relation between low pH and relatively low concentrations of many elements, except lead, may be more indicative of the relatively low dissolved-solids content in wells in the Northeastern United States that comprise the majority of low pH wells, than of a pH dependent pattern. Iron and manganese have higher concentrations and larger ranges of concentrations especially under more reducing conditions. Dissolved oxygen and well depth were related to iron and manganese concentrations. Redox conditions also affect several trace elements such

  17. Modest Fructose Beverage Intake Causes Liver Injury and Fat Accumulation in Marginal Copper Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ming; Schuschke, Dale A; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Chen, Theresa; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Jiayuan; Zhang, Xiang; Pierce, William M.; Johnson, W. Thomas; Vos, Miriam B.; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dietary fructose and copper interaction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigate whether or not modest fructose consumption (3% fructose, w/v) (which is more closely related to the American lifestyle with regard to sugar beverage consumption) affects copper status, and causes liver injury and fat accumulation in marginal copper deficient rats. Design and Methods Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either an adequate copper (6ppm) or a marginally copper deficient (1.6ppm) diet for 4 weeks. Deionized water or deionized water containing 3% fructose (w/v) was given ad lib. Results Modest fructose consumption further impaired copper status in the marginal copper deficient rats and increased hepatic iron accumulation. Liver injury and fat accumulation were significantly induced in the marginal copper deficient rats exposed to fructose. Conclusions Our data suggest that modest fructose consumption can impair copper status and lead to hepatic iron overload, which in turn, may lead to liver injury and fatty liver in marginal copper deficient rats. This study provides important information on dietary fructose and copper interaction, suggesting that dietary fructose induced low copper availability might be an important mechanism underlying fructose induced fatty liver. PMID:23512597

  18. New Iron(II) and Manganese(II) Complexes of Two Ultra-Rigid, Cross-Bridged Tetraazamacrocycles for Catalysis and Biomimicry

    E-print Network

    Hubin, Tim

    durable new compounds of these elements for important fundamental studies and applications. The compounds abstraction reactions. Introduction Manganese and iron share with copper dominance over the vast realm

  19. High H? ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    PubMed

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on. PMID:25485988

  20. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  1. Prospects for Barium Tagging in Gaseous Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, D.; Rollin, E.; Smith, J.; Mommers, A.; Ackerman, N.; Aharmim, B.; Auger, M.; Barbeau, P.S.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Cook, S.; Coppens, A.; Daniels, T.; DeVoe, R.; Dobi, A.; Dolinski, M.J.; Donato, K.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Giroux, G.; /Bern U., LHEP /Carleton U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Carleton U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /SLAC /Indiana U. /Indiana U., CEEM /Korea U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Alabama U. /Colorado State U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /SLAC /Alabama U. /SLAC /Maryland U. /Moscow, ITEP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Maryland U. /Bern U., LHEP /Laurentian U. /SLAC /Maryland U.

    2012-05-03

    Tagging events with the coincident detection of a barium ion would greatly reduce the background for a neutrino-less double beta decay search in xenon. This paper describes progress towards realizing this goal. It outlines a source that can produce large quantities of Ba++ in gas, shows that this can be extracted to vacuum, and demonstrates a mechanism by which the Ba++ can be efficiently converted to Ba+ as required for laser identification. It is clear from this study that electrospray is a convenient mechanism for producing Ba++ is gas at atmospheric pressure. It is likely that the source will perform just as effectively at higher pressures. Even though the source region has water vapour and methanol vapour at the 0.3% level, there is no evidence for molecular formation. The use of TEA offers an effective method to achieve the charge state conversion. The overall design of the ion extraction from high pressure to vacuum is very similar to the scheme proposed for the final detector and this appears to work well although the efficiency is not yet determined.

  2. Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin film

    E-print Network

    Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin of an M-type barium ferrite BaM thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and a coplanar waveguide

  3. Tracking Phaselock Loop Characteristics with a VCO Using a Barium Strontium Titanate (BST)

    E-print Network

    Tracking Phaselock Loop Characteristics with a VCO Using a Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin University, Raleigh, NC-27695-7919,USA, Ph: +1-919-767-3277, Email: avictor@harris.com Abstract -- Barium

  4. Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand Department of Physics for essentially any application. We have been trapping 137-barium with this end in mind. The odd isotope has

  5. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  6. Rocket having barium release system to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium atoms and barium ions to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium is presented.

  7. Pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films: Effect of thermal M. W. Cole,2

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films: Effect of thermal stresses J. Zhang,1 M pyroelectric properties of 001 -textured polycrystalline barium strontium titanate BaxSr1-xTiO3, BST films

  8. Enhanced dielectric properties from barium strontium titanate films with strontium titanate buffer layers

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Enhanced dielectric properties from barium strontium titanate films with strontium titanate buffer in their PE state. One of the leading material candidates for tunable materials is barium strontium titanate

  9. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  10. Emission spectrographic determination of barium in sea water using a cation exchange concentration procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Joensuu, O.

    1967-01-01

    A concentration technique employing Dowex 50W cation exchange resin is described for the determination of barium in sea water. The separated barium is precipitated as fluoride together with calcium and strontium and measured by emission spectrographic analysis. The vertical distribution of barium in sea water has been measured in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The barium content varied between 7 and 23 ??g. per liter; in two profiles, the lowest concentrations were at a depth of about 1000 meters.

  11. Radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer with high-concentration barium sulfate compared with moderate-concentration barium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Azuma, M; Kuroda, C; Kubo, T; Yabunaka, K; Yamazaki, H; Katsuda, T; Takeda, Y

    2009-06-01

    Recently, high-concentration barium sulfate has been developed and is used in many medical facilities. This study compared radiation dose using high-concentration and moderate-concentration barium sulfate. The dose was evaluated with an experimental method using a gastric phantom and with a clinical examination. In the former, the dose and X-ray tube load were measured on the phantom with two concentrations of barium sulfate. In the latter, the fluoroscopic dose-area product (DAP), the radiographic DAP and their sum, the total DAP, were investigated in 150 subjects (112 males, 38 females) treated with both concentrations of barium sulfate. The effective dose was calculated by the software of PCXMC in every case. The results of the experimental evaluation indicated that the effective dose and X-ray tube load were greater with high-concentration barium sulfate than with moderate-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05). The results of the clinical evaluation indicated that the fluoroscopic DAP was greater with moderate-concentration barium sulfate than with high-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05), but the radiographic DAP was quite the reverse, so the total DAP and effective dose were almost same with both concentrations of barium sulfate. We conclude that high-concentration barium sulfate does not increase radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer. PMID:19623859

  12. Activities of CoS and FeS in copper mattes and the behavior of cobalt in copper smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, S. N.; Nagamori, M.

    1982-09-01

    The distributions of cobalt and iron between metallic copper and high copper mattes were measured at 1400 and 1500 K. A value of 0.40 ±0.02 was found as the Raoultian activity coefficient of CoS at infinite dilution in the Cu2S-FeS-CoS mattes. The present activities of FeS in the Cu-saturated Cu2S-FeS mattes were found to deviate more positively than those reported by Krivsky and Schuhmann at 1623 K, and the positive deviation from the Temkin’s ideality was greater at 1400 K than at 1500 K. Using the activity coefficient of CoS, the partitions of cobalt between copper mattes and fayalitic slags were calculated for various conditions of copper smelting. It was found that cobalt exhibits, in the matte-slag equilibria, chemical properties intermediate between nickel and iron, but much closer to iron than to nickel. The overall recovery of cobalt in blister copper depends on matte grade, and is as low as 3 pct at best. When a high cobalt recovery is desired, therefore, a copper concentrate rich in cobalt must not be processed by conventional pyrometallurgical technology in view of the inevitably high loss to slag.

  13. Activities of CoS and FeS in copper mattes and the behavior of cobalt in copper smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, S. N.; Nagamori, M.

    1991-12-01

    The distributions of cobalt and iron between metallic copper and high copper mattes were measured at 1400 and 1500 K. A value of 0.40 ±0.02 was found as the Raoultian activity coefficient of CoS at infinite dilution in the Cu2S-FeS-CoS mattes. The present activities of FeS in the Cu-saturated Cu2S-FeS mattes were found to deviate more positively than those reported by Krivsky and Schuhmann at 1623 K, and the positive deviation from the Temkin's ideality was greater at 1400 K than at 1500 K. Using the activity coefficient of CoS, the partitions of cobalt between copper mattes and fayalitic slags were calculated for various conditions of copper smelting. It was found that cobalt exhibits, in the matte-slag equilibria, chemical properties intermediate between nickel and iron, but much closer to iron than to nickel. The overall recovery of cobalt in blister copper depends on matte grade, and is as low as 3 pct at best. When a high cobalt recovery is desired, therefore, a copper concentrate rich in cobalt must not be processed by conventional pyrometallurgical technology in view of the inevitably high loss to slag.

  14. Compact high power barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser at 1197 nm

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    Compact high power barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser at 1197 nm for photoacoustic imaging of fat Rui Li Mikhail N. Slipchenko Pu Wang Ji-Xin Cheng #12;Compact high power barium nitrite crystal such a barrier, we demonstrate the construction and use of a com- pact, barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser

  15. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  16. Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium Titanate

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium, 2007; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 Nanocrystalline tetragonal barium titanate (BaTiO3. The dependence of properties of barium titanate on microwave frequency could be due to different transverse

  17. Single-Crystalline Barium Titanate By Jeffrey J. Urban, Jonathan E. Spanier, Lian Ouyang,

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Single-Crystalline Barium Titanate Nanowires By Jeffrey J. Urban, Jonathan E. Spanier, Lian Ouyang composed of barium titanate (BaTiO3), a prototypical displacive ferroelectric material[14,15] that yields-volatile memory devices with an integration density approaching 1 terabit cm±2 . 2. Synthesis of Barium Titanate

  18. Phase associations of barium in marine sediments Meagan Eagle Gonneea *, Adina Paytan 1

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    Phase associations of barium in marine sediments Meagan Eagle Gonneea *, Adina Paytan 1 Department 2006 Abstract Barium (Ba) is associated with various phases in marine sediments, including carbonates-export productivity. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Barium; Barite; Marine sediment; Sedimentary

  19. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  20. Nanoscale Patterning of Barium Titanate on Block Tu Lee,, Nan Yao, and Ilhan A. Aksay*,,

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Nanoscale Patterning of Barium Titanate on Block Copolymers Tu Lee,, Nan Yao, and Ilhan A. Aksay of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (Kraton D1102) has been used to pattern barium titanate precursor on the unsaturated carbon bonds in the polybutadiene matrix with antistereochemistry. Anchoring the barium titanate

  1. CORRELATED STRONTIUM AND BARIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF ACID-CLEANED SINGLE MAINSTREAM SILICON CARBIDES FROM MURCHISON

    E-print Network

    CORRELATED STRONTIUM AND BARIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF ACID-CLEANED SINGLE MAINSTREAM SILICON April 7 ABSTRACT We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated 88 Sr

  2. The enhanced and optimal piezoelectric coefficients in single crystalline barium titanate with engineered domain configurations

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiangyu

    The enhanced and optimal piezoelectric coefficients in single crystalline barium titanate the effective electromechanical moduli of tetragonal barium titanate poled along 111 direction, where that poling along 111 direction does not lead to the optimal domain configuration, since barium titanate poled

  3. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  4. Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles H35600g Polystyrene-capped barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with sizes of 11 nm and 27 nm were nanocrystals. 1. Introduction Barium titanate (BaTiO3), one of the most commonly used perovskite compounds

  5. TEE BARIUM CONTENT IN THE CALCAREOUS SKELETAL MATERTALS OF SOME RECENT AND

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    TEE BARIUM CONTENT IN THE CALCAREOUS SKELETAL MATERTALS OF SOME RECENT AND FOSSIL CORALS known mlxtures of the 'vrlo m inerals. Ion-exchange methods hrere utllized to separate barium from on ln the Ilvlng eorals varled from 5- 2 + IOS ppn, to L2.5 + 6.1+% ppr. ThtB varJ-atlon ln barium

  6. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, 2003, VOL. 83, NO. 2, 165178 Synthesis and characterization of mixed-valence barium

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiqu

    -valence barium titanates Thomas Ho« chey, Paula Olhe, Ralf Keding, Christian Ru« sselz Otto October 2001 and accepted in revised form 9 August 2002] Abstract A single-crystal barium oxotitanate and bonding in related compounds. } 1. Introduction Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is an important electroceramic

  7. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  8. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  9. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  10. MNRAS 428, 32523261 (2013) doi:10.1093/mnras/sts270 Barium abundances in Cepheids

    E-print Network

    Maciel, Walter Junqueira

    2013-01-01

    MNRAS 428, 3252­3261 (2013) doi:10.1093/mnras/sts270 Barium abundances in Cepheids S. M. Andrievsky; in original form 2012 August 28 ABSTRACT We derived the barium atmospheric abundances for a large sample to 15 kpc, so it is appropriate to investigate the existence of radial barium abundance gradients

  11. Synthesis and Structural Diversity of Barium (N,N-Dimethylamino)diboranates

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Synthesis and Structural Diversity of Barium (N,N-Dimethylamino)diboranates Scott R. Daly, Brian J. The reaction of 1 or 1 with Lewis bases that bind more strongly to barium than diethyl ether results that several of the barium complexes are monomeric in the solid state, none is appreciably volatile up to 200

  12. A comparison between excess barium and barite as indicators of carbon export

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    A comparison between excess barium and barite as indicators of carbon export Meagan Eagle and Adina in many paleoproductivity studies. Barite, the main carrier of particulate barium in the water column in some locations. We demonstrate that Baexcess (total barium minus the fraction associated

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 052328 (2010) Hyperfine and optical barium ion qubits

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 052328 (2010) Hyperfine and optical barium ion qubits M. R. Dietrich,* N these profoundly quantum systems. Despite a long history in ion trapping [3­5], barium has never previously been a natural source without isotope-selective ionization [6,7]. Barium possesses a long-lived metastable state

  14. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  15. Enhanced Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate by Addition of ZnO

    E-print Network

    Haile, Sossina M.

    Enhanced Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate by Addition of ZnO Peter Babilo and Sossina M properties of doped barium zirconate have been examined. With the use of zinc ox- ide as a sintering aid, Ba of the material under flowing CO2 showed ZnO-modified barium zirconate to exhibit excellent chemical stability

  16. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  17. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  18. Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films of the crystallization process, which ultimately determines the grain size, were studied in barium ferrite thin films. Rapid thermal annealing was used to crystallize the amorphous as-deposited barium ferrite films

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 023403 (2013) Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 023403 (2013) Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions M. V) We have produced sympathetically cooled barium monohalide ions BaX+ (X = F, Cl, Br) by reacting with these predictions. Producing BaX+ ions in this way is simple and allows for the study of different barium monohalide

  20. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A. Aksay,

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A-polybutadiene-polystyrene (Kraton D1102). The barium titanated Kraton thin film had remnants of the cylindrical morphology of a plain Kraton thin film with an interdomain spacing of 23 nm. The procedure of barium titanation

  1. Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing T. Izuhara,a)

    E-print Network

    Reeves, Mark E.

    Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing T. Izuhara,a) I.-L. Gheorma, and R. M, D.C. 20052 Received 19 September 2002; accepted 3 December 2002 Thin barium titanate films, 0.5­8 m.1063/1.1540727 Barium titanate, BaTiO3 BTO , is a ferroelectric crystal whose outstanding electrical and optical

  2. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  3. Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size Zailong, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Barium ferrite thin films with perpendicular c conditions. The c-axis orientation of barium ferrite thin films is most sensitive to the oxygen partial

  4. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  5. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  6. Strain effect on coercive field of epitaxial barium titanate thin films S. Choudhury,1,a

    E-print Network

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Strain effect on coercive field of epitaxial barium titanate thin films S. Choudhury,1,a Y. L. Li,1 polarizations of 001 -oriented epitaxial barium titanate thin films using the phase-field approach by strain. We use 001 -oriented epitaxial barium titanate BTO thin films as a model system. In the phase

  7. M-type barium hexaferrite synthesis and characterization for phase shifter applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    M-type barium hexaferrite synthesis and characterization for phase shifter applications A. T. Wise subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;M-type barium-type barium hexaferrite films have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy and examined by x-ray diffraction

  8. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  14. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  15. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  16. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  17. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  18. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  19. Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128133 Growth of strontium barium niobate

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128­133 Growth of strontium barium niobate: the liquidus. Roth Available online 11 September 2004 Abstract The liquidus­solidus phase diagram of strontium barium, and dielectric properties, strontium barium niobate, SrxBa1ÀxNb2O6--hen- ceforth denoted as SBN, is one

  20. Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains M TEC of a multilayered barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST ferroelectric heterostructure such as barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST have emerged as leading candidates for such applications due

  1. Phase diagrams and dielectric response of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films: A theoretical analysis

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Phase diagrams and dielectric response of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films: A theoretical for publication 7 March 2002 We develop phase diagrams for single-domain epitaxial barium strontium titanate films. DOI: 10.1063/1.1473675 I. INTRODUCTION Thin films of barium strontium titanate BaxSr1 xTiO3 ,(BST

  2. Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses Z.-G. Ban The tunability of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films is analyzed theoretically using a phenomenological.1063/1.1524310 I. INTRODUCTION Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1 xTiO3, BST have long been recognized

  3. Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor Phase Transitions by

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor 2009 WILLIAMSBURG WORKSHOP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF FERROELECTRICS #12;Introduction Strontium Barium ferroelectrics Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions SBN ­ SrxBa1-xNb2O6

  4. Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron Abstract-- Barium strontium titanate is a solid solution perovskite with a field-dependent permittivity.7 MV/cm. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years there has been much interest in thin-film barium strontium

  5. High tunability barium strontium titanate thin films for rf circuit applications

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    High tunability barium strontium titanate thin films for rf circuit applications N. K. Pervez,a) P) Large variations in the permittivity of rf magnetron sputtered thin-film barium strontium titanate have/cm. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1818724] Barium strontium titanate (BST) is a solid

  6. Noncollinear Optical Frequency Doubling in Strontium Barium Niobate Arthur R. Tunyagi, Michael Ulex, and Klaus Betzler*

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Noncollinear Optical Frequency Doubling in Strontium Barium Niobate Arthur R. Tunyagi, Michael Ulex of a novel noncollinear optical second-harmonic generation mechanism is reported. In strontium barium niobate mechanism which we detected in crystals of strontium barium niobate (SBN)--cone-shaped second

  7. The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films T. M Barium strontium titanate thin films are being developed as capacitors in dynamic random access memories to their large permittivities, barium strontium titan- ate BST bulk ceramics have long been used to make high

  8. Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals Ä. Andresen, A.-N. Bahar properties of single crystals of strontium barium niobate, grown from the congruently melting composition, electro-optic, pho- torefractive, and dielectric properties, the solid solution strontium barium niobate

  9. Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and

    E-print Network

    Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Raleigh, NC-27695-7914, USA. Email:jayeshnath@ieee.org Abstract -- Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST, capacitors, BST, ferroelectric, thin-film, barium strontium titanate, bandpass filter, IP3, ACPR, temperature

  10. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  11. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  12. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for ?-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3°. Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to ?-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses.

  13. Tetrathiomolybdate Inhibits Copper Trafficking Proteins Through Metal Cluster Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Hamsell M.; Xue, Yi; Robinson, Chandler D.; Canalizo-Hernández, Mónica A.; Marvin, Rebecca G.; Kelly, Rebekah A.; Mondragón, Alfonso; Penner-Hahn, James E.; O?Halloran, Thomas V.

    2010-05-06

    Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is an orally active agent for treatment of disorders of copper metabolism. Here we describe how TM inhibits proteins that regulate copper physiology. Crystallographic results reveal that the surprising stability of the drug complex with the metallochaperone Atx1 arises from formation of a sulfur-bridged copper-molybdenum cluster reminiscent of those found in molybdenum and iron sulfur proteins. Spectroscopic studies indicate that this cluster is stable in solution and corresponds to physiological clusters isolated from TM-treated Wilson's disease animal models. Finally, mechanistic studies show that the drug-metallochaperone inhibits metal transfer functions between copper-trafficking proteins. The results are consistent with a model wherein TM can directly and reversibly down-regulate copper delivery to secreted metalloenzymes and suggest that proteins involved in metal regulation might be fruitful drug targets.

  14. DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON CHARACTERISTICS IN METAL-RICH WATERS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR COPPER AQUATIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will aim to quantify the effects of fractionation between DOC, HFO, HAO, free copper and the behavior of resultant free DOC in the water column on the toxicological effects of copper. Fractionation between DOC, free metals and iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) hydro...

  15. SORPTION OF COPPER IN SOILS AS INFLUENCED BY SOIL PH AND ORGANIC AMENDMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) is generally added to agricultural soils either as an ingredient in fungicides or in soil amendments, i.e. sewage sludge or manures. High Cu levels in soils can antagonize the uptake of other micro-elements, most notably iron, zinc, and molybdenum. Copper content in most soils varies f...

  16. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    PubMed

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic substances. PMID:25748724

  17. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Treatment may include taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods . Iron supplements (most often ferrous sulfate) are needed ... the body's iron stores in the bone marrow. Iron-rich foods include: Chicken and turkey Dried lentils, peas, and ...

  18. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  19. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    E-print Network

    A. V. Steele; L. R. Churchill; P. F. Griffin; M. S. Chapman

    2007-03-22

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  20. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectric effect in structures consisting of metal deposited barium titanate film silicon is described. A radio frequency sputtering technique is used to deposit ferroelectric barium titantate films on silicon and quartz. Film properties are measured and correlated with the photoelectric effect characteristics of the films. It was found that to obtain good quality pin hole free films, it is necessary to reduce the substrate temperature during the last part of the deposition. The switching ability of the device with internal applied voltage is improved when applied with a ferroelectric memory device.

  1. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  2. Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions.

  3. Iron chelators and iron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brittenham, Gary M

    2003-06-01

    Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on damaged hepatocytes, hepatic macrophages, hepatic stellate cells, and the extracellular matrix. The pivotal role of iron in these processes suggests that chelating iron may offer a new approach to arresting or ameliorating liver injury. For the past four decades, deferoxamine B mesylate has been the only iron-chelating agent generally available for clinical use. Clinical experience with deferoxamine has demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of iron chelation for the prevention and treatment of iron overload. Determined efforts to develop alternative agents have at last resulted in the development of a variety of candidate iron chelators that are now in or near clinical trial, including (a) the hexadentate phenolic aminocarboxylate HBED [N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid], (b) the tridentate desferrithiocin derivative 4'-OH-dadmDFT [4'-hydroxy-(S)-desazadesmethyl-desferrithiocin; (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid], (c) the tridentate triazole ICL670A [CGP72 670A; 4-[3,5-bis-(hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-benzoic acid], and (d) the bidentate hydroxypyridin-4-one deferiprone [L1, CP20; 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one]. These agents may provide new pharmacological means of averting or ameliorating liver damage in alcoholic liver disease by binding, inactivating, and eliminating the reactive forms of iron that contribute to oxidative injury of cellular components, are involved in signal transduction, or both. PMID:12957300

  4. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  5. Copper pathways in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes indicate an efflux role for the copper P-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Copper, like iron, is a transition metal that can generate oxygen radicals by the Fenton reaction. The Plasmodium parasite invades an erythrocyte host cell containing 20 ?M copper, of which 70% is contained in the Cu/Zn SOD (cuprozinc superoxide dismutase). In the present study, we follow the copper pathways in the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte. Metal-determination analysis shows that the total copper content of Percoll-purified trophozoite-stage-infected erythrocytes is 66% that of uninfected erythrocytes. This decrease parallels the decrease seen in Cu/Zn SOD levels in parasite-infected erythrocytes. Neocuproine, an intracellular copper chelator, arrests parasites at the ring-to-trophozoite stage transition and also specifically decreases intraparasitic levels of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase. Up to 150 ?M BCS (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulphonic acid), an extracellular copper chelator, has no effect on parasite growth. We characterized a single copy PfCuP-ATPase (Plasmodium falciparum copper P-ATPase) transporter, which, like the Crypto-sporidium parvum copper P-ATPase, has a single copper-binding domain: ‘Met-Xaa-Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys’. Recombinant expression of the N-terminal metal-binding domain reveals that the protein specifically binds reduced copper. Transcription of the PfCuP-ATPase gene is the highest at late ring stage/early trophozoite, and is down-regulated in the presence of neocuproine. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy indicate the transporter to be both in the parasite and on the erythrocyte membrane. Both the decrease in total copper and the location of the PfCuP-ATPase gene indicate a copper-efflux pathway from the infected erythrocyte. PMID:15125686

  6. Laxatives as colonic preparation for barium enema: the patient's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Coombs, B M

    1983-09-01

    The choice of method of bowel preparation before double contrast barium enema should be influenced by patients' reactions and how it affects them. In support of this view, radiographers carried out a study on the effects of a laxative. PMID:6635154

  7. [Is the barium enema preparation a good preparation for echography?].

    PubMed

    Scherrer, A; Menu, Y

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of 50 patients without previous preparation and 50 who were prepared by a barium enema and low residue diet demonstrated that this method of preparing for ultrasonography improved visibility of the pancreas and the overall quality of the examination. However, the difference in patients with or without previous preparation was not sufficient to justify its routine use. PMID:6644661

  8. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a database of EPA's consensus opinion of the human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. A Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were prepared for barium and compounds in 1998 ...

  9. BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

  10. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

  11. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  12. REMOVING BARIUM AND RADIUM THROUGH CALCIUM CATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra), which are found in many groundwater sources, was achieved in laboratory studies with an ion exchange process. In the studies, a strong acid resin in the calcium form effectively removed Ba(+2) and Ra (+2) to meet standards. The resin wa...

  13. BARIUM AND RADIUM REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of weak acid exchange resin in the hydrogen form for removal of hardness, barium and radium from groundwater. Weak acid resin in the hydrogen form eliminates the addition of sodium to drinking water. The capac...

  14. [Preparation of Copper and Nickel from Metallurgical Waste Products with the Use of Acidophilic Chemolithotrophic Microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Fomchenko, N V; Murav'ev, M I

    2015-01-01

    The study concerns the leaching of copper, nickel, and cobalt from metallurgical production slag with trivalent iron sulphates prepared in the process of oxidation of bivalent iron ions with the use of associations of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms. At the same time, copper extraction in the solution reached 91.2%, nickel reached 74.9%, and cobalt reached 90.1%. Copper was extracted by cementation, and nickel as sulphate was extracted by electrolysis. Associations of microorganisms can then completely bioregenerate the solution obtained after leaching. PMID:26353401

  15. Pinto beans are a source of highly bioavailable copper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trace element copper (Cu)is a required nutrient in the diets of humans. It has been shown in animal studies to be essential for efficient absorption of iron, efficient oxygen utilization, and for aiding in free-radical degradation. Dry beans are potentially good sources of Cu; thus, the objectiv...

  16. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  17. Minimization of Copper Losses in Copper Smelting Slag During Electric Furnace Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coursol, Pascal; Cardona Valencia, Nubia; Mackey, Phillip; Bell, Stacy; Davis, Boyd

    2012-11-01

    In the quest to achieve the highest metal recovery during the smelting of copper concentrates, this study has evaluated the minimum level of soluble copper in iron-silicate slags. The experimental work was performed under slag-cleaning conditions for different levels of Fe in the matte and for a range of Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slag. All experiments were carried out under conditions where three phases were present (copper-matte-slag), which is the condition typically prevailing in many slag-cleaning electric furnaces. The %Fe in the electric furnace matte was varied between 0.5 wt.% and 11 wt.%, and two different Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slag were used (targeted values were 1.4 and 1.6). All experiments were performed at 1200°C. From thermodynamic considerations, from industrial experience, and from the results obtained in this study, the minimum soluble copper content in the electric furnace slag is expected to be near 0.55 wt.% Cu. This level does not account for a portion of the copper present as mechanically entrained matte/metal droplets. Taking this into account, the current authors believe an overall copper level in discard slag between 0.7 wt.% and 0.8 wt.% can be obtained with optimal operating conditions. For these conditions, the copper losses in the slag are roughly 75% as dissolved copper and 25% as entrained matte and copper. Such conditions include operating the electric furnace at metallic copper saturation, maintaining the %Fe in the electric furnace matte between 6 wt.% and 9 wt.%, not exceeding a slag temperature of 1250°C, and controlling the Fe/SiO2 ratio in the smelting furnace slag at ?1.5. In addition, magnetite reduction needs to be performed efficiently during the slag-cleaning cycle so as to maintain a total magnetite content of ?7 wt.% in the discard slag. The authors further consider that under exceptionally well-controlled conditions, a copper content in electric furnace discard slag between 0.55 wt.% and 0.7 wt.% can be obtained, by minimizing entrained matte and copper solubility in the discard slag.

  18. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeman, M. A.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W.

    2014-06-01

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300 K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  19. Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy of Magnetic Vortices inVery Underdoped yttrium-barium-copper-oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guikema, Janice Wynn; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-12-02

    Since their discovery by Bednorz and Mueller (1986), high-temperature cuprate superconductors have been the subject of intense experimental research and theoretical work. Despite this large-scale effort, agreement on the mechanism of high-T{sub c} has not been reached. Many theories make their strongest predictions for underdoped superconductors with very low superfluid density n{sub s}/m*. For this dissertation I implemented a scanning Hall probe microscope and used it to study magnetic vortices in newly available single crystals of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (Liang et al. 1998, 2002). These studies have disproved a promising theory of spin-charge separation, measured the apparent vortex size (an upper bound on the penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab}), and revealed an intriguing phenomenon of ''split'' vortices. Scanning Hall probe microscopy is a non-invasive and direct method for magnetic field imaging. It is one of the few techniques capable of submicron spatial resolution coupled with sub-{Phi}{sub 0} (flux quantum) sensitivity, and it operates over a wide temperature range. Chapter 2 introduces the variable temperature scanning microscope and discusses the scanning Hall probe set-up and scanner characterizations. Chapter 3 details my fabrication of submicron GaAs/AlGaAs Hall probes and discusses noise studies for a range of probe sizes, which suggest that sub-100 nm probes could be made without compromising flux sensitivity. The subsequent chapters detail scanning Hall probe (and SQUID) microscopy studies of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} crystals with T{sub c} {le} 15 K. Chapter 4 describes two experimental tests for visons, essential excitations of a spin-charge separation theory proposed by Senthil and Fisher (2000, 2001b). We searched for predicted hc/e vortices (Wynn et al. 2001) and a vortex memory effect (Bonn et al. 2001) with null results, placing upper bounds on the vison energy inconsistent with the theory. Chapter 5 discusses imaging of isolated vortices as a function of T{sub c}. Vortex images were fit with theoretical magnetic field profiles in order to extract the apparent vortex size. The data for the lowest T{sub c}'s (5 and 6.5 K) show some inhomogeneity and suggest that {lambda}{sub ab} might be larger than predicted by the T{sub c} {proportional_to} n{sub s}(0)/m* relation first suggested by results of Uemura et al. (1989) for underdoped cuprates. Finally, Chapter 6 examines observations of apparent ''partial vortices'' in the crystals. My studies of these features indicate that they are likely split pancake vortex stacks. Qualitatively, these split stacks reveal information about pinning and anisotropy in the samples. Collectively these magnetic imaging studies deepen our knowledge of cuprate superconductivity, especially in the important regime of low superfluid density.

  20. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeman, M. A. Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Eom, B. H.

    2014-06-21

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300?K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  1. Superconductivity at 52.5 K in the lanthanum-barium-copper-oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. W.; Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.; Gao, L.; Huang, Z. J.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical properties of the (La/0/9/Ba/0.1/)CuO/4-y/ system are examined under ambient and hydrostatic pressures. The resistance, ac magnetic susceptibility, and superconductivity onset, midpoint, and intercept temperatures are measured. It is observed that at ambient pressure the resistance decreases with temperature decreases, and the ac susceptibility shows diamagnetic shifts starting at about 32 K. Under hydrostatic pressure a superconducting transition with an onset temperature of 52.5 K is observed, and the resistance increases at lower temperatures. The data reveal that the electrical properties of the La-Ba-Cu-O system are dependent on samples and preparation conditions. Various causes for the high temperature superconductivity of the system are proposed.

  2. Evidence for symmetry breaking local distortions in thallium barium copper oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, J.H.; Allen, P.G.; Li, G.; Mustre de Leon, J.; Raistrick, I.D.; Conradson, S.D.

    1994-02-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) show local structural anomalies in Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 6}, which reduce the crystal symmetry; this symmetry lowering is interpreted as an indication of the existence of localized states. A local structural model consistent with the EXAFS results consists of a fraction of the O(1) sites displaced from the midpoint of the Cu-Cu bond, and dimpling of the CuO{sub 2} planes when the O(1) site is not displaced from this midpoint.

  3. Processing yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductor zero gravity using a double float zone surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, D.R.; Peterson, D.E.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.; Coulter, Y.; Day, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of processing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Y123) superconductor in the near-zero gravity (0g) environment provided by the NASA KC-135 airplane flying on parabolic trajectories were studied. A new sheet float zone furnace, designed for this study, enabled fast temperature ramps. Up to an 18-gram sample was processed with each parabola. Samples of Y123 were processed as bulk sheets, composites containing Ag and Pd, and films deposited on single crystal Si and MgO substrates. The 0g-processed samples were multi-phase yet retained a localized Y123 stoichiometry where a single ground-based (1g) oxygen anneal at temperatures of 800 C recovered nearly 100-volume percent superconducting Y123. The 1g processed control samples remained multi-phase after the same ground-based anneal with less than 45 volume percent as superconducting Y123. The superconducting transition temperature was 91 K for both 0g and 1g processed samples. A 29 wt.% Ag/Y123 composite had a transition temperature of 93 K. Melt texturing of bulk Y123 in 0g produced aligned grains about a factor of three larger than in analogous 1g samples. Transport critical current densities were at or below 18 A/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of cracks caused by the rapid heating rates required by the short time at 0g. Y123 deposited on single crystal Si and MgO in 0g was 30 vol.% y123 without an anneal. A weak superconducting transition at 80 K on MgO showed that substrate interactions occurred.

  4. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  5. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  6. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOEpatents

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  7. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Franciskovi?-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zuni?, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers. PMID:17203367

  8. Iron Chelation Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iron overload. What actually happens to cause iron overload? With each red blood cell transfusion, your body ... is deposited. What are the symptoms of iron overload? Early on, iron overload can cause no symptoms, ...

  9. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  10. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  11. Different iron sources to study the physiology and biochemistry of iron metabolism in marine micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Botebol, Hugo; Sutak, Robert; Scheiber, Ivo F; Blaiseau, Pierre-Louis; Bouget, François-Yves; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Lesuisse, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    We compared ferric EDTA, ferric citrate and ferrous ascorbate as iron sources to study iron metabolism in Ostreococcus tauri, Phaeodactlylum tricornutum and Emiliania huxleyi. Ferric EDTA was a better iron source than ferric citrate for growth and chlorophyll levels. Direct and indirect experiments showed that iron was much more available to the cells when provided as ferric citrate as compared to ferric EDTA. As a consequence, growth media with iron concentration in the range 1-100 nM were rapidly iron-depleted when ferric citrate-but not ferric EDTA was the iron source. When cultured together, P. tricornutum cells overgrew the two other species in iron-sufficient conditions, but E. huxleyi was able to compete other species in iron-deficient conditions, and when iron was provided as ferric citrate instead of ferric EDTA, which points out the critical influence of the chemical form of iron on the blooms of some phytoplankton species. The use of ferric citrate and ferrous ascorbate allowed us to unravel a kind of regulation of iron uptake that was dependent on the day/night cycles and to evidence independent uptake systems for ferrous and ferric iron, which can be regulated independently and be copper-dependent or independent. The same iron sources also allowed one to identify molecular components involved in iron uptake and storage in marine micro-algae. Characterizing the mechanisms of iron metabolism in the phytoplankton constitutes a big challenge; we show here that the use of iron sources more readily available to the cells than ferric EDTA is critical for this task. PMID:24281777

  12. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  13. Life Model of Hollow Cathodes Using a Barium Calcium Aluminate Impregnated Tungsten Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathodes with barium calcium aluminate impregnated tungsten emitters for thermionic emission are widely used in electric propulsion. These high current, low power cathodes are employed in ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, and on the International Space Station in plasma contactors. The requirements on hollow cathode life are growing more stringent with the increasing use of electric propulsion technology. The life limiting mechanism that determines the entitlement lifetime of a barium impregnated thermionic emission cathode is the evolution and transport of barium away from the emitter surface. A model is being developed to study the process of barium transport and loss from the emitter insert in hollow cathodes. The model accounts for the production of barium through analysis of the relevant impregnate chemistry. Transport of barium through the approximately static gas is also being treated. Finally, the effect of temperature gradients within the cathode are considered.

  14. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  15. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  16. Observations and theory of the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Haerendel, G.; Valenzuela, A.

    1987-01-01

    The barium releases in the magnetotail during the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) operation were monitored by ground-based imagers and by instruments on the Ion Release Module. After each release, the data show the formation of a structured diamagnetic cavity. The cavity grows until the dynamic pressure of the expanding ions balances the magnetic pressure on its surface. The magnetic field inside the cavity is zero. The barium ions collect on the surface of the cavity, producing a shell. Plasma irregularities form along magnetic field lines draped over the surface of the cavity. The scale size of the irregularities is nearly equal to the thickness of the shell. The evolution and structuring of the diamagnetic cavity are modeled using magnetohydrodynamics theory.

  17. Numerical simulation of a radially injected barium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic two-dimensional numerical simulations of a radially symmetric barium injection experiment demonstrate that ions created by solar UV irradiation are electrostatically bound to the electrons which remain tied to the field lines on which they are created. Two possible instabilities are identified, but neither of them causes the barium plasma cloud to polarize in a way that would permit the plasma to keep up with the neutrals. In a second model, the velocity of the neutrals is allowed to be a function of the azimuthal angle. Here, a portion of the cloud does polarize in a way that allows a portion of the plasma to detach and move outward at the approximate speed of the neutrals. No rapid detachment is found when only the density of the neutrals is given an azimuthal asymmetry.

  18. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  19. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric films of barium titanate were synthesized on silicon and quartz substrates, and the photoelectric effect in the structure consisting of metal deposited ferroelectric barium titanate film silicon was studied. A photovoltage with polarity that depends on the direction of the remanent polarization was observed. The deposition of BaTiO3 on silicon and fused quartz substrates was accomplished by an rf sputtering technique. A series of experiments to study the growth of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films on single crystal silicon and fused quartz substrates were conducted. The ferroelectric character in these films was found on the basis of evidence from the polarization electric field hysteresis loops, capacitance voltage and capacitance temperature techniques and from X-ray diffraction studies.

  20. [Copper deficiency anemia morphologically mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taku; Mori, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Mitsuhasi, Takayuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-03-01

    A 64-year-old man underwent kidney transplantation for progressive chronic renal failure which had developed 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. Because of post-operative complications, he had been placed on intravenous hyperalimentation. Three months after the transplantation, anemia rapidly progressed (hemoglobin, 7.9 g/dl). The proportion of reticulocytes was 0.2%, but white blood cell and platelet counts remained within normal ranges. Serum iron, vitamin B12, and folate levels were normal. Bone marrow examination showed the presence of ringed sideroblasts and cytoplasmic vacuoles in a fraction of erythroid cells. Megakaryocytes were adequate in number with normal morphology. Although the findings were consistent with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts according to the WHO classification, cytoplasmic vacuolations were also observed in myeloid cells, suggesting copper deficiency. Indeed, serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were found to be low (33 ?g/dl and 11 mg/dl, respectively), and oral copper supplementation at a daily dose of 1 mg was initiated. There was a prompt increase in reticulocytes, and the hemoglobin level was normalized within one month, in response to this regimen. In progressive anemia cases with ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, copper deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24681939

  1. Synthesis and characterization of barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-González, M.A.; Mendoza-Suárez, G.; Padmasree, K.P.

    2013-10-15

    In this work, we prepared barium ferrite-silica (BaM-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites of different molar ratios by high-energy ball milling, followed by heat-treatment at different temperatures. The microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized for different synthesis conditions by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results indicate that 15 h of milling was enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase and to get a good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix. For milling periods beyond 15 h and heat treatment above 900 °C, the XRD patterns showed the presence of hematite phase caused by the decomposition of BaM. The agglomerate size observed through SEM analysis was around 150 nm with a good BaM dispersion into the SiO{sub 2} matrix. The highest saturation magnetization (Ms) value obtained was 43 emu/g and the corresponding coercivity (Hc) value of 3.4 kOe for the composition 60BaM-40SiO{sub 2} milled for 15 h and heat treated at 900 °C. This coercivity value is acceptable for the application in magnetic recording media. Highlights: • Barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites were prepared by high energy ball milling. • Optimal processing time is 15 h milling and heat treatment at 900 °C. • This is enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase. • Obtain good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix • Above this processing time shows the presence of increased amount of hematite.

  2. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  3. Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Calculator WDA Publications Copper Connection Newsletter Stories Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator Serum Copper (mcg/dl) Ceruloplasmin ( ... Schilsky, we are pleased to offer the Lab Tracker in two convenient formats. We recommend that you ...

  4. The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corrosion control is a concern for many drinking water utilities. The Lead and Copper Rule established a regulatory need to maintain a corrosion control program. Other corrosion-related issues such as “red” water resulting from excessive iron corrosion and copper pinhole leaks ...

  5. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  6. Computational Modeling and Analysis of Iron Release from Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nupur K.; Ghosh, Paroma; Gratzl, Miklos; Fox, Paul L.; Saidel, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    A major process of iron homeostasis in whole-body iron metabolism is the release of iron from the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Macrophages recognize and phagocytose senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Then, they process the heme iron, which is returned to the circulation for reutilization by red blood cell precursors during erythropoiesis. The amount of iron released, compared to the amount shunted for storage as ferritin, is greater during iron deficiency. A currently accepted model of iron release assumes a passive-gradient with free diffusion of intracellular labile iron (Fe2+) through ferroportin (FPN), the transporter on the plasma membrane. Outside the cell, a multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (Cp), oxidizes ferrous to ferric ion. Apo-transferrin (Tf), the primary carrier of soluble iron in the plasma, binds ferric ion to form mono-ferric and di-ferric transferrin. According to the passive-gradient model, the removal of ferrous ion from the site of release sustains the gradient that maintains the iron release. Subcellular localization of FPN, however, indicates that the role of FPN may be more complex. By experiments and mathematical modeling, we have investigated the detailed mechanism of iron release from macrophages focusing on the roles of the Cp, FPN and apo-Tf. The passive-gradient model is quantitatively analyzed using a mathematical model for the first time. A comparison of experimental data with model simulations shows that the passive-gradient model cannot explain macrophage iron release. However, a facilitated-transport model associated with FPN can explain the iron release mechanism. According to the facilitated-transport model, intracellular FPN carries labile iron to the macrophage membrane. Extracellular Cp accelerates the oxidation of ferrous ion bound to FPN. Apo-Tf in the extracellular environment binds to the oxidized ferrous ion, completing the release process. Facilitated-transport model can correctly predict cellular iron efflux and is essential for physiologically relevant whole-body model of iron metabolism. PMID:24991925

  7. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    E-print Network

    A. Jorissen; S. Van Eck

    1997-08-06

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  8. Prompt striations observed in a barium thermite release at 335 km

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, D.J.; Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Barasch, G.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    Three barium clouds have been released from a single rocket at altitudes of 335, 443, and 535 km. The releases were by means of barium thermite injection. Adding the different cross-field velocity components of the rocket at each of the releases resulted in barium clouds with different kinetic velocity distributions. The barium cloud with the most peaked velocity distribution striated promptly, in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on a kinetic plasma instability. Details of the data analysis and experiment are discussed.

  9. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  10. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  11. The nature of the F str lambda 4077 stars. 3: Spectroscopy of the barium dwarfs and other CP stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, P.; Berthet, S.; Lanz, T.

    1994-01-01

    The abundances of C, O, Al, Ca, iron-peak and s-process elements have been derived from high-resolution spectra for a sample of stars classified as F str lambda 4077 by Bidelman. Among the 20 stars mentioned by Bidelman, we have discovered 8 barium dwarfs (or CH subgiants, according to Bond's terminology), while a 9th star, HD 182274, was already known as a CH subgiant. In addition, we have analyzed three barium stars taken from the list of Lu et al. (1983) which are probably dwarfs rather than giants, and three CH subgiants. The other 11 F str lambda 4077 stars resemble either the delta Delphini stars, since their iron abundance is enhanced while Ca is normal, or are probably spectrum composites. A few Am, Ap, lambda Bootis and normal stars have been analyzed for comparison. In particular, we have included three lambda Boo candidates, selected from their photometric properties, and their iron deficiency is confirmed. The spectroscopic, photometric and statistical evidences concerning the Ba dwarfs, support the idea that these stars may be the main sequence counterparts, and possibly the progenitors of the Ba giants. The C/O ratio varies in these stars from normal values to a maximum of 1.5, but mostly within 0.6 and 1.2. Some of these objects may therefore be considered, in this sense, as carbon stars. On the other hand, the abundances of carbon and s-process elements relative to iron are inversely correlated with metallicity, and may even exceed significantly those of typical, solar-metallicity carbon stars. Metal-deficient C stars must therefore have (C/Fe) greater than or approximately equal to 1 and (s/Fe) greater than or approximately equal to 1.5 as soon as (Fe/H) less than or approximately equal to -1. The neutron exposure is shown to increase when the metallicity decreases, which is compatible with the C-13 (alpha, n) O-16 neutron source, but not with the Ne-22 (alpha, n) Mg-25 one. The evolutionary state (within the main sequence) of the Ba dwarfs, is rediscussed in relation with their photometric and spectroscopic surface gravity, but it remains unclear.

  12. Improved Electroformed Structural Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Hudson, W.; Babcock, B.; Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming offers a superior means for fabricating internally cooled heat exchangers and structures subjected to thermal environments. Copper is deposited from many such applications because of the good thermal conductivity. It suffers from mediocre yield strength as a structural material and loses mechanical strength at intermediate temperatures. Mechanical properties similar to those of electroformed nickel are desired. Phase 1 examined innovative means to improve deposited copper structural performance. Yield strengths as high as 483 MPa (70 ksi) were obtained with useful ductility while retaining a high level of purity essential to good thermal conductivity. Phase 2 represents a program to explore new additive combinations in copper electrolytes to produce a more fine, equiaxed grain which can be thermally stabilized by other techniques such as alloying in modest degrees and dispersion strengthening. Evaluation of new technology - such as the codeposition of fullerness (diamond-like) particles were made to enhance thermal conductivity in low alloys. A test fire quality tube-bundle engine was fabricated using these copper property improvement concepts to show the superiority of the new coppers and fabrications methods over competitive technologies such as brazing and plasma deposition.

  13. Copper Delivery by Metallochaperone Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    Copper is an essential element in all living organisms, serving as a cofactor for many important proteins and enzymes. Metallochaperone proteins deliver copper ions to specific physiological partners by direct protein-protein interactions. The Atx1-like chaperones transfer copper to intracellular copper transporters, and the CCS chaperones shuttle copper to copper,zinc superoxide dismutase. Crystallographic studies of these two copper chaperone families have provided insights into metal binding and target recognition by metallochaperones and have led to detailed molecular models for the copper transfer mechanism.

  14. COPPER RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an update and overview of new research results and remaining research needs with respect to copper corrosion control issues. The topics to be covered include: occurrence of elevated copper release in systems that meet the Action Level; impact of water c...

  15. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food. PMID:24844320

  16. Tungsten and barium transport in the internal plasma of hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport, and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from 8200 h and 30 352 h ion engine wear tests. Erosion and subsequent redeposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduce the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  17. Bioaccessibility and Solubility of Copper in Copper-Treated Lumber

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper (MC)-treated lumber is a recent replacement for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammonium Copper (AC)-treated lumbers; though little is known about the potential risk of copper (Cu) exposure from incidental ingestion of MC-treated wood. The bioaccessibility o...

  18. Metallurgy Beyond Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    Metallurgy is one of the oldest sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BCE with the discovery of Gold, and each new discovery - Copper, Silver, Lead, Tin, Iron and Mercury - marked the beginning of a new era of civilization. Currently there are 86 known metals, but until the end of the 17th century, only 12 of these were known. Steel (Fe-C alloy) was discovered in the 11th century BCE; however, it took until 1709 CE before we mastered the smelting of pig-iron by using coke instead of charcoal and started the industrial revolution. The metallurgy of nowadays is mainly about discovering better materials with superior properties to fulfil the increasing demand of the global market. Promising are the Glassy Metals or Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) - discovered at first in the late 50s at the California Institute of Technology - which are several times stronger than the best industrial steels and 10-times springier. The unusual structure that lacks crystalline grains makes BMGs so promising. They have a liquid-like structure that means they melt at lower temperatures, can be moulded nearly as easily as plastics, and can be shaped into features just 10 nm across. The best BMG formers are based on Zr, Pd, Pt, Ca, Au and, recently discovered, also Fe. They have typically three to five components with large atomic size mismatch and a composition close to a deep eutectic. Packing in such liquids is very dense, with a low content of free volume, resulting in viscosities that are several orders of magnitude higher than in pure metal melts.

  19. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism. PMID:26458428

  20. Mouse genetic background impacts both on iron and non-iron metals parameters and on their relationships.

    PubMed

    Cavey, Thibault; Ropert, Martine; de Tayrac, Marie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Island, Marie-Laure; Leroyer, Patricia; Bendavid, Claude; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Iron is reported to interact with other metals. In addition, it has been shown that genetic background may impact iron metabolism. Our objective was to characterize, in mice of three genetic backgrounds, the links between iron and several non-iron metals. Thirty normal mice (C57BL/6, Balb/c and DBA/2; n = 10 for each group), fed with the same diet, were studied. Quantification of iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese, magnesium and rubidium was performed by ICP/MS in plasma, erythrocytes, liver and spleen. Transferrin saturation was determined. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. As previously reported, iron parameters were modulated by genetic background with significantly higher values for plasma iron parameters and liver iron concentration in DBA/2 and Balb/c strains. Hepatic hepcidin1 mRNA level was lower in DBA/2 mice. No iron parameter was correlated with hepcidin1 mRNA levels. Principal component analysis of the data obtained for non-iron metals indicated that metals parameters stratified the mice according to their genetic background. Plasma and tissue metals parameters that are dependent or independent of genetic background were identified. Moreover, relationships were found between plasma and tissue content of iron and some other metals parameters. Our data: (i) confirms the impact of the genetic background on iron parameters, (ii) shows that genetic background may also play a role in the metabolism of non-iron metals, (iii) identifies links between iron and other metals parameters which may have implications in the understanding and, potentially, the modulation of iron metabolism. PMID:26041486

  1. Abundance gradients in the Milky Way for alpha elements, Iron peak elements, Barium, Lanthanum and Europium

    E-print Network

    G. Cescutti; F. Matteucci; P. Francois; C. Chiappini

    2006-09-29

    We model the abundance gradients in the disk of the Milky Way for several chemical elements (O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Co, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ba, La and Eu), and compare our results with the most recent and homogeneous observational data. We adopt a chemical evolution model able to well reproduce the main properties of the solar vicinity. We compute, for the first time, the abundance gradients for all the above mentioned elements in the galactocentric distance range 4 - 22 kpc. The comparison with the observed data on Cepheids in the galactocentric distance range 5-17 kpc gives a very good agreement for many of the studied elements. In addition, we fit very well the data for the evolution of Lanthanum in the solar vicinity for which we present results here for the first time. We explore, also for the first time, the behaviour of the abundance gradients at large galactocentric distances by comparing our results with data relative to distant open clusters and red giants and select the best chemical evolution model model on the basis of that. We find a very good fit to the observed abundance gradients, as traced by Cepheids, for most of the elements, thus confirming the validity of the inside-out scenario for the formation of the Milky Way disk as well as the adopted nucleosynthesis prescriptions.

  2. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Methods Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, non-taster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40% w/v barium: non-carbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter) and sucrose (sweet). Mixed model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Results Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than non-tasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Conclusions Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions. PMID:24037100

  3. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Angela M; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2014-02-01

    Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, nontaster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40 % w/v barium: noncarbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter), and sucrose (sweet). Mixed-model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than nontasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions. PMID:24037100

  4. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No. 731-TA... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October...

  5. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  6. SHORT TERM TOXICITY (1 AND 10 DAY GAVAGE) OF BARIUM CHLORIDE IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess adverse effects that might be caused by an event resulting in high levels of barium in drinking water, rats were gavaged with barium chloride (BaCl2 at dosage levels of 30,100, and 300 rng/kg in a 1-day study and at 100,145,209, and 300 rng/kg for 10 days, and the effec...

  7. Impact of thermal strain on the dielectric constant of sputtered barium strontium titanate thin films

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    Impact of thermal strain on the dielectric constant of sputtered barium strontium titanate thin, California 93106 Received 6 November 2001; accepted for publication 10 January 2002 Barium strontium titanate: magnesium oxide, strontium titanate, sapphire, silicon, and vycor glass. These substrates were chosen

  8. Dielectric properties of MgO-doped compositionally graded multilayer barium strontium titanate films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dielectric properties of MgO-doped compositionally graded multilayer barium strontium titanate shifters and filters operat- ing in the microwave regime.1­4 Ferroelectrics FEs such as barium strontium in monolithic BST films especially with low strontium content, although the addition of MgO causes a reduction

  9. Microwave dielectric properties of graded barium strontium titanate films M. W. Cole,1,a

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Microwave dielectric properties of graded barium strontium titanate films M. W. Cole,1,a C. V strontium titanate BaxSr1-xTiO3 or BST multilayers 5 mol % MgO doped and undoped were prepared via metallo, delay lines, filters, and phase shifters for steerable antennas.1­3 Barium strontium titanate BaxSr1-x

  10. LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

  11. Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

  12. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.026 Barium uptake and adsorption in diatoms

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.026 Barium uptake and adsorption in diatoms ERIKA STERNBERG,1, *, DEGUI) Abstract--Using trace metal-defined culture conditions, we measured the cellular barium concentration and Dahmke, 1994) and the flux of particulate biogenic barium correlates well with the flux of organic carbon

  13. Nanoshell tubes of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate Yun Luo, Izabela Szafraniak, and Nikolai D. Zakharov

    E-print Network

    Ramesh, R.

    Nanoshell tubes of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate Yun Luo, Izabela templates, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate tubes with diameters ranging from 50 nm up to several (PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 ,PZT) and barium titanate (BaTiO3 ,BTO) nanotubes were fabricated by using

  14. Barium Ions for Quantum Computing Matthew Dietrich, Ryan Bowler, Gary Howell, Adam Kleczewski, Nathan Kurz, Viki Mirgon,

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Barium Ions for Quantum Computing Matthew Dietrich, Ryan Bowler, Gary Howell, Adam Kleczewski+ make it an excellent qubit candidate. Here we report trapping 138Ba+, an even isotope of barium production, using the S1/2 to P3/2 transition. Barium as a Qubit The two hyperfine levels of the 137Ba

  15. Diverse patterns of ocean export productivity change across the Cretaceous-7 Paleogene boundary: new insights from biogenic barium8

    E-print Network

    Paleogene boundary: new insights from biogenic barium8 9 10 11 12 Pincelli M. Hull1,2 and Richard D. Norris1 productivity patterns using new and compiled measurements of biogenic barium. Unlike a53 previous synthesis, we barium and other proxies in the central57 Pacific and some upwelling or neritic Atlantic sites indicate

  16. Self-biased planar millimeter wave notch filters based on magnetostatic wave excitation in barium hexagonal ferrite thin films

    E-print Network

    Self-biased planar millimeter wave notch filters based on magnetostatic wave excitation in barium; accepted 29 September 2010; published online 25 October 2010 The use of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite Ba-type barium hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 BaM thin films, as a replacement for those cubic garnets.4 Hexagonal

  17. Crossed-Beam Reactions of Barium with Hydrogen Halides Measurement of Internal State Distributions by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Crossed-Beam Reactions of Barium with Hydrogen Halides Measurement of Internal State Distributions is presented and applied to the reactions of barium with the hydrogen halides. It is found that most-inducedfluorescenceas a molecular beam detector and apply it to the reactions of barium atoms with hydrogen halides, Reactions (1

  18. The effect of Pt interlayers on the magnetic and structural properties of perpendicularly oriented barium ferrite media

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    barium ferrite media Zailong Zhuang,a) Maithri Rao, David E. Laughlin, and Mark H. Kryder Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Perpendicular barium ferrite Ba-axis orientation for thicker films, Pt interlayers were added into the barium ferrite films. This article thus

  19. AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium titanate

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium-effect transistors have been formed by incorporating barium strontium titanate (BST) deposited by rf magnetron in increased leakage. Due to its large dielectric constant, barium strontium ti- tanate [Ba1-xSrxTiO3, (BST

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2589 Barium and Strontium Ferrite Perpendicular Thin

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2589 Barium and Strontium FerriteAlSi) as the soft magnetic underlayer for hexagonal barium ferrite (BaM) and strontium ferrite (SrM) was studied--Barium ferrite, multi-layer, sendust, soft under- layer, strontium ferrite, textured growth. I. INTRODUCTION M

  1. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 ?M) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  2. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  3. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  4. Copper as a biocidal tool.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Copper ions, either alone or in copper complexes, have been used to disinfect liquids, solids and human tissue for centuries. Today copper is used as a water purifier, algaecide, fungicide, nematocide, molluscicide as well as an anti-bacterial and anti-fouling agent. Copper also displays potent anti-viral activity. This article reviews (i) the biocidal properties of copper; (ii) the possible mechanisms by which copper is toxic to microorganisms; and (iii) the systems by which many microorganisms resist high concentrations of heavy metals, with an emphasis on copper. PMID:16101497

  5. Modulation of copper deficiency responses by diurnal and circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Perea-García, Ana; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Mayo de Andrés, Sonia; Sanz, Amparo; Davis, Amanda M; Davis, Seth J; Huijser, Peter; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Copper homeostasis under deficiency is regulated by the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7) transcription factor. The daily oscillating expression of two SPL7-dependent copper deficiency markers, COPPER TRANSPORTER (COPT2) and IRON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (FSD1), has been followed by quantitative PCR and in promoter:LUCIFERASE transgenic plants. Both genes showed circadian and diurnal regulation. Under copper deficiency, their expression decreased drastically in continuous darkness. Accordingly, total copper content was slightly reduced in etiolated seedlings under copper deficiency. The expression of SPL7 and its targets COPT2 and FSD1 was differently regulated in various light signalling mutants. On the other hand, increased copper levels reduced the amplitude of nuclear circadian clock components, such as GIGANTEA (GI). The alteration of copper homeostasis in the COPT1 overexpression line and spl7 mutants also modified the amplitude of a classical clock output, namely the circadian oscillation of cotyledon movements. In the spl7 mutant, the period of the oscillation remained constant. These results suggest a feedback of copper transport on the circadian clock and the integration of rhythmic copper homeostasis into the central oscillator of plants. PMID:26516126

  6. Modulation of copper deficiency responses by diurnal and circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Perea-García, Ana; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Mayo de Andrés, Sonia; Sanz, Amparo; Davis, Amanda M.; Davis, Seth J.; Huijser, Peter; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Copper homeostasis under deficiency is regulated by the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE7 (SPL7) transcription factor. The daily oscillating expression of two SPL7-dependent copper deficiency markers, COPPER TRANSPORTER (COPT2) and IRON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (FSD1), has been followed by quantitative PCR and in promoter:LUCIFERASE transgenic plants. Both genes showed circadian and diurnal regulation. Under copper deficiency, their expression decreased drastically in continuous darkness. Accordingly, total copper content was slightly reduced in etiolated seedlings under copper deficiency. The expression of SPL7 and its targets COPT2 and FSD1 was differently regulated in various light signalling mutants. On the other hand, increased copper levels reduced the amplitude of nuclear circadian clock components, such as GIGANTEA (GI). The alteration of copper homeostasis in the COPT1 overexpression line and spl7 mutants also modified the amplitude of a classical clock output, namely the circadian oscillation of cotyledon movements. In the spl7 mutant, the period of the oscillation remained constant. These results suggest a feedback of copper transport on the circadian clock and the integration of rhythmic copper homeostasis into the central oscillator of plants. PMID:26516126

  7. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2014-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm the continuous high aspect ratio structure of barium titanate nanofibers after heat treatment. It is demonstrated that the CJS technique offers a highly efficient method for large-scale fabrication of ceramic nanofibers at production rates of up to 0.3 gram/minute. PMID:24563566

  8. Fabrication of barium/strontium carbonate coated amorphous carbon nanotubes as an improved field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, S.; Jha, A.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature ˜250 ?C in an air furnace. As-synthesized aCNTs were coated with the barium/strontium carbonate through a simple chemical process. The coating of barium/strontium carbonate was confirmed by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the as-prepared samples was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs are more stable than the pristine aCNTs. As-prepared barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs showed significantly improved field emission properties with a turn-on field as low as 2.5 V/?m. The variation of field emission characteristics of the barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs with interelectrode distances was also studied.

  9. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  10. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  11. Aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres by a dog.

    PubMed

    Greci, V; Bissett, S A; Copple, C N; Hawkins, E C

    2010-05-01

    This case report describes an 11-year-old Belgian Malinois dog with acute onset of cough caused by aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) and pneumonia following an episode of suspected gastric dilation. Although bronchoscopic retrieval of the BIPS was largely unsuccessful, the dog recovered uneventfully, with most of the BIPS being coughed out and swallowed over a 1-month period. Aspiration of BIPS should be considered a potential complication of their administration. Furthermore, endoscopic removal of aspirated BIPS is challenging and may not be indicated because of their inert nature and possible self-clearance. PMID:20529021

  12. Two barium plasma injections into the northern magnetospheric cleft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Winningham, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Two rocket experiments, performed in January 1975, investigated convection of plasma formed by solar photoionization of barium injected into the northern magnetospheric cleft at 13 km/s upward and parallel to the local geomagnetic field. Plasma convection was demonstrated from the cleft's poleward region, directly into and across the polar cap, and possibly into the convection system of the nightside auroral electrojet; plasma injected centrally within the cleft under quiet magnetic conditions remained in the cleft convection system for at least 22 min and revealed a highly structured E-field over about 600 km of longitudinal extent. Cleft location agreed with that predicted by ionosondes.

  13. A barium-rich binary central star in Abell 70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J.; Acker, Agnes; Köppen, Joachim; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2012-08-01

    We have found the central star of Abell 70 (PN G038.1-25.4, hereafter A 70) to be a binary consisting of a G8 IV-V secondary and a hot white dwarf. The secondary shows enhanced Ba II and Sr II features, firmly classifying it as a barium star. The nebula is found to have Type-I chemical abundances with helium and nitrogen enrichment, which combined with future abundance studies of the central star, will establish A 70 as a unique laboratory for studying s-process AGB nucleosynthesis.

  14. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Lauren M. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30?°C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9?kV m{sup ?1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  15. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1?xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  16. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  17. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  18. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K. . E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

    2005-01-15

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

  20. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an Everyday Diet Ever wonder why so many cereals and infant formulas are fortified with iron? Iron ... 4-6 months of age, when iron-fortified cereal is usually introduced (although breastfeeding moms should continue ...