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Sample records for barley grain development

  1. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Christof; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Wobus, Ulrich; Röder, Marion S

    2009-01-01

    Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference expression map of regulators

  2. Grain Development Mutants of Barley ([alpha]-Amylase Production during Grain Maturation and Its Relation to Endogenous Gibberellic Acid Content).

    PubMed Central

    Green, L. S.; Faergestad, E. M.; Poole, A.; Chandler, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Himalaya) mutants with altered grain morphology were isolated to investigate whether defects in grain development, possibly involving gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid, would lead to altered patterns of [alpha]-amylase gene expression. Following treatment with sodium azide, 75 mutants, typically showing grain shriveling, were identified. At grain maturity 15 of the 75 mutants had higher [alpha]-amylase activities in shriveled grains compared with either phenotypically normal grains that developed on the same heterozygous plant or with grains of cv Himalaya. Studies of four of these mutants demonstrated increased levels of both high- and low-isoelectric point [alpha]-amylase isozymes midway through grain development. This category of mutant has been designated pga, for premature grain [alpha]-amylase. One such mutant (M326) showed an endosperm-determined inheritance pattern. When crossed into a (GA-deficient) dwarfing background there was a 10- to 20-fold reduction in [alpha]-amylase activity, suggesting a requirement for GA biosynthesis. Endogenous GAs and abscisic acid were quantified by combined gas chromatography-specific ion monitoring in normal and mutant grains of heterozygous M326 plants during the period of [alpha]-amylase accumulation. Mutant grains had significantly higher (5.8-fold) levels of the bioactive GA1 compared with normal grains but much lower (approximately 10-fold) levels of the 2[beta]-hydroxylated ("inactive") GAs, typical of developing barley grains (e.g. GA8, GA34, GA48). We propose that a reduced extent of 2[beta]-hydroxylation in the mutant grains results in an increased level of GA1, which is responsible for premature [alpha]-amylase gene expression. PMID:12223700

  3. Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and β-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-β-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley. PMID:24871534

  4. Spatio-temporal dynamics of fructan metabolism in developing barley grains.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

  5. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Fructan Metabolism in Developing Barley Grains[W

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

  6. Genomic dissection of plant development and its impact on thousand grain weight in barley through nested association mapping

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Andreas; Draba, Vera; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a key agronomic trait that plays an important role in crop yield. There is growing interest in dissecting the developmental subphases of flowering to better understand and fine-tune plant development and maximize yield. To do this, we used the wild barley nested association mapping (NAM) population HEB-25, comprising 1420 BC1S3 lines, to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling five developmental traits, plant height, and thousand grain weight. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enabled us to locate a total of 89 QTLs that genetically regulate the seven investigated traits. Several exotic QTL alleles proved to be highly effective and potentially useful in barley breeding. For instance, thousand grain weight was increased by 4.5g and flowering time was reduced by 9.3 days by substituting Barke elite QTL alleles for exotic QTL alleles at the denso/sdw1 and the Ppd-H1 loci, respectively. We showed that the exotic allele at the semi-dwarf locus denso/sdw1 can be used to increase grain weight since it uncouples the negative correlation between shoot elongation and the ripening phase. Our study demonstrates that nested association mapping of HEB-25 can help unravel the genetic regulation of plant development and yield formation in barley. Moreover, since we detected numerous useful exotic QTL alleles in HEB-25, we conclude that the introgression of these wild barley alleles into the elite barley gene pool may enable developmental phases to be specifically fine-tuned in order to maximize thousand grain weight and, potentially, yield in the long term. PMID:26936829

  7. Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Thiel, Johannes; Radchuk, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development. PMID:25286287

  8. A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Søren; Gregersen, Per L.; Holm, Preben B.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection’ technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification. The amplified RNA was subsequently hybridized to Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChips. Due to the short average length of the amplified transcripts and the positioning of numerous probe sets at locations more than 400 base pairs (bp) from the poly(A)-tail, a normalization approach was used where the probe positions were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain. PMID:19297552

  9. Changes in chalazal cell walls and in the peroxidase enzymes of the crease region during grain development in barley.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, M P; Paterson, L; Gould, E

    2000-03-01

    In an investigation of the role of peroxidase enzymes in the differentiation of the tissues of the crease region of barley, plants of winter barley cv. Halcyon were grown from anthesis onwards in controlled conditions at a constant temperature of 16 degrees C. Four ears were harvested at 2-d intervals from 6 d after anthesis (daa) until 50 daa. Grains from mid-ear were used for (i) fresh and dry weight determinations, (ii) extraction of crease tissue for the determination of peroxidase activity and for the separation of isozymes of peroxidase by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and (iii) detection of lignin and suberin in the tissues of the crease using autofluorescence and cytochemistry. Peroxidase activity was located histochemically in the crease tissue of cv. Chariot. Scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out on developing grains of cv. Blenheim. Maximum grain water content was achieved at 14 daa. Lignin and suberin were detected in the walls of the chalazal cells from 18 daa onwards. No changes in the staining of chalazal cell walls were detected at the end of grain filling (32 daa), but loss of autofluorescence and staining were observed at 42 daa, just prior to the final, rapid phase of grain dehydration. Peroxidase activity per fresh weight of crease tissue was high at 6 daa and low at 22 daa. It was also low between 32 and 40 daa, but it rose again from 42 daa onwards. IEF demonstrated that both anionic and cationic isozymes of peroxidase were present in crease tissue, the pattern of bands showing some marked changes during the course of grain development. PMID:10938807

  10. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  11. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

  12. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

  13. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    PubMed

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  14. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    PubMed Central

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. PMID:26951372

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  16. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. PMID:26566843

  17. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  18. Localization of Carboxypeptidase I in Germinating Barley Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Ranki, Harri; Sopanen, Tuomas; Voutilainen, Raimo

    1990-01-01

    Activity measurements and Northern blot hybridizations were used to study the temporal and spatial expression of carboxypeptidase I in germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya). In the resting grain no carboxypeptidase I activity was found in the aleurone layer, scutellum, or starchy endosperm. During germination high levels of enzyme activity appeared in the scutellum and in the starchy endosperm but only low activity was found in the aleurone layer. No mRNA for carboxypeptidase I was observed in the resting grain. By day 1 of germination the mRNA appeared in the scutellum where its level remained high for several days. In contrast, little mRNA was observed in the aleurone layer. These results indicate that the scutellum plays an important role in the production of carboxypeptidase I in germinating barley grain. Images Figure 3 PMID:16667638

  19. Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved gronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley ...

  20. Differential RNA Expression of Two Barley ß-Amylase Genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in Developing Grains and Their Association with ß-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA expression from the barley ß-amylase1 (Bmy1) gene was determined during seed development in four genotypes (Legacy, Harrington, Ashqelon, and PI 296897). The Bmy1 transcript amount in Legacy and Harrington was not significantly different at 17, 19, or 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon Bmy...

  1. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  2. Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2013-01-01

    To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars. PMID:24260165

  3. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC

  4. Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Biogenic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Barleys.

    PubMed

    Maliar, Tibor; Slaba, Gabriela; Nemeček, Peter; Maliarová, Mária; Benková, Michaela; Havrlentová, Michaela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav; Kraic, Ján

    2015-11-01

    The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified. PMID:26567946

  5. Ground versus steam-rolled barley grain for lactating cows: a clarification into conventional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Soltani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Samie, A; Nikkhah, A

    2009-07-01

    Our objective was to compare the effects of grinding versus steam-rolling of barley grain at 30 or 35% of diet dry matter on feed intake, chewing behavior, rumen fermentation, and milk production in high-producing lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (85 +/- 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with four 21-d periods. Each period included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Treatments included grinding (GB) or steam-rolling (SB) of barley grains at either 35 or 30% of dietary dry matter. Diets were prepared as a total mixed ration and delivered twice daily at 0730 and 1600 h. Neither processing method nor dietary barley grain inclusion rate affected dry matter intake, daily eating, ruminating and chewing times, rumen pH and major volatile fatty acid molar percentages, or milk percentages and yields of fat and protein. Energy-corrected milk yield increased for SB compared with GB at 35% but not at 30% barley grain. Feed efficiency was increased by SB, but was unaffected by dietary barley grain level. Results suggest that at 30% dietary barley grain, GB resulted in similar lactation performance as SB and that SB did not affect productivity when dietary barley grain increased from 30 to 35%. Regardless of barley grain level, grinding effectively maintained dry matter intake and rumen pH at 4 h postfeeding, whereas steam-rolling increased feed efficiency. Increasing barley grain from 30 to 35% of diet dry matter did not improve feed intake and milk production. PMID:19528607

  6. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding. PMID:26483818

  7. Acrylamide elution from roasted barley grains into mugicha and its formation during roasting.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated acrylamide elution from roasted barley grain into mugicha and its formation during roasting of the grain. Mugicha is an infusion of roasted barley grains. Highly water-soluble acrylamide was easily extracted to mugicha from milled roasted barley grains in teabags. On the other hand, the acrylamide concentration in mugicha prepared from loose grain increased with longer simmering and steeping times. During roasting in a drum roaster, the acrylamide concentration of the grain increased as the surface temperature rose, reaching a maximum at 180-240°C. Above this temperature, the acrylamide concentration decreased with continued roasting, exhibiting an inverted 'U'-shaped curve. For most of the samples, the acrylamide concentration showed good correlation with the value of the colour space parameter L*. The dark-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values contained lower amounts of acrylamide as a result of deep roasting. The level of asparagine in barley grains was found to be a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted barley products. The data are an important contribution to the mitigation of acrylamide intake from mugicha. PMID:26678848

  8. The impact of Fusarium culmorum infection on the protein fractions of raw barley and malted grains.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Contaminating fungi, such as Fusarium species, produce metabolites that may interfere with normal barley grain proteolysis pattern and consequently, affect malt and beer quality. Protein compositional changes of an initial mixture of 20 % Fusarium culmorum infected and 80 % noninfected mature barley grains and respective malt are reported here. Proteolytic activity of infected barley grains (IBG) and respective malt, with controls (uninfected grains), were characterized using protease inhibitors from each class of this enzyme, including metallo-, cysteine, serine, and aspartic proteases, as well as uninhibited protease fractions. The proteins were extracted according to the Osborne fractionation and separated by size exclusion chromatography. Additionally, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (GE) was used to analyze hydrophobic storage proteins isolated from the control and IBG. Analyses revealed that F. culmorum IBG had a twofold increase of proteolytic activity compared to the control sample, which showed an increase in all protease classes with aspartic proteases dominating. Infected and control malt grains were comparable with cysteine proteases representing almost 50 % of all proteolytic enzymes detected. Protein extractability was 31 % higher in IBG compared to the control barley. The albumin fraction showed that several metabolic proteins decreased and increased at different rates during infection and malting, thus showing a complex F. culmorum infection interdependence. Prolamin storage proteins were more hydrophobic during barley fungal infection. F. culmorum interfered with the grain hydrolytic protein profile, thereby altering the grain's protein content and quality. PMID:23371295

  9. Investigation of germination and aging in Moravian III barley grain by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, C F; Xiong, J; Maciel, G E

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution, solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used for the first time to study germination in imbibed Moravian III barley grains. Whereas magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectra reveal the water and lipid components in barley grains, combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy techniques provide 1H NMR spectra of grains that reveal the protein and carbohydrate as well as the water and lipid components. Spectra of grains are compared with spectra of model compounds to verify assignments. 1H T1 and T2 measurements using magic-angle spinning only and combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy techniques provide information about molecular mobility within the grains during inhibition. Some grains were subjected to artificial aging conditions. 1H NMR spectral comparisons are made between normal, viable grains and artificially aged grains. PMID:8770229

  10. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI. PMID:26787998

  11. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  12. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  13. Acrylamide in roasted barley grains: presence, correlation with colour and decrease during storage.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Isagawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of acrylamide in roasted barley grains, and assessed the correlation between acrylamide concentration and colour, and also examined acrylamide decrease during storage. Acrylamide concentrations in 45 commercially available roasted barley grains were analysed. The mean and standard deviation were 0.24 and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively. The CIE colour parameter a* value had little correlation with acrylamide concentration in roasted barley grains; however, the L* and b* values showed correlations with acrylamide concentration in the grains, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.40, respectively. Darker-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values may contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Although acrylamide concentration decreased by 40% in the grains, and decreased by 36% in the milled grains (teabag form) after 309 days of storage at room temperature a significant difference in the rate of acrylamide decrease was not observed between the grain and teabag forms. The data obtained in this study are of importance to the risk assessment and management of acrylamide exposure in Japan. PMID:24761965

  14. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

  15. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation. PMID:27125321

  16. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  17. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  18. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  19. Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

  20. Association mapping of Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) infestations of barley cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking, and prevent unrolling of leaves which traps spikes and reduces grain yield. Resistant accessions identified in the NSGC were used to develop adapted, resistant germplasm and cultivars. This study identified...

  1. A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  2. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  3. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  4. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  5. Development of DNA markers associated with beer foam stability for barley breeding.

    PubMed

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Ichikawa, Seiichiro; Ito, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Traits conferring brewing quality are important objectives in malting barley breeding. Beer foam stability is one of the more difficult traits to evaluate due to the requirement for a relatively large amount of grain to be malted and then the experimental costs for subsequent brewing trials. Consequently, foam stability tends to be evaluated with only advanced lines in the final stages of the breeding process. To simplify the evaluation and selection for this trait, efficient DNA makers were developed in this study. Previous studies have suggested that the level of both of the foam-associated proteins Z4 and Z7 were possible factors that influenced beer foam stability. To confirm the relationship between levels of these proteins in beer and foam stability, 24 beer samples prepared from malt made from 10 barley cultivars, were examined. Regression analyses suggested that beer proteins Z4 and Z7 could be positive and negative markers for beer foam stability, respectively. To develop DNA markers associated with contents of proteins Z4 and Z7 in barley grain, nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in barley cultivars in the upstream region of the translation initiation codon, where the promoter region might be located were compared. As a result, 5 and 23 nucleotide sequence polymorphisms were detected in protein Z4 and protein Z7, respectively. By using these polymorphisms, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers were developed. The CAPS markers for proteins Z4 and Z7 were applied to classify the barley grain content of 23 barley cultivars into two protein Z4 (pZ4-H and pZ4-L) and three protein Z7 (the pZ7-H, pZ7-L and pZ7-L2) haplotypes, respectively. Barley cultivars with pZ4-H showed significantly higher levels of protein Z4 in grain, and those with pZ7-L and pZ7-L2 showed significantly lower levels of protein Z7 in grain. Beer foam stability in the cultivars with pZ4-H and pZ7-L was significantly higher than that with pZ4-L and pZ7-H, respectively. Our

  6. Evidence of two enzymes performing the de-N-glycosylation of proteins in barley: expression during germination, localization within the grain and set-up during grain formation.

    PubMed

    Vuylsteker, C; Cuvellier, G; Berger, S; Faugeron, C; Karamanos, Y

    2000-05-01

    The occurrence of two enzymes performing de-N-glycosylation of glycoproteins, namely, endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase, EC 3.2.1.96) and peptide-N(4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase (PNGase, EC 3.5.1.52) was investigated in barley, cv. Plaisant (a winter six rowed variety). The dry grain showed both activities according to the HPLC detection of the hydrolysis of fluorescent resorufin-labelled substrates. However, PNGase activity was 16-fold higher than ENGase activity. During germination, both activities increased, PNGase by only 1.5-fold compared to nearly 4.8-fold for ENGase over the 4 d following imbibition. The localization of these activities within the grain showed that the major contribution of PNGase was due to the endosperm, typically representing over 90% of the whole grain activity. In contrast, ENGase activity was especially high in the embryo and, later, in the developing plantlet (10-fold higher than in the endosperm), particularly in the rootlets and scutellum. In developing spikes, PNGase activity was 5.6-fold higher than in the leaves, but similar ENGase activity was measured in both organs. During grain formation, PNGase activity followed dry matter increase together with endosperm development. In contrast, ENGase activity dropped by 66% at the beginning of grain filling before stabilizing until harvest. The occurrence of de-N-glycosylation-performing enzymes throughout the development of barley raises the question of the nature of their natural substrates. Moreover, the prevalence of one of these enzymes over the other depending on the organ and the developmental stage, could represent the first evidence of specific functions for each enzyme. PMID:10948209

  7. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  8. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  9. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  10. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  11. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field. PMID:25505473

  12. Exploring the Plant-Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Cereal grains are colonized by a microbial community that actively interacts with the plant via secretion of various enzymes, hormones, and metabolites. Microorganisms decompose plant tissues by a collection of depolymerizing enzymes, including β-1,4-xylanases, that are in turn inhibited by plant xylanase inhibitors. To gain insight into the importance of the microbial consortia and their interaction with barley grains, we used a combined gel-based (2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and gel-free (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach complemented with enzyme activity assays to profile the surface-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation and included xylanases. The surface-associated proteomes showed elevated xylanolytic activity and contained several xylanases. Integration of proteomics with enzyme assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of the interaction between microbial consortia and plants in their natural environment. PMID:26928395

  13. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  14. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  15. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Hatzack, F; Hübel, F; Zhang, W; Hansen, P E; Rasmussen, S K

    2001-01-01

    Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference. Co-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of inositol phosphates during grain development revealed accumulation of phytate and D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), which suggested the tetrakisphosphate compound to be an intermediate of phytate synthesis. This assumption was strengthened further by phytate degradation assays showing that D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) did not belong to the spectrum of degradation products generated by endogenous phytase activity. Metabolic scenarios leading to accumulation of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) in barley low-phytate mutants are discussed. PMID:11171128

  16. Analysis of barley by NIRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of a rapid method of analysis of barley for moisture, starch, protein, oil, ash and Beta-glucan was attempted. One hundred forty-three barley grain samples of 3 types (hulled, hulless and malt) over 2 growing seasons and from various locations in the United States were utilized in the s...

  17. Post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in mycorrhizal barley plants.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria V; H Gutierrez Boem, Flavio; Roberts, Irma N; Caputo, Carla

    2015-04-01

    An essential goal for modern agriculture is the simultaneous improvement of productivity efficiency and nutrient use efficiency. One way to achieve this goal in crops is to enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition through the mycorrhizal association. This study examined the effect of mycorrhization on post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in barley. In addition, the efficiency of both N and P utilization and remobilization was evaluated. With those purposes, barley plants inoculated or not with Rhizophagus intraradices were grown in a soil poor in N and P under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with R. intraradices in barley enhanced both N and P content in grain and vegetative tissue and reduced phloem amino acid export rate. On the other hand, both N and P vegetative tissue content and phloem amino acid and P export rates decreased during grain filling, whereas N and P grain content increased in both treatments according to the senescence process. However, whereas N grain concentration decreased during grain filling, P grain concentration did not vary, thus suggesting a differential regulation on grain filling. Inoculation with R. intraradices improved the yield and grain quality, thus demonstrating that inoculation with R. intraradices in barley is beneficial, but mycorrhization caused a diminution in nutrient utilization efficiency. As the phloem remobilization rate of amino acids and P did not decrease during grain filling in R. intraradices-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones, these results suggest that nutrient utilization efficiency is most probably regulated by sink strength rather by a mycorrhizal effect. PMID:25242016

  18. Dual aphid resistance in hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  19. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency. PMID:24869769

  20. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  1. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage or haylage diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG), with a pasture (orchardgrass) or haylage diet, on nutrient digestibility, VFA production, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane production. Treatmen...

  2. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG) with an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane outp...

  3. Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C.; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike. PMID:24065816

  4. Genomic analysis of 6,000-year-old cultivated grain illuminates the domestication history of barley.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Martin; Schuenemann, Verena J; Davidovich, Uri; Marom, Nimrod; Himmelbach, Axel; Hübner, Sariel; Korol, Abraham; David, Michal; Reiter, Ella; Riehl, Simone; Schreiber, Mona; Vohr, Samuel H; Green, Richard E; Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Kilian, Benjamin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Fahima, Tzion; Krause, Johannes; Weiss, Ehud; Stein, Nils

    2016-09-01

    The cereal grass barley was domesticated about 10,000 years before the present in the Fertile Crescent and became a founder crop of Neolithic agriculture. Here we report the genome sequences of five 6,000-year-old barley grains excavated at a cave in the Judean Desert close to the Dead Sea. Comparison to whole-exome sequence data from a diversity panel of present-day barley accessions showed the close affinity of ancient samples to extant landraces from the Southern Levant and Egypt, consistent with a proposed origin of domesticated barley in the Upper Jordan Valley. Our findings suggest that barley landraces grown in present-day Israel have not experienced major lineage turnover over the past six millennia, although there is evidence for gene flow between cultivated and sympatric wild populations. We demonstrate the usefulness of ancient genomes from desiccated archaeobotanical remains in informing research into the origin, early domestication and subsequent migration of crop species. PMID:27428749

  5. A Role for Barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in Light Regulation of Grain Dormancy and Germination[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Jose M.; Downie, A. Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8’-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  6. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  7. Effects of Zn Fertilization on Hordein Transcripts at Early Developmental Stage of Barley Grain and Correlation with Increased Zn Concentration in the Mature Grain

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

  8. The Dynamics of Transcript Abundance during Cellularization of Developing Barley Endosperm1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Runxuan; Burton, Rachel A; Shirley, Neil J.; Little, Alan; Morris, Jenny; Milne, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the cereal grain, the endosperm and its nutrient reserves are critical for successful germination and in the context of grain utilization. The identification of molecular determinants of early endosperm development, particularly regulators of cell division and cell wall deposition, would help predict end-use properties such as yield, quality, and nutritional value. Custom microarray data have been generated using RNA isolated from developing barley grain endosperm 3 d to 8 d after pollination (DAP). Comparisons of transcript abundance over time revealed 47 gene expression modules that can be clustered into 10 broad groups. Superimposing these modules upon cytological data allowed patterns of transcript abundance to be linked with key stages of early grain development. Here, attention was focused on how the datasets could be mined to explore and define the processes of cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and degradation. Using a combination of spatial molecular network and gene ontology enrichment analyses, it is shown that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are found in multiple modules, but cluster into two main groups that exhibit peak expression at 3 DAP to 4 DAP and 5 DAP to 8 DAP. The presence of transcription factor genes in these modules allowed candidate genes for the control of wall metabolism during early barley grain development to be identified. The data are publicly available through a dedicated web interface (https://ics.hutton.ac.uk/barseed/), where they can be used to interrogate co- and differential expression for any other genes, groups of genes, or transcription factors expressed during early endosperm development. PMID:26754666

  9. The Dynamics of Transcript Abundance during Cellularization of Developing Barley Endosperm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runxuan; Tucker, Matthew R; Burton, Rachel A; Shirley, Neil J; Little, Alan; Morris, Jenny; Milne, Linda; Houston, Kelly; Hedley, Pete E; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-03-01

    Within the cereal grain, the endosperm and its nutrient reserves are critical for successful germination and in the context of grain utilization. The identification of molecular determinants of early endosperm development, particularly regulators of cell division and cell wall deposition, would help predict end-use properties such as yield, quality, and nutritional value. Custom microarray data have been generated using RNA isolated from developing barley grain endosperm 3 d to 8 d after pollination (DAP). Comparisons of transcript abundance over time revealed 47 gene expression modules that can be clustered into 10 broad groups. Superimposing these modules upon cytological data allowed patterns of transcript abundance to be linked with key stages of early grain development. Here, attention was focused on how the datasets could be mined to explore and define the processes of cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and degradation. Using a combination of spatial molecular network and gene ontology enrichment analyses, it is shown that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are found in multiple modules, but cluster into two main groups that exhibit peak expression at 3 DAP to 4 DAP and 5 DAP to 8 DAP. The presence of transcription factor genes in these modules allowed candidate genes for the control of wall metabolism during early barley grain development to be identified. The data are publicly available through a dedicated web interface (https://ics.hutton.ac.uk/barseed/), where they can be used to interrogate co- and differential expression for any other genes, groups of genes, or transcription factors expressed during early endosperm development. PMID:26754666

  10. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of βGlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  11. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of βGlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  12. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  13. Effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp on performance, ruminal fermentation and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, A; Alikhani, M; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP) on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, plasma concentration of metabolites and milk yield of transition dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows [735 ± 26 kg of body weights and 3.5 ± 0.05 of body condition score (BCS)] were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were assigned randomly on day 28 relative to expected parturition date to one of three treatments containing (i) 0% BP, (ii) 25% BP or (iii) 50% BP substituted for barley grain on a DM basis. During the pre-partum period, DMI and energy intake were greater (P < 0.01) in cows fed the BP diet compared with cows fed the barley grain diet. During the post-partum period, substituting BP for barley grain caused a response in DMI and energy intake, with the highest amount for the 25% BP diet and lowest for the 50% BP diet (P < 0.01). Milk yield was lowest (P < 0.01) for 50% BP diet than the other treatments. During the post-partum period, cows fed the 50% BP diets had greater rumen pH, molar proportion of butyrate and acetate: propionate ratio (P < 0.01) in the rumen compared with cows fed the 0% BP diets. In addition, cows fed the BP diets had greater (P < 0.01) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and lower plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and blood urinary nitrogen (BUN) (P < 0.01) concentrations than cows fed the barley grain diets. Results showed that substituting BP for barley grain was effective in increasing DMI, but it did not have a significant effect on net energy balance during the post-partum period. However, replacing BP for barley grain at 50% had adverse effects on DMI, milk yield and metabolic status, as indicated by key blood metabolite concentrations. PMID:25816899

  14. Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-11-01

    Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on

  15. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions.

    PubMed

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine H; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes R; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Stockmarr, Anders; Jørgensen, Rikke B

    2016-04-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgareL.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentration by 5%, while elevated temperature (+5 °C day/night) substantially increased protein concentration by 29%. The combined treatment increased protein concentration across accessions by 8%. This was an increase less than predicted from strictly additive effects of the individual treatments. Despite the increase in grain protein concentration, the decrease in grain yield at combined elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] resulted in 23% less harvestable protein. There was variation in the response of the 108 accessions, which might be exploited to at least maintain if not increase harvestable grain protein under future climate change conditions. PMID:26889013

  16. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability. PMID:22676388

  17. Barley Metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 Are Localized in the Grain Aleurone Layer and Show Differential Zinc Binding1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations. PMID:22582132

  18. Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tort...

  19. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  20. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120

  1. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

  2. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  3. QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2013-07-01

    Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ∆SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ∆SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding

  4. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  5. Association mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia [Kurdjumov]) is an ongoing problem in the western USA. Infestations in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking and prevent unrolling of emerging leaves which trap spikes and severely reduce fertility and grain yield. Resistant...

  6. A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described PMID:22791822

  7. Different Hormonal Regulation of Cellular Differentiation and Function in Nucellar Projection and Endosperm Transfer Cells: A Microdissection-Based Transcriptome Study of Young Barley Grains1[W

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Johannes; Weier, Diana; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Weichert, Nicola; Melzer, Michael; Czauderna, Tobias; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede

    2008-01-01

    Nucellar projection (NP) and endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are essential tissues in growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, responsible for nutrient transfer from maternal to filial tissues, endosperm/embryo nutrition, and grain development. A laser microdissection pressure catapulting-based transcriptome analysis was established to study NP and ETC separately using a barley 12K macroarray. A major challenge was to isolate high-quality mRNA from preembedded, fixed tissue while maintaining tissue integrity. We show that probes generated from fixed and embedded tissue sections represent largely the transcriptome (>70%) of nonchemically treated and nonamplified references. In NP, the top-down gradient of cellular differentiation is reflected by the expression of C3HC4-type ubiquitin ligases and different histone genes, cell wall biosynthesis and expansin/extensin genes, as well as genes involved in programmed cell death-related proteolysis coupled to nitrogen remobilization, indicating distinct areas simultaneously undergoing mitosis, cell elongation, and disintegration. Activated gene expression related to gibberellin synthesis and function suggests a regulatory role for gibberellins in establishment of the differentiation gradient. Up-regulation of plasmalemma-intrinsic protein and tonoplast-intrinsic protein genes indicates involvement in nutrient transfer and/or unloading. In ETC, AP2/EREBP-like transcription factors and ethylene functions are transcriptionally activated, a response possibly coupled to activated defense mechanisms. Transcriptional activation of nucleotide sugar metabolism may be attributed to ascorbate synthesis and/or cell wall biosynthesis. These processes are potentially controlled by trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase, as suggested by expression of their respective genes. Up-regulation of amino acid permeases in ETC indicates important roles in active nutrient uptake from the apoplastic space into the endosperm. PMID:18784282

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water–soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses). Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed. PMID:26834760

  9. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Oligofructan Metabolism and Suggested Functions in Developing Cereal Grains.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Mock, Hans-Peter; Marko, Doris; Weschke, Winfriede; Matros, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Oligofructans represent one of the most important groups of sucrose-derived water-soluble carbohydrates in the plant kingdom. In cereals, oligofructans accumulate in above ground parts of the plants (stems, leaves, seeds) and their biosynthesis leads to the formation of both types of glycosidic linkages [β(2,1); β(2,6)-fructans] or mixed patterns. In recent studies, tissue- and development- specific distribution patterns of the various oligofructan types in cereal grains have been shown, which are possibly related to the different phases of grain development, such as cellular differentiation of grain tissues and storage product accumulation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation kinetics in cereal grains. We focus on the spatiotemporal dynamics and regulation of oligofructan biosynthesis and accumulation in developing barley grains (deduced from a combination of metabolite, transcript and proteome analyses). Finally, putative physiological functions of oligofructans in developing grains are discussed. PMID:26834760

  10. Metabolite profiling of barley grain subjected to induced drought stress: responses of free amino acids in differently adapted cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Alexandra; Frank, Thomas; Reichenberger, Gabriela; Herz, Markus; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-29

    To investigate cultivar-specific metabolite changes upon drought stress in barley grain, differently adapted cultivars were field-grown under drought conditions using a rain-out shelter and under normal weather conditions (2010-2012). The grain was subjected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. Multi- and univariate analyses demonstrated that there are grain metabolites which were significantly changed upon drought stress, either decreased or increased in all cultivars. On the other hand, for proteinogenic free amino acids increased concentrations were consistently observed in all seasons only in cultivars for which no drought resistance/tolerance had been described. Consistent decreases were seen only in the group of stress tolerant/resistant cultivars. These cultivar-specific correlations were particularly pronounced for branched-chain amino acids. The results indicate that free amino acids may serve as potential markers for cultivars differently adapted to drought stress. PMID:25867895

  11. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  12. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  13. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  14. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  15. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm. PMID:27182953

  16. Endosperm Development in Barley: Microtubule Involvement in the Morphogenetic Pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. C.; Lemmon, B. E.; Olsen, O. A.

    1994-01-01

    An immunofluorescence study of sectioned barley endosperm imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy provided three-dimensional data on the relationship of microtubules to the cytoplasm, nuclei, and cell walls during development from 4 to 21 days after pollination (DAP). Microtubules play an important role throughout endosperm ontogeny. The syncytium is organized into units of nuclear-cytoplasmic domains by nuclear-based radial microtubule systems that appear to control the pattern of the first anticlinal walls at 5 to 6 DAP. After 7 DAP, phragmoplasts of two origins (interzonal and cytoplasmic) guide wall formation. Large compartments formed by the "free growing" walls in association with cytoplasmic phragmoplasts formed adventitiously at interfaces of opposing microtubule systems are subsequently subdivided by interzonal phragmoplast/cell plates to give rise to the starchy endosperm. During development of the aleurone layer from 8 to 21 DAP, the microtubule cycle is typical of plant histogenesis; cortical microtubules are hooplike, and preprophase bands of microtubules predict the division plane. PMID:12244271

  17. Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

    2012-07-01

    Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment. PMID:23031470

  18. Effects of two whole-grain barley varieties on caecal SCFA, gut microbiota and plasma inflammatory markers in rats consuming low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Marungruang, Nittaya; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-05-28

    Mixed-linkage β-glucans are fermented by the colon microbiota that give rise to SCFA. Propionic and butyric acids have been found to play an important role in colonic health, as well as they may have extraintestinal metabolic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate how two whole-grain barley varieties differing in dietary fibre and β-glucan content affected caecal SCFA, gut microbiota and some plasma inflammatory markers in rats consuming low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets. Barley increased the caecal pool of SCFA in rats fed the LF and HF diets compared with those fed the control diet, and the effect was generally dependent on fibre content, an exception was butyric acid in the LF setting. Furthermore, whole-grain barley reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, increased the caecal abundance of Lactobacillus and decreased the Bacteroides fragilis group, but increased the number of Bifidobacterium only when dietary fat was consumed at a low level. Fat content influenced the effects of barley: rats fed the HF diets had a higher caecal pool of acetic and propionic acids, higher concentrations of amino acids and higher amounts of lipids in the portal plasma and liver than rats fed the LF diets; however, less amounts of butyric acid were generally formed. Interestingly, there was an increase in the caecal abundance of Akkermansia and the caecal pool of succinic acid, and a decrease in the proportion of Bifidobacterium and the Clostridium leptum group. In summary, whole-grain barley decreased HF diet-induced inflammation, which was possibly related to the formation of SCFA and changes in microbiota composition. High β-glucan content in the diet was associated with reduced plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:25864430

  19. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

  20. S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Corbineau, FranÇOise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5–44.5 and 9.2–11.3%, respectively, after 18–24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

  1. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Eva M; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; Patiño, Belén; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2011-09-15

    Contamination of barley by moulds and mycotoxins results in quality and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in stored barley in Spain has been studied. Species-specific PCR assays were used for detection of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate in mycotoxin-positive barley samples at different incubation times (0, 1 and 2 days). Classical enumeration techniques (CFU/g) in different culture media for evaluation of Aspergillus in sections Flavi, Circumdati and Nigri were also used. One hundred and five barley kernel samples were collected in Spanish grain stores from 2008 to 2010, and analyzed using a previously optimized method involving accelerated solvent extraction, cleanup by immunoaffinity column, liquid chromatographic separation, post-column derivatization with iodine and fluorescence detection. Twenty-nine samples were contaminated with at least one of the studied mycotoxins. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, and OTA were detected in 12.4%, 2.9%, 4.8%, 2.9%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. Aflatoxins and OTA co-occurred in 4.8% of the samples. Maximum mycotoxin levels (ng/g) were 0.61 (AFB1), 0.06 (AFB2), 0.26 (AFG1), 0.05 (AFG2), and 2.0 (OTA). The results of PCR assays indicated the presence of all the studied species, except A. westerdijkiae. The PCR assays showed high levels of natural contamination of barley with the studied species of Aspergillus which do not correspond to the expected number of CFU/g in the cultures. These results suggest that a high number of non-viable spores or hyphae may exist in the samples. This is the first study carried out on the levels of aflatoxins and OTA in barley grain in Spain. Likewise, this is the first report on the presence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. in barley grain naturally

  2. Effect of time and temperature on the hydration process of barley grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

    2015-03-01

    The barley behavior during hydration regarding to water absorption, density, volume variation, and solids loss is identified, as well as employ mathematical models such as diffusional, Peleg, Weibull distribution function and first order kinetics, in order to verify the effect of temperature on the process. Hydration was carried out over 32 h at six different temperatures: 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 °C. The hydration isotherms were divided into two phases, the first one comprising the first 8 h, with a high hydration rate, and the second one in which the moisture content increases slowly until it reaches the equilibrium moisture content. During the first hour of process, the solids loss at 35 °C was 3.95 % higher than at 10 °C. The effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 5.14 to 10.8 × 10-12 m2/s. The model of Peleg and the first order kinetics model best described the water absorption characteristics at the temperatures investigated.

  3. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20 °C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10 °C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

  4. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  5. Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Amano, Satoko; Tsujino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiko; Saisho, Daisuke; Kakeda, Katsuyuki; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Toshisada; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor (ERF) family transcription factor gene controls the covered/naked caryopsis phenotype. This conclusion was validated by (i) fixation of the 17-kb deletion harboring the ERF gene among all 100 naked cultivars studied; (ii) two x-ray-induced nud alleles with a DNA lesion at a different site, each affecting the putative functional motif; and (iii) gene expression strictly localized to the testa. Available results indicate the monophyletic origin of naked barley. The Nud gene has homology to the Arabidopsis WIN1/SHN1 transcription factor gene, whose deduced function is control of a lipid biosynthesis pathway. Staining with a lipophilic dye (Sudan black B) detected a lipid layer on the pericarp epidermis only in covered barley. We infer that, in covered barley, the contact of the caryopsis surface, overlaid with lipids to the inner side of the hull, generates organ adhesion. PMID:18316719

  6. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  7. Development of quick cooking multi-grain dalia utilizing sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Sharma, Monika; Gupta, R K

    2015-09-01

    Multi-grain dalia (MGD) formulations were prepared utilizing sprouted wheat and mixer of other three grains (barley, sorghum and pearl millet) in the ratio of 100:0 (MGD-A), 75:25 (MGD-B), 50:50 (MGD-C), 25:75 (MGD-D) and 0:100 (MGD-E), respectively. The mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet was prepared using 50, 25, 25 parts of these grains, respectively. The recovery of grits/ dalia (particle size 1.41 to 2 mm) from sprouted wheat and barley was 74.56 and 69.77 %, respectively while sorghum and pearl millet yield 47.94 and 49.39 % (particle size 0.954 to 1.41 mm), respectively. Sprouting brought a reduction of cooking time by about 50 % as compared to un-sprouted studied grains. Cooking time for different MGD formulations ranged from 3.91 to 4.42 min, which was slightly increased with increasing proportion of mixer of barley, sorghum and pearl millet (p > 0.05). Rehydration ratio of MGD samples varied from 3.12 to 3.45 with minimum in MGD-E sample. Though protein content was decreased with increasing proportion of mixer of three grains in MGD samples but in vitro protein digestibility (58.68 to 62.75 %) was similar (p > 0.05). The mean overall sensory acceptability scores for MGD samples ranged from 7.50 to 8.49 with ≥8.0 in samples having up to 75 % grits of mixer of three grains. In view of very good overall sensory acceptability, rich in crude fibre, calcium and iron content and low cooking time, 25:75 parts of sprouted wheat and mixer of studied three grains, respectively may be considered for preparation of acceptable quality quick cooking multi-grain dalia. PMID:26344997

  8. Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: IV. The study of barley Polycomb group (PcG) genes during seed development and in response to external ABA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epigenetic phenomena have been associated with the regulation of active and silent chromatin states achieved by modifications of chromatin structure through DNA methylation, and histone post-translational modifications. The latter is accomplished, in part, through the action of PcG (Polycomb group) protein complexes which methylate nucleosomal histone tails at specific sites, ultimately leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Different PcG complex variants operating during different developmental stages have been described in plants. In particular, the so-called FIE/MEA/FIS2 complex governs the expression of genes important in embryo and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. In our effort to understand the epigenetic mechanisms regulating seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), an agronomically important monocot plant cultivated for its endosperm, we set out to characterize the genes encoding barley PcG proteins. Results Four barley PcG gene homologues, named HvFIE, HvE(Z), HvSu(z)12a, and HvSu(z)12b were identified and structurally and phylogenetically characterized. The corresponding genes HvFIE, HvE(Z), HvSu(z)12a, and HvSu(z)12b were mapped onto barley chromosomes 7H, 4H, 2H and 5H, respectively. Expression analysis of the PcG genes revealed significant differences in gene expression among tissues and seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size. Furthermore, HvFIE and HvE(Z) gene expression was responsive to the abiotic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA) known to be involved in seed maturation, dormancy and germination. Conclusion This study reports the first characterization of the PcG homologues, HvFIE, HvE(Z), HvSu(z)12a and HvSu(z)12b in barley. All genes co-localized with known chromosomal regions responsible for malting quality related traits, suggesting that they might be used for developing molecular markers to be applied in marker assisted selection. The PcG differential expression

  9. Root border cell development is a temperature-insensitive and Al-sensitive process in barley.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Ling; Hua, Jing; Zhao, Gu-Feng; Pan, Wei-Huai; Han, Ning; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that border cell (BC) survival was dependent on root tip mucigel in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Hang 981). In aeroponic culture, BC development was an induced process in barley, whereas in hydroponic culture, it was a kinetic equilibrium process during which 300-400 BCs were released into water daily. The response of root elongation to temperatures (10-35 degrees C) was very sensitive but temperature changes had no great effect on barley BC development. At 35 degrees C, the root elongation ceased whereas BC production still continued, indicating that the two processes might be regulated independently under high temperature (35 degrees C) stress. Fifty microM Al could inhibit significantly BC development by inhibiting pectin methylesterase activity in the root cap of cv. 2000-2 (Al-sensitive) and cv. Humai 16 (Al-tolerant), but 20 microM Al could not block BC development in cv. Humai 16. BCs and their mucigel of barley had a limited role in the protection of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation, but played a significant role in the prevention of Al from diffusing into the meristems of the root tip and the root cap. Together, these results suggested that BC development was a temperature-insensitive but Al-sensitive process, and that BCs and their mucigel played an important role in the protection of root tip and root cap meristems from Al toxicity. PMID:15215510

  10. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley germination is a complex and multi-stage biological process important to plant development, plant evolution, and agricultural production. It is accompanied with concerted expression of many genes and biological pathways. Transcriptomic analysis of barley grains/seedlings representing six well...

  11. Simultaneous Genetic Analysis of Winterhardiness Traits and Development of Winter Malting Barley Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practical goal of this project is to develop winter malting barley varieties with superior cold tolerance. The basic goal is to advance our understanding of the genetics of low temperature tolerance and vernalization sensitivity. By addressing the question, “Is vernalization sensitivity required...

  12. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  13. Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela; Vincze, Eva; Mills, Rebecca F.; Borg, Søren; Møller, Annette; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Baekgaard, Lone; Holm, Preben Bach; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination. PMID:23155447

  14. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  15. Interface texture development during grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Jason

    has no measureable effect on interface texture in the simulations performed. The relationship between grain boundary energy and the relative average area of grain boundaries is found to be approximately one-to-one. Interface texture development occurs by changes in the relative average areas of grain boundaries, explained by a triple junction lengthening model, as well as biased elimination of grain boundaries through topological events. In systems with misorientation dependent properties and non-random intial orientation texture, the MDFs do not reach steady states. Interface texture in such cases occurs by the mechanisms suggested above but is also enhanced by strengthening orientation texture. A quantitative critical event model that is in good agreement with all simulations is presented. This model predicts that the number weighted MDF fN(theta, t), the area weighted MDF fA(theta, t), the texture weighted MDF f0(theta, t), and the relative average area of grain boundaries (theta, t)/ are related by the expressions fNq,t ∝f0q,t Aq,t /A and fAq,t ∝f0q,t A q,t/A 2. Results from simulations with inclination dependent anisotropy suggest a similar mechanism as in the case of misorientation dependent anisotropy, with boundaries of lowest energy occuring with the highest frequencies, and no apparent effect of mobility anisotropy.

  16. Quantitative trait loci of barley malting quality trait components in the Stellar/01Ab8219 mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  18. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. 'Karat' with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  19. Increased symplasmic permeability in barley root epidermal cells correlates with defects in root hair development

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, M; Muszynska, A; Melzer, M; Sas-Nowosielska, H; Kurczynska, E U; Wick, S

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the process of plant cell differentiation depends on the symplasmic isolation of cells. Before starting the differentiation programme, the individual cell or group of cells should restrict symplasmic communication with neighbouring cells. We tested the symplasmic communication between epidermal cells in the different root zones of parental barley plants Hordeum vulgare L., cv. ‘Karat’ with normal root hair development, and two root hairless mutants (rhl1.a and rhl1.b). The results clearly show that symplasmic communication was limited during root hair differentiation in the parental variety, whereas in both root hairless mutants epidermal cells were still symplasmically connected in the corresponding root zone. This paper is the first report on the role of symplasmic isolation in barley root cell differentiation, and additionally shows that a disturbance in the restriction of symplasmic communication is present in root hairless mutants. PMID:23927737

  20. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health. PMID:24987082

  1. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development

    PubMed Central

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains. PMID:25663750

  2. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed. PMID:25796522

  3. Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

  4. The study of a barley epigenetic regulator, HvDME, in seed development and under drought

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and histone modifications regulate a wide range of processes in plant development. Cytosine methylation and demethylation exist in a dynamic balance and have been associated with gene silencing or activation, respectively. In Arabidopsis, cytosine demethylation is achieved by specific DNA glycosylases, including AtDME (DEMETER) and AtROS1 (REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1), which have been shown to play important roles in seed development. Nevertheless, studies on monocot DNA glycosylases are limited. Here we present the study of a DME homologue from barley (HvDME), an agronomically important cereal crop, during seed development and in response to conditions of drought. Results An HvDME gene, identified in GenBank, was found to encode a protein with all the characteristic modules of DME-family DNA glycosylase proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of homology to other monocot DME glycosylases, and sequence divergence from the ROS1, DML2 and DML3 orthologues. The HvDME gene contains the 5′ and 3′ Long Terminal Repeats (LTR) of a Copia retrotransposon element within the 3′ downstream region. HvDME transcripts were shown to be present both in vegetative and reproductive tissues and accumulated differentially in different seed developmental stages and in two different cultivars with varying seed size. Additionally, remarkable induction of HvDME was evidenced in response to drought treatment in a drought-tolerant barley cultivar. Moreover, variable degrees of DNA methylation in specific regions of the HvDME promoter and gene body were detected in two different cultivars. Conclusion A gene encoding a DNA glycosylase closely related to cereal DME glycosylases was characterized in barley. Expression analysis during seed development and under dehydration conditions suggested a role for HvDME in endosperm development, seed maturation, and in response to drought. Furthermore, differential DNA methylation

  5. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  6. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  7. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  8. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  9. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  10. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  11. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  12. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed

  13. Expression Patterns of HvCKX Genes Indicate Their Role in Growth and Reproductive Development of Barley

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Wojciech; Gasparis, Sebastian; Boczkowska, Maja; Rajchel, Izabela K.; Kała, Maciej; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase proteins (CKX) are encoded by a multigene family of CKX genes with a varying number of members depending on species. For some of the genes, spectacular effects on grain production in selected cereals have been observed. Despite the fact that partial or full length sequences of most HvCKX genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) have already been published, in most cases their specific biological functions have not been reported. Detailed expression patterns for five HvCKX genes in different organs/tissues of developing barley plants coupled with analysis of RNAi silent for two genes are presented to test the hypothesis that these expression profiles might indicate their function. Elevated expression for four of them – HvCKX1, HvCKX9, HvCKX4, and HvCKX11 – was found in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to other tissues. HvCKX5 was mainly expressed in leaf tissue. Lower expression was noted for HvCKX1 in seedling roots and for HvCKX9 in leaves. The documented effect of RNAi silencing of HvCKX1 and a trend for HvCKX9 was higher plant productivity, and the trait was inherited through four generations. Higher plant yield was determined by higher numbers of seeds and spikes. Increased productivity was significantly greater in HvCKX1 silenced plants showing higher relative expression of HvCKX1 in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to the expression of HvCKX9. Both HvCKX1 silenced T1 seedlings of cv. Golden Promise and the newly transformed breeding line STH7308 showed greater root mass, but this trait was not inherited in the next generation. Similarly HvCKX9 silenced T1 seedlings exhibited greater plant height without inheritance in the next generation. It is suggested that these effects were not inherited because of compensation by other genes co-ordinately regulating reproductive development. One line with untypically changed, inherited phenotype, which was selected from several dozen silenced lines showing stable

  14. Abnormal etioplast development in barley seedlings infected with BSMV by seed transmission.

    PubMed

    Harsányi, Anett; Böddi, Béla; Bóka, Károly; Almási, Asztéria; Gáborjányi, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus (BSMV) was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts, protochlorophyllide forms and the greening process of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7- to 11-day-old etiolated seedlings were examined by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure, while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. The protochlorophyllide content of virus-infected seedlings was reduced to 74% of the control. In the 77 K fluorescence spectra the relative amount of 655 nm emitting photoactive protochlorophyllide form decreased, and the amount of the 645 and 633 nm emitting forms increased in the infected leaves. A characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection delays or inhibits plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11982946

  15. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method

    PubMed Central

    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80–90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published Km values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective Km values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass–action ratios

  16. Subcellular analysis of starch metabolism in developing barley seeds using a non-aqueous fractionation method.

    PubMed

    Tiessen, Axel; Nerlich, Annika; Faix, Benjamin; Hümmer, Christine; Fox, Simon; Trafford, Kay; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede; Geigenberger, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Compartmentation of metabolism in developing seeds is poorly understood due to the lack of data on metabolite distributions at the subcellular level. In this report, a non-aqueous fractionation method is described that allows subcellular concentrations of metabolites in developing barley endosperm to be calculated. (i) Analysis of subcellular volumes in developing endosperm using micrographs shows that plastids and cytosol occupy 50.5% and 49.9% of the total cell volume, respectively, while vacuoles and mitochondria can be neglected. (ii) By using non-aqueous fractionation, subcellular distribution between the cytosol and plastid of the levels of metabolites involved in sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and respiration were determined. With the exception of ADP and AMP which were mainly located in the plastid, most other metabolites of carbon and energy metabolism were mainly located outside the plastid in the cytosolic compartment. (iii) In developing barley endosperm, the ultimate precursor of starch, ADPglucose (ADPGlc), was mainly located in the cytosol (80-90%), which was opposite to the situation in growing potato tubers where ADPGlc was almost exclusively located in the plastid (98%). This reflects the different subcellular distribution of ADPGlc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) in these tissues. (iv) Cytosolic concentrations of ADPGlc were found to be close to the published K(m) values of AGPase and the ADPGlc/ADP transporter at the plastid envelope. Also the concentrations of the reaction partners glucose-1-phosphate, ATP, and inorganic pyrophosphate were close to the respective K(m) values of AGPase. (v) Knock-out of cytosolic AGPase in Riso16 mutants led to a strong decrease in ADPGlc level, in both the cytosol and plastid, whereas knock-down of the ADPGlc/ADP transporter led to a large shift in the intracellular distribution of ADPGlc. (v) The thermodynamic structure of the pathway of sucrose to starch was determined by calculating the mass-action ratios

  17. The homeodomain transcription factor TaHDZipI-2 from wheat regulates frost tolerance, flowering time and spike development in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Chew, William; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Yang, Nannan; Singh, Rohan; Bazanova, Natalia; Shavrukov, Yuri; Guendel, Andre; Munz, Eberhard; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Homeodomain leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development under stresses. Functions of the TaHDZipI-2 gene isolated from the endosperm of developing wheat grain were revealed. Molecular characterization of TaHDZipI-2 protein included studies of its dimerisation, protein-DNA interactions and gene activation properties using pull-down assays, in-yeast methods and transient expression assays in wheat cells. The analysis of TaHDZipI-2 gene functions was performed using transgenic barley plants. It included comparison of developmental phenotypes, yield components, grain quality, frost tolerance and the levels of expression of potential target genes in transgenic and control plants. Transgenic TaHDZipI-2 lines showed characteristic phenotypic features that included reduced growth rates, reduced biomass, early flowering, light-coloured leaves and narrowly elongated spikes. Transgenic lines produced 25-40% more seeds per spike than control plants, but with 50-60% smaller grain size. In vivo lipid imaging exposed changes in the distribution of lipids between the embryo and endosperm in transgenic seeds. Transgenic lines were significantly more tolerant to frost than control plants. Our data suggest the role of TaHDZipI-2 in controlling several key processes underlying frost tolerance, transition to flowering and spike development. PMID:26990681

  18. Light/dark modulation of enzyme activity in developing barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, M.H.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Light/dark modulation of the ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, NADP{sup +}-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was measured in the developing primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase and NADP{sup +}-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were fully light activated even at the earliest developmental stage sampled. In contrast, light modulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase exhibited a complex response to leaf developmental status. Light stimulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity (measured at pH 8.0) increased progressively during leaf development. On the other hand, acid fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity (measured at pH 6.0) was inhibited by light, and this light inhibition was greater in the base of the leaf than in the tip of the leaf.

  19. Global Transcriptome Profiling of Developing Leaf and Shoot Apices Reveals Distinct Genetic and Environmental Control of Floral Transition and Inflorescence Development in Barley[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Timing of the floral transition and inflorescence development strongly affect yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Therefore, we examined the effects of daylength and the photoperiod response gene PHOTOPERIOD1 (Ppd-H1) on barley development and analyzed gene expression changes in the developing leaves and main shoot apices (MSAs) of barley by RNA sequencing. The daylength sensitivity of MSA development had two phases, floret primordia initiated under long and short days, whereas successful inflorescence development occurred only under long days. The transcripts associated with floral transition were largely regulated independently of photoperiod and allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The photoperiod- and Ppd-H1-dependent differences in inflorescence development and flower fertility were associated with the induction of barley FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologs: FT1 in leaves and FT2 in MSAs. FT1 expression was coregulated with transcripts involved in nutrient transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell cycle regulation, suggesting that FT1 might alter source-sink relationships. Successful inflorescence development correlated with upregulation of FT2 and transcripts related to floral organ development, phytohormones, and cell cycle regulation. Identification of photoperiod and stage-specific transcripts gives insights into the regulation of reproductive development in barley and provides a resource for investigation of the complexities of development and yield in temperate grasses. PMID:26307377

  20. Development and Implementation of High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Pilot phase data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map, ...

  1. A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

  2. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  3. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  4. [Modification of Barley Development at Early Stages after Exposure of Seeds to γ-Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Churukin, R S; Kazakova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) to γ-irradiation in the dose range of 2-50 Gy was studied. The length and weight of a root, the length of a seedling and germination rate were investigated. The dose range in which we observed stimulation of plant development was evaluated. It was shown that the increase of root and seedling sizes after irradiation of seeds at stimulating doses is associated with the rise in the developmental speed, rather than with their earlier germination. Also the effects of a dose rate, a quality of seeds, humidity and a period of storage on the manifestation of radiation exposure were studied. PMID:26964346

  5. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  6. cor Gene Expression in Barley Mutants Affected in Chloroplast Development and Photosynthetic Electron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bosco, Cristina; Busconi, Marco; Govoni, Chiara; Baldi, Paolo; Stanca, A. Michele; Crosatti, Cristina; Bassi, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The expression of several barley (Hordeum vulgare) cold-regulated (cor) genes during cold acclimation was blocked in the albino mutant an, implying a chloroplast control on mRNAs accumulation. By using albino and xantha mutants ordered according to the step in chloroplast biogenesis affected, we show that the cold-dependent accumulation of cor14b, tmc-ap3, and blt14 mRNAs depends on plastid developmental stage. Plants acquire the ability to fully express cor genes only after the development of primary thylakoid membranes in their chloroplasts. To investigate the chloroplast-dependent mechanism involved in cor gene expression, the activity of a 643-bp cor14b promoter fragment was assayed in wild-type and albino mutant an leaf explants using transient β-glucuronidase reporter expression assay. Deletion analysis identified a 27-bp region between nucleotides −274 and −247 with respect to the transcription start point, encompassing a boundary of some element that contributes to the cold-induced expression of cor14b. However, cor14b promoter was equally active in green and in albino an leaves, suggesting that chloroplast controls cor14b expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Barley mutants lacking either photosystem I or II reaction center complexes were then used to evaluate the effects of redox state of electron transport chain components on COR14b accumulation. In the mutants analyzed, the amount of COR14b protein, but not the steady-state level of the corresponding mRNA, was dependent on the redox state of the electron transport chain. Treatments of the vir-zb63 mutant with electron transport chain inhibitors showed that oxidized plastoquinone promotes COR14b accumulation, thus suggesting a molecular relationship between plastoquinone/plastoquinol pool and COR14b. PMID:12586903

  7. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

  8. Starch Biosynthesis in Developing Wheat Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Peter L.; Wood, John R.; Tyson, R. Huw; Bridges, Ian G.

    1988-01-01

    We have used 13C-labeled sugars and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to study the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Mardler). Our aim was to examine the extent of redistribution of 13C between carbons atoms 1 and 6 of [1-13C] or [6-13C]glucose (or fructose) incorporated into starch, and hence provide evidence for or against the involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Starch synthesis in the endosperm tissue was studied in two experimental systems. First, the 13C sugars were supplied to isolated endosperm tissue incubated in vitro, and second the 13C sugars were supplied in vivo to the intact plant. The 13C starch produced by the endosperm tissue of the grain was isolated and enzymically degraded to glucose using amyloglucosidase, and the distribution of 13C in all glucosyl carbons was quantified by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In all of the experiments, irrespective of the incubation time or incubation conditions, there was a similar pattern of partial (between 15 and 20%) redistribution of label between carbons 1 and 6 of glucose recovered from starch. There was no detectable increase over background 13C incidence in carbons 2 to 5. Within each experiment, the same pattern of partial redistribution of label was found in the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose extracted from the tissue. Since it is unlikely that sucrose is present in the amyloplast, we suggest that the observed redistribution of label occurred in the cytosolic compartment of the endosperm cells and that both sucrose and starch are synthesized from a common pool of intermediates, such as hexose phosphate. We suggest that redistribution of label occurs via a cytosolic pathway cycle involving conversion of hexose phosphate to triose phosphate, interconversion of triose phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase, and resynthesis of hexose phosphate in the cytosol. A further round of triose phosphate interconversion in

  9. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  10. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  11. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  12. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  13. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  14. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  15. All About the Grains Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is ... bulgur (cracked wheat), oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Refined grains have been milled, a process that ...

  16. Differential effects of lesion mimic mutants in barley on disease development by facultative pathogens

    PubMed Central

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; Steed, , Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the development of disease caused by Ramularia collo-cygni, Fusarium culmorum and Oculimacula yallundae was explored using a collection of barley necrotic (nec) lesion mimic mutants. nec8 mutants displayed lower levels of all three diseases compared to nec9 mutants, which had increased R. collo-cygni but decreased F. culmorum disease symptoms. nec1 mutants reduced disease development caused by both R. collo-cygni and F. culmorum. The severity of the nec1-induced lesion mimic phenotype and F. culmorum symptom development was reduced by mutation of the negative cell death regulator MLO. The significant reduction in R. collo-cygni symptoms caused by nec1 was completely abolished in the presence of the mlo-5 allele and both symptoms and fungal biomass were greater than in the wild-type. These results indicate that physiological pathways involved in regulation of cell death interact with one another in their effects on different fungal pathogens. PMID:25873675

  17. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  18. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract.

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, C; Faccioli, P; Terzi, V; Stanca, A M; Cerioli, S; Castiglioni, P; Fink, R; Capone, R; Müller, K J; Bossinger, G; Rohde, W; Salamini, F

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of mutants that affect the morphology of the lemma, a floral bract of barley, are described. The first comprises phenotypes associated with mutant alleles of calcaroides loci. On the lemma of these mutants, a well-organized neomorphic structure is formed, termed the sac. We provide a morphological description of wild-type (WT) and mutant lemmas, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that both consist of similar tissues, but that the mutant is characterized by reversed growth polarity. The sac is a unique structure among grasses, and it is remarkable that recessive mutations at five different genetic loci lead to the same organ. The second group of mutants carry recessive alleles of two leafy lemma genes, both of which are necessary to cause the transformation of the lemma into a structure having all characteristics of a vegetative leaf, as shown by SEM analysis. The presence of sheath, blade, and ligule in the mutant lemma suggests that wild-type lemma development is interrupted at a leaf-like stage. The genes cal a, b, C, d, 23, lel1, and lel2 have now been mapped at precise positions on linkage groups 2, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, and 7, respectively. The mutants considered in this article are unaffected in other floral organs. A model for lemma development is suggested. PMID:10757774

  19. Development of functional spaghetti enriched in bioactive compounds using barley coarse fraction obtained by air classification.

    PubMed

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Messia, Maria Cristina; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-09-14

    Barley byproducts obtained by air classification have been used to produce a different barley functional spaghetti, which were compared to different commercial whole semolina samples. Total, insoluble, and soluble fiber and β-glucan contents of the barley spaghetti were found to be greater than those of commercial samples. Furthermore, it was proved that barley spaghetti reached the FDA requirements, which could allow these pastas to deserve the health claims "good source of dietary fiber" and "may reduce the risk of heart disease". When the barley coarse fraction was used, a flavan-3-ols enrichment and an increase of antioxidant activity were reported, while commercial samples showed the absence of flavan-3-ols and a higher presence of phenolic acids and tannins. Whole semolina commercial spaghetti had a significantly higher content of phenolic acids than semolina spaghetti samples. Besides, it was observed that when vital gluten was added to the spaghetti formulation, phenolic compounds were blocked in the gluten network and were partially released during the cooking process. PMID:21806068

  20. The Barley Phytomer

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Brian P.; Franckowiak, Jerome D.; Lundqvist, Udda; Lyon, Jackie; Pitkethly, Ian; Thomas, William T. B.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological mutants have been useful in elucidating the phytomeric structure of plants. Recently described mutants have shed new light on the ontogeny (development of plant structures) and the phytomeric system of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Since the current model for barley phytomers was not adequate to explain the nature of some mutants, a new model is proposed. Methods New phytomer mutants were detected by visual assessment of mutant families in the Optic barley mutation grid population. This was done at various growth stages using laboratory, glasshouse and field screens. Simple explanations were adopted to account for aberrant phytomer phenotypes and a thesis for a new phytomer model was developed. Key Results and Conclusions A barley phytomer model is presented, in which the origins of vegetative and generative structures can be explained by a single repeating phytomer unit. Organs on the barley plant are divided into two classes, single or paired, depending on their origin. Paired structures are often fused together to create specific organs. The model can be applied to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and related grasses. PMID:17901062

  1. Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by δ13C in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

  2. Development of SNP markers for genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and their association to kernel and malting traits in barley

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavonoids are an important class of secondary compounds in angiosperms. Next to certain biological functions in plants, they play a role in the brewing process and have an effect on taste, color and aroma of beer. The aim of this study was to reveal the haplotype diversity of candidate genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in cultivated barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to determine associations to kernel and malting quality parameters. Results Five genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were partially resequenced in 16 diverse barley reference genotypes. Their localization in the barley genome, their genetic structure, and their genetic variation e.g. single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Insertion/Deletion (InDel) patterns were revealed. In total, 130 SNPs and seven InDels were detected. Of these, 21 polymorphisms were converted into high-throughput pyrosequencing markers. The resulting SNP and haplotype patterns were used to calculate associations with kernel and malting quality parameters. Conclusions SNP patterns were found to be highly variable for the investigated genes. The developed high-throughput markers are applicable for assessing the genetic variability and for the determination of haplotype patterns in a set of barley accessions. The candidate genes PAL, C4H and F3H were shown to be associated to several malting properties like glassiness (PAL), viscosity (C4H) or to final attenuation (F3H). PMID:24088365

  3. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  4. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards....S.) Standards for Barley under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). To ensure that... whether the current barley standards and grading practices need to be changed. DATES: Comments must...

  5. Biochemical heterogeneity of malt is caused by both biological variation and differences in processing: I. Individual grain analyses of biochemical parameters in differently steeped barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malts.

    PubMed

    Kleinwächter, Maik; Müller, Christian; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Selmar, Dirk

    2014-03-15

    Using individual grain analyses, the degree of inherent biological variation in germinating barley seeds has been established. Even under homogenous laboratory conditions, the activities of the germination-related enzymes α-amylase, β-amylase and β-glucanase varied by a factor of two to three. The comparison with single grain analyses of different industrially produced malts (steeping systems without aeration, with air suction and pressurised aeration) revealed that the heterogeneity of these malts nearly tripled. This increase may be due to the gradients in O2 and CO2 that arise in large industrial steeping vessels. The most homogenous malting in the industrial systems was achieved without any aeration during steeping. Therefore, to improve homogeneity, the common practise of steep aeration should be omitted. Germination progression was quite different within the three exhaustively aerated attempts, which indicated that gaseous composition was not the only factor affecting germination progression. PMID:24206681

  6. Recent development in processing barley and oats into value-added ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and oats are unique among cereals because they contain a higher amount (3-8%) of mixed linkage 1-3, 1-4 beta-D-glucan (BG), in addition to starch, protein and other fibers. BG is a water soluble dietary fiber and has been shown to lower serum cholesterol levels and reduce blood glucose respo...

  7. A Low Phytic Acid Barley Mutation Alters Gene Expression in Early Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have reduced levels of seed phytate, the most abundant form of phosphorus in seeds, and increases in seed inorganic phosphorus. To understand how lpa mutations affect metabolic and developmental processes during seed growth, gene expression ...

  8. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  9. The short-term growth response to salt of the developing barley leaf.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland; Akhiyarova, Gulya; Wei, Wenxue; Alexandersson, Erik; Miller, Anthony; Kjellbom, Per Ola; Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Schreiber, Lukas; Veselov, Dima; Kudoyarova, Guzel; Volkov, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Recent results concerning the short-term growth response to salinity of the developing barley leaf are reviewed. Plants were grown hydroponically and the growth response of leaf 3 was studied between 10 min and 5 d following addition of 100 mM NaCl to the root medium. The aim of the experiments was to relate changes in variables that are likely to affect cell elongation to changes in leaf growth. Changes in hormone content (ABA, cytokinins), water and solute relationships (osmolality, turgor, water potential, solute concentrations), gene expression (water channel), cuticle deposition, membrane potential, and transpiration were followed, while leaf elongation velocity was monitored. Leaf elongation decreased close to zero within seconds following addition of NaCl. Between 20 and 30 min after exposure to salt, elongation velocity recovered rather abruptly, to about 46% of the pre-stress level, and remained at the reduced rate for the following 5 d, when it reached about 70% of the level in non-stressed plants. Biophysical and physiological analyses led to three major conclusions. (i) The immediate reduction and sudden recovery in elongation velocity is due to changes in the water potential gradient between leaf xylem and peripheral elongating cells. Changes in transpiration, ABA and cytokinin content, water channel expression, and plasma membrane potential are involved in this response. (ii) Significant solute accumulation, which aids growth recovery, is detectable from 1 h onwards; growing and non-growing leaf regions and mesophyll and epidermis differ in their solute response. (iii) Cuticular wax density is not affected by short-term exposure to salt; transpirational changes are due to stomatal control. PMID:16513814

  10. REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

  11. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  12. Analysis and comparison of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis from three barley biomass/byproduct streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluidized bed fast pyrolysis was carried out on three different barley biomass coproduct streams, barley straw, barley hulls and DDGS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of barley grain. Each of these are possible sources of feedstock for advanced bio-fuels production via fast pyrolysis as b...

  13. The study of two barley Type I-like MADS-box genes as potential targets of epigenetic regulation during seed development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MADS-box genes constitute a large family of transcription factors functioning as key regulators of many processes during plant vegetative and reproductive development. Type II MADS-box genes have been intensively investigated and are mostly involved in vegetative and flowering development. A growing number of studies of Type I MADS-box genes in Arabidopsis, have assigned crucial roles for these genes in gamete and seed development and have demonstrated that a number of Type I MADS-box genes are epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications. However, reports on agronomically important cereals such as barley and wheat are scarce. Results Here we report the identification and characterization of two Type I-like MADS-box genes, from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a monocot cereal crop of high agronomic importance. Protein sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the putative proteins are related to Type I MADS-box proteins, and classified them in a distinct cereal clade. Significant differences in gene expression among seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size were revealed for both genes. One of these genes was shown to be induced by the seed development- and stress-related hormones ABA and JA whereas in situ hybridizations localized the other gene to specific endosperm sub-compartments. The genomic organization of the latter has high conservation with the cereal Type I-like MADS-box homologues and the chromosomal position of both genes is close to markers associated with seed quality traits. DNA methylation differences are present in the upstream and downstream regulatory regions of the barley Type I-like MADS-box genes in two different developmental stages and in response to ABA treatment which may be associated with gene expression differences. Conclusions Two barley MADS-box genes were studied that are related to Type I MADS-box genes. Differential expression in different seed developmental

  14. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Masumoto, Yuuki; Nobori, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroto; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Taketa, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves. The defective marginal developments were also appeared in internodes and glumes in spikelets. Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia from the initiating stage. From these results, we concluded that NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley. PMID:27436952

  15. Barley NARROW LEAFED DWARF1 encoding a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) regulates the marginal development of lateral organs.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Tanaka, Shin-Ya; Masumoto, Yuuki; Nobori, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroto; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Taketa, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves. The defective marginal developments were also appeared in internodes and glumes in spikelets. Map-based cloning revealed that NLD1 encodes a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3), an ortholog of the maize NARROW SHEATH genes. In situ hybridization showed that NLD1 transcripts were localized in the marginal edges of leaf primordia from the initiating stage. From these results, we concluded that NLD1 plays pivotal role in the increase of organ width and in the development of marginal tissues in lateral organs in barley. PMID:27436952

  16. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  17. Duplicate polyphenol oxidase genes on barley chromosome 2H and their functional differentiation in the phenol reaction of spikes and grains

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Matsuki, Kanako; Amano, Satoko; Saisho, Daisuke; Himi, Eiko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Yuo, Takahisa; Noda, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing metalloenzymes encoded in the nucleus and transported into the plastids. Reportedly, PPOs cause time-dependent discoloration (browning) of end-products of wheat and barley, which impairs their appearance quality. For this study, two barley PPO homologues were amplified using PCR with a primer pair designed in the copper binding domains of the wheat PPO genes. The full-lengths of the respective PPO genes were cloned using a BAC library, inverse-PCR, and 3′-RACE. Linkage analysis showed that the polymorphisms in PPO1 and PPO2 co-segregated with the phenol reaction phenotype of awns. Subsequent RT-PCR experiments showed that PPO1 was expressed in hulls and awns, and that PPO2 was expressed in the caryopses. Allelic variation of PPO1 and PPO2 was analysed in 51 barley accessions with the negative phenol reaction of awns. In PPO1, amino acid substitutions of five types affecting functionally important motif(s) or C-terminal region(s) were identified in 40 of the 51 accessions tested. In PPO2, only one mutant allele with a precocious stop codon resulting from an 8 bp insertion in the first exon was found in three of the 51 accessions tested. These observations demonstrate that PPO1 is the major determinant controlling the phenol reaction of awns. Comparisons of PPO1 single mutants and the PPO1PPO2 double mutant indicate that PPO2 controls the phenol reaction in the crease on the ventral side of caryopses. An insertion of a hAT-family transposon in the promoter region of PPO2 may be responsible for different expression patterns of the duplicate PPO genes in barley. PMID:20616156

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with the Tocochromanol (Vitamin E) Pathway in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Marcos, Alfonso; Geniza, Matthew; Blake, Tom; Blake, Victoria C.; Butler, Joshua; Chao, Shiaomen; Hole, David J.; Horsley, Rich; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Obert, Don; Smith, Kevin P.; Ullrich, Steven; Hayes, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types- α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherol and tocotrienol- were assayed. We found 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the concentration of one or more of these tocochromanol forms in barley, seven of which were within 2 cM of sequences homologous to cloned genes associated with tocochromanol production in barley and/or other plants. These associations confirmed a prior report based on bi-parental QTL mapping. This knowledge will aid future efforts to better understand the role of tocochromanols in barley, with specific reference to abiotic stress resistance. It will also be useful in developing barley varieties with higher tocochromanol concentrations, although at current recommended daily consumption amounts, barley would not be an effective sole source of vitamin E. However, it could be an important contributor in the context of whole grains in a balanced diet. PMID:26208213

  19. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  20. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt. PMID:10405796

  1. Barley stripe mosaic and Barley yellow stripe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley stripe mosaic was described in Wisconsin as "barley false stripe" in 1910, making it perhaps the first cereal virus disease described in the United States. The disease has been reported from most barley-producing areas of the world, including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, an...

  2. Evolution and development of cell walls in cereal grains

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be contrasted with walls of the endosperm, where the amount of cellulose is relatively low, and the walls are generally not lignified. The low cellulose and lignin contents are possible because the walls of the endosperm perform no load-bearing function in the mature grain and indeed the low levels of these relatively intractable wall components are necessary because they allow rapid degradation of the walls following germination of the grain. The major non-cellulosic components of endosperm walls are usually heteroxylans and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans, with lower levels of xyloglucans, glucomannans, and pectic polysaccharides. Pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucans are the major non-cellulosic wall constituents in most dicot species, in which (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans are usually absent and heteroxylans are found at relatively low levels. Thus, the “core” non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain of the cereals and other grasses are the heteroxylans and, more specifically, arabinoxylans. The (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans appear in the endosperm of some grass species but are essentially absent from others; they may constitute from zero to more than 45% of the cell walls of the endosperm, depending on the species. It is clear that in some cases these (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans function as a major store of metabolizable glucose in the grain. Cereal grains and their constituent cell wall polysaccharides are centrally important as a source of dietary fiber in human societies and breeders have started to select for high levels of non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain. To meet end-user requirements, it is important that we understand cell wall biology in the grain both during development and

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  4. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  6. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  7. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  8. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  9. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Methods Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9–13, 14–18, 19–23 and 24–28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Key Results Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Conclusions Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative

  10. Differential RNA Expression of Bmy1 During Late Seed Development in Wild and Cultivated Barley and the Association With ß-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different ß-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 DNA sequence, Bmy1 RNA expression, ß-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys Ashqelon (Bmy1.c) and PI...

  11. Development of PCR-Based DNA markers flanking three low phytic acid mutant loci in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid (PA) is the most abundant form of phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. PA chelates mineral cations to form an indigestible salt, and is thus regarded as an antinutritional agent and a contributor to water pollution. Grain with low phytic acid (lpa) genotypes could aid in mitigating this prob...

  12. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  13. Hardness locus sequence variation and endosperm texture in spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain texture is an important quality parameter in both wheat and barley. Cultivars with good malting quality tend to be softer than their poor malting counterparts. Harder textured barley seeds with lower dry matter digestibility may potentially be better in feed quality for beef cattle. Most gr...

  14. Validation of the β-amy1 transcription profiling assay and selection of reference genes suited for a RT-qPCR assay in developing barley caryopsis.

    PubMed

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Kučera, Ladislav; Vaculová, Kateřina; Štrymplová, Kamila; Svobodová, Ilona; Milella, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a frequently used method for gene expression profiling. Reference genes (RGs) are commonly employed to normalize gene expression data. A limited information exist on the gene expression and profiling in developing barley caryopsis. Expression stability was assessed by measuring the cycle threshold (Ct) range and applying both the GeNorm (pair-wise comparison of geometric means) and Normfinder (model-based approach) principles for the calculation. Here, we have identified a set of four RGs suitable for studying gene expression in the developing barley caryopsis. These encode the proteins GAPDH, HSP90, HSP70 and ubiquitin. We found a correlation between the frequency of occurrence of a transcript in silico and its suitability as an RG. This set of RGs was tested by comparing the normalized level of β-amylase (β-amy1) transcript with directly measured quantities of the BMY1 gene product in the developing barley caryopsis. This panel of genes could be used for other gene expression studies, as well as to optimize β-amy1 analysis for study of the impact of β-amy1 expression upon barley end-use quality. PMID:22860024

  15. Development of NIR calibration for determining quality of barley as a fuel ethanol source and calibration transfer between instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently there has been growing interest in using barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol in the U.S. This study focused on potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of barley as a rapid and non-destructive analytical method and calibration transfer between two instrument...

  16. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 Protein, a Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Protein Involved in the Regulation of Barley Plant Development and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The timing of whole-plant senescence influences important agricultural traits such as yield and grain protein content. Post-transcriptional regulation by plant RNA-binding proteins is essential for proper control of gene expression, development, and stress responses. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution NMR structure and nucleic acid-binding properties of the barley glycine-rich RNA-binding protein HvGR-RBP1, whose transcript has been identified as being >45-fold up-regulated in early—as compared to late—senescing near-isogenic barley germplasm. NMR analysis reveals that HvGR-RBP1 is a multidomain protein comprising a well-folded N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a structurally disordered C-terminal glycine-rich domain. Chemical shift differences observed in 2D 1H–15N correlation (HSQC) NMR spectra of full-length HvGR-RBP1 and N-HvGR-RBP1 (RRM domain only) suggest that the two domains can interact both in-trans and intramolecularly, similar to what is observed in the tobacco NtGR-RBP1 protein. Further, we show that the RRM domain of HvGR-RBP1 binds single-stranded DNA nucleotide fragments containing the consensus nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCTGX-3′ with low micromolar affinity in vitro. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal glycine-rich (HvGR) domain of Hv-GR-RBP1 can interact nonspecifically with ssRNA in vitro. Structural similarities with other plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins suggest that HvGR-RBP1 may be multifunctional. Based on gene expression analysis following cold stress in barley and E. coli growth studies following cold shock treatment, we conclude that HvGR-RBP1 functions in a manner similar to cold-shock proteins and harbors RNA chaperone activity. HvGR-RBP1 is therefore not only involved in the regulation of barley development including senescence, but also functions in plant responses to environmental stress. PMID:25495582

  17. Models for the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Grain and Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on microwave dielectric properties of wheat, corn, barley, oats, grain sorghum, soybeans, canola, shelled peanuts and pod peanuts measured over ranges of frequency and moisture content, models are developed for predicting the dielectric constant and loss factor of these commodities. Nearly li...

  18. Microwave Dielectric Properties Models for Grain and Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on microwave dielectric properties of wheat, corn, barley, oats, grain sorghum, soybeans, canola, shelled peanuts and pod peanuts measured over ranges of frequency and moisture content, models are developed for predicting the dielectric constant and loss factor of these commodities. Nearly lin...

  19. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  20. Barley Genomics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

  1. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  2. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  3. Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

  4. Gas-grain simulation experiment module conceptual design and gas-grain simulation facility breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamel, James M.; Petach, Michael; Gat, Nahum; Kropp, Jack; Luong, Christina; Wolff, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This report delineates the Option portion of the Phase A Gas-Grain Simulation Facility study. The conceptual design of a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM) for Space Shuttle Middeck is discussed. In addition, a laboratory breadboard was developed during this study to develop a key function for the GGSEM and the GGSF, specifically, a solid particle cloud generating device. The breadboard design and test results are discussed and recommendations for further studies are included. The GGSEM is intended to fly on board a low earth orbit (LEO), manned platform. It will be used to perform a subset of the experiments planned for the GGSF for Space Station Freedom, as it can partially accommodate a number of the science experiments. The outcome of the experiments performed will provide an increased understanding of the operational requirements for the GGSF. The GGSEM will also act as a platform to accomplish technology development and proof-of-principle experiments for GGSF hardware, and to verify concepts and designs of hardware for GGSF. The GGSEM will allow assembled subsystems to be tested to verify facility level operation. The technology development that can be accommodated by the GGSEM includes: GGSF sample generation techniques, GGSF on-line diagnostics techniques, sample collection techniques, performance of various types of sensors for environmental monitoring, and some off-line diagnostics. Advantages and disadvantages of several LEO platforms available for GGSEM applications are identified and discussed. Several of the anticipated GGSF experiments require the deagglomeration and dispensing of dry solid particles into an experiment chamber. During the GGSF Phase A study, various techniques and devices available for the solid particle aerosol generator were reviewed. As a result of this review, solid particle deagglomeration and dispensing were identified as key undeveloped technologies in the GGSF design. A laboratory breadboard version of a solid

  5. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  6. Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae isolates from barley grains produce new cereulide-like depsipeptides (paenilide and homopaenilide) that are highly toxic to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Rasimus, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Teplova, Vera V; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2012-05-01

    Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg(-1) of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K(+) ions already at 4 mM [K(+)], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

  7. Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae Isolates from Barley Grains Produce New Cereulide-Like Depsipeptides (Paenilide and Homopaenilide) That Are Highly Toxic to Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A.; Teplova, Vera V.; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2012-01-01

    Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg−1 of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K+ ions already at 4 mM [K+], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

  8. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  9. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance to barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  10. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  11. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  12. Development of a reliable inoculation technique to assess resistance in pearl millet to Fusarium grain mold

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet is an alternative grain for the drought-prone southeast region of the United States. High humidity in this region can frequently promote the development of diverse fungi associated with grain mold complex. This study was conducted to develop a reliable method for grain mold inoculations...

  13. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. PMID:26344323

  14. Development of a Multi-Species Biotic Ligand Model Predicting the Toxicity of Trivalent Chromium to Barley Root Elongation in Solution Culture

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ningning; Zhong, Xu; Li, Bo; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Little knowledge is available about the influence of cation competition and metal speciation on trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) toxicity. In the present study, the effects of pH and selected cations on the toxicity of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation were investigated to develop an appropriate biotic ligand model (BLM). Results showed that the toxicity of Cr(III) decreased with increasing activity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ but not with K+ and Na+. The effect of pH on Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation could be explained by H+ competition with Cr3+ bound to a biotic ligand (BL) as well as by the concomitant toxicity of CrOH2+ in solution culture. Stability constants were obtained for the binding of Cr3+, CrOH2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and H+ with binding ligand: log KCrBL 7.34, log KCrOHBL 5.35, log KCaBL 2.64, log KMgBL 2.98, and log KHBL 4.74. On the basis of those estimated parameters, a BLM was successfully developed to predict Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation as a function of solution characteristics. PMID:25119269

  15. Development of a multi-species biotic ligand model predicting the toxicity of trivalent chromium to barley root elongation in solution culture.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Zhong, Xu; Li, Bo; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Little knowledge is available about the influence of cation competition and metal speciation on trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) toxicity. In the present study, the effects of pH and selected cations on the toxicity of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation were investigated to develop an appropriate biotic ligand model (BLM). Results showed that the toxicity of Cr(III) decreased with increasing activity of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but not with K(+) and Na(+). The effect of pH on Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation could be explained by H(+) competition with Cr(3+) bound to a biotic ligand (BL) as well as by the concomitant toxicity of CrOH(2+) in solution culture. Stability constants were obtained for the binding of Cr(3+), CrOH(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and H(+) with binding ligand: log KCrBL 7.34, log KCrOHBL 5.35, log KCaBL 2.64, log KMgBL 2.98, and log KHBL 4.74. On the basis of those estimated parameters, a BLM was successfully developed to predict Cr(III) toxicity to barley root elongation as a function of solution characteristics. PMID:25119269

  16. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  17. Allelic diversity of a beer haze active protein gene in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and development of allelic specific markers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Sun, Dongfa; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-07-13

    The formation of haze is a serious quality problem in beer production. It has been shown that the use of silica elute (SE)-ve malt (absence of molecular weight (MW) ∼14000 Da) for brewing can improve haze stability in the resultant beer, and the protein was identified as a barley trypsin inhibitor of the chloroform/methanol type (BTI-CMe). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley and (2) allele-specific (AS) markers for screening SE protein type. A survey of 172 Tibetan annual wild barley accessions and 71 cultivated barley genotypes was conducted, and 104 wild accessions and 35 cultivated genotypes were identified as SE+ve and 68 wild accessions and 36 cultivated genotypes as SE-ve. The allelic diversity of the gene controlling BTI-CMe was investigated by cloning, alignment, and association analysis. It was found that there were significant differences between the SE+ve and SE-ve types in single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 234 (SNP(234)), SNP(313), and SNP(385.) Furthermore, two sets of AS markers were developed to screen SE protein type based on SNP(313). AS-PCR had results very similar to those obtained by immunoblot method. Mapping analysis showed that the gene controlling the MW∼14 kDa band was located on the short arm of chromosome 3H, at the position of marker BPB-0527 (33.302 cM) in the Franklin/Yerong DH population. PMID:21608526

  18. Barley stripe rust resistance QTL: Development and validation of SNP markers for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with seedling and field resistance to barley stripe rust were mapped in 156 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a Lenetah by Grannelose Zweizeilige (GZ) cross. A major QTL for seedling resistance on chromosome 4H (LOD = 15.94 at 97.19 cM) was identified,...

  19. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2015-03-01

    During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits. PMID:25617470

  20. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2015-01-01

    During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits. PMID:25617470

  1. The dynamics of protein body formation in developing wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Moore, Katie L; Tosi, Paola; Palmer, Richard; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Grovenor, Chris R M; Shewry, Peter R

    2016-09-01

    Wheat is a major source of protein in the diets of humans and livestock but we know little about the mechanisms that determine the patterns of protein synthesis in the developing endosperm. We have used a combination of enrichment with (15) N glutamine and NanoSIMS imaging to establish that the substrate required for protein synthesis is transported radially from its point of entrance in the endosperm cavity across the starchy endosperm tissues, before becoming concentrated in the cells immediately below the aleurone layer. This transport occurs continuously during grain development but may be slower in the later stages. Although older starchy endosperm cells tend to contain larger protein deposits formed by the fusion of small protein bodies, small highly enriched protein bodies may also be present in the same cells. This shows a continuous process of protein body initiation, in both older and younger starchy endosperm cells and in all regions of the tissue. Immunolabeling with specific antibodies shows that the patterns of enrichment are not related to the contents of gluten proteins in the protein bodies. In addition to providing new information on the dynamics of protein deposition, the study demonstrates the wider utility of NanoSIMS and isotope labelling for studying complex developmental processes in plant tissues. PMID:26898533

  2. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  3. Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  4. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  5. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  6. High-Resolution Genotyping of Wild Barley Introgression Lines and Fine-Mapping of the Threshability Locus thresh-1 Using the Illumina GoldenGate Assay

    PubMed Central

    Schmalenbach, Inga; March, Timothy J.; Bringezu, Thomas; Waugh, Robbie; Pillen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Genetically well-characterized mapping populations are a key tool for rapid and precise localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and subsequent identification of the underlying genes. In this study, a set of 73 introgression lines (S42ILs) originating from a cross between the spring barley cultivar Scarlett (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (H. v. ssp. spontaneum) was subjected to high-resolution genotyping with an Illumina 1536-SNP array. The array enabled a precise localization of the wild barley introgressions in the elite barley background. Based on 636 informative SNPs, the S42IL set represents 87.3% of the wild barley genome, where each line contains on average 3.3% of the donor genome. Furthermore, segregating high-resolution mapping populations (S42IL-HRs) were developed for 70 S42ILs in order to facilitate QTL fine-mapping and cloning. As a case study, we used the developed genetic resources to rapidly identify and fine-map the novel locus thresh-1 on chromosome 1H that controls grain threshability. Here, the recessive wild barley allele confers a difficult to thresh phenotype, suggesting that thresh-1 played an important role during barley domestication. Using a S42IL-HR population, thresh-1 was fine-mapped within a 4.3cM interval that was predicted to contain candidate genes involved in regulation of plant cell wall composition. The set of wild barley introgression lines and derived high-resolution populations are ideal tools to speed up the process of mapping and further dissecting QTL, which ultimately clears the way for isolating the genes behind QTL effects. PMID:22384330

  7. Isolation of an in vitro and ex vivo antiradical melanoidin from roasted barley.

    PubMed

    Papetti, Adele; Daglia, Maria; Aceti, Camilla; Quaglia, Milena; Gregotti, Cesarina; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2006-02-22

    The antiradical properties of water-soluble components of both natural and roasted barley were determined in vitro, by means of DPPH* assay and the linoleic acid-beta-carotene system, and ex vivo, in rat liver hepatocyte microsomes against lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4. The results show the occurrence in natural barley of weak antioxidant components. These are able to react against low reactive peroxyl radicals, but offer little protection against stable DPPH radicals deriving from peroxidation in microsomal lipids. Conversely, roasted barley yielded strong antioxidant components that are able to efficiently scavenge free radicals in any system used. The results show that the barley grain roasting process induces the formation of soluble Maillard reaction products with powerful antiradical activity. From roasted barley solution (barley coffee) was isolated a brown high molecular mass melanoidinic component, resistant to acidic hydrolysis, that is responsible for most of the barley coffee antioxidant activity in the biosystem. PMID:16478238

  8. Process development for producing fine-grain casting in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Malik, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    Assessment of grain growth kinetics at temperatures near the melting point and investigation into the use of potential nucleating agents in combination with the naturally occurring BeO led to the definition of critical low-g experiments which would help to determine whether one or both of these possibilities are valid and whether space processing would be able to yield fine grain ingot beryllium.

  9. Does Whole Grain Consumption Alter Gut Microbiota and Satiety?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Danielle N.; Martin, Roy J.; Keim, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control. PMID:27417768

  10. Development and application of coarse-grained models for lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    I'll discuss a number of topics that represent our efforts in developing reliable molecular models for describing chemical and physical processes involving biomembranes. This is an exciting yet challenging research area because of the multiple length and time scales that are present in the relevant problems. Accordingly, we attempt to (1) understand the value and limitation of popular coarse-grained (CG) models for lipid membranes with either a particle or continuum representation; (2) develop new CG models that are appropriate for the particular problem of interest. As specific examples, I'll discuss (1) a comparison of atomistic, MARTINI (a particle based CG model) and continuum descriptions of a membrane fusion pore; (2) the development of a modified MARTINI model (BMW-MARTINI) that features a reliable description of membrane/water interfacial electrostatics and its application to cell-penetration peptides and membrane-bending proteins. Motivated specifically by the recent studies of Wong and co-workers, we compare the self-assembly behaviors of lipids with cationic peptides that include either Arg residues or a combination of Lys and hydrophobic residues; in particular, we attempt to reveal factors that stabilize the cubic ``double diamond'' Pn3m phase over the inverted hexagonal HII phase. For example, to explicitly test the importance of the bidentate hydrogen-bonding capability of Arg to the stabilization of negative Gaussian curvature, we also compare results using variants of the BMW-MARTINI model that treat the side chain of Arg with different levels of details. Collectively, the results suggest that both the bidentate feature of Arg and the overall electrostatic properties of cationic peptides are important to the self-assembly behavior of these peptides with lipids. The results are expected to have general implications to the mechanism of peptides and proteins that stimulate pore formation in biomembranes. Work in collaboration with Zhe Wu, Leili Zhang

  11. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  12. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005-2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers' specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  13. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  14. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

  15. Association genetics in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applied and basic barley geneticists have begun to use association genetics as a tool to identify and fine map polymorphisms directly in breeding populations or diversity panels. Barley presents an ideal system because its populations present different extents of LD, from long-range LD in elite cult...

  16. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. PMID:26427614

  17. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Michael W.; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara; O’Shea, Charlotte; Lindemose, Søren; Møllegaard, Niels Erik; Holme, Inger B.; Hebelstrup, Kim; Skriver, Karen; Gregersen, Per L.

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005 is associated with developmental senescence. It was significantly up-regulated following ABA treatment, supported by ABA-responsive elements in its promoter, but it was not up-regulated during dark-induced senescence. The C-termini of proteins closely related to HvNAC005 showed overall high divergence but also contained conserved short motifs. A serine- and leucine-containing central motif was essential for transcriptional activity of the HvNAC005 C-terminus in yeast. Over-expression of HvNAC005 in barley resulted in a strong phenotype with delayed development combined with precocious senescence. The over-expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling pathways. Binding of HvNAC005 to promoter sequences of putative target genes containing the T[G/A]CGT core motif was shown by direct protein–DNA interactions of HvNAC005 with promoters for two of the up-regulated genes. In conclusion, HvNAC005 was shown to be a strong positive regulator of senescence and so is an obvious target for the fine-tuning of gene expression in future attempts to improve nutrient remobilization related to the senescence process in barley. PMID:27436280

  18. Progress in grain pearl millet research and market developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) has historically been grown only for forage and hay in the southern United States. However, recent research and technology transfer activities are resulting in continued improvements in grain hybrids adapted to the southeast and the emergence of new mark...

  19. Development of Bimodal Ferrite-Grain Structures in Low-Carbon Steel Using Rapid Intercritical Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, A.; Karani, A.; Patra, S.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2013-05-01

    Mixed ferrite grain structures, which have fine- and coarse-grain regions and showing "bimodal" grain size distributions, have been produced by rapid intercritical annealing of warm-rolled (or cold-rolled) samples. Microstructural changes have been analyzed using dilatometric studies, size prediction of transformed and recrystallized grains, and microtexture measurements. Fine austenite grains (<5 μm) developed during rapid annealing and transformed into fine-ferrite grains (2 to 4 μm) after cooling. Coarse-ferrite grains (28 to 42 μm) resulted from the recrystallization and growth of deformed ferrite. The effect of heating rate on microstructural morphologies during intercritical annealing has also been studied. A slow rate of heating (30 K/s) developed a uniform distribution of fine-ferrite grains and austenitic islands, while rapid heating (300 K/s) generated coarse blocks of austenite, elongated along the prior-pearlitic regions, in the ferrite matrix. As expected, bimodal ferrite grain structures or fine-scale dual-phase structures showed superior combination of tensile strength and ductility, compared to the ultrafine-grained steels.

  20. Pearling of hull-less barley: product composition and gel color of pearled barley flours as affected by the degree of pearling.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J; Vasanthan, T

    2001-01-01

    Barley grains from two hull-less varieties, Phoenix and Candle, were pearled to various degrees (10-80%). The composition (starch, protein, beta-glucan, lipid, and ash) of pearled grain (PG) and pearling flour (PF) was determined. Effect of pearling on Hunter L, a, and b color parameters of uncooked and cooked (gel) barley flour (milled from PG) was investigated over a 3 day storage at 4 degrees C. PMID:11170595

  1. Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  2. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  3. Registration of seventeen spring two-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  4. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  5. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  6. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  7. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting...

  8. Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

  9. Changes in the nuclear proteome of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Chambon, Christophe; Boudet, Julie; Branlard, Gérard; Martre, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Wheat grain end-use value is determined by complex molecular interactions that occur during grain development, including those in the cell nucleus. However, our knowledge of how the nuclear proteome changes during grain development is limited. Here, we analyzed nuclear proteins of developing wheat grains collected during the cellularization, effective grain-filling, and maturation phases of development, respectively. Nuclear proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Image analysis revealed 371 and 299 reproducible spots in gels with first dimension separation along pH 4–7 and pH 6–11 isoelectric gradients, respectively. The relative abundance of 464 (67%) protein spots changed during grain development. Abundance profiles of these proteins clustered in six groups associated with the major phases and phase transitions of grain development. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyse 387 variant and non-variant protein spots, 114 different proteins were identified that were classified into 16 functional classes. We noted that some proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, like HMG1/2-like protein and histone deacetylase HDAC2, were most abundant before the phase transition from cellularization to grain-filling, suggesting that major transcriptional changes occur during this key developmental phase. The maturation period was characterized by high relative abundance of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002999. PMID:26579155

  10. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1980-05-29

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  11. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  12. Development of a grain volumetric flow sensor based on photoelectrical principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Minzan

    2008-12-01

    Field information acquisition plays an important part in Precision Agriculture System. Spatial and temporal variation of grain yield in a field is important field information. It can guide farmers in a reasonable means of production in order to save input and improve efficiency. Thus a grain yield monitor is developed based on photoelectrical sensor. The monitor consists of a LED, a photoelectrical transducer, cables, signal processing circuit, acquisition circuit, etc. The LED and the photoelectrical transducer are equipped in the left and right sides of the clean grain elevator of the combine harvester, respectively. When harvested wheat is threshed, clean grain is lifted to the grain tank by the lifting plates of the elevator, and the grain in a plate will switch off the light from the LED to the transducer. The height of the grain in a plate has a high correlation with the switching off time of the transducer. To measure the switching off time makes it possible to estimate grain yield. The signal processing circuit and acquisition circuit are used to monitor whether the light from the LED is switched off and then to measure the switching off time. And the yield can be calculated from the measured time based on a calibration model. The performance test shows the developed grain yield monitor is practical.

  13. Small Farm Grain Storage. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Carl; Druben, Laurel

    Designed as a working and teaching tool for development workers in their field activities, this manual combines in one volume the basic principles of grain storage and the practical solutions currently being used and tested around the world to combat grain storage problems. Each of six sections begins with informative material on the topic to be…

  14. Brachypodium seed - a potential model for studying grain development of cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of small grains are important resources for human and animal food. The understanding of seed biology is essential for crop improvement by increasing grain yields and nutritional value. In the last decade, Brachypodium distachyon has been developed as a model plant for temperate cereal grasses...

  15. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  16. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  17. Field tests of transgenic barley lines in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing transgenic barley lines for FHB in the greenhouse does not necessarily give the same results as field tests. The objective of this project was to test 18 transgenic lines in replicated trials in an inoculated FHB nursery. Several programs have developed barley lines expressing anti-fungal a...

  18. An efficient method for flanking sequence isolation in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adapter ligation method was developed to determine native barley (Hordeum vulgare) sequences flanking Ds insertions and barley ESTs. This method is simple and efficient, with the majority of queries returning valid sequence information. This report describes the protocol in detail, quantifies its...

  19. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  20. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Torres-Acosta, Juan Antonio; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). DON inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and acts as a virulence factor during fungal pathogenesis, therefore resistance to DON is considered an important component of resistance against FHB. One mechanism of resistance to DON is conversion of DON to DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Previous studies showed that expression of the UDP-glucosyltransferase genes HvUGT13248 from barley and AtUGt73C5 (DOGT1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferred DON resistance to yeast. Over-expression of AtUGt73C5 in Arabidopsis led to increased DON resistance of seedlings but also to dwarfing of transgenic plants due to the formation of brassinosteroid-glucosides. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HvUGT13248, to test for phenotypic changes in growth habit, and the response to DON. Transgenic lines that constitutively expressed the epitope-tagged HvUGT13248 protein exhibited increased resistance to DON in a seed germination assay and converted DON to D3G to a higher extent than the untransformed wild-type. By contrast to the over-expression of DOGT1 in Arabidopsis, which conjugated the brassinosteriod castasterone with a glucoside group resulting in a dwarf phenotype, expression of the barley HvUGT13248 gene did not lead to drastic morphological changes. Consistent with this observation, no castasterone-glucoside formation was detectable in yeast expressing the barley HvUGT13248 gene. This barley UGT is therefore a promising candidate for transgenic approaches aiming to increase DON and Fusarium resistance of crop plants without undesired collateral effects. PMID:22922639

  1. Differential RNA Expression of ßm1 during Late Seed Development in Cultivated and Wild Barleys Carrying Different ßmy1 Intron III Alleles and the Association with Beta-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different beta-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 mRNA accumulation, beta-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ...

  2. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation for non-calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanqing; Di Toro, Dominic M; Allen, Herbert E

    2015-07-01

    A Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model (TBLM) for Ni toxicity to barley root elongation (RE) developed from experiments conducted in sand culture was used to predict toxicity in non-calcareous soils. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and pH in sand solution were varied individually and TBLM parameters were computed. EC50 increased as Mg(2+) increased, whereas the effect of Ca(2+) was insignificant. TBLM parameters developed from sand culture were validated by toxicity tests in eight Ni-amended, non-calcareous soils. Additional to Ni(2+) toxicity, toxicity from all solution ions was modelled independently as an osmotic effect and needed to be included for soil culture results. The EC50s and EC10s in soil culture were predicted within twofold of measured results. These are close to the results obtained using parameters estimated from the soil culture data itself. PMID:25800936

  3. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  4. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Jost, Matthias; Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Yuo, Takahisa; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Rutten, Twan; Druka, Arnis; Schmutzer, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Scholz, Uwe; Morgante, Michele; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, since no indication for an active selection process was detected. PMID:27208226

  5. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Yuo, Takahisa; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Morgante, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, since no indication for an active selection process was detected. PMID:27208226

  6. Genetic Mapping Reveals Broader Role of Vrn-H3 Gene in Root and Shoot Development beyond Heading in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Bungartz, Annemarie; Muzammil, Shumaila; P. Afsharyan, Nazanin; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissect the genetic inheritance and interplay of root, shoot and heading attributes for a better understanding of these traits in crop production. For this, we utilized quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate gene analysis approach using a second filial (F2) population originated from a cross between spring cultivar Cheri and wild barley accession ICB181160. The F2 population comprising 182 plants was phenotyped for root dry weight (RDW), root volume (RV), root length (RL) and shoot dry weight (SDW), tiller number per plant (TIL) and days to heading (HEA). In parallel, this population was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers distributed across the whole genome. Marker by trait analysis revealed 16 QTL for root and shoot traits localized on chromosomes 1H, 3H, 4H, 5H and 7H. The strongest and a common QTL effect for root, shoot and heading traits was identified on chromosome 7H at the putative region of Vrn-H3 gene. Later, we have established PCR based gene specific marker HvVrnH3 revealing polymorphism for early heading Vrn-H3 allele in Cheri and late heading allele vrn-H3 in ICB181160. Genotyping of these alleles revealed a clear co-segregation of early heading Vrn-H3 allele with lower root and shoot attributes, while late heading vrn-H3 allele with more TIL and higher root biomass suggesting a primary insight on the function of Vrn-H3 gene beyond flowering. Genetic interactions of vernalization genes Vrn-H3 with Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H1 also suggested the major role of Vrn-H3 alleles in determining root and shoot trait variations in barley. We believe, these data provide an opportunity for further research to test a precise significance of early heading on yield components and root associated sustainability in crops like barley and wheat. PMID:27442506

  7. Genetic Mapping Reveals Broader Role of Vrn-H3 Gene in Root and Shoot Development beyond Heading in Barley.

    PubMed

    Arifuzzaman, Md; Günal, Süleyman; Bungartz, Annemarie; Muzammil, Shumaila; P Afsharyan, Nazanin; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissect the genetic inheritance and interplay of root, shoot and heading attributes for a better understanding of these traits in crop production. For this, we utilized quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate gene analysis approach using a second filial (F2) population originated from a cross between spring cultivar Cheri and wild barley accession ICB181160. The F2 population comprising 182 plants was phenotyped for root dry weight (RDW), root volume (RV), root length (RL) and shoot dry weight (SDW), tiller number per plant (TIL) and days to heading (HEA). In parallel, this population was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers distributed across the whole genome. Marker by trait analysis revealed 16 QTL for root and shoot traits localized on chromosomes 1H, 3H, 4H, 5H and 7H. The strongest and a common QTL effect for root, shoot and heading traits was identified on chromosome 7H at the putative region of Vrn-H3 gene. Later, we have established PCR based gene specific marker HvVrnH3 revealing polymorphism for early heading Vrn-H3 allele in Cheri and late heading allele vrn-H3 in ICB181160. Genotyping of these alleles revealed a clear co-segregation of early heading Vrn-H3 allele with lower root and shoot attributes, while late heading vrn-H3 allele with more TIL and higher root biomass suggesting a primary insight on the function of Vrn-H3 gene beyond flowering. Genetic interactions of vernalization genes Vrn-H3 with Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H1 also suggested the major role of Vrn-H3 alleles in determining root and shoot trait variations in barley. We believe, these data provide an opportunity for further research to test a precise significance of early heading on yield components and root associated sustainability in crops like barley and wheat. PMID:27442506

  8. Current efforts to develop perennial wheat and domesticate Thinopyrum intermedium as a perennial grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Institute is developing a new perennial grain by domesticating the perennial grass Thinopyrum intermedium (intermediate wheatgrass). In 1983, intermediate wheatgrass was selected for domestication by the Rodale Research Center (Kutztown, Penn., USA). Nearly 100 species of perennial grasse...

  9. The DOF protein, SAD, interacts with GAMYB in plant nuclei and activates transcription of endosperm-specific genes during barley seed development.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel; Isabel-LaMoneda, Ines; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Carbonero, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    The DOF protein, SAD, previously shown to be a transcriptional activator in barley aleurone cells upon seed germination, also has an important role in gene regulation during endosperm development. mRNA was detected in early (10 days after flowering) developing barley seeds where it accumulated in the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells, nucellar projection, vascular tissues and the immature embryo, as shown by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. The SAD protein, expressed in bacteria, binds to oligonucleotides containing the prolamine box, 5'-A/TAAAG-3'sequence, derived from the promoter regions of the endosperm-specific genes Hor2 and Itr1, encoding a B-hordein and trypsin-inhibitor BTI-CMe, respectively. SAD competed for the same binding sites with another endosperm-expressed DOF protein, BPBF. Transient expression experiments in co-bombarded developing endosperms demonstrated that SAD trans-activated transcription from Hor2 and Itr1 promoters through binding to the intact DOF motifs. When the two DOF factors are co-bombarded together an additive effect was observed upon the expression of the Itr1 gene. In-frame fusion of the Sad ORF to the reporter green fluorescent protein gene directs the fluorescence expression to the nucleus in transiently transformed onion epidermal layers. The visualization of fluorescence in the nucleus of onion cells, using the bimolecular fluorescent complex (BiFC) approach, has shown the in vivo interaction between SAD and the R2R3MYB protein GAMYB. The interaction in plant cells has also been documented for the DOF protein BPBF and GAMYB, but nuclear interaction could not be detected between BPBF and SAD by this procedure. PMID:15918880

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    PubMed Central

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  11. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Ahmad M; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  12. Barley germplasm resistant to both Russian wheat aphid and greenbug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are potential pests on winter cereals grown in the southern plains. In outbreak years, both aphids can drastically reduce grain yield of susceptible cultivars. In barley, two single dominant genes, R...

  13. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  14. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  15. Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

  16. Identification of Conserved and Diverse Metabolic Shifts during Rice Grain Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chaoyang; Tohge, Takayuki; Chan, Shen-An; Song, Yue; Rao, Jun; Cui, Bo; Lin, Hong; Wang, Lei; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Seed development dedicates to reserve synthesis and accumulation and uncovering its genetic and biochemical mechanisms has been a major research focus. Although proteomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of genes and enzymes involved, the information regarding concomitant metabolic changes is missing. Here we investigated the dynamic metabolic changes along the rice grain development of two japonica and two indica cultivars using non-targeted metabolomics approach, in which we successfully identified 214 metabolites. Statistical analyses revealed both cultivar and developmental stage dependent metabolic changes in rice grains. Generally, the stage specific metabolic kinetics corresponded well to the physiological status of the developing grains, and metabolic changes in developing rice grain are similar to those of dicot Arabidopsis and tomato at reserve accumulation stage but are different from those of dicots at seed desiccation stage. The remarkable difference in metabolite abundances between japonica and indica rice grain was observed at the reserve accumulation stage. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis uncovered potential new pathways for several metabolites. Taken together, this study uncovered both conserved and diverse development associated metabolic kinetics of rice grains, which facilitates further study to explore fundamental questions regarding the evolution of seed metabolic capabilities as well as their potential applications in crop improvement. PMID:26860358

  17. An epiallele at cly1 affects the expression of floret closing (cleistogamy) in barley.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ning, Shunzong; Wu, Jianzhong; Tagiri, Akemi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2015-01-01

    The swelling of the lodicule is responsible for floret opening in many grass species, allowing for pollen dispersal and cross-pollination. In barley, the closed floret habit (cleistogamy) is under the control of cly1, a gene that operates by inhibiting the development of the lodicule. In non-cleistogamous cultivars, cly1 mRNA is degraded by miR172-directed cleavage, allowing the lodicules to swell; however, in cultivars carrying the recessive allele cly1.b, a single-nucleotide substitution destroys the miR172 target site preventing mRNA cleavage. Barley cv. SV235 is cleistogamous; its cly1 coding sequence is identical to that of cly1.b, but its lodicules do develop, although insufficiently to produce a non-cleistogamous flower. In this cultivar, the downregulation of cly1 is unrelated to miR172-directed mRNA degradation, but rather is caused by an epiallele that represses transcription. Allelic relationships between known cly1 alleles were explored by the quantification of lodicule vascularization and an assessment of the response of the spike to the supply of exogenous auxin. The SV235 phenotype can be manipulated by a pre-anthesis application of 2,4-d, a feature that could be of interest in the context of hybrid barley grain production based on cleistogamy. PMID:25398791

  18. Mapping of QTL for Tolerance to Cereal Yellow Dwarf Virus in Two-rowed Spring Barley

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, L.; Falk, B. W.; Brown-Guedira, G.; Pellerin, E.; Dubcovsky, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV) causes a serious viral disease affecting small grain crops around the world. In the United States, it frequently is present in California where it causes significant yield losses, and when infections start early in development, plant death. CYDV is transmitted by aphids, and it has been a major impediment to developing malting barley in California. To identify chromosome locations associated with tolerance/resistance to CYDV, a segregating population of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a cross of the California adapted malting barley line Butta 12 with the CYDV tolerant Madre Selva was used to construct a genetic map including 180 polymorphic markers mapping to 163 unique loci. Tolerance to CYDV was evaluated in replicated experiments where plants were challenged by aphid mediated inoculation with the isolate CYDV-RPV in a controlled environment. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed the presence of two major QTL for CYDV tolerance from Madre Selva on chromosomes 2H (Qcyd.MaBu-1) and 7H (Qcyd.MaBu-2), and 4 minor QTL from Butta 12 on chromosomes 3H, 4H, and 2H. This paper discusses the contribution of each QTL and their potential value to improve barley tolerance to CYDV. PMID:27212713

  19. Barley anther culture: assessment of carbohydrate effects on embryo yield, green plant production and differential plastid development in relation with albinism.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Caredda, Stéphane; Devaux, Pierre; Sangwan, Rajbir; Clément, Christophe

    2004-06-01

    Sugars and polyols were tested at different steps of anther culture in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to elucidate their influence on both the overall yield of androgenesis and the structure of plastids in relation to albinism. During the pretreatment period, the osmotic regulation in the medium was beneficial to microspore embryogenesis regardless of the type and concentration of the tested osmoticum. The use of mannitol (300 mOsm/kg), sorbitol (180 mOsm/kg), PEG (240 mOsm/kg) and sucrose (180 mOsm/kg) gave the best results in terms of green plant production, although the influence of each substance differed according to the studied parameter. Similarly, during anther culture the regulation of the osmotic pressure in the medium had various effects, according to the osmoticum used. The best results were obtained using mannitol (364 mOsm/kg), providing 139.7 green plants per 100 plated anthers. Plastids were examined by electron microscopy following both pretreatment and culture. In the presence of mannitol and PEG, plastids did not accumulate starch at any stage of the protocol but they started to differentiate into chloroplasts in the microspore-derived embryos. Using sorbitol and sucrose, plastids differentiated poorly but accumulated large amounts of starch, suggesting that these sugars are metabolized by micropores and microspore derived structures. However, the accumulation of starch was not correlated with the occurrence of albinism. These results indicated that, in barley, the osmotic regulation was favourable to switch the microspore gametophytic program toward a sporophytic program regardless of the nature of the osmoticum. In addition, during the pretreatment period, mannito was found to be the most suitable osmoticum for subsequent embryo development. PMID:15266723

  20. The Wheat Grain Contains Pectic Domains Exhibiting Specific Spatial and Development-Associated Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Bouchet, Brigitte; Alvarado, Camille; Bakan, Bénédicte; Guillon, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls are complex structures surrounding plant cells with a composition that varies among species and even within a species between organs, cell types and development stages. For years, cell walls in wheat grains were described as simple walls consisting mostly of arabinoxylans and mixed-linked beta glucans. Proteomic and transcriptomic studies identified enzyme families involved in the synthesis of many more cell wall polysaccharides in the wheat grains. Here we describe the discovery of pectic domains in wheat grain using monoclonal antibodies and enzymatic treatment to degrade the major cell wall polymers. Distinct spatial distributions were observed for rhamnogalacturonan I present in the endosperm and mostly in the aleurone layer and homogalacturonan especially found in the outer layers, and tight developmental regulations were unveiled. We also uncovered a massive deposition of homogalacturonan via large vesicular bodies in the seed coat (testa) beneath a thick cuticle during development. Our findings raise questions about the function of pectin in wheat grain. PMID:24586916

  1. Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

  2. The effects of GA and ABA treatments on metabolite profile of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuqing; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Hu, Hongliang; Li, Chengdao; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Sugar degradation during grain germination is important for malt quality. In malting industry, gibberellin (GA) is frequently used for improvement of malting quality. In this study, the changes of metabolite profiles and starch-degrading enzymes during grain germination, and as affected by GA and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated using two wild barley accessions XZ72 and XZ95. Totally fifty-two metabolites with known structures were detected and the change of metabolite during germination was time- and genotype dependent. Sugars and amino acids were the most dramatically changed compounds. Addition of GA enhanced the activities of starch-degrading enzymes, and increased most metabolites, especially sugars and amino acids, whereas ABA had the opposite effect. The effect varied with the barley accessions. The current study is the first attempt in investigating the effect of hormones on metabolite profiles in germinating barley grain, being helpful for identifying the factors affecting barley germination or malt quality. PMID:26304431

  3. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  4. Electronic nose for microbial quality classification of grains.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, A; Winquist, F; Schnürer, J; Sundgren, H; Lundström, I

    1997-04-01

    The odour of grains is in many countries the primary criterion of fitness for consumption. However, smelling of grain for quality grading should be avoided since inhalation of mould spores or toxins may be hazardous to the health and determinations of the off-odours are subjective. An electronic nose, i.e. a gas sensor array combined with a pattern recognition routine might serve as an alternative. We have used an electronic nose consisting of a sensor array with different types of sensors. The signal pattern from the sensors is collected by a computer and further processed by an artificial neural network (ANN) providing the pattern recognition system. Samples of oats, rye and barley with different odours and wheat with different levels of ergosterol, fungal and bacterial colony forming units (cfu) were heated in a chamber and the gas in the chamber was led over the sensory array. The ANN could predict the odour classes of good, mouldy, weakly and strongly musty oats with a high degree of accuracy. The ANN also indicated the percentage of mouldy barley or rye grains in mixtures with fresh grains. In wheat a high degree of correlation between ANN predictions and measured ergosterol as well as with fungal and bacterial cfu was observed. The electronic nose can be developed to provide a simple and fast method for quality classification of grain and is likely to find applications also in other areas of food mycology. PMID:9105927

  5. A Comparison of Residual Stress Development in Inertia Friction Welded Fine Grain and Coarse Grain Nickel-Base Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, N.; Rolph, J.; Moat, R.; Hughes, D.; Hofmann, M.; Kelleher, J.; Baxter, G.; Withers, P. J.; Preuss, M.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the base material microstructure on the development of residual stresses across the weld line in inertia friction welds (IFWs) of high-strength nickel-base superalloy RR1000 was studied using neutron diffraction. A comparison was carried out between tubular IFW specimens generated from RR1000 heat treated below (fine grain (FG) structure) and above (coarse grain (CG) structure) the γ'-solvus. Residual stresses were mapped in the as-welded (AW) condition and, after a postweld heat treatment (PWHT), optimized for maximum alloy strength. The highest tensile stresses were generally found in the hoop direction at the weld line near the inner diameter of the tubular-shaped specimens. A comparison between the residual stresses generated in FG and CG RR1000 suggests that the starting microstructure has little influence on the maximum residual stresses generated in the weld even though different levels of energy must be input to achieve a successful weld in each case. The residual stresses in the postweld heat treated samples were about 35 pct less than for the AW condition. Despite the fact that the high-temperature properties of the two parent microstructures are different, no significant differences in terms of stress relief were found between the FG and CG RR1000 IFWs. Since the actual weld microstructures of FG and CG RR1000 inertia welds are very similar, the results suggest that it is the weld microstructure and its associated high-temperature properties rather than the parent material that affects the overall weld stress distribution and its subsequent stress relief.

  6. Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 μm were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 μm. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 μm scintillator plates.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known so...

  8. Barley Yellow Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

  9. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  10. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  11. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  12. 2008 FHB Analysis of Transgenic Barley Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic lines have been developed with the goal of reducing FHB and DON in barley. Replicated field trials for FHB reaction of 48 Conlon transgenic lines were conducted in 2008 in Langdon, ND and Rosemount, MN. The Langdon trials consisted of three replicates in hill plots in an inoculated misted...

  13. Fusarium-Resistant Barley Through Genetic Transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation with antifungal genes could provide barley with the resistance to Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). More molecular studies are needed to 1) identify effective anti-Fusarium genes, 2) develop more tissue-specific gene promoters to target expression to the path of infection, and 3) ...

  14. Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

  15. Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...

  16. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  18. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement-but not remission-of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm-by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea-all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  19. Colonization of Barley by the Broad-Host Hemibiotrophic Pathogen Phytophthora palmivora Uncovers a Leaf Development-Dependent Involvement of Mlo.

    PubMed

    Le Fevre, Ruth; O'Boyle, Bridget; Moscou, Matthew J; Schornack, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of barley Mlo demonstrated that filamentous pathogens rely on plant genes to achieve entry and lifecycle completion in barley leaves. While having a dramatic effect on foliar pathogens, it is unclear whether overlapping or distinct mechanisms affect filamentous pathogen infection of roots. To remove the bias connected with using different pathogens to understand colonization mechanisms in different tissues, we have utilized the aggressive hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. P. palmivora colonizes root as well as leaf tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The infection is characterized by a transient biotrophy phase with formation of haustoria. Barley accessions varied in degree of susceptibility, with some accessions fully resistant to leaf infection. Notably, there was no overall correlation between degree of susceptibility in roots compared with leaves, suggesting that variation in different genes influences host susceptibility above and below ground. In addition, a developmental gradient influenced infection, with more extensive colonization observed in mature leaf sectors. The mlo5 mutation attenuates P. palmivora infection but only in young leaf tissues. The barley-P. palmivora interaction represents a simple system to identify and compare genetic components governing quantitative colonization in diverse barley tissue types. PMID:26927001

  20. A kinetic and microautoradiographic study of sup 14 C-sucrose translocation into developing wheat grains

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Wang; Fisher, D.B. )

    1991-05-01

    The kinetics of {sup 14}C-photosynthate import by developing wheat grains was followed after pulse-labeling the flag leaf with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Samples were collected from four successive points along the transport pathway to and within the grain: exuding aphid stylets on the peduncle, exuding grain pedicels, the grain crease tissues, and the liquid contents of the endosperm cavity. In addition, microautoradiographs were prepared of the grain crease tissues during movement of the {sup 14}C pulse into the grain. At all times, sucrose accounted for 93 to 97% of the total {sup 14}C present at all four sampling sites. The main features of the {sup 14}C kinetics could be accounted for by a simple compartmental model consisting of sucrose pools in series. Microautoradiographs of the crease tissues showed fairly uniform labeling of vascular parenchyma at all times, with a sharp gradient in labeling across the chalaza to the nucellus. Thus the principal resistance to post-phloem solute transport through the maternal tissues appears to be in the symplastic pathway across the chalaza.

  1. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on albumin and globulin accumulation profiles was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Albumins and globulins were isolated from endosperm of grain grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) ...

  2. GrainGenes, the genome database for small-grain crops.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David E; Carollo, Victoria L; Lazo, Gerard R; Anderson, Olin D

    2003-01-01

    GrainGenes, http://www.graingenes.org, is the international database for the wheat, barley, rye and oat genomes. For these species it is the primary repository for information about genetic maps, mapping probes and primers, genes, alleles and QTLs. Documentation includes such data as primer sequences, polymorphism descriptions, genotype and trait scoring data, experimental protocols used, and photographs of marker polymorphisms, disease symptoms and mutant phenotypes. These data, curated with the help of many members of the research community, are integrated with sequence and bibliographic records selected from external databases and results of BLAST searches of the ESTs. Records are linked to corresponding records in other important databases, e.g. Gramene's EST homologies to rice BAC/PACs, TIGR's Gene Indices and GenBank. In addition to this information within the GrainGenes database itself, the GrainGenes homepage at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov provides many other community resources including publications (the annual newsletters for wheat, barley and oat, monographs and articles), individual datasets (mapping and QTL studies, polymorphism surveys, variety performance evaluations), specialized databases (Triticeae repeat sequences, EST unigene sets) and pages to facilitate coordination of cooperative research efforts in specific areas such as SNP development, EST-SSRs and taxonomy. The goal is to serve as a central point for obtaining and contributing information about the genetics and biology of these cereal crops. PMID:12519977

  3. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with added iP than for pigs fed the NB diet. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity on d 34 was greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets than for pigs fed the other diets. Bone breaking strength and P absorption (g/d) were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with iP than for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets. Pigs fed diet M955 absorbed greater ( < 0.01) percentages of P and Ca and had less ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of P (g/d and %) and Ca (%) than pigs fed the other diets. In conclusion, the LPA genetic trait was effective in hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in a

  4. Auxin and Cell Wall Invertase Related Signaling during Rice Grain Development

    PubMed Central

    Russell French, Sarah; Abu-Zaitoon, Yousef; Uddin, Md. Myn; Bennett, Karina; Nonhebel, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN) activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase in IAA content of the grain. This work aimed to investigate further the role of OsYUC12 and its relationship to CWIN activity and invertase inhibitors (INVINH). The analysis shows a brief peak of OsYUC12 expression early in endosperm development. Meta-analysis of microarray data, confirmed by quantitative expression analysis, revealed that OsYUC12 is coexpressed with OsIAA29, which encodes an unusual AUX/IAA transcription factor previously reported as poorly expressed. Maximum expression of OsYUC12 and OsIAA29 coincided with maximum CWIN activity, but also with a peak in INVINH expression. Unlike ZmYUC1, OsYUC12 expression is not reduced in the rice CWIN mutant, gif1. Several reports have investigated CWIN expression in rice grains but none has reported on expression of INVINH in this species. We show that rice has 54 genes encoding putative invertase/pectin methylesterase inhibitors, seven of which are expressed exclusively during grain development. Our results suggest a more complex relationship between IAA, CWIN, and INVINH than previously proposed. PMID:27135493

  5. A region of barley chromosome 6H harbors multiple major genes associated with net type blotch resistance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net type of net blotch (NTNB) on barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres Drechs. is prevalent in barley growing regions worldwide and is particularly damaging under cool, wet conditions. A population of 118 doubled haploid (DH) lines developed from a cross between barley cultivars ‘Rika’ and ‘K...

  6. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  7. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Cereal Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of five cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley, oats, and grain sorghum) were 19 measured at 23 oC over broad microwave frequency range (5 GHz to 15 GHz) with a free-space-transmission 20 technique. Results of dielectric properties measurement are tabulated for each material for mo...

  8. Analysis of grain quality at receival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an emphasis on wheat and to a lesser extent, barley, we describe the series of post harvest transfer stages of grain between the first point of sale and the export terminal. At each transfer point, a document accompanies a grain consignment that pertains to its quality (class, purity, sanitatio...

  9. Focused ion beam induced microstructural alterations: texture development, grain growth, and intermetallic formation.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    Copper, gold, and tungsten thin films have been exposed to 30 kV Ga+ ion irradiation, and the resulting microstructural modifications are studied as a function of ion dose. The observed microstructural changes include texture development with respect to the easy channeling direction in the target, and in the case of Cu, an additional intermetallic phase is produced. Texture development in these target materials is a function of the starting materials grain size, and these changes are not observed in large grained materials. The accepted models of differential damage driven grain growth are not supported by the results of this study. The implications of this study to the use of focused ion beam tools for sample preparation are discussed. PMID:21466753

  10. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Feng; Huo, Wang; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and six cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, β-amylase, α-amylase inhibitor, dimeric α-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of middle and late grain development. PMID:26442048

  11. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P < 0.01), but during the finishing phase, DMI was similar for both diets (8.3 kg/d). The DMI was decreased to 6.3 kg/d with no effect of diet or phase while the cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P < 0.05) for corn than for barley during the finishing phase (9.2 vs. 13.1 g/kg of DMI; 2.81 vs. 4.03% of GE). The results indicate the

  12. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching

    PubMed Central

    Liller, Corinna Brit; Neuhaus, René; von Korff, Maria; Koornneef, Maarten; van Esse, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants), in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a) or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b). Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b) is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2) suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components. PMID:26465604

  13. Grain Refinement of Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Recent Research, Theoretical Developments, and Their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StJohn, D. H.; Easton, M. A.; Qian, M.; Taylor, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper builds on the "Grain Refinement of Mg Alloys" published in 2005 and reviews the grain refinement research on Mg alloys that has been undertaken since then with an emphasis on the theoretical and analytical methods that have been developed. Consideration of recent research results and current theoretical knowledge has highlighted two important factors that affect an alloy's as-cast grain size. The first factor applies to commercial Mg-Al alloys where it is concluded that impurity and minor elements such as Fe and Mn have a substantially negative impact on grain size because, in combination with Al, intermetallic phases can be formed that tend to poison the more potent native or deliberately added nucleant particles present in the melt. This factor appears to explain the contradictory experimental outcomes reported in the literature and suggests that the search for a more potent and reliable grain refining technology may need to take a different approach. The second factor applies to all alloys and is related to the role of constitutional supercooling which, on the one hand, promotes grain nucleation and, on the other hand, forms a nucleation-free zone preventing further nucleation within this zone, consequently limiting the grain refinement achievable, particularly in low solute-containing alloys. Strategies to reduce the negative impact of these two factors are discussed. Further, the Interdependence model has been shown to apply to a broad range of casting methods from slow cooling gravity die casting to fast cooling high pressure die casting and dynamic methods such as ultrasonic treatment.

  14. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D

    PubMed Central

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    on the phenotypic instability observed, definite trends in the development of ectopic flower structures may be detected, from insignificant outgrowths on awns to flowers with sterile organs. Phenotypically unstable barley double mutants provide a highly promising genetic system for the investigation of gene expression modules and trend orders. PMID:25660346

  15. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bismuth-antimony alloy via severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jae-Taek

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb 10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250°C), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250°C under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit

  16. Physicochemical Properties of β-Glucan from Acid Hydrolyzed Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Kee Jong; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Tae Jip; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the content and purity, as well as physical characteristics of β-glucan extracted from acid hydrolyzed whole grain barleys. Waxy and non-waxy barleys (Hordeum vulgare) were hydrolyzed with different concentrations of HCl (0.1~0.5 N) for 1 h. As the HCl concentration increased, the contents of total and soluble β-glucan from acid hydrolyzed barley decreased. However the ratio of soluble/total β-glucan content and purities of β-glucan significantly increased. The ratio of β-(1→4)/β-(1→3) linkages, molecular weight, and viscosity of soluble β-glucan of raw barleys were 2.28~2.52, 6.0~7.0×105 g/mol, and 12.8~32.8 centipoise (cP). Those of isolated soluble β-glucan were significantly decreased to 2.05~2.15, 6.6~7.8×103 g/mol, and 3.6~4.2 cP, respectively, with increasing acid concentration. The re-solubility of raw barley β-glucan was about 50%, but increased to 97% with increasing acid concentration. Acid hydrolysis was shown to be an effective method to produce β-glucan with high ratio of soluble β-glucan content, purity, water solubility, and low viscosity. PMID:26175998

  17. Status of greenhouse seedling screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous or virulifer...

  18. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  19. Development and evaluation of an automatic labeling technique for spring small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A labeling technique is described which seeks to associate a sampling entity with a particular crop or crop group based on similarity of growing season and temporal-spectral patterns of development. Human analyst provide contextual information, after which labeling decisions are made automatically. Results of a test of the technique on a large, multi-year data set are reported. Grain labeling accuracies are similar to those achieved by human analysis techniques, while non-grain accuracies are lower. Recommendations for improvments and implications of the test results are discussed.

  20. Grain Structure Development During Friction Stir Welding of Single-Crystal Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jong Jin; Mironov, Sergey; Sato, Yutaka S.; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    The high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to study the grain boundary development and texture evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) in a single-crystal austenitic stainless steel. Strain-induced crystal rotations were found to be induced by simple shear deformation. With the crystal rotations, the single-crystal structure was broken up into a fine-grained polycrystalline aggregate in the stir zone. This process was deduced to be governed by continuous and discontinuous recrystallizations operating during the FSW process. The final texture which evolved in the stir zone was dominated by A/bar{A}\\{ {111} \\} < 110 rangle ideal simple shear orientations.

  1. Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Fusarium thapsinum in Grain Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain mold is a yield-limiting disease that impacts caryopsis viability and quality of sorghum. The objective of the study was to develop an assay that will allow investigators to identify the presence and amount of disease observed in field trials to F. thapsinum levels without laborious culture wo...

  2. Free Sugars in Relation to Starch Accumulation in Developing Rice Grain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rangil; Juliano, Bienvenido O.

    1977-01-01

    The changes in sugars (water-soluble carbohydrates) were studied in the developing grain of rice (Oryza sativa L., variety IR28 and IR29) in relation to the role of these sugars as precursors of ADP glucose in starch accumulation. The levels of total sugars, total reducing sugars and free glucose, sucrose and other nonreducing sugars, maltooligosaccharides, and total and nonsucrosyl fructose followed closely the changes in the rate of starch accumulation, in both IR28 and 29; the peak value occurred 9 days after flowering. The level of soluble carbohydrates remained high in the caryopsis and also in milled rice after starch accumulation, suggesting that the supply of sugar precursors does not limit starch accumulation in the rice grain. Because of a higher level of reducing sugars, the level of free sugars in the grain of waxy rice IR29 was higher than that of nonwaxy IR28. PMID:16659864

  3. Evaluation of oat cultivars and lines under infection with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Mozhaeva, K A; Domier, L; Kastalyeva, T B; Magurov, P F; Yakovleva, I N

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen domestic and foreign oat cultivars and eight breeding lines bred from the University of Illinois were evaluated for resistance to barley yellow dwarf (BYD) using artificial inoculation with Rhopalosiphum padi viruliferous for an isolate of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV endemic to Moscow region origin. Cultivar Blaze and six Illinois lines showed the best grain yields under disease pressure that resembled a BYD epidemic. PMID:15756843

  4. Potential CO2 Emission Reduction by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  5. Rice grain vitamin-E homologs and g-Oryzanol: effects of grain development and cultural practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), gamma-Oryzanols, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants which are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer a...

  6. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    PubMed

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-01

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley. PMID:26110389

  8. Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

  9. Comparison Between Different Processing Schedules for the Development of Ultrafine-Grained Dual-Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Sivaprasad, S.; Nath, S. K.; Misra, R. D. K.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2014-05-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the development of ultrafine-grained dual-phase (DP) (ferrite-martensite) structures in a low-carbon microalloyed steel processed using two thermomechanical processing routes, (i) intercritical deformation and (ii) warm-deformation and intercritical annealing. The samples were deformed using Gleeble3500® simulator, maintaining a constant total strain ( ɛ = 1) and strain rate ( = 1/s). Evolution of microstructure and micro-texture was investigated by SEM, TEM, and EBSD. Ultrafine-grained DP structures could be formed by careful selection of deformation temperature, T def (for intercritical deformation) or annealing temperature, T anneal (for warm-deformation and annealing). Overall, the ferrite grain sizes ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 μm, and the sizes and fractions of the uniformly distributed fine-martensitic islands ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 μm and 15 to 45 pct, respectively. Dynamic strain-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation followed by continuous (dynamic) recrystallization of the ferrite dictated the grain refinement during intercritical deformation, while, continuous (static) recrystallization by pronounced recovery dictated the grain refinement during the warm-deformation and the annealing. Regarding intercritical deformation, the samples cooled to T def indicated finer grain size compared with the samples heated to T def, which are explained in terms of the effects of strain partitioning on the ferrite and the heating during deformation. Alpha-fiber components dominated the texture in all the samples, and the fraction of high-angle boundaries (with >15 deg misorientation) increased with the increasing T def or T anneal, depending on the processing schedule. Fine carbide particles, microalloyed precipitates and austenitic islands played important roles in defining the mechanism of grain refinement that involved retarding conventional ferrite recrystallization and ferrite grain growth. With regard to the intercritical

  10. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  11. High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

    2012-12-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

  12. Effect of grain size distribution on the development of compaction localization in porous sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Cecilia S. N.; Baud, Patrick; Wong, Teng-fong

    2012-11-01

    Compaction bands are strain localization structures that are relatively impermeable and can act as barriers to fluid flow in reservoirs. Laboratory studies have shown that discrete compaction bands develop in several sandstones with porosities of 22-25%, at stress states in the transitional regime between brittle faulting and cataclastic flow. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, we conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (˜25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. Our results demonstrate that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies.

  13. Development Support Environment of Business ApplicationsBased on a Multi-Grain-Size Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, Koichi; Izumi, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In order to build the Web-based application as a shopping site on the Web, various ideas from the different viewpoints are required, such as enterprise modeling, workflow modeling, software development, and so on. From the above standpoint, this paper proposes an integrated environment to support the whole development process of analysis, design and implementation of business application. In order to reuse know-hows of various ideas in the business application development, we device a multi-grain-size repository, which consists of coarse-, middle-, and fine-grain-size repositories that correspond to the enterprise models, workflow models, and software models, respectively. We also provide a methodology that rebuilds heterogeneous information resources required for the business applications development into a multi-grain-size repository based on ontologies. The contents of the repositories are modeled by the is-a, has-a, and E-R relations, and described by the XML language. We have implemented Java-based prototype environment with the tools dealing with the multi-layered repository and confirmed that it supports us in various phases of business application development including business model manifestation, detailed business model definition and an implementation of business software applications.

  14. Development of Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, P.; Myneni, G. R.; Ciovati, G.; Sekutowicz, J.; Carneiro, T.

    2007-08-01

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR — value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  15. Development of large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; J. Sekutowicz; T. Carneiro; G. Ciovati

    2006-10-31

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR ? value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  16. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, Marianne; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable for bread-making purposes) were investigated. The samples were collected from grains from 15 until 45 days post-anthesis (dpa). Gluten proteins from wheat grains were extracted and subsequently analysed by mass spectrometry. Discrimination partial least-squares regression and soft independent modelling of class analogy were used to determine the quality of new and unknown wheat samples. With these methods, we were able to predict correctly the end-use qualities at every stage investigated. This new fast technique, based on the rapidity of mass spectrometry combined with the objectivity of multivariate data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later. PMID:15655793

  17. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  18. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation. PMID:26679010

  19. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  20. Experimental study of grain interactions on rolling texture development in face-centered cubic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Ray, Atish

    There exists considerable debate in the texture community about whether grain interactions are a necessary factor to explain the development of deformation textures in polycrystalline metals. Computer simulations indicate that grain interactions play a significant role, while experimental evidence shows that the material type and starting orientation are more important in the development of texture and microstructure. A balanced review of the literature on face-centered cubic metals shows that the opposing viewpoints have developed due to the lack of any complete experimental study which considers both the intrinsic (material type and starting orientation) and extrinsic (grain interaction) factors. In this study, a novel method was developed to assemble ideally orientated crystalline aggregates in 99.99% aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu) to experimentally evaluate the effect of grain interactions on room temperature deformation texture. Ideal orientations relevant to face-centered cubic rolling textures, Cube {100} <001>, Goss {110} <001>, Brass {110} <11¯2> and Copper {112} <111¯> were paired in different combinations and deformed by plane strain compression to moderate strain levels of 1.0 to 1.5. Orientation dependent mechanical behavior was distinguishable from that of the neighbor-influenced behavior. In interacting crystals the constraint on the rolling direction shear strains (gammaXY , gammaXZ) was found to be most critical to show the effect of interactions via the evolution of local microstructure and microtexture. Interacting crystals with increasing deformations were observed to gradually rotate towards the S-component, {123} <634>. Apart from the average lattice reorientations, the interacting crystals also developed strong long-range orientation gradients inside the bulk of the crystal, which were identified as accumulating misorientations across the deformation boundaries. Based on a statistical procedure using quaternions, the orientation and

  1. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  2. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  3. Identification and characterization of a partially functional mutation of the cellulose-synthase-like (CslF6) gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical induced barley mutant m351 was first selected for its low level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in an effort to find barley lines with varied grain MLG contents. The MLG decrease in m351 was associated with thinned endosperm cell walls and increased levels of fructans ...

  4. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Phosphorylation by Metabolites and Abscisic Acid during the Development and Germination of Barley Seeds1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Feria, Ana-Belén; Alvarez, Rosario; Cochereau, Ludivine; Vidal, Jean; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Echevarría, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    During barley (Hordeum vulgare) seed development, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity increased and PEPC-specific antibodies revealed housekeeping (103-kD) and inducible (108-kD) subunits. Bacterial-type PEPC fragments were immunologically detected in denatured protein extracts from dry and imbibed conditions; however, on nondenaturing gels, the activity of the recently reported octameric PEPC (in castor [Ricinus communis] oil seeds) was not detected. The phosphorylation state of the PEPC, as judged by l-malate 50% inhibition of initial activity values, phosphoprotein chromatography, and immunodetection of the phosphorylated N terminus, was found to be high between 8 and 18 d postanthesis (DPA) and during imbibition. In contrast, the enzyme appeared to be in a low phosphorylation state from 20 DPA up to dry seed. The time course of 32/36-kD, Ca2+-independent PEPC kinase activity exhibited a substantial increase after 30 DPA that did not coincide with the PEPC phosphorylation profile. This kinase was found to be inhibited by l-malate and not by putative protein inhibitors, and the PEPC phosphorylation status correlated with high glucose-6-phosphate to malate ratios, thereby suggesting an in vivo metabolic control of the kinase. PEPC phosphorylation was also regulated by photosynthate supply at 11 DPA. In addition, when fed exogenously to imbibing seeds, abscisic acid significantly increased PEPC kinase activity. This was further enhanced by the cytosolic protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide but blocked by protease inhibitors, thereby suggesting that the phytohormone acts on the stability of the kinase. We propose that a similar abscisic acid-dependent effect may contribute to produce the increase in PEPC kinase activity during desiccation stages. PMID:18753284

  5. A large increase in IAA during development of rice grains correlates with the expression of tryptophan aminotransferase OsTAR1 and a grain-specific YUCCA.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaitoon, Yousef M; Bennett, Karina; Normanly, Jennifer; Nonhebel, Heather M

    2012-12-01

    The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content of developing grains of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica was measured by combined liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The increase from 50 ng g(-1) fresh weight to 2.9 µg g(-1) fresh weight from 1 to 14 days after pollination was much larger than that previously reported by enzyme-linked immunoassay methods. The largest increase in IAA content coincided with the start of the major starch deposition phase of grain-fill. The increase in IAA content was strongly correlated with the expression of putative IAA biosynthesis genes, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and OsTAR1, measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the importance of the tryptophan aminotransferase/YUCCA pathway in this system. All three genes were expressed in endosperm; expression of OsYUC11 appeared to be confined to endosperm tissue. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OsYUC11 and AtYUC10 belong to a separate clade of YUCCAs, which do not have orthologues outside the Angiosperms. This clade may have evolved with a specific role in endosperm. Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing rice grains did not correlate with IAA levels, indicating that tryptamine is unlikely to be important for IAA synthesis in this system. In light of these observations, we hypothesize that IAA production in developing rice grains is controlled via expression of OsTAR1, OsYUC9, OsYUC11 and that IAA may be important during starch deposition in addition to its previously suggested role early in grain development. PMID:22582989

  6. Genome-wide association mapping of cadmium accumulation in different organs of barley.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-11-01

    The threshold value of cadmium (Cd) concentration in grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the lowest among cereal crops; however, it is poorly understood how Cd accumulation in barley grain is genetically controlled. We investigated genotypic variation in Cd accumulation of different organs in 100 accessions from a subset of the barley core collection using both hydroponic and Cd-contaminated soil culture. We also performed a genome-wide association (GWA) mapping for Cd accumulation in different organs. A large genotypic variation in the Cd concentration was found in all organs. There was a good correlation between shoot Cd of solution and soil culture, the shoot Cd and grain Cd, but no correlation between the root Cd and grain Cd. GWA mapping detected 9 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for root Cd, 21 for shoot Cd, 14 for root-to-shoot translocation and 15 for grain Cd. A common QTL for the shoot Cd and root-to-shoot translocation was found at 132.6 cM on chromosome 5H. Two major QTL for grain Cd were identified on chromosome 2H and chromosome 5H. The genetic variation in Cd accumulation and major QTL detected provide useful information helpful for cloning candidate genes for Cd accumulation and breeding low-Cd barley cultivars in future. PMID:26061418

  7. Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

  8. A Ds insertional mutant of a barley miR172 gene results in indeterminate spikelet development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Descriptions of the genetic control of floral development in higher plants, and the relationships between floral development in dicots and monocots, have been facilitated by studying the effects of mutations in key genes. The ABC model of floral development, elucidated based on studies of dicots, s...

  9. Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, N.; Yu, P

    2010-01-01

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm{sup -1}) and II (ca. 1550 cm{sup -1}), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm{sup -1}), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184-1132 cm{sup -1}, the second peak at ca. 1132-1066 cm{sup -1}, and the third peak at ca. 1066-950 cm{sup -1}). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic

  10. [Effects of shading on the growth, development and grain yield of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Wang, Kongjun; Hu, Changhao; Liu, Peng

    2006-04-01

    Under field condition, this paper studied the effects of shading on the growth, development, and grain yield of summer maize varieties ND108 and YD13. The results showed that shading decreased maize yield significantly, and the effect was differed with different shading period and intensity. With a shading intensity of 50% and 90%, the grain yield of ND108 and YD13 was decreased by 67.5% and 79.4%, and 82.9% and 86.7% when shading at flowering-maturing stage, and by 34.1% and 55.3%, and 47.2%, 65.7% when shading at joining-flowering stage, respectively. Shading at seedling-joining stage had a relatively smaller effect, with the grain yield decreased by 16.9% and 24.5%, and 18.9% and 24.3%, respectively. Shading had a larger effect on YD13 than on ND108, and the effect of shading period was larger than that of shading intensity. Under shading, the growth and development of maize was retarded, and the effect was increased with increasing shading intensity. Shading at joining-flowering stage affected spike differentiation significantly, reflecting in the marked decrease of the numbers of silks and tassels, and the effect was also larger on YD13 than on ND108. The leaf and plant growth was restrained significantly when shading at seedling stage and at flowering-maturing stage. PMID:16836097

  11. Effect of High Temperature on Albumin and Globulin Accumulation in the Endosperm Proteome of the Developing Wheat Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperature during grain fill on the accumulation of KCl-soluble/methanol-insoluble albumins and globulins was investigated in the endosperm of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. cv. Butte 86) grain. Plants were grown under a moderate (24°C/17°C, day/night) or a high temperat...

  12. New insights into the effects of high temperature, drought and post-anthesis fertilizer on wheat grain development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature, water and fertilizer have complex and interacting effects on wheat grain development, yield and flour quality. Transcript and protein profiling studies have provided insight into molecular processes in the grain and are now being used in conjunction with controlled growth experiments to...

  13. Use of barley in the egyptian late paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, F; Schild, R; El Hadidi, N; Close, A E; Kobusiewicz, M; Wieckowska, H; Issawi, B; Haas, H

    1979-09-28

    Several grains of barley have been recovered from archeological sites at Wadi Kubbaniya, near Aswan in Egypt. The sites are typical Late Paleolithic and are firmly dated between 18,300 and 17,000 years ago. They seem to represent a very early use of ground grain in the Nile Valley, and evidence is presented for its continued use over the subsequent 6000 years. The Egyptian findings possibly record an initial stage of food production, and if they indeed do, then they suggest that food production may not have been brought about by environmental stress and may not have led inevitably to radical social changes. PMID:17732313

  14. Engineering α-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of α-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of α-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of α-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  15. Grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  16. Albinism in barley androgenesis.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reuscher, Stefan; Kolter, Andreas; Hoffmann, Astrid; Pillen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs). In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals. PMID:27078500

  18. Near-infrared analysis of ground barley for use as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Miryeong; Himmelsbach, David S; Barton, Franklin E; Griffey, Carl A; Brooks, Wynse; Hicks, Kevin B

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the compositional quality properties of barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production and to compare the prediction accuracy between calibration models obtained using a Fourier transform near-infrared system (FT-NIR) and a dispersive near-infrared system. The total sample set contained 206 samples of three types of barley, hull-less, malt, and hulled varieties, which were grown at various locations in the eastern U.S. from 2002 to 2005 years. A new hull-less barley variety, Doyce, which was specially bred for potential use in ethanol production, was included in the sample set. One hundred and thirty-eight barley samples were used for calibration and sixty-eight were used for validation. Ground barley samples were scanned on both a FTNIR spectrometer (10 000 to 4000 cm(-1) at 4 cm(-1) resolution) and a dispersive NIR spectrometer (400 to 2498 nm at 10 nm resolution), respectively. Six grain components, moisture, starch, beta-glucan, protein, oil, and ash content, were analyzed as parameters of barley quality. Principal component analysis showed that barley samples could be classified by their types: hull-less, malt, and hulled. Partial least squares regression indicated that both FT-NIR and dispersive NIR spectroscopy have the potential to determine quality properties of barley with an acceptable accuracy, except for beta-glucan content. There was no predictive advantage in using a high-resolution FT-NIR instrument over a dispersive system for most components of barley. PMID:18028696

  19. Uptake, distribution, and turnover rates of selenium in barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, K X; Clausen, J

    1994-03-01

    The present communication elucidates initially the topographic distribution of selenium in barley grains. Then by the fluorimetric method the uptake of selenium (selenite) in 8-16 d old germinating barley was estimated. Finally by means of 75Se the anabolic and catabolic rates (turnover) of 75Se (selenite) was compared. The distribution of selenium in barley was evaluated after micro-dissection of barley grains. In dried grains the highest concentration was found in husk and pericarp with about 0.6 ppm Se. Then followed Scutellum with 0.4 and 0.3 ppm in embryon. The aleurone layer, embryonic leaves, and initial root did only have 0.2 ppm Se. In order to know more about the uptake and distribution of selenium in 8-d-old barley, the plants were cultivated for a further 8 d in the culture medium with variation in selenite concentration. In roots and leaves, the uptake did not arrive at saturation during the period studied since the dose-response curve increased up to 0.34 mM selenite in the medium, whereas the selenium levels were about 200 ppm in roots and 30 ppm in leaves. However, the uptake was linear, with concentration during 8 d of cultivation up to 0.84 microM selenite for grain and stem. At higher concentrations the dose-response curve diminished its slope. At 0.34 mM selenite the concentration in grain increased to 6.87 ppm and in the stem to 8.13 ppm. The uptake, distribution, and catabolic rate of selenium components in germinating barley were further evaluated by exposing the plants to 0.0492 microCi 75Se (12.6 microM selenite) for up to 4 d. Then the plants were moved to a selenium deficient medium for further 4 d. Then finally the medium was supplemented with high doses of cold selenite (0.126 mM selenite) for further 4 d. The first third period made it possible to estimate the rate of uptake. It was highest in roots (313 fmol/h/mg dw), i.e., about 10 times those of grains, stems, and leaves. The intermediate period where the barley was transferred to a

  20. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    PubMed

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  1. Orientations of recrystallization nuclei developed in columnar-grained Ni at triple junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. L.; Huang, S.; Zhang, Y. B.; Wu, G. L.; Liu, Q.; Jensen, D. Juul

    2015-04-01

    A high purity columnar grained nickel sample with a strong <001> fiber texture was cold rolled to 50% reduction in thickness, followed by annealing at different temperatures. Optical microscopy was used to depict the grain boundaries prior to annealing and to detect nuclei formed on grain boundaries after annealing. Electron backscatter diffraction was performed to characterize the orientations of the nuclei and the deformed grains. Hardness tests were conducted at deformed grains. The potentials of triple junctions as preferential nucleation sites, the influence of deformation differences between adjacent grains on nucleation and orientation relationships between nuclei and parent matrix are analyzed.

  2. Potential for Production of Dryland Barley for Human Food: Quality and Agronomic Performance of Spring Habit Germplasm in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain ß-glucan percentage is the most important attribute for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties destined for the human food market. This trait is important because of the cholesterol-reducing properties of ß-glucan. High levels of grain protein, test weight and seed size may also add value. Seed...

  3. Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano Canchaya, José G.; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve.

  4. Development of DPD coarse-grained models: From bulk to interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Solano Canchaya, José G; Dequidt, Alain; Goujon, Florent; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    A new Bayesian method was recently introduced for developing coarse-grain (CG) force fields for molecular dynamics. The CG models designed for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) are optimized based on trajectory matching. Here we extend this method to improve transferability across thermodynamic conditions. We demonstrate the capability of the method by developing a CG model of n-pentane from constant-NPT atomistic simulations of bulk liquid phases and we apply the CG-DPD model to the calculation of the surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface over a large range of temperatures. The coexisting densities, vapor pressures, and surface tensions calculated with different CG and atomistic models are compared to experiments. Depending on the database used for the development of the potentials, it is possible to build a CG model which performs very well in the reproduction of the surface tension on the orthobaric curve. PMID:27497539

  5. Early season spring small grains direct proportion estimation - Development and evaluation of a Landsat based methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E.; Trichel, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The Inventory Technology Development (ITD) project of the Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing (AgRISTARS) program has developed an accurate, automated technology for early season estimation of spring small grains areal proportion from Landsat MSS data. The design criteria for an early season procedure included estimates available within the first 30 days of the growing season, low data processing/preprocessing requirements and no need for scene-to-scene registration. The prototype estimator which meets the design goals is based on a constrained linear model in which the observed spectral response of an entire scene is modeled as a linear combination of the major constituent elements in the scene. The procedure was evaluated over 100 sample segments collected for crop years 1976 through 1979 in the U.S. Northern Great Plains. Analysis of the test results indicated accuracy that compare favorably with both the automated at-harvest technologies tested during the FY81-82 AgRISTARS Spring Small Grains Pilot experiments and earlier analyst-intensive at-harvest technologies.

  6. [Limiting the allowable concentration of zearalenone in processed grain products].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; L'vova, L S; Kravchenko, L V; Safronova, A M; Starovoĭtov, M L

    2002-01-01

    The distribution zearalenon (ZL) in products of processing of contaminated wheat, barley and maize grains was is investigated. Results of the data analysis on the investigation of an actual nutrition of the population in Russia is presented; the share of products of processing of contaminated wheat, barley and maize grains as part of the total ration was determined Varied values of Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) of ZL based on the obtained results are offered: 1 mg/kg--for wheat, barley and maize grains; 0.2 mg/kg--for main products of grain processing, viz flour and groats. The application of these MAC-values for ZL ensures the conformity between the ones for raw materials and for products of processing of raw materials, as well as the limitation of the maximum possible ZL--intake within the bounds of Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for a man. PMID:12227016

  7. Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

    1996-12-01

    Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

  8. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  9. Differentially expressed microRNA cohorts in seed development may contribute to poor grain filling of inferior spikelets in rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inferior spikelets are defined to be those at portions where the grains receive less photosynthetic products during the seed development. The typical inferior spikelets are physically located on the proximal secondary branches in a rice panicle and traditionally characterized by a later flowering time and a slower grain-filling rate, compared to those so-called superior spikelets. Grains produced on the inferior spikelets are consequently under-developed and lighter in weight than those formed on the superior spikelets. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as key players in regulating plant development through post-transcriptional gene regulations. We previously presented the evidence that miRNAs may influence grain-filling rate and played a role in determining the grain weight and yield in rice. Results In this study, further analyses of the expressed small RNAs in superior and inferior spikelets were conducted at five distinct developmental stages of grain development. Totally, 457 known miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were analyzed, showing a differential expression of 141 known miRNAs between superior and inferior spikelets with higher expression levels of most miRNAs associated with the superior than the inferior spikelets during the early stage of grain filling. Genes targeted by those differentially expressed miRNAs (i.e. miR156, miR164, miR167, miR397, miR1861, and miR1867) were recognized to play roles in multiple developmental and signaling pathways related to plant hormone homeostasis and starch accumulation. Conclusions Our data established a complicated link between miRNA dynamics and the traditional role of hormones in grain filling and development, providing new insights into the widely accepted concepts of the so-called superior and inferior spikelets in rice production. PMID:25052585

  10. Effect of hot band grain size on development of textures and magnetic properties in 2.0% Si non-oriented electrical steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. M.; Huh, M. Y.; Lee, H. J.; Park, J. T.; Kim, J. S.; Shin, E. J.; Engler, O.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hot band grain size on the development of crystallographic texture and magnetic properties in non-oriented electrical steel sheet was studied. After cold rolling the samples with different initial grain sizes displayed different microstructures and micro-textures but nearly identical macro-textures. The homogeneous recrystallized microstructure and micro-texture in the sample having small grains caused normal continuous grain growth. The quite irregular microstructure and micro-texture in the recrystallized sample with large initial grain size provided a preferential growth of grains in <001>//ND and <113>//ND which were beneficial for developing superior magnetic properties.

  11. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER IN MILLED BARLEY USING NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMITTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned using a near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT)(850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined for each cultivar by AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method 991.43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and v...

  13. Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Content of Chloroplast Pigments in Barley Leaf Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (scab) has been a devastating disease of wheat and barley in recent years across grain growing areas from Minnesota and the Dakotas to the Carolinas. The fungal pathogen causing the disease (Fusarium graminearum) produces a toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) that can be toxic when inf...

  14. A Comparison of Factors Involved in Starch Degradation in Barley Germination Under Laboratory and Malting Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grains of the malting barley cultivar Legacy were laboratory germinated (LG) or micromalted (MM) and sampled daily from 0 to 5 days after imbibition/steeping. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities and protein levels along with starch, osmolyte concentration (OC), and sugar (glucose, sucrose, fr...

  15. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  16. Molecular and chemical characterization of a new waxy allele in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley M38 mutant was first selected for its high level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in the grain. This elevated level of MLG was found to be associated with thickened endosperm cell wall and reduced amylose accumulation. The M38 mutation was mapped to a genetic locus flanked by...

  17. Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

  18. Origin of barley accessions with multiple disease resistance determined by SSR analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although only 1% of accessions of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L.) in the USDA National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) are of unknown origin, these accessions represent 20% of the accessions with multiple disease resistance (MR). These accessions were originally obtained in 1930...

  19. Locations of quantitative trait loci conferring Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley germplasm STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) infestations of barley reduce grain yield and quality and have caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western United States since 1986. Our objective was to map genes conferring resistance to RWA feeding damage in the germplasm line STARS-93...

  20. Drought Response in the Spikes of Barley: Gene Expression in the Lemma, Palea, Awn, and Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic organs of the barley spike (lemma, palea, and awn) are considered resistant to drought. This is a beneficial trait because they can sustain grain-filling when drought occurs at the reproductive stage. However, there is little information about gene expression in the spike organs u...

  1. Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use ma...

  2. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  3. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  4. Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2013-02-15

    Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

  5. NEAMS FPL M2 Milestone Report: Development of a UO₂ Grain Size Model using Multicale Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xianming Bai

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes development work funded by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation program's Fuels Product Line (FPL) to develop a mechanistic model for the average grain size in UO₂ fuel. The model is developed using a multiscale modeling and simulation approach involving atomistic simulations, as well as mesoscale simulations using INL's MARMOT code.

  6. Development of a System to Measure Austenite Grain Size of Plate Steel Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, C. S.; Hong, S. T.; Yi, J. K.; Choi, S. G.; Oh, K. J.; Nagata, Y.; Yamada, H.; Hamada, N.

    2007-03-21

    A measurement system for austenite grain size of plate steel using laser-based ultrasonics has been developed. At first, the relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients using longitudinal waves and austenite grain size of samples was investigated in the laboratory experiments. According to the experimental results, the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients showed a good correlation with actual austenite grain sizes. For the next step, the system was installed in a hot rolling pilot plant of plate steel, and it was verified that the austenite grain size could be measured even in the environment of a hot rolling pilot plant. In the experiments, it was also confirmed that the fiber delivery system could deliver Nd:YAG laser beam of 810 mJ/pulse and ultrasonic signals could be obtained successfully.

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Gudyś, Kornelia; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi). PMID:27227880

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Sawikowska, Aneta; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Górny, Andrzej; Kędziora, Andrzej; Jankowiak, Janusz; Józefczyk, Damian; Karg, Grzegorz; Andrusiak, Joanna; Krajewski, Paweł; Szarejko, Iwona; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Kuczyńska, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013) and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761) and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi). PMID:27227880

  9. Enrichment of Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin E in Pita Made from Barley.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi Thu Dung; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to enhance total antioxidant and vitamin E content of pita bread, by replacing 50% of the standard baker's flour with flours milled from covered (WI2585 and Harrington) or hulless (Finniss) barley genotypes, previously shown to have high antioxidant and vitamin E levels at harvest. Pita breads were made from either 100% baker's flour (control) or 50% malt flour, whole-grain flour, or flour from barley grains pearled at 10%, 15%, and 20% grain weight. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E content of flours and pitas were determined by their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The physical and sensory properties of the pitas were also assessed. All pitas made from either whole grain or pearled barley flour had a higher antioxidant capacity and most also had higher vitamin E content than standard pita. The antioxidant and vitamin E levels were reduced in pearled compared to whole grains, however the extent of that reduction varied among genotypes. The greatest antioxidant and vitamin E levels were found in pita made from malt flour or Finniss whole grain flour. Furthermore, sensory analysis suggested these pitas were acceptable to consumers and retained similar physical and sensory properties to those in the control pita. PMID:26784395

  10. Deoxynivalenol removal from barley intended as swine feed through the use of an abrasive pearling procedure.

    PubMed

    House, James D; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Abramson, David

    2003-08-13

    Samples of naturally contaminated hulled barley, with varying deoxynivalenol concentrations, were subjected to an abrasive type dehulling procedure. The remaining grain fractions were analyzed for weight remaining (%), deoxynivalenol (ppm), crude protein (%CP), neutral detergent fiber (%NDF), ash (%ASH), gross energy (GE; kcal/kg), and calculated digestible energy values (DE; kcal/kg). Following the initial 15 s of pearling, 85% of the grain mass remained. Additional pearling resulted in a linear decline of grain mass. Following 15 s of pearling, the grain contained 34% of the initial deoxynivalenol content, irrespective of the initial level of contamination. Further pearling resulted in continued significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the percent of deoxynivalenol remaining to a level of 7.9% after 120 s but with significant losses in grain mass. Pearling can serve as an effective means of reducing the deoxynivalenol content of barley, with improvements in nutrient levels. However, the need to reduce the deoxynivalenol content of contaminated barley to less than 1 ppm for swine will necessitate the removal of a significant amount of the grain mass for heavily contaminated samples. PMID:12903987

  11. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm. PMID:26809209

  12. Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

  13. Registration of ‘Merem’ spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merem’ is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as “02Ab17271”. ‘02Ab17271’ is a selection fro...

  14. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  15. Registration of 'Clearwater' Low-Phytate Hulless Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Clearwater' is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Clearwater was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance in combination with low-phyta...

  16. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our overall goal is to identify genes that play a role in resistance to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and to develop and test transgenic wheat carrying these genes. In particular, we are interested in identifying genes that protect barley and wheat from the effects of trichothecenes. Previously, we con...

  17. Influence of corn (zea mays l.) cultivar development on grain nutrient concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While corn productivity has been increased by the adoption of high-yield hybrids, there are concerns that increased grain potential may be associated with diminished grain nutrient concentration. Ten corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars representing five technological levels (landrace variety, commercial va...

  18. WHOLE GRAIN INTAKE, DEFINITION AND DATABASE DEVELOPMENT: THE BALTIMORE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains, show changes in intakes over time, and describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary data were collected using 7-d diet records during four time periods (1961-1965; 1968-1975; 1984-...

  19. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  20. Developing a Fine-Grained Learning Progression Framework for Carbon-Transforming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Zhan, Li; Anderson, Charles W.

    2013-07-01

    Science educators have called for using the learning progression approach to align curriculum, instruction, and assessment. In line with this trend, we conducted both assessments and teaching experiments with students from grades 4 to 12 (717 students participated in the pre-assessments and 682 students participated in the post-assessments). The goal of the study is to develop a learning progression framework that provides effective guidance for curriculum and instruction on carbon-transforming processes in socio-ecological systems. We conducted the study in three research cycles. We developed a matter-and-energy learning progression framework during the first two cycles. This learning progression framework was used to guide the teaching intervention in the third research cycle. Clinical interviews and written assessments were implemented before and after the teaching intervention. In the process of data analysis, we found that the matter-and-energy learning progression framework did not provide a fine-grained depiction of students' reasoning. Therefore, we developed the five-practice learning progression framework, and used it to re-analyze data. Results indicate that the teaching intervention has helped students to achieve significant learning gains, but it was not effective enough in helping students achieve the upper anchor of the learning progression framework-constructing sophisticated scientific explanations. The results also indicate that students tended to rely on coherent and consistent reasoning to construct explanations. Based on the findings, we provide instructional suggestions and discuss the implications for climate change education and learning progression research.

  1. Modeling grain size adjustments in the downstream reach following run-of-river development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Nelson, Peter A.; Palen, Wendy J.

    2016-04-01

    Disruptions to sediment supply continuity caused by run-of-river (RoR) hydropower development have the potential to cause downstream changes in surface sediment grain size which can influence the productivity of salmon habitat. The most common approach to understanding the impacts of RoR hydropower is to study channel changes in the years following project development, but by then, any impacts are manifest and difficult to reverse. Here we use a more proactive approach, focused on predicting impacts in the project planning stage. We use a one-dimensional morphodynamic model to test the hypothesis that the greatest risk of geomorphic change and impact to salmon habitat from a temporary sediment supply disruption exists where predevelopment sediment supply is high and project design creates substantial sediment storage volume. We focus on the potential impacts in the reach downstream of a powerhouse for a range of development scenarios that are typical of projects developed in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia. Results indicate that increases in the median bed surface size (D50) are minor if development occurs on low sediment supply streams (<1 mm for supply rates 1 × 10-5 m2 s-1 or lower), and substantial for development on high sediment supply streams (8-30 mm for supply rates between 5.5 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-3 m2 s-1). However, high sediment supply streams recover rapidly to the predevelopment surface D50 (˜1 year) if sediment supply can be reestablished.

  2. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  3. Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...

  4. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat. PMID:26475192

  5. Gamma irradiation to improve plant vigour, grain development, and yield attributes of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, P. S.

    2010-02-01

    Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01-0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.

  6. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. PMID:26725190

  7. Mobile bag starch prececal disappearance and postprandial glycemic response of four forms of barley in horses.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2014-05-01

    To determine prececal starch digestibili-ty and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in

  8. Sequencing of 15,622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  9. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from hulled barley by the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost model was developed for fuel ethanol production from barley based on the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process (Nghiem, et al., 2008). In this process, in addition to beta-glucanases, which is added to reduce the viscosity of the barley mash for efficient mixing, another enzyme, beta-...

  10. The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Wu, Liwen; Xu, Qiankun; Li, Zizhuang; Yu, Haiping; Zhang, Yu; Leng, Yujia; Hu, Jiang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Dong, Guojun; Zhang, Guangheng; Guo, Longbiao; Zeng, Dali; Qian, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Moderate plant height and successful establishment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull-like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was expressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1-green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes. PMID:26486996

  11. High temperature during grain fill alters the morphology of protein and starch deposits in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill reduces wheat yield and alters flour quality. Starchy endosperm cell morphology was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) grain produced under a 24/17 °C or 37/28 °C day/night regimen imposed from anthesis to maturity to identify changes in cell s...

  12. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1∶3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

  13. A novel family of γ-gliadin genes are highly regulated by nitrogen supply in developing wheat grain

    PubMed Central

    Shewry, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Six wheat cultivars were grown at Rothamsted (UK) with three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 200 and 350kg N/ha) in 2009 and 2010. Gene expression in developing caryopses at 21 days post-anthesis (DPA) was profiled using the Affymetrix Wheat GeneChip®. Four of 105 transcripts which were significantly upregulated by nitrogen level were annotated as γ-3 hordein and the identification of corresponding expressed sequence tags showed that they differed in sequence from previously described (typical) γ-gliadins and represented a novel form of γ-gliadin. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR at 14, 21, 28 and 35 DPA revealed that this transcript was most abundant and most responsive to nitrogen at 21 DPA. Four novel γ-gliadin genes were isolated by PCR amplification from wheat cv. Hereward and the related species Aegilops tauschii and Triticum monococcum while three were assembled from the genomic sequence database of wheat cv. Chinese Spring (www.cerealsdb.uk.net). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the seven genes showed that they shared only 44.4–46.0% identity with the sequence of a typical γ-gliadin (accession number EF15018), but 61.8–68.3% identity with the sequence of γ-3 hordein from the wild barley species Hordeum chilense (AY338065). The novel γ-gliadin genes were localized to the group 1 chromosomes (1A, 1B, 1D). PMID:23162123

  14. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  15. Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  16. Antisense downregulation of the barley limit dextrinase inhibitor modulates starch granule size distribution, starch composition and amylopectin structure.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Coates, Steve; Bryce, James H; Morris, Peter C

    2004-08-01

    The barley protein limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI), structurally related to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, is an inhibitor of the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase (LD). In order to investigate the function of LDI, and the consequences for starch metabolism of reduced LDI activity, transgenic barley plants designed to downregulate LDI by antisense were generated. Homozygous antisense lines with reduced LDI protein level and activity were analysed and found to have enhanced free LD activity in both developing and germinating grains. In addition the antisense lines showed unpredicted pleiotropic effects on numerous enzyme activities, for example, alpha- and beta-amylases and starch synthases. Analysis of the starch showed much reduced numbers of the small B-type starch granules, as well as reduced amylose relative to amylopectin levels and reduced total starch. The chain length distribution of the amylopectin was modified with less of the longer chains (>25 units) and enhanced number of medium chains (10-15 units). These results suggest an important role for LDI and LD during starch synthesis as well as during starch breakdown. PMID:15272877

  17. Developing a Standard Definition of Whole-Grain Foods for Dietary Recommendations: Summary Report of a Multidisciplinary Expert Roundtable Discussion12

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Jonnalagadda, Satya S.; Liu, Simin; Marquart, Len; McKeown, Nicola; Reicks, Marla; Riccardi, Gabriele; Seal, Chris; Slavin, Joanne; Thielecke, Frank; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; Webb, Densie

    2014-01-01

    Although the term “whole grain” is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a “whole-grain food,” creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee’s call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3–5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable’s expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations. PMID:24618757

  18. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and /sup 32/P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar.

  19. Small RNA and Degradome Sequencing Reveal Complex Roles of miRNAs and Their Targets in Developing Wheat Grains

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yuke; Hao, Chenyang; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we employed small RNA combined with degradome sequencing to survey development-related miRNAs and their validated targets during wheat grain development. A total of 186 known miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified in four small RNA libraries. Moreover, a miRNA-like long hairpin locus was first identified to produce 21~22-nt phased siRNAs that act in trans to cleave target mRNAs. A comparison of the miRNAomes revealed that 55 miRNA families were differentially expressed during the grain development. Predicted and validated targets of these development-related miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes including cell proliferation, auxin signaling, nutrient metabolism and gene expression. This study provides insight into the complex roles of miRNAs and their targets in regulating wheat grain development. PMID:26426440

  20. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

  1. Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

  2. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  3. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  4. Unraveling Regulation of the Small Heat Shock Proteins by the Heat Shock Factor HvHsfB2c in Barley: Its Implications in Drought Stress Response and Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Seiler, Christiane; Kuhlmann, Markus; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Lee, Justin; Reddy, Malireddy K.; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in heat shock proteins upon exposure to damaging stresses and during plant development related to desiccation events reveal their dual importance in plant development and stress tolerance. Genome-wide sequence survey identified 20 non-redundant small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and 22 heat shock factor (Hsf) genes in barley. While all three major classes (A, B, C) of Hsfs are localized in nucleus, the 20 sHsp gene family members are localized in different cell organelles like cytoplasm, mitochondria, plastid and peroxisomes. Hsf and sHsp members are differentially regulated during drought and at different seed developmental stages suggesting the importance of chaperone role under drought as well as seed development. In silico cis-regulatory motif analysis of Hsf promoters showed an enrichment with abscisic acid responsive cis-elements (ABRE), implying regulatory role of ABA in mediating transcriptional response of HvsHsf genes. Gene regulatory network analysis identified HvHsfB2c as potential central regulator of the seed-specific expression of several HvsHsps including 17.5CI sHsp. These results indicate that HvHsfB2c is co-expressed in the central hub of small Hsps and therefore it may be regulating the expression of several HvsHsp subclasses HvHsp16.88-CI, HvHsp17.5-CI and HvHsp17.7-CI. The in vivo relevance of binding specificity of HvHsfB2C transcription factor to HSE-element present in the promoter of HvSHP17.5-CI under heat stress exposure is confirmed by gel shift and LUC-reporter assays. Further, we isolated 477 bp cDNA from barley encoding a 17.5 sHsp polypeptide, which was predominantly upregulated under drought stress treatments and also preferentially expressed in developing seeds. Recombinant HvsHsp17.5-CI protein was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity, which displayed in vitro chaperone activity. The predicted structural model of HvsHsp-17.5-CI protein suggests that the α-crystallin domain is evolutionarily highly

  5. A wheat grazing model for simulating grain and beef production: Part 1 - model development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is a common practice to grow winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a dual-purpose crop in the U.S. Southern Great Plains to capitalize added value by cattle production. Management of the dual-purpose wheat is complex because of the interactions and tradeoffs between grain and beef production. ...

  6. Historical development of grain moisture measurement and other food quality sensing through electrical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of the use of electrical properties of agricultural products for sensing moisture content and other qualities shows that their use for rapid measurements of the moisture content in grain and seed has been the most successful application. Discovery of useful correlations between the moistur...

  7. Effects on feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) type or corn (Zea mays L.) as a grain source on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between two feedings) consisting o...

  8. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  9. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  10. Understanding consumer preference for functional tortillas including whole barley flour using sensory and demographic/behavioral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. population has failed to incorporate sufficient amounts of whole grains and soluble fiber into their diet. The main objectives of this study were to investigate consumer acceptance of soluble fiber-enriched and low-fat tortillas made with blends of different particle size whole barley flour...

  11. A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D; Punshon, Tracy; Jackson, Brian P; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach. PMID:22159463

  12. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zhang, Dasheng; Zheng, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Background Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. Results The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout 5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including 76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development. Conclusions

  13. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  14. Isolation and Characterization of cDNA Encoding Three Dehydrins Expressed During Coffea canephora (Robusta) Grain Development

    PubMed Central

    HINNIGER, CÉCILE; CAILLET, VICTORIA; MICHOUX, FRANCK; BEN AMOR, MOHAMED; TANKSLEY, STEVE; LIN, CHENWEI; MCCARTHY, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dehydrins, or group 2 late embryogenic abundant proteins (LEA), are hydrophilic Gly-rich proteins that are induced in vegetative tissues in response to dehydration, elevated salt, and low temperature, in addition to being expressed during the late stages of seed maturation. With the aim of characterizing and studying genes involved in osmotic stress tolerance in coffee, several full-length cDNA-encoding dehydrins (CcDH1, CcDH2 and CcDH3) and an LEA protein (CcLEA1) from Coffea canephora (robusta) were isolated and characterized. • Methods The protein sequences deduced from the full-length cDNA were analysed to classify each dehydrin/LEA gene product and RT–PCR was used to determine the expression pattern of all four genes during pericarp and grain development, and in several other tissues of C. arabica and C. canephora. Primer-assisted genome walking was used to isolate the promoter region of the grain specific dehydrin gene (CcDH2). • Key Results The CcDH1 and CcDH2 genes encode Y3SK2 dehydrins and the CcDH3 gene encodes an SK3 dehydrin. CcDH1 and CcDH2 are expressed during the final stages of arabica and robusta grain development, but only the CcDH1 transcripts are clearly detected in other tissues such as pericarp, leaves and flowers. CcDH3 transcripts are also found in developing arabica and robusta grain, in addition to being detected in pericarp, stem, leaves and flowers. CcLEA1 transcripts were only detected during a brief period of grain development. Finally, over 1 kb of genomic sequence potentially encoding the entire grain-specific promoter region of the CcDH2 gene was isolated and characterized. • Conclusions cDNA sequences for three dehydrins and one LEA protein have been obtained and the expression of the associated genes has been determined in various tissues of arabica and robusta coffees. Because induction of dehydrin gene expression is associated with osmotic stress in other plants, the dehydrin sequences

  15. Impact of barley form on equine total tract fibre digestibility and colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Philippeau, C; Sadet-Bourgeteau, S; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of four barley forms on total tract apparent digestibility of dietary fibre in horses fed a large amount of starch in the morning meal (0.27% BW). Processed barley forms had a greater pre-caecal starch digestibility than the whole form. Based on this result, we hypothesised that using barley-processing methods would limit the potential dumping of undegraded starch in the hindgut of horses and, consequently, the potential negative effect on fibre degradation in the hindgut. In a 4×4 latin square design, four mature geldings fitted with a right ventral colon-fistula were fed a meadow hay : concentrate (62 : 38; dry matter (DM) basis) diet at 1.7% BW. The concentrate was made of 80% barley distributed either as whole grain or as processed forms: 2.5 mm ground, pelleted or steam-flaked. For each period, total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF and ADF were determined over 3 consecutive days by total faecal collection, whereas pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and cultural functional bacteria counts (total anaerobic, cellulolytic bacteria, lactic acid producers, amylolytic bacteria and lactic acid utilisers) in colonic content were evaluated on 1 day 4 h after the morning meal. Total tract apparent digestibility of DM and dietary fibre was influenced (P<0.05) by barley form. Diets including thermo-mechanically treated barley forms led to a higher (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of NDF than those constituted of ground barley and also led to a greater (P<0.05) total tract apparent digestibility of ADF than those made of whole or ground barley forms. However, no significant difference was observed in colonic pH, VFA concentrations and cultural bacteria concentrations. Owing to a high starch supply in the morning meal, the concentration of the functional bacteria in the colonic content averaged 7.8 log CFU/ml, 5.9 NPM/ml, 6.9 and 7.3 CFU/ml for total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactic acid

  16. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  17. Changes in phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in Thai rice husk at five growth stages during grain development.

    PubMed

    Butsat, Sunan; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2009-06-10

    Soluble and bound phenolic acids were isolated from Thai rice husk samples at five growth stages during grain development, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. The results showed that ferulic acid was the major soluble phenolic acid in husk at all stages, and its concentration decreased steadily during grain development. The ratio of ferulic to p-coumaric acid was approximately 2:1 at all stages. The most abundant bound phenolic acid in all extracts was p-coumaric acid, followed by ferulic acid along with traces of syringic, vanilic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. Most of the antioxidant activities of soluble and bound phenolic acids in husk extracts were found at flowering stage, and there were high correlations of antioxidant activity to levels of soluble ferulic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids. PMID:19432451

  18. Wheat Grain Yield Increase in Response to Pre-Anthesis Foliar Application of 6-Benzylaminopurine Is Dependent on Floret Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunfeng; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat yield is largely determined during the period prior to flowering, when the final numbers of fertile florets and grains per spike are established. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of floret primordia development in winter wheat in response to pre-anthesis application of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA). We conducted an experiment in which two foliar spray treatments were applied (water or 6-BA) to Chinese winter wheat at 25 days after jointing during two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014). Both the final grain number per spike and grain yield at maturity exhibited remarkable increases in response to the 6-BA treatment. Application of 6-BA increased the number of fertile florets in basal spikelets and, to a greater extent, in central spikelets. The mechanism by which 6-BA application affected the final number of fertile florets primarily involved suppression of the floret abortion rates. Application of 6-BA considerably reduced the abortion rates of basal, central and apical spikelet florets (by as much as 77% compared with the control), as well as the degeneration rates of basal and central spikelet florets, albeit to a lesser degree. The effect of 6-BA application on the likelihood of proximal florets being set was limited to the distal florets in the whole spike, whereas obvious increases in the likelihood of grain set under 6-BA treatment were observed in distal florets, primarily in central spikelet positions. The results of this study provide important evidence that 6-BA application to florets (final fertile floret production) results in an increased grain yield. PMID:27258059

  19. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data. PMID:24349528

  20. The development of reactive fuel grains for pyrophoric relight of in-space hybrid rocket thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew Wellington

    This study presents and investigates a novel hybrid fuel grain that reacts pyrophorically with gaseous oxidizer to achieve restart of a hybrid rocket motor propulsion system while reducing cost and handling concerns. This reactive fuel grain (RFG) relies on the pyrophoric nature of finely divided metal particles dispersed in a solid dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) binder, which has been shown to encapsulate air-sensitive additives until they are exposed to combustion gases. An RFG is thus effectively inert in open air in the absence of an ignition source, though the particles encapsulated within remain pyrophoric. In practice, this means that an RFG that is ignited in the vacuum of space and then extinguished will expose unoxidized pyrophoric particles, which can be used to generate sufficient heat to relight the propellant when oxidizer is flowed. The experiments outlined in this work aim to develop a suitable pyrophoric material for use in an RFG, demonstrate pyrophoric relight, and characterize performance under conditions relevant to a hybrid rocket thruster. Magnesium, lithium, calcium, and an alloy of titanium, chromium, and manganese (TiCrMn) were investigated to determine suitability of pure metals as RFG additives. Additionally, aluminum hydride (AlH3), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), lithium borohydride (LiBH4), and magnesium hydride (MgH2) were investigated to determine suitability of metals hydrides as RFG additives or as precursors for pure-metal RFG additives. Pyrophoric metals have been previously investigated as additives for increasing the regression rate of hybrid fuels, but to the author's knowledge, these materials have not been specifically investigated for their ability to ignite a propellant pyrophorically. Commercial research-grade metals were obtained as coarse powders, then ball-milled to attempt to reduce particle size below a critical diameter needed for pyrophoricity. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled and then cycled in a hydride cycling

  1. Development of the terrestrial biotic ligand model for predicting nickel toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare): ion effects at low pH.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2009-08-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the potential for Al3+, Mg2+, and H+ to influence Ni2+ toxicity for barley seedlings grown in acidic aqueous solutions and to assess the capacity of a two-site terrestrial biotic ligand model (tBLM) to accurately predict 50% effect activities (EA50s). To accomplish these objectives, 48-h EA50Ni2+ values were obtained for three sets of exposures in which the pH and activity of Al3+ and Mg2+ were varied. Exposures contained both Al alone and in combination with Mg so that compound ion effects could be investigated. A tBLM was then constructed to predict EA50Ni2+ values from the exposure solution chemistry. The results show a slight protective effect of H+ against Ni2+ toxicity and a strong protective effect of Mg2+, as indicated by a 4.6- and 8.0-fold increase in the measured EA50Ni2+ values corresponding to changes in pH from 6.0 to 4.5 and {Mg2+} from 0 to 1.40 mM, respectively. Increasing solution {Al3+} from 0 to 0.5 microM had no effect on Ni2+ toxicity, although Al itself negatively affected root elongation. Comparison of EA50 values calculated as both Ni2+ and measured concentration of total Ni in the root ([Root-Ni]T) showed [Root-Ni]T to be a more normalized measure of Ni bioavailability. The strong correlation between root growth inhibition and tBLM-predicted root-Ni accumulation suggests that toxicity was influenced by Ni2+ binding to low-affinity ligands within the cell wall, in addition to Ni2+ uptake through Mg2+ transporters. Predicted EA50Ni2+ values generated with the model were all within a factor of +/-1.5 from measured values--a result that emphasizes the advantage of using the tBLM for risk assessment. PMID:19374472

  2. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

  3. Region and field level distributions of aster yellows phytoplasma in small grains crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aster yellows (AY), a disease of small grain crops caused by aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), produces disease symptoms similar to barley yellow dwarf (BYD). From 2003 to 2005, small grain production fields in Minnesota and North Dakota were surveyed to determine the incidences of AY and BYD. In-fie...

  4. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  5. Plasma alkylresorcinois, biomarkers of whole-grain intake, are related to lower BMI in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found in the bran fraction of whole-grain wheat, rye, and barley. In intervention studies, plasma AR concentration increased in response to greater intakes of whole grain, wheat, and rye. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR...

  6. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  7. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  8. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  9. INNATE NONHOST IMMUNITY IN BARLEY TO DIFFERENT HETEROLOGOUS RUST FUNGI IS CONTROLLED BY SETS OF RESISTANCE GENES WITH DIFFERENT AND OVERLAPPING SPECIFICITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed an evolutionary relevant model system, barley-Puccini rust fungi, to study the inheritance and specificity of plant factors that determine to what extent innate nonhost immunity can be suppressed. A mapping population was developed from a cross between an experimental barley line (Suspi...

  10. Development of ferritic weldments for grain-refined ferritic steels for 4. 2K service

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    The weldability of grain-refined ferritic nickel steels designed for structural use in liquid helium was investigated. Plates of interstitial-free Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti alloy and carbon-containing 9 Ni steel were welded with 14 Ni ferritic fillers using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with pure argon gas shielding. The ferritic weldments made have a strength closely matching those of the base plates without a significant loss in base metal toughness at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. The comparable toughness obtained in the welded region is attributed to three factors; the defect-free weldment, the chemical cleanliness of the GTAW weld deposit, and the in-process formation of an appropriate microstructure in the welded region. Special emphasis in this study was placed on changes in microstructures with respect to the characteristic of the weld thermal cycles and the effect of the resultant microstructures on low temperature toughness. In the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of multipass welded 9Ni steel, the retained (or precipitated) austenite is removed by the weld heat cycles but the sequential rapid heat cycles to successively lower peak temperatures associated with succeeding weld passes re-establish high toughness by sequentially refining the grain size and gettering carbon in the form of cementite precipitates. On the other hand, the high toughness in the HAZ of the 12Ni alloy and in the weld deposit is a direct consequence of repeated grain refinement through the overlapped austenitizing cycles and is not affected by the tempering cycles because of the carbon-free nature of these materials. 46 figures.

  11. Development of ferritic weldments for grain-refined ferritic steels for 4. 2K service

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The weldability of grain-refined ferritic nickel steels designed for structural use in liquid helium was investigated. Plates of interstitial-free Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti alloy and carbon-containing 9Ni steel were welded with 14Ni ferritic fillers using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process with pure argon gas shielding. The ferritic weldments made have a strength closely matching those of the base plates without a significant loss in base metal toughness at temperatures as low as 4.2K. The comparable toughness obtained in the welded region is attributed to three factors; the defect-free weldment, the chemical cleanliness of the GTAW weld deposit, and the in-process formation of an appropriate microstructure in the welded region. Special emphasis in this study was placed on changes in microstructures with respect to the characteristic of the weld thermal cycles and the effect of the resultant microstructures on low temperature toughness. In the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of multipass welded 9Ni steel, the retained (or precipitated) austenite is removed by the weld heat cycles but the sequential rapid heat cycles to successively lower peak temperatures associated with succeeding weld passes re-establish high toughness by sequentially refining the grain size and gettering carbon in the form of cementite precipitates. On the other hand, the high toughness in the HAZ of the 12Ni alloy and in the weld deposit is a direct consequence of repeated grain refinement through the overlapped austenitizing cycles and is not affected by the tempering cycles because of the carbon-free nature of these materials.

  12. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications. PMID:18026225

  13. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    PubMed

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM). PMID:26641055

  14. Design and Development of a Dense, Fine Grained Silicon Tungsten Calorimeter with Integrated Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, D.; Frey, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Milgrome, O.; Radeka, V.

    2005-02-01

    A fine grained silicon-tungsten calorimeter is ideal for use as the electromagnetic calorimeter in a linear collider detector that is optimized for particle-flow reconstruction. Our design is based on readout chips which are bump bonded to the silicon wafers that serve as the active medium in the calorimeter. By using integrated electronics we plan to demonstrate that fine granularity can be achieved at a reasonable price. Our design minimizes the gap between tungsten layers leading to a small Molière radius. The size of the Molière radius is an important figure of merit for energy-flow detectors.

  15. Development of Bimodal Grain Structures in Nb-Containing High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels during Slab Reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Debalay; Davis, Claire; Strangwood, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Bimodal (mixed coarse and fine) grain structures, which have been observed in some Nb-containing thermomechanically-controlled rolled steel plates, adversely affect their mechanical properties by causing scatter in cleavage fracture stress values. It is known that bimodal grain structures can develop during reheating prior to rolling; however, no quantitative predictions of the level of bimodality or the critical reheat temperatures for formation have been reported. In this article, three high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel slabs with varying microalloying additions (Ti, Nb, and V) have been characterized in the as-continuously cast and reheated (to various temperatures in the range 1050 °C to 1225 °C) conditions to determine the link between their grain size distribution (and any bimodality observed) and the microalloy precipitate type, size, and distribution. The as-cast slabs showed inhomogeneous microalloying precipitate distributions with the separation between precipitate-rich and precipitate-poor regions being consistent with interdendritic segregation and hence, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). The susceptibility of the slabs to the formation of bimodality, based on the steel chemical compositions and critical reheat temperature ranges has been identified, both experimentally and theoretically using ThermoCalc (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden) modeling of precipitate stability in the solute-rich and the solute-depleted regions formed during casting.

  16. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions. PMID:25964711

  17. Characterization of grain-specific peptide markers for the detection of gluten by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Katherine L; McGrath, Sara C; Callahan, John H; Ross, Mark M

    2014-06-25

    Global and targeted mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches were developed to discover, evaluate, and apply gluten peptide markers to detect low parts per million (ppm) wheat contamination of oats. Prolamins were extracted from wheat, barley, rye, and oat flours and then reduced, alkylated, and digested with chymotrypsin. The resulting peptides were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis and database matching. No peptide markers common to wheat, barley, and rye were identified that could be used for global gluten detection. However, many grain-specific peptide markers were identified, and a set of these markers was selected for gluten detection and grain differentiation. Wheat flour was spiked into gluten-free oat flour at concentrations of 1-100,000 ppm and analyzed to determine the lowest concentration at which the wheat "contaminant" could be confidently detected in the mixture. The same 2D ion trap instrument that was used for the global proteomics approach was used for the targeted proteomics approach, providing a seamless transition from target discovery to application. A powerful, targeted MS/MS method enabled detection of two wheat peptide markers at the 10 ppm wheat flour-in-oat flour concentration. Because gluten comprises approximately 10% of wheat flour protein, the reported wheat gluten-specific peptides can enable detection of approximately 1 ppm of wheat gluten in oats. PMID:24866027

  18. Variability in nutrient composition of cereal grains from different origins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Nam, Doo Seok; Kong, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient composition of individual feed ingredient in mixed feed is important for accurate formulation of animal feeds. However, each feed ingredient can be different depending on its origin. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the variability in nutrient compositions of corn, wheat, and barley grains from different origins. Cereal grains used in this study were from 5 countries for 432 corn samples, 5 countries for 65 wheat samples, and 3 countries for 60 barley samples. They were imported to Korea between 2006 and 2015. These grain samples were subjected to analysis for moisture, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and gross energy (GE). The concentrations of moisture, CP, EE, CF, ash, Ca, P, and GE of corn differed (P < 0.05) among countries. GE in corn samples ranged from 3836 kcal/kg (Ukraine) to 3995 kcal/kg (Brazil). There were also differences (P < 0.05) in moisture, CP, ash, and P of wheat and in moisture, CF, Ca, P, and GE in barley from different countries. GE values in wheat ranged from 3957 kcal/kg (Brazil) to 4058 kcal/kg (United States) and GE values in barley samples ranged from 3894 kcal/kg (India) to 4059 kcal/kg (Australia). The most different nutrient depending on origins was Ca. The coefficient of variation was 65.7 % for corn, 57.4 % for wheat, and 28.8 % for barley. In conclusion, nutrients and energy contents in corn, wheat, and barley from various origins investigated in the present study were different. Therefore, it is important to consider these variations when formulating animal feeds. PMID:27099824

  19. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant. PMID:26252423

  20. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  1. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. PMID:27342224

  2. Extrusion of barley and oat influence the fecal microbiota and SCFA profile of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Moen, Birgitte; Berget, Ingunn; Rud, Ida; Hole, Anastasia S; Kjos, Nils Petter; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The effect of extrusion of barley and oat on the fecal microbiota and the formation of SCFA was evaluated using growing pigs as model system. The pigs were fed a diet containing either whole grain barley (BU), oat groat (OU), or their respective extruded samples (BE and OE). 454 pyrosequencing showed that the fecal microbiota of growing pigs was affected by both extrusion and grain type. Extruded grain resulted in lower bacterial diversity and enrichment in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with members of the Streptococcus, Blautia and Bulleidia genera, while untreated grain showed enrichment in OTUs affiliated with members of the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera, and the butyrate-producing bacteria Butyricicoccus, Roseburia, Coprococcus and Pseudobutyrivibrio. Untreated grain resulted in a significant increase of n-butyric, i-valeric and n-valeric acid, which correlated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. This is the first study showing that cereal extrusion affects the microbiota composition and diversity towards a state generally thought to be less beneficial for health, as well as less amounts of beneficial butyric acid. PMID:26758043

  3. Development of an analytical method for the determination of sterigmatocystin in grains using LCMS after immunoaffinity column purification.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, R; Hossain, M Z; Abe, N; Uchigashima, M; Goto, T

    2014-05-01

    The mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STC) is produced mainly by some Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi; it naturally contaminates cereals, peanuts, and products derived from these crops, and is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. As an intermediate of aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis, its structure is similar to that of AF. Although immunoaffinity columns (IACs) are a popular approach to sample clean-up, no IAC is commercially available for STC, but a commercially available IAC for AF shows cross reactivity to STC. We here developed a new method for analyzing STC in grains using such an IAC and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), and validated this method using six different grains. The STC limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 3) was 2.5 pg (1.0 μg/kg in the product), and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 7.5-375 pg (3.0-150 μg/kg in the product). The within-day recovery of STC from samples spiked with STC at 5.0 and 50 μg/kg was 83.2-102.5% and the RSDr (relative standard deviation of repeatability) of these samples was 1.9-6.5%; the RSDr of STC-pretreated grain samples was 3.1-14.0%. Average recovery of STC from samples spiked with STC in the range of 5.0-100 μg/kg STC was 83.2-102.5%, with an RSDr of 0.24-6.5%; the RSDr of STC-pretreated grain samples was 2.4-14.0%. In an intermediate precision study, the average STC recovery from STC-spiked samples by three analysts was 95.2-107.5%, with RSDRi (intermediate precision) of 4.0-7.1%; the RSDRi of the STC-pretreated samples was 4.8-10.4%. Thus, the proposed method was effective for STC analysis in grains, and holds potential for a novel application of a commercial IAC, intended for AFs, in STC analysis. PMID:24696064

  4. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  5. HvWRKY10, HvWRKY19, and HvWRKY28 positively regulate Mla-triggered immunity and basal defense to barley powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY proteins represent a large family of transcription factors (TFs), involved in plant development and defense responses. So far, fifty-five unique barley TFs have been annotated that contain the WRKY domain; twenty-six of these are present on the Barley1 GeneChip. We analyzed time-course expres...

  6. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  7. Population Subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from Barley and Wheat in the Upper Midwestern United States at the Turn of the Century.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junmin; Lofgren, Lotus; Ma, Zhanhong; Ward, Todd J; Kistler, H Corby

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part correlated with the spectrum of trichothecene mycotoxins (chemotype) produced by individuals within each population. In contrast, a recent study of F. graminearum obtained from diseased barley in the upper Midwestern United States concluded that only a single population was present, consisting of individuals with various chemotypes. To test whether strains derived from different hosts potentially have different population dynamics, we obtained the barley strains used in the previous study and compared them with wheat strains isolated at a similar time and geographic origin. A total of 247 F. graminearum isolates from barley were assigned firmly into two clusters using a Bayesian clustering method. Subdivision within the barley population corresponded to the previously described NA1 (correlated with the 15ADON chemotype) and NA2 (correlated with the 3ADON chemotype) populations from wheat. However, in both sampling periods the barley population exhibited a higher level of genetic differentiation between NA1 and NA2 populations, fewer admixed individuals and evidence of unidirectional gene introgression (15ADON strains with NA2 genetic backgrounds). These results suggest less recombination between NA1 and NA2 populations on barley compared with wheat. The frequency of 3ADON chemotype strains in the most recently surveyed barley population suggests a latitudinal cline from the northern (49%), central (40%) to the southern (29%) sampling area. The potential to produce a novel trichothecene, 3α-acetoxy,7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothe-9-ene (NX-2), was not detected in the barley population but occurred at a low rate (2.4%) in the wheat population. PMID:26107972

  8. A comparison of cadmium and zinc accumulation by four cultivars of barley grown in sludge-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.C.; Page, A.L.; Foster, K.W.; Jones, T.E.

    1982-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare the plant-tissue accumulation of Cd and Zn by four cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on three soils amended with 20 and 100 t/ha dried Imhoff tank sludges. Results indicated that metal uptakes by four cultivars of barley (Barsoy, Briggs, Florida 103, and Larker) were not significantly different when they were grown on both sludge-treated and non-sludge-treated (control) soils. The Cd and Zn concentrations of the plant tissue from sludge-treated soils, however, were significantly influenced by the sludge application and the soil type. For four cultivars of barley grown on the Ramona sandy loam soil, the Cd content of grain averaged <0.04 (<0.04-0.03) ..mu..g/g at the control and increased to 0.38 (0.19-0.53) ..mu..g/g at the 100-t/ha sludge treatment. Under the same conditions, the average Zn concentrations of barley grain were 41, 67, and 92 ..mu..g/g for the control, 20-t/ha, and 100-t/ha treatments, respectively. Both soil texture and pH influenced Cd and Zn contents of barley. Crops grown on the Domino loam soil (fine, mixed, thermic Xerollic Calciorthid) accumulated the least amounts of Cd and Zn. At heavy sludge applications, higher levels of plant-tissue Cd and Zn were often found in barley grown on soils of coarser texture (Ramona sandy loam (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf) and Greenfield sandy loam (coarse, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf)) and lower pH (Ramona sand loam, pH = 6.0).

  9. Diversity and Evolution of Disease Resistance Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ethan J.; Ali, Shaukat; Reese, R. Neil; Yen, Yang; Neupane, Surendra; Nepal, Madhav P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease resistance genes (R-genes) play a critical role in the defense response to pathogens. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops, having a genome recently made available, for which the diversity and evolution of R-genes are not well understood. The main objectives of this research were to conduct a genome-wide identification of barley Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary history. We employed a Hidden Markov Model using 52 Arabidopsis thaliana CNL reference sequences and analyzed for phylogenetic relationships, structural variation, and gene clustering. We identified 175 barley CNL genes nested into three clades, showing (a) evidence of an expansion of the CNL-C clade, primarily due to tandem duplications; (b) very few members of clade CNL-A and CNL-B; and (c) a complete absence of clade CNL-D. Our results also showed that several of the previously identified mildew locus A (MLA) genes may be allelic variants of two barley CNL genes, MLOC_66581 and MLOC_10425, which respond to powdery mildew. Approximately 23% of the barley CNL genes formed 15 gene clusters located in the extra-pericentromeric regions on six of the seven chromosomes; more than half of the clustered genes were located on chromosomes 1H and 7H. Higher average numbers of exons and multiple splice variants in barley relative to those in Arabidopsis and rice may have contributed to a diversification of the CNL-C members. These results will help us understand the evolution of R-genes with potential implications for developing durable resistance in barley cultivars. PMID:27168720

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  11. Development of a multiplexed PCR detection method for Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses, Wheat Spindle Streak Virus, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses (B/CYDVs), Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic (WSSMV), Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic (SBWMV) Mosaic Virus and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) constitute the most economically important group of wheat viruses. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chai...

  12. Recrystallization and the Development of Abnormally Large Grains After Small Strain Deformation in a Polycrystalline Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Victoria M.; Johnson, Anthony E.; Torbet, Chris J.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of abnormally large grains has been investigated in the polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy René 88DT. Cylindrical specimens with a 15 μm grain size were compressed to plastic strains up to 11.0 pct and subsequently rapidly heated to above the γ' solvus at 1423 K (1150° C) and held for 60 seconds. All deformed samples partially recrystallized during the heat treatment, with the recrystallized grain size varying with the degree of deformation. The largest final grain size occurred in samples deformed to approximately 2 pct strain, with isolated grains as large as 700 μm in diameter observed. It is proposed that abnormally large grains appear due to nucleation-limited recrystallization, not abnormal grain growth, based on the high boundary velocities measured and the observed reduction in grain orientation spread.

  13. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 displays an endophytic lifestyle in cultivated cereals and enhances yield in barley.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Alós, Enriqueta; Rey, María Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an indigenous inhabitant of olive roots, displays an endophytic lifestyle in this woody crop and exerts biocontrol against the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae Here we report microscopy evidence that the strain PICF7 is also able to colonize and persist on or in wheat and barley root tissues. Root colonization of both cereal species followed a similar pattern to that previously reported in olive, including inner colonization of the root hairs. This demonstrates that strain PICF7 can colonize root systems of distant botanical species. Barley plants germinated from PICF7-treated seeds showed enhanced vegetative growth. Moreover, significant increases in the number of grains (up to 19.5%) and grain weight (up to 20.5%) per plant were scored in this species. In contrast, growth and yield were not significantly affected in wheat plants by the presence of PICF7. Proteomics analysis of the root systems revealed that different proteins were exclusively found depending on the presence or absence of PICF7 and only one protein with hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity was exclusively found in both PICF7-inoculated barley and wheat plants but not in the controls. PMID:27130938

  14. Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 μg/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

  15. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  17. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  19. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  20. Characterization of Antibodies for Grain-Specific Gluten Detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Williams, Kristina M; Pahlavan, Autusa

    2016-03-01

    Gluten ingestion causes immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy or celiac disease in sensitive individuals, and a strict gluten-free diet greatly limits food choices. Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are used to quantify gluten to ensure labeling compliance of gluten-free foods. Anti-gluten antibodies may not exhibit equal affinity to gluten from wheat, rye, and barley. Moreover, because wheat gluten is commonly used as a calibrator in ELISA, accurate gluten quantitation from rye and barley contaminated foods may be compromised. Immunoassays utilizing grain-specific antibodies and calibrators may help improve gluten quantitation. In this study, polyclonal antibodies raised against gluten-containing grain-specific peptides were characterized for their immunoreactivity to gluten from different grain sources. Strong immunoreactivity to multiple gluten polypeptides from wheat, rye, and barley was observed in the range 34 to 43 kDa with anti-gliadin, 11 to 15 and 72 to 95 kDa with anti-secalin, and 30 to 43 kDa with anti-hordein peptide antibodies, respectively. Minimal or no cross-reactivity with gluten from other grains was observed among these antibodies. The anti-consensus peptide antibody raised against a repetitive amino acid sequence of proline and glutamine exhibited immunoreactivity to gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oat. The antibodies exhibited similar immunoreactivity with most of the corresponding grain cultivars by ELISA. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation. PMID:26878584

  1. Development of a microwave-assisted-extraction-based method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 in grains and grain products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a pretreatment technique for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), G(1), B(2), and G(2) in grains and grain products. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were identified to be acetonitrile as the extraction solvent at 80 °C with 15 min of MAE. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization with trifluoroacetic acid and were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Sep-Pak cartridge was chosen over Oasis HLB and Bond Elut cartridges. By the use of aflatoxin M(1) as an internal standard, relative recoveries of the aflatoxins ranged from 90.7 to 105.7 % for corn and from 88.1 to 103.4 % for wheat, with relative standard deviations between 2.5 and 8.7 %. A total of 36 samples from local markets were analyzed, and aflatoxin B(1) was found to be the predominant toxin, with concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 3.41 μg/kg. PMID:23314480

  2. Presence of Fusarium Species and Other Toxigenic Fungi in Malting Barley and Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beccari, Giovanni; Caproni, Leonardo; Tini, Francesco; Uhlig, Silvio; Covarelli, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    A study was carried out on 43 malting barley samples collected in 2013 across the Umbria region (central Italy) to determine the incidence of the principal mycotoxigenic fungal genera, to identify the Fusarium species isolated from the grains, and to detect the presence of 34 fungal secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The multimycotoxin-method development involved the evaluation of both a two-step solvent and QuEChERS protocol for metabolite extraction. The former protocol was selected because of better accuracy, which was evaluated on the basis of spike-recovery experiments. The most frequently isolated fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium. The predominant Fusarium species was F. avenaceum, followed by F. graminearum. HT-2 toxin was the most frequently detected mycotoxin, followed by enniatin B, enniatin B1, T-2 toxin, and nivalenol. As a consequence of the observed mixed fungal infections, mycotoxin co-occurrence was also detected. A combination of mycological and mycotoxin analyses allowed the ability to obtain comprehensive information about the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and their contaminants in malting barley cultivated in a specific geographic area. PMID:27127848

  3. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  4. An Ac/Ds-mediated gene trap system for functional genomics in barley

    PubMed Central

    Lazarow, Katina; Lütticke, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene trapping is a powerful tool for gene discovery and functional genomics in both animals and plants. Upon insertion of the gene trap construct into an expressed gene, splice donor and acceptor sites facilitate the generation of transcriptional fusions between the flanking sequence and the reporter. Consequently, detection of reporter gene expression allows the identification of genes based on their expression pattern. Up to now rice is the only cereal crop for which gene trap approaches exist. In this study we describe a gene trap system in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) based on the maize transposable elements Ac/Ds. Results We generated gene trap barley lines by crossing Ac transposase expressing plants with multiple independent transformants carrying the Ds based gene trap construct GTDsB. Upstream of the β-Glucuronidase start codon GTDsB carries splice donor and acceptor sites optimized for monocotyledonous plants. DNA blot analysis revealed GTDsB transposition frequencies of 11% and 26% in the F1 and F2 generation of gene trap lines and perpetuation of transposition activity in later generations. Furthermore, analysis of sequences flanking transposed GTDsB elements evidenced preferential insertion into expressed regions of the barley genome. We screened leaves, nodes, immature florets, pollinated florets, immature grains and seedlings of F2 plants and detected GUS expression in 51% (72/141) of the plants. Thus, reporter gene expression was found in 24 of the 28 F1 lines tested and in progeny of all GTDsB parental lines. Conclusion Due to the frequent transposition of GTDsB and the efficient expression of the GUS reporter gene, we conclude that this Ac/Ds-based gene trap system is an applicable approach for gene discovery in barley. The successful introduction of a gene trap construct optimized for monocots in barley contributes a novel functional genomics tool for this cereal crop. PMID:19178688

  5. The effect of grain source and grain processing on performance of feedlot cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N; Secrist, D S; Hill, W J; Gill, D R

    1997-03-01

    Effects of grain species and grain processing method on DMI, rate and efficiency of gain, and feeding value for cattle fed high concentrate diets were appraised by statistically compiling results from 605 comparisons from feeding trials published in North American journals and experiment station bulletins since 1974. Metabolizable energy (ME) values for each grain and processing method were calculated by quadratic procedures from DMI and animal performance. Averaged across processing methods, ME values for corn, milo, and wheat grain (3.40, 3.22, and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) fell within 9% of ME estimates from NRC (1996) for beef cattle. In contrast, ME values for barley and oats grain (3.55 and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) were 24% and 17% greater than NRC (1996) estimates. Compared with the dry rolled forms, high moisture corn and milo resulted in lower ADG and DMI. Compared with dry rolling, either steam rolling or flaking of corn, milo, and wheat decreased DMI without decreasing ADG and improved feed efficiency by 10, 15, and 10%, respectively. Compared with dry rolled grain, steam flaking increased (P < .05) body weight-adjusted ME of corn and milo grain by 15 and 21%, respectively; body weight-adjusted ME for whole corn was 9% greater (P < .05) than for rolled corn grain. Steam flaking was surprisingly effective (13%) at increasing (P < .05) the body weight-adjusted ME of wheat, but steam flaking failed to increase the ME of barley and oats. Higher moisture content of high-moisture corn decreased dry matter intake without depressing ADG and improved efficiency and increased ME of the grain. Compared with steam flakes of moderate thinness, processing milo or barley to a very thin flake tended to reduce ADG and failed to improve feed efficiency. The ideal roughage source and roughage moisture content for maximum ME and ADG varied with grain processing method. Feeding corn silage rather than alfalfa and wet rather than dry roughage depressed (P < .01) ADG of cattle and reduced (P

  6. Development, test and evaluation of a computerized procedure for using Landsat data to estimate spring small grains acreage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, R. R. J.; Palmer, W. F.; Smyrski, M. M.; Baker, T. C.; Nazare, C. V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods which can provide information concerning crop acreages on the basis of a utilization of multispectral scanner (MSS) data require for their implementation a comparatively large amount of labor. The present investigation is concerned with a project designed to improve the efficiency of analysis through increased automation. The Caesar technique was developed to realize this objective. The processability rates of the Caesar procedure versus the historical state-of-the-art proportion estimation procedures were determined in an experiment. Attention is given to the study site, the aggregation technology, the results of the aggregation test, and questions of error characterization. It is found that the Caesar procedure, which has been developed for the spring small grains region of North America, is highly efficient and provides accurate results.

  7. Development of a Grain Boundary Pinning Model that Considers Particle Size Distribution Using the Phase Field Method

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xian-Ming Bai

    2015-04-01

    Grain boundary (GB) migration significantly impacts material behavior. However, GB migration is slowed or even halted by resistive pressure applied by pores or particles. Zener’s original investigation of particle pinning, and subsequent modifications by other researchers, describe the resistive pressure for various spatial distributions of particles with respect to GBs. In this work, we develop a pinning model that considers the impact of the particle size distribution and we verify it by comparing to mesoscale phase field and Monte Carlo simulations. Resistive pressure expressions are developed that are functions of the percentage of GB area covered by particles and of the particle volume fraction for any spatial distribution of particles. In both expressions, the mean value of the resistive pressure decreases with increasing standard deviation of the particle radius.

  8. Computer image analysis in caryopses quality evaluation as exemplified by malting barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszela, K.; Raba, B.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Przybył, J.

    2015-07-01

    One of the purposes to employ modern technologies in agricultural and food industry is to increase the efficiency and automation of production processes, which helps improve productive effectiveness of business enterprises, thus making them more competitive. Nowadays, a challenge presents itself for this branch of economy, to produce agricultural and food products characterized by the best parameters in terms of quality, while maintaining optimum production and distribution costs of the processed biological material. Thus, several scientific centers seek to devise new and improved methods and technologies in this field, which will allow to meet the expectations. A new solution, under constant development, is to employ the so-called machine vision which is to replace human work in both quality and quantity evaluation processes. An indisputable advantage of employing the method is keeping the evaluation unbiased while improving its rate and, what is important, eliminating the fatigue factor of the expert. This paper elaborates on the topic of quality evaluation by marking the contamination in malting barley grains using computer image analysis and selected methods of artificial intelligence [4-5].

  9. Fungi and the natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Karim C; Savi, Geovana D; Pereira, Maria E V; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-11-15

    The industrial use of barley grain has experienced continuous growth, mainly due to its economic importance for malt production. From a technological perspective, fungal persistence can reduce product marketability and cause economic losses. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence and identification of mycoflora and the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) in malting barley. The samples presented a low count of fungal colonies, with values ranging from 10.5 to 0.5 × 10(1)CFU g(-1) and the species most found were Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides with 26% and 12% of incidence, respectively. In the samples analyzed for mycotoxins occurrence, DON and FBs were present in 18% and 12%, respectively. The high concentrations of toxins found in the malting samples may be strongly influenced by agricultural practices and the weather conditions during critical phases of plant growth. PMID:25977017

  10. Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

  11. Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

    2007-03-01

    Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

  12. Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals.

  13. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  16. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of microRNAs in Developing Grains of Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Lifang; Gao, Meijuan; Jiao, Zhujin; Qiao, Huili; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Min; Yao, Lunguang; Liu, Renyi; Kan, Yunchao

    2016-01-01

    The development and maturation of maize kernel involves meticulous and fine gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and miRNAs play important roles during this process. Although a number of miRNAs have been identified in maize seed, the ones involved in the early development of grains and in different lines of maize have not been well studied. Here, we profiled four small RNA libraries, each constructed from groups of immature grains of Zea mays inbred line Chang 7–2 collected 4–6, 7–9, 12–14, and 18–23 days after pollination (DAP). A total of 40 known (containing 111 unique miRNAs) and 162 novel (containing 196 unique miRNA candidates) miRNA families were identified. For conserved and novel miRNAs with over 100 total reads, 44% had higher accumulation before the 9th DAP, especially miR166 family members. 42% of miRNAs had highest accumulation during 12–14 DAP (which is the transition stage from embryogenesis to nutrient storage). Only 14% of miRNAs had higher expression 18–23 DAP. Prediction of potential targets of all miRNAs showed that 165 miRNA families had 377 target genes. For miR164 and miR166, we showed that the transcriptional levels of their target genes were significantly decreased when co-expressed with their cognate miRNA precursors in vivo. Further analysis shows miR159, miR164, miR166, miR171, miR390, miR399, and miR529 families have putative roles in the embryogenesis of maize grain development by participating in transcriptional regulation and morphogenesis, while miR167 and miR528 families participate in metabolism process and stress response during nutrient storage. Our study is the first to present an integrated dynamic expression pattern of miRNAs during maize kernel formation and maturation. PMID:27082634

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of microRNAs in Developing Grains of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Liu, Zongcai; Gao, Lei; Wang, Lifang; Gao, Meijuan; Jiao, Zhujin; Qiao, Huili; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Min; Yao, Lunguang; Liu, Renyi; Kan, Yunchao

    2016-01-01

    The development and maturation of maize kernel involves meticulous and fine gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and miRNAs play important roles during this process. Although a number of miRNAs have been identified in maize seed, the ones involved in the early development of grains and in different lines of maize have not been well studied. Here, we profiled four small RNA libraries, each constructed from groups of immature grains of Zea mays inbred line Chang 7-2 collected 4-6, 7-9, 12-14, and 18-23 days after pollination (DAP). A total of 40 known (containing 111 unique miRNAs) and 162 novel (containing 196 unique miRNA candidates) miRNA families were identified. For conserved and novel miRNAs with over 100 total reads, 44% had higher accumulation before the 9th DAP, especially miR166 family members. 42% of miRNAs had highest accumulation during 12-14 DAP (which is the transition stage from embryogenesis to nutrient storage). Only 14% of miRNAs had higher expression 18-23 DAP. Prediction of potential targets of all miRNAs showed that 165 miRNA families had 377 target genes. For miR164 and miR166, we showed that the transcriptional levels of their target genes were significantly decreased when co-expressed with their cognate miRNA precursors in vivo. Further analysis shows miR159, miR164, miR166, miR171, miR390, miR399, and miR529 families have putative roles in the embryogenesis of maize grain development by participating in transcriptional regulation and morphogenesis, while miR167 and miR528 families participate in metabolism process and stress response during nutrient storage. Our study is the first to present an integrated dynamic expression pattern of miRNAs during maize kernel formation and maturation. PMID:27082634

  19. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from barley and wheat in the upper Midwestern United States at the turn of the century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part c...

  20. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...