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Sample records for barley seedlings hordeum

  1. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the vernalization response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Greenup, Aaron G; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N; Walford, Sally A; Millar, Anthony A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Vernalization Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Greenup, Aaron G.; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N.; Walford, Sally A.; Millar, Anthony A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  4. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Foyer, Christine H.; Hancock, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  5. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  6. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  7. Accurate evaluation and verification of varietal ranking for flooding tolerance at the seedling stage in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Yoshiro; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Soil flooding or waterlogging is a major abiotic stress in upland crops. In barley, there have been several reported studies of selection for flooding-tolerant genotypes, but it is difficult to obtain varietal rankings that are consistent among researchers. Our objectives were to establish experimental conditions that could be applied by other research groups and to verify the varietal ranking conducted in an earlier study. We conducted greenhouse experiments on 14 barley varieties. At the 2.5-leaf stage, they were flooded with 0% or 0.1% soluble starch solution (mimicking reducing conditions). At 13 to 15 days after the start of treatment, the degree of leaf injury and the shoot dry weight ratio (treatment:control) were recorded. Reliable and highly repeatable results were obtained for the criterion of leaf injury under reducing conditions, whereas shoot dry weight ratio was unstable. The varieties OUJ820 and OUA301 were highly tolerant, whereas OUA002 and OUJ247 were sensitive; these results matched those of the earlier study. The experimental conditions that we developed here may be useful for selection testing and genetic analysis of flooding tolerance in other laboratories. PMID:23136508

  8. Lysine Biosynthesis in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1974-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following precursors into the endosperm of the seedlings: acetate-1-14C; acetate-2-14C; pyruvate-1-14C; pyruvate-2-14C; pyruvate-3-14C; alanine-1-14C; aspartic acid-1-14C; aspartic acid-2-14C; aspartic acid-3-14C; aspartic acid-4-14C; α-aminoadipic acid-1-14C; and α, ε-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C. The distribution of activity in the individual carbon atoms of lysine in the different biosynthetic experiments was determined by chemical degradation. The incorporation percentages and labeling patterns obtained are in agreement with the occurrence of the diaminopimelic acid pathway. The results do not fit the incorporation percentages and labeling patterns expected if the α-aminoadipic acid pathway was operating. However, the results show that barley seedlings are able to convert a small part of the α-aminoadipic acid administered directly to lysine. The labeling pattern of lysine was found to be symmetrical around carbon 4. This indicates that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via a symmetrical intermediate like ll-α, ε-diaminopimelic acid, or includes compounds as 2, 3-dihydrodipicolinic acid or Δ1-piperideine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid which probably isomerise with concomitant lack of asymmetry in the labeling. The percentages of incorporation show that both the mesoand ll-forms of α, ε-diaminopimelic acid are metabolically convertible to lysine in seedlings of barley. PMID:16658942

  9. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  10. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  11. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  12. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  13. Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. )

    1990-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

  15. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  16. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 μm Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

  17. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-01

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes. PMID:16131143

  18. Physiological Responses of Resistant and Susceptible Barley, Hordeum vulgare to the Russian Wheat Aphid, Diurpahis noxia (Mordvilko)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on the mechanisms of resistance in barley, Hordeum vulgare L., to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Knowledge of the physiological responses of barley to D. noxia feeding is critical to identifying resistance mechanisms and unde...

  19. Detection of QTLs for salt tolerance in Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by association analysis with SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Sbei, Hanen; Sato, Kazuhiro; Shehzad, Tariq; Harrabi, Moncef; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred ninety-six Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions were assessed to detect QTLs underlying salt tolerance by association analysis using a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker system. The experiment was laid out at the seedling stage in a hydroponic solution under control and 250 mM NaCl solution with three replications of four plants each. Salt tolerance was assessed by leaf injury score (LIS) and salt tolerance indices (STIs) of the number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW). LIS was scored from 1 to 5 according to the severity of necrosis and chlorosis observed on leaves. There was a wide variation in salt tolerance among Asian barley accessions. LIS and STI (SDW) were the most suitable traits for screening salt tolerance. Association was estimated between markers and traits to detect QTLs for LIS and STI (SDW). Seven significant QTLs were located on chromosomes 1H (2 QTLs), 2H (2 QTLs), 3H (1 QTL), 4H (1 QTL) and 5H (1 QTL). Five QTLs were associated with LIS and 2 QTLs with STI (SDW). Two QTLs associated with LIS were newly identified on chromosomes 3H and 4H. PMID:25914593

  20. Intrachromosomal mapping of seven biochemical loci in barley, Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Heun, M; Gale, M D

    1993-10-01

    Seven biochemical loci, AmpA, Amy1, Amy2, Est-H5, Hor1, Hor2, and Wsp-H1, have been intrachromosomally mapped in the barley genome using a previously published RFLP-based genetic map. In all cases, the map locations confirmed prior chromosome assignments and agreed closely with the map positions of their homoeoloci in hexaploid wheat. PMID:24190199

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  2. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al(3+) resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  3. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  4. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    PubMed

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  5. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  6. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  7. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars. PMID:27093113

  8. Abnormal etioplast development in barley seedlings infected with BSMV by seed transmission.

    PubMed

    Harsányi, Anett; Böddi, Béla; Bóka, Károly; Almási, Asztéria; Gáborjányi, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The effect of barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus (BSMV) was studied on the ultrastructure of etioplasts, protochlorophyllide forms and the greening process of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Pannónia) plants infected by seed transmission. The leaves of 7- to 11-day-old etiolated seedlings were examined by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The etioplasts of infected seedlings contained smaller prolamellar bodies with less regular membrane structure, while prothylakoid content was higher than in the control. The protochlorophyllide content of virus-infected seedlings was reduced to 74% of the control. In the 77 K fluorescence spectra the relative amount of 655 nm emitting photoactive protochlorophyllide form decreased, and the amount of the 645 and 633 nm emitting forms increased in the infected leaves. A characteristic effect was observed in the process of the Shibata-shift: 40 min delay was observed in the infected leaves. The results of this work proved that BSMV infection delays or inhibits plastid development and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11982946

  9. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  10. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance. PMID:21039455

  11. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit 1

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Bodapati P.; Aspinall, Donald; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings. PMID:16668700

  12. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation. PMID:27125321

  13. Characterization of the association of nitrate reductase with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerhoff, P. A.; Fox, T. C.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The nature of the association between nitrate reductase (NR) and membranes was examined. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to 0.6 to 0.8% of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of 250 mM KI and repeated osmotic shock. This treatment removed all contaminating soluble NRA from microsomes of uninduced barley roots that had been homogenized in a soluble extract from roots of NO3(-)-induced plants. On continuous sucrose gradients, NRA co-migrated specifically with VO4(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, a plasma membrane (PM) marker; activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, assayed as cytosolic marker, co-migrated with NRA. Microsomal NRA was absent in barley deficient in soluble NR. Perturbation and trypsinolysis experiments with PM vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning indicated that NR is associated with the periphery of the cytoplasmic face of the bilayer. These results demonstrate that PM and soluble NRs are essentially the same protein but that the membrane-associated form is tightly bound. Although it is possible that PM-associated NR exists in vivo, unequivocal evidence for this has yet to be shown. However, PM NR is definitely present in vitro.

  14. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  15. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants. PMID:21090239

  16. Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes and Endomembranes Prepared from Roots of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis J.; DuPont, Frances M.

    1989-01-01

    Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), tonoplast and Golgi membranes (TG) and plasma membranes (PM) were prepared from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots and the lipid compositions of the three fractions were analyzed and compared. Plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution with or without 100 millimolar NaCl. Each membrane fraction had a characteristic lipid composition. The mole per cent of the individual phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols in each fraction was not altered when roots were grown in 100 millimolar NaCl. The ER had the highest percentages of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine of the three fractions (7 and 45 mole per cent, respectively, of the total lipid). The TG contained the highest percentage of glycosylceramide (13 mole per cent). The PM had the highest percentage of phosphatidylserine (3 mole per cent) and nearly equal percentages of phosphatidylethanolamine (15 mole per cent and phosphatidylcholine (18 mole per cent). The most abundant sterols in membranes prepared from barley roots were stigmasterol (10 mole per cent), sitosterol (50 mole per cent), and 24ζ-methylcholesterol (40 mole per cent of the total sterol). Salt-treated plants contained a slightly higher percentage of stigmasterol than controls. The percentage of stigmasterol increased with age and a simple cause and effect relationship between salt treatment and sterol composition was not observed. PMID:16666904

  17. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  18. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  19. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) interactions with barley, rice, and wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A choice test revealed that Hessian fly adults deposited approximately three times more eggs on wheat seedlings than on barley or rice seedlings. On a barley seedling, 49.4% of eggs were deposited on either the abaxial leaf-surface or the coleoptile and first leaf-sheath (C&FLS), where newly hatche...

  20. Comparative effects of selenite and selenate on nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Harbit, K. B.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of SeO3= and SeO4= on NO3- assimilation in 8-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was studied over a 24-h period. Selenite at 0.1 mol m-3 in the uptake solutions severely inhibited the induction of NO3- uptake and active nitrate reductases. Selenate, at 1.0 mol m-3 in the nutrient solution, had little effect on induction of activities of these systems until after 12 h; however, when the seedlings were pretreated with 1.0 mol m-3 SeO4= for 24 h, subsequent NO3- uptake from SeO4(=) -free solutions was inhibited about 60%. Sulphate partially alleviated the inhibitory effect of SeO3= when supplied together in the ambient solutions, but had no effect in seedlings pretreated with SeO3=. By contrast, SO4= partially alleviated the inhibitory effect of SeO4= even in seedlings pretreated with SeO4=. Since uptake of NO3- by intact seedlings was also inhibited by SO3=, the percentage of the absorbed NO3- that was reduced was not affected. By contrast, SeO4=, which affected NO3- uptake much less, inhibited the percentage reduced of that absorbed. However, when supplied to detached leaves, both SeO3= and SeO4= inhibited the in vivo reduction of NO3- as well as induction of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities. Selenite was more inhibitory than SeO4= ; approximately a five to 10 times higher concentration of SeO4= than SeO3= was required to achieve similar inhibition. In detached leaves, the inhibitory effect of both SeO3= and SeO4= on in vivo NO3- reduction as well as on the induction of nitrate reductase activity was partially alleviated by SO4=. The inhibitory effects of Se salts on the induction of the nitrite reductase were, however, completely alleviated by SO4=. The results show that in barley seedlings SeO3= is more toxic than SeO4=. The reduction of SeO4= to SeO3= may be a rate limiting step in causing Se toxicity.

  1. Farmers without borders—genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  2. Reverse micellar extraction of beta-galactosidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hemavathi, A B; Umesh Hebbar, H; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2008-12-01

    The reverse micellar system of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane was used for the extraction and primary purification of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) from the aqueous extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) for the first time. The process parameters such as the concentration of the surfactant, the volume of the sample injected, and its protein concentration, pH, and ionic strength of the initial aqueous phase for forward extraction, buffer pH, and salt concentration for back extraction are varied to optimize the extraction efficiency. Studies carried out with both phase transfer and injection mode of reverse micellar extraction confirmed the injection mode to be more suitable for beta-galactosidase extraction. The extent of reverse micellar solubilization of proteins increased with an increase in protein concentration of the feed sample. However, back extraction efficiency remained almost constant (13-14.4%), which indicates the selectivity of AOT reverse micelles for a particular protein under given experimental conditions. beta-Galactosidase was extracted with an activity recovery of 98.74% and a degree of purification of 7.2-fold. PMID:18480974

  3. Developmental pattern of aquaporin expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Matthieu; Knipfer, Thorsten; Miller, Anthony J.; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Jahn, Thomas P.; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels which belong to the family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) and are best known for their ability to facilitate the movement of water. In the present study, earlier results from microarray experiments were followed up. These experiments had suggested that, in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), aquaporin family members are expressed in distinct patterns during leaf development. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization were used to analyse the level and tissue-distribution of expression of candidate aquaporins, focusing on plasma membrane and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (PIPs, TIPs). Water channel function of seven aquaporins, whose transcripts were the most abundant and the most variable, was tested through expression in yeast and, in part, through expression in oocytes. All PIP1 and PIP2 subfamily members changed in expression during leaf development, with expression being much higher or lower in growing compared with mature tissue. The same applied to those TIPs which were expressed at detectable levels. Specific roles during leaf development are proposed for particular aquaporins. PMID:21737414

  4. Farmers without borders-genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-02-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  5. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes. PMID:26836813

  6. Enhancement of Nitrate Uptake and Growth of Barley Seedlings by Calcium under Saline Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael R.; Aslam, Muhammad; Huffaker, Ray C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on NO3− assimilation in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings in the presence and absence of NaCl was studied. Calcium increased the activity of the NO3− transporter under saline conditions, but had little effect under nonsaline conditions. Calcium decreased the induction period for the NO3− transporter under both saline and nonsaline conditions but had little effect on its apparent Km for NO3− both in the presence and absence of NaCl. The enhancement of NO3− transport by Ca2+ under saline conditions was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the uptake solution along with the salt, since Ca2+ had no effect when supplied before or after salinity stress. Although Mn2+ and Mg2+ enhanced NO3− uptake under saline conditions, neither was as effective as Ca2+. In longer studies, increasing the Ca2+ concentration in saline nutrient solutions resulted in increases in NO3− assimilation and seedling growth. PMID:11539765

  7. Enhancement of nitrate uptake and growth of barley seedlings by calcium under saline conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on NO3- assimilation in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings in the presence and absence of NaCl was studied. Calcium increased the activity of the NO3- transporter under saline conditions, but had little effect under nonsaline conditions. Calcium decreased the induction period for the NO3- transporter under both saline and nonsaline conditions but had little effect on its apparent Km for NO3- both in the presence and absence of NaCl. The enhancement of NO3- transport by Ca2+ under saline conditions was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the uptake solution along with the salt, since Ca2+ had no effect when supplied before or after salinity stress. Although Mn2+ and Mg2+ enhanced NO3- uptake under saline conditions, neither was as effective as Ca2+. In longer studies, increasing the Ca2+ concentration in saline nutrient solutions resulted in increases in NO3- assimilation and seedling growth.

  8. Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The role of NO3- and NO2- in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2-/gram fresh weight x hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2- and NO3- induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2- and NO3- over a 24 hour period). In NO3(-)-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3- concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating in NO3(-)-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2(-)-fed leaves was not seen until NO3- was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3-, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3- to NO2- was inhibited by WO4(2-), the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves in NiR is induced by NO3- directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2-, and that absorbed NO2- induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3- within the leaf.

  9. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes. PMID:26666441

  10. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  11. Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14 proteins in wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeum vulgare) barley.

    PubMed

    Crosatti, C; Nevo, E; Stanca, A M; Cattivelli, L

    1996-10-01

    The cold-regulated (COR14) protein of 14 kDa is a polypeptide accumulated under low-temperature conditions in the chloroplasts of barley leaves. In H. vulgare the COR14 antibody cross-reacts with two proteins, with a slightly different relative molecular weight around the marker of 14.4 kDa, referred to as COR14a and COR14b (high and low relative molecular weight, respectively). In a collection of H. spontaneum genotypes a clear polymorphism was found for the corresponding COR proteins. While some accessions showed the same COR pattern as cultivated barley, in 38 out of 61 accessions examined the COR14 antibody cross-reacted with an additional coldregulated protein with a relative molecular weight of about 24 kDa (COR24). The accumulation of COR24 was often associated with the absence of COR14b; the relationship between the COR14b/COR24 polymorphism and the adaptation of H. spontaneum to different environments is discussed. By studying COR14 accumulation in cultivated barley we have found that the threshold induction-temperature of COR14a is associated with the loci controlling winter hardiness. This association was demonstrated by using either a set of 30 cultivars of different origin, or two sets of frost-tolerant and frost-sensitive F1 doubled-haploid lines derived from the cross Dicktoo (winter type) x Morex (spring type). These results suggest that the threshold induction-temperature of COR14a can be a potential biochemical marker for the identification of superior frostresistant barley genotypes. PMID:24162433

  12. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed. PMID:17046594

  13. Variation between Ethiopian and North American Barley Varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in Response to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia. PMID:25373187

  14. CO-BOMBARDMENT, INTEGRATION AND EXPRESSION OF RICE CHITINASE AND THAUMATIN-LIKE PROTEIN GENES IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE CV. CONLON)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Conlon. Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids, one carrying a rice (Oryza ...

  15. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  16. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  17. Transcript Differences Associated With Non-Acclimated Freezing Tolerance in Two Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley periodically suffers from late spring freezes in area throughout the world, with significant losses to yield. To better understand the response of barley to spring freezes, we examined the response of Dicktoo and Keunal barley varieties in their jointing stage to non-acclimated freezing (NAF...

  18. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  20. Induction of α-Amylase Inhibitor Synthesis in Barley Embryos and Young Seedlings by Abscisic Acid and Dehydration Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Masumi; Walker-Simmons, M.; Munro, Doug; Hill, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    An endogenous α-amylase inhibitor was found to be synthesized in embryos of developing barley grain (Hordeum vulgare cv Bonanza). Accumulation of this protein occurred late in development (stage IV), at the same time that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) showed a large increase. The inhibitor could be induced up to 23-fold in isolated immature embryos (stage III) by culture in ABA. Precocious germination was also blocked in stage III embryos by ABA. Dehydration stress on the isolated immature embryos also induced higher levels of the inhibitor and ABA. An even greater response to dehydration stress was observed in young seedlings, where inhibitor content increased 20-fold and ABA increased 80-fold during water stress. The high degree of correlation between ABA and inhibitor contents in in situ embryos, dehydrated embryos and young seedlings, as well as the increase in inhibitor caused by exogenously applied ABA to isolated embryos, suggests that increased α-amylase inhibitor synthesis in response to dehydration stress is mediated by ABA. PMID:16667035

  1. The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

    2005-11-01

    Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

  2. Protein Differences between Two Isogenic Cultivars of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that Differ in Sensitivity to Photoperiod and Far-Red Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Jan M.; Hruschka, William R.; Thomas, Brian; Deitzer, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    A photoperiodically sensitive cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Shabet) (BMDR-8) and an isogenic, single-gene recessive mutant of this genotype that is insensitive to photoperiod (BMDR-1) were grown under continuous cool white light with or without supplemental far-red fluorescent light. BMDR-1 initiates flowers 6 days after germination, irrespective of light treatment, whereas BMDR-8 remains vegetative for at least a week longer, even in continuous light. When far-red light is added, the delay of flowering in BMDR-8 is overcome and both genotypes initiate floral primordia at the same time. Total phenol extracted proteins of seedlings of both genotypes were resolved by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. No protein differences were found between the genotypes when isoelectric focusing gels were run in the first dimension. Two qualitative genotypic differences were found when nonequilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis was run in the first dimension. An 85-kilodalton polypeptide (A) and a 26-kilodalton polypeptide (B) were always present in BMDR-8 but never found in BMDR-1. The levels of A appeared to decrease from the BMDR-8 during the first 3 days of far-red treatment but did not disappear completely even after 6 days of growth in the presence of farred. Polypeptide B decreases rapidly in continuous cool white light but is stabilized by far-red. The phytochrome content of BMDR-1 was found to be greater than that for BMDR-8. This increase appears to be caused by the type I (etiolated-tissue abundant) phytochrome pool, even in plants grown in continuous light. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668813

  3. The influence of vernalization and daylength on expression of flowering-time genes in the shoot apex and leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Shahryar; Hemming, Megan N.; Oliver, Sandra N.; Greenup, Aaron; Tavakkol-Afshari, Reza; Mahfoozi, Siroos; Poustini, Kazem; Sharifi, Hamid-Reza; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James; Trevaskis, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Responses to prolonged low-temperature treatment of imbibed seeds (vernalization) were examined in barley (Hordeum vulgare). These occurred in two phases: the perception of prolonged cold, which occurred gradually at low temperatures, and the acceleration of reproductive development, which occurred after vernalization. Expression of the VERNALIZATION1 gene (HvVRN1) increased gradually in germinating seedlings during vernalization, both at the shoot apex and in the developing leaves. This occurred in darkness, independently of VERNALIZATION2 (HvVRN2), consistent with the hypothesis that expression of HvVRN1 is induced by prolonged cold independently of daylength flowering-response pathways. After vernalization, expression of HvVRN1 was maintained in the shoot apex and leaves. This was associated with accelerated inflorescence initiation and with down-regulation of HvVRN2 in the leaves. The largest determinant of HvVRN1 expression levels in vernalized plants was the length of seed vernalization treatment. Daylength did not influence HvVRN1 expression levels in shoot apices and typically did not affect expression in leaves. In the leaves of plants that had experienced a saturating seed vernalization treatment, expression of HvVRN1 was higher in long days, however. HvFT1 was expressed in the leaves of these plants in long days, which might account for the elevated HvVRN1 expression. Long-day up-regulation of HvVRN1 was not required for inflorescence initiation, but might accelerate subsequent stages of inflorescence development. Similar responses to seed vernalization were also observed in wheat (Triticum aestivum). These data support the hypothesis that VRN1 is induced by cold during winter to promote spring flowering in vernalization-responsive cereals. PMID:19357429

  4. Diversity and Evolution of Disease Resistance Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ethan J.; Ali, Shaukat; Reese, R. Neil; Yen, Yang; Neupane, Surendra; Nepal, Madhav P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease resistance genes (R-genes) play a critical role in the defense response to pathogens. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops, having a genome recently made available, for which the diversity and evolution of R-genes are not well understood. The main objectives of this research were to conduct a genome-wide identification of barley Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary history. We employed a Hidden Markov Model using 52 Arabidopsis thaliana CNL reference sequences and analyzed for phylogenetic relationships, structural variation, and gene clustering. We identified 175 barley CNL genes nested into three clades, showing (a) evidence of an expansion of the CNL-C clade, primarily due to tandem duplications; (b) very few members of clade CNL-A and CNL-B; and (c) a complete absence of clade CNL-D. Our results also showed that several of the previously identified mildew locus A (MLA) genes may be allelic variants of two barley CNL genes, MLOC_66581 and MLOC_10425, which respond to powdery mildew. Approximately 23% of the barley CNL genes formed 15 gene clusters located in the extra-pericentromeric regions on six of the seven chromosomes; more than half of the clustered genes were located on chromosomes 1H and 7H. Higher average numbers of exons and multiple splice variants in barley relative to those in Arabidopsis and rice may have contributed to a diversification of the CNL-C members. These results will help us understand the evolution of R-genes with potential implications for developing durable resistance in barley cultivars. PMID:27168720

  5. Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ping; Raman, Harsh; Zhang, Guo-ping; Mendham, Neville; Zhou, Mei-xue

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley. PMID:16972319

  6. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

  7. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  8. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  9. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  10. Landscape genomics reveal signatures of local adaptation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Tiegist D.; Naz, Ali A.; Léon, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Land plants are sessile organisms that cannot escape the adverse climatic conditions of a given environment. Hence, adaptation is one of the solutions to surviving in a challenging environment. This study was aimed at detecting adaptive loci in barley landraces that are affected by selection. To that end, a diverse population of barley landraces was analyzed using the genotyping by sequencing approach. Climatic data for altitude, rainfall and temperature were collected from 61 weather sites near the origin of selected landraces across Ethiopia. Population structure analysis revealed three groups whereas spatial analysis accounted significant similarities at shorter geographic distances (< 40 Km) among barley landraces. Partitioning the variance between climate variables and geographic distances indicated that climate variables accounted for most of the explainable genetic variation. Markers by climatic variables association analysis resulted in altogether 18 and 62 putative adaptive loci using Bayenv and latent factor mixed model (LFMM), respectively. Subsequent analysis of the associated SNPs revealed putative candidate genes for plant adaptation. This study highlights the presence of putative adaptive loci among barley landraces representing original gene pool of the farming communities. PMID:26483825

  11. Molecular and chemical characterization of a new waxy allele in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley M38 mutant was first selected for its high level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in the grain. This elevated level of MLG was found to be associated with thickened endosperm cell wall and reduced amylose accumulation. The M38 mutation was mapped to a genetic locus flanked by...

  12. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (Ins) is catalyzed by two enzymatic activities; Ins(3)P1 synthase (MIPS; EC. 5.5.1.4) and Ins monophosphatase (IMPase; EC 3.1.3.25). The barley IMP-1 gene and gene products were studied to facilitate research into the regulation of Ins synthesis and supply. In m...

  13. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO₂) and titanium oxide (nTiO₂) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg(-1) on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO₂·kg(-1). On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO₂·kg(-1), and Ca by both nTiO₂ treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO₂ while nTiO₂ can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  14. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  15. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  16. Effect of pH and calcium on short-term NO3- fluxes in roots of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of pH and Ca2+ on net NO3- uptake, influx, and efflux by intact roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was studied. Seedlings were induced with NO3- or NO2-. Net NO3- uptake and efflux, respectively, were determined by following its depletion from, and accumulation in, the external solution. Since roots of both uninduced and NO2(-)-induced seedlings contain little internal NO3- initial net uptake rates are equivalent to influx (M. Aslam, R.L. Travis, R.C. Huffaker [1994] Plant Physiol 106: 1293-1301). NO3-, uptake (influx) by these roots was little affected at acidic pH. In contrast, in NO3(-)-induced roots, which accumulate NO3-, net uptake rates decreased in response to acidic pH. Under these conditions, NO3- efflux was stimulated and was a function of root NO3- concentration. Conversely, at basic pH, NO3- uptake by NO3- and NO2(-)-induced and uninduced roots decreased, apparently because of the inhibition of influx. Calcium had little effect on NO3- uptake (influx) by NO2(-)-induced roots at either pH 3 or 6. However, in NO3(-)-induced roots, lack of Ca2+ at pH 3 significantly decreased net NO3- uptake and stimulated efflux. The results indicate that at acidic pH the decrease in net NO3- uptake is due to the stimulation of efflux, whereas at basic pH, it is due to the inhibition of influx.

  17. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L. PMID:25907571

  18. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  19. Malting revisited: Germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is inhibited by both oxygen deficiency and high carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kleinwächter, Maik; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Selmar, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    During malting, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds are germinated to promote the mobilisation of storage compounds. Germination is strongly influenced by O2 and CO2; however, any distinction between the particular effects is missing. Since, in this study, the ambient O2 concentration was maintained when high CO2 concentrations were applied, for the first time the impacts of CO2 and of O2 deficiency could be distinguished unambiguously. Germination was inhibited by both O2 deficiency and high CO2 (80%) concentrations, documented by the lack of any growth of coleoptiles and any increase of α-amylase and β-glucanase activity. In contrast, the related impacts of O2 starvation and high CO2 on fermentation differ strongly, demonstrated by quite different patterns of ethanol emission. Additionally, the stress metabolism - monitored by the means of GABA accumulation - was also differently impacted. The elucidation of the underlying, so far unknown, mechanisms will provide novel opportunities to improve malting. PMID:26434318

  20. A Metabolic Control Analysis of the Glutamine Synthetase/Glutamate Synthase Cycle in Isolated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, A. C.; Tobin, T. H.; Wallsgrove, R. M.; Tobin, A. K.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia assimilation in chloroplasts occurs via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle. To determine the extent to which these enzymes contribute to the control of ammonia assimilation, a metabolic control analysis was performed on isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf chloroplasts. Pathway flux was measured polarographically as ammonium-plus-2-oxoglutarate-plus-glutamine-dependent O2 evolution in illuminated chloroplasts. Enzyme activity was modulated by titration with specific, irreversible inhibitors of GS (phosphinothricin) and GOGAT (azaserine). Flux control coefficients (CJ0E0) were determined (a) by differentiation of best-fit hyperbolic curves of the data sets (flux versus enzyme activity), and (b) from estimates of the deviation indices (D/[prime]E0). Both analyses gave similar values for the coefficients. The control coefficient for GS was relatively high and the value did not change significantly with changes in 2-oxoglutarate concentration (C/0E0 = 0.58 at 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate and 0.40 at 20 mM 2-oxoglutarate). The control coefficient for GOGAT decreased with decreasing glutamine concentrations, from 0.76 at 20 mM glutamine to 0.19 at 10 mM glutamine. Thus, at high concentrations of glutamine, GOGAT exerts a major control over flux with a significant contribution also from GS. At lower concentrations of glutamine, however, GOGAT exerts far less control over pathway flux. PMID:12232211

  1. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  2. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  3. QTL analysis of flag leaf in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for morphological traits and chlorophyll content*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Da-wei; Chen, Ming-can; Zhou, Mei-xue; Chen, Song; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    To understand genetic patterns of the morphological and physiological traits in flag leaf of barley, a double haploid (DH) population derived from the parents Yerong and Franklin was used to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling length, width, length/width, and chlorophyll content of flag leaves. A total of 9 QTLs showing significantly additive effect were detected in 8 intervals on 5 chromosomes. The variation of individual QTL ranged from 1.9% to 20.2%. For chlorophyll content expressed as SPAD value, 4 QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 6H; for leaf length and width, 2 QTLs located on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and 2 QTLs located on chromosome 5H were detected; and for length/width, 1 QTL was detected on chromosome 7H. The identification of these QTLs associated with the properties of flag leaf is useful for barley improvement in breeding programs. PMID:19067461

  4. Fungi and the natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Karim C; Savi, Geovana D; Pereira, Maria E V; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-11-15

    The industrial use of barley grain has experienced continuous growth, mainly due to its economic importance for malt production. From a technological perspective, fungal persistence can reduce product marketability and cause economic losses. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence and identification of mycoflora and the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) in malting barley. The samples presented a low count of fungal colonies, with values ranging from 10.5 to 0.5 × 10(1)CFU g(-1) and the species most found were Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides with 26% and 12% of incidence, respectively. In the samples analyzed for mycotoxins occurrence, DON and FBs were present in 18% and 12%, respectively. The high concentrations of toxins found in the malting samples may be strongly influenced by agricultural practices and the weather conditions during critical phases of plant growth. PMID:25977017

  5. [Influence of γ-Irradiated Seeds on the Enzyme Activity in Barley Seedlings].

    PubMed

    Volkova, P Yu; Churyukin, R S; Geras'kin, S A

    2016-01-01

    Influence of γ-irradiation of barley seeds (Nur variety) at the doses of 8-50 Gy on catalase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and guaiacol peroxidase activities was studied in the seedlings on the 3, 5 and 7 days after germination. It has been shown that activities of the studied enzymes increase in the dose range that causes the growth stimulation in the seedlings (16-20 Gy). PMID:27534070

  6. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  7. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Anjali Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  8. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Endogenous Cyanide, β-Cyanoalanine Synthase Activity, and Ethylene Evolution in Seedlings of Soybean and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Tittle, Forrest L.; Goudey, J. Stephen; Spencer, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of etiolated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) with 1 millimolar 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resulted in a 14-fold and greater than 100-fold increase in ethylene production, respectively. Simultaneous monitoring of endogenous cyanide and β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS) (EC 4.4. 1.9) activity was also performed. Endogenous levels of cyanide did not change in barley. In soybean, endogenous cyanide increased within 3 hours, increased again 6 hours after exposure to 2,4-D, and continued to increase throughout the experimental period. The activity of β-CAS increased in both barley and soybean 9 hours after herbicide treatment. The increase in cyanide preceded the increase in β-CAS activity by 3 to 6 hours in soybean. The steady-state concentration of endogenous cyanide in soybean was 1 micromolar, based on rates of ethylene production and cyanide metabolism by β-CAS. This agreed with the determination of endogenous cyanide by both distillation and isotope dilution. Given the apparent compartmentalization of β-CAS in mitochondria and the localization of ethylene/HCN production at the plasmalemma and/or tonoplast, our results suggest that extra-mitochondrial accumulation of cyanide in the cytoplasm may occur. If so, the activity of cyanide-sensitive cytoplasmic enzymes could be adversely affected, thus possibly contributing to the toxicity of 2,4-D. PMID:16667809

  9. A Single Locus Is Responsible for Salinity Tolerance in a Chinese Landrace Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengdao; Johnson, Peter; Lu, Chao; Zhou, Meixue

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. Methods This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant), and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive), to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. Results Four QTLs were found for waterlogging tolerance. The salinity tolerance was evaluated with both a hydroponic system and in potting mixture. In the trial with potting mixture, only one major QTL was identified to associate with salinity tolerance. This QTL explained nearly 50% of the phenotypic variation, which makes it possible for further fine mapping and cloning of the gene. This QTL was also identified in the hydroponic experiment for different salt-related traits. The position of this QTL was located at a similar position to one of the major QTLs for waterlogging tolerance, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms controlling both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. Conclusion The markers associated with the QTL provided a unique opportunity in breeding programs for selection of salinity and waterlogging tolerance. PMID:22916210

  10. Effect of the simulated weightlessness (clinorotation) on a photosynthetic apparatus of barley plants (hordeum vulgare L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, O. I.; Sytnik, S. K.; Topchiy, N. N.

    The effect of microgravitation (simulated by clinorotation) on the organization and functioning of chloroplasts, isolated from barley plants, is studied with the use SDS-electrophoresis, spectrophotometric and polarography methods. The relative content of monomeric forms of light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) increases at the expense of its oligomeric forms under clinorotation conditions. The decrease of the portion of the entire complex of photosystem I (PSI) as well as of the sum of the PSI complexes and the complex CPa (related to PSII) was observed in experimental variants. Clinorotation induced the decrease in PSI, PSII and full electron transport activity, and the extent of the reduction depended on the light intensity during plant growth. The ATP synthesis coupled with cyclic, noncyclic and linear electron transport was inhibited under the simulated microgravitation.

  11. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  12. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed

  13. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  14. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  15. High Resolution Analysis of Meiotic Chromosome Structure and Behaviour in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Dylan; Nibau, Candida; Wnetrzak, Joanna; Jenkins, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis generate most of the genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. In barley, crossovers are confined primarily to distal regions of the chromosomes, which means that a substantial proportion of the genes of this crop rarely, if ever, engage in recombination events. There is potentially much to be gained by redistributing crossovers to more proximal regions, but our ability to achieve this is dependent upon a far better understanding of meiosis in this species. This study explores the meiotic process by describing with unprecedented resolution the early behaviour of chromosomal domains, the progression of synapsis and the structure of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Using a combination of molecular cytogenetics and advanced fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time in this species that non-homologous centromeres are coupled prior to synapsis. We demonstrate that at early meiotic prophase the loading of the SC-associated structural protein ASY1, the cluster of telomeres, and distal synaptic initiation sites occupy the same polarised region of the nucleus. Through the use of advanced 3D image analysis, we show that synapsis is driven predominantly from the telomeres, and that new synaptic initiation sites arise during zygotene. In addition, we identified two different SC configurations through the use of super-resolution 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). PMID:22761818

  16. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Wei, Yafeng; Xu, Ruibin; Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production. PMID:27598245

  18. Quantification of the tissue-culture induced variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Koebner, Robert MD; Zimny, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Background When plant tissue is passaged through in vitro culture, many regenerated plants appear to be no longer clonal copies of their donor genotype. Among the factors that affect this so-called tissue culture induced variation are explant genotype, explant tissue origin, medium composition, and the length of time in culture. Variation is understood to be generated via a combination of genetic and/or epigenetic changes. A lack of any phenotypic variation between regenerants does not necessarily imply a concomitant lack of genetic (or epigenetic) change, and it is therefore of interest to assay the outcomes of tissue culture at the genotypic level. Results A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP, based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65I/MseI and KpnI/MseI was applied to analyze, at both the sequence and methylation levels, the outcomes of regeneration from tissue culture in barley. Both sequence mutation and alteration in methylation pattern were detected. Two sets of regenerants from each of five DH donor lines were compared. One set was derived via androgenesis, and the other via somatic embryogenesis, developed from immature embryos. These comparisons delivered a quantitative assessment of the various types of somaclonal variation induced. The average level of variation was 6%, of which almost 1.7% could be accounted for by nucleotide mutation, and the remainder by changes in methylation state. The nucleotide mutation rates and the rate of epimutations were substantially similar between the andro- and embryo-derived sets of regenerants across all the donors. Conclusion We have developed an AFLP based approach that is capable of describing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the tissue culture-induced variation. We believe that this approach will find particular value in the study of patterns of inheritance of somaclonal variation, since non-heritable variation is of little interest for the improvement of plant species which are sexually

  19. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  20. Purification and properties of three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanase isoenzymes from young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

    1993-01-01

    Three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.39) isoenzymes GI, GII and GIII were purified from young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing and gel-filtration chromatography. The three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanases are monomeric proteins of apparent M(r)32,000 with pI values in the range 8.8-10.3. N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analyses confirmed that the three isoenzymes represent the products of separate genes. Isoenzymes GI and GII are less stable at elevated temperatures and are active over a narrower pH range than is isoenzyme GIII, which is a glycoprotein containing 20-30 mol of hexose equivalents/mol of enzyme. The preferred substrate for the enzymes is laminarin from the brown alga Laminaria digitata, an essentially linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan with a low degree of glucosyl substitution at 0-6 and a degree of polymerization of approx. 25. The three enzymes are classified as endohydrolases, because they yield (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides with degrees of polymerization of 3-8 in the initial stages of hydrolysis of laminarin. Kinetic analyses indicate apparent Km values in the range 172-208 microM, kcat. constants of 36-155 s-1 and pH optima of 4.8. Substrate specificity studies show that the three isoenzymes hydrolyse substituted (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans with degrees of polymerization of 25-31 and various high-M(r), substituted and side-branched fungal (1-->3;1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. However, the isoenzymes differ in their rates of hydrolysis of a (1-->3;1-->6)-beta-D-glucan from baker's yeast and their specific activities against laminarin vary significantly. The enzymes do not hydrolyse (1-->3;1-->4)-beta-D-glucans, (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan, CM-cellulose, insoluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans or aryl beta-D-glycosides. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:8424790

  1. Clinorotation effect on the transformation from etyoplasts to chloroplasts for barley seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamchuk-Chala, N. I.

    The clinorotation effect on the plastide substructure characteristics of greening barley seedlings of the variety "Zorianyi" is investigated. A comparison analysis of dynamic changes in clinorotated greening seedlings and in control ones showed the following: the volume of plastides decreased, the developing of prolamellar body and shorting of lamellae length under greening during 1 h and 3 h take place. Chloroplasts were formed only in the cells of the control variant on greening for 6 h. Possible mechanisms of the delay of transformation from etyoplasts and etyochloroplasts are discussed.

  2. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shelden, Megan C; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  3. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested. PMID:17899036

  4. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Megan C.; Dias, Daniel A.; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S.; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  5. A pair of chiral flavonolignans as novel anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals derived from barley straw (Hordeum vulgare): characterization and comparison of their anti-cyanobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Huang, Haomin; Ge, Zhiwei; Rounge, Trine B; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Xinhua; Li, Ruobing; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on cyanobacteria has been observed in many field and laboratory studies for over 30 years, although the compounds responsible for this anti-cyanobacterial effect have remained unknown. In this study, a pair of chiral flavonolignans were isolated from barley straw extract using a bioassay-guided isolation procedure against Microcystis sp. The structures of the allelopathic compounds were elucidated by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and turned out to be salcolin A and B. The enantiomers differ in their anti-cyanobacterial abilities. Both enantiomers exhibited inhibitory effects on Microcystis sp., and the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of salcolin A and B were 6.02 × 10(-5) and 9.60 × 10(-5 ) mol l(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the modes of actions of the enantiomers were investigated and compared at a single cell level by flow cytometry. Salcolin A was found to induce an increase on cyanobacterial intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and to inhibit esterase activity, whereas salcolin B caused leakages of cyanobacterial cytoplasms. Thus, salcolin A was more 'algistatic', and salcolin B was more 'algicidal'. This study suggests that salcolin is the key allelochemical in barley straw's inhibitory effect on cyanobacteria and could be used as an agent in the future control of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms. PMID:24034604

  6. Effect of Shoot Removal and Malate on the Activity of Nitrate Reductase Assayed in Vivo in Barley Roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Midas)

    PubMed Central

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Clarkson, David T.; Johnson, Christopher B.

    1979-01-01

    There is a diurnal variation of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) measured in vivo in barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Midas). In intact plants receiving a 16-hour photoperiod, NRA increases when the light is switched on, reaches a maximum value after 7 to 8 hours, and thereafter declines. Shoot removal (detopping) at the start of the photoperiod prevents the rise in NRA; detopping after 5 hours light leads to a rapid fall in NRA. The inclusion of 10 millimolar malate in the external medium causes a rise in NRA in plants detopped at the beginning of the photoperiod and thus seems to substitute partially for the illuminated shoot. Oxalate, fumarate, and tartrate did not have this effect. Preincubation of the roots of intact plants with 10 millimolar malate for 3 hours, prior to detopping, causes an increase in the flux of amino acids into the xylem sap of detopped roots. PMID:16661028

  7. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE NUTRITION AND CARBON DIOXIDE ENRICHMENT ON ASSIMILATE PARTITIONING IN BARLEY ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite levels and sucrose hydrolyzing enzyme activities were determined between 9- and 17-days after sowing using roots of barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Brant) with ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (100 Pa) CO2 treatments in controlled environment chambers. Plant growth in elevated CO2 e...

  8. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  9. Hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase and β-D-mannosidase

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A.; Biely, Peter; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    A family GH5 (family 5 glycoside hydrolase) (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase or β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), designated HvMAN1, has been purified 300-fold from extracts of 10-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified HvMAN1 is a relatively unstable enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, a pI of 7.8 and a pH optimum of 4.75. The HvMAN1 releases Man (mannose or D-mannopyranose)-containing oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2–6 from mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans. With locust-bean galactomannan and mannopentaitol as substrates, the enzyme has Km constants of 0.16 mg·ml−1 and 5.3 mM and kcat constants of 12.9 and 3.9 s−1 respectively. Product analyses indicate that transglycosylation reactions occur during hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides. The complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues of the mature enzyme has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA, and has allowed a three-dimensional model of the HvMAN1 to be constructed. The barley HvMAN1 gene is a member of a small (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase family of at least six genes, and is transcribed at low levels in a number of organs, including the developing endosperm, but also in the basal region of young roots and in leaf tips. A second barley enzyme that participates in mannan depolymerization through its ability to hydrolyse (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides to Man is a family GH1 β-D-mannosidase, now designated HvβMANNOS1, but previously identified as a β-D-glucosidase [Hrmova, MacGregor, Biely, Stewart and Fincher (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11134–11143], which hydrolyses 4NP (4-nitrophenyl) β-D-mannoside three times faster than 4NP β-D-glucoside, and has an action pattern typical of a (1,4)-β-D-mannan exohydrolase. PMID:16771710

  10. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  11. Plastome Mutations and Recombination Events in Barley Chloroplast Mutator Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Landau, Alejandra; Lencina, Franco; Pacheco, María G; Prina, Alberto R

    2016-05-01

    The barley chloroplast mutator (cpm) is an allele of a nuclear gene that when homozygous induces several types of cytoplasmically inherited chlorophyll deficiencies. In this work, a plastome Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) strategy based on mismatch digestion was used on families that carried the cpm genotype through many generations. Extensive scanning of 33 plastome genes and a few intergenic regions was conducted. Numerous polymorphisms were detected on both genic and intergenic regions. The detected polymorphisms can be accounted for by at least 61 independent mutational events. The vast majority of the polymorphisms originated in substitutions and small indels (insertions/deletions) in microsatellites. The rpl23 and the rps16 genes were the most polymorphic. Interestingly, the variation observed in the rpl23 gene consisted of several combinations of 5 different one nucleotide polymorphisms. Besides, 4 large indels that have direct repeats at both ends were also observed, which appear to be originated from recombinational events. The cpm mutation spectrum suggests that the CPM gene product is probably involved in plastome mismatch repair. The numerous subtle molecular changes that were localized in a wide range of plastome sites show the cpm as a valuable source of plastome variability for plant research and/or plant breeding. Moreover, the cpm mutant appears to be an interesting experimental material for investigating the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the stability of plant organelle DNA. PMID:26774059

  12. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  13. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors.

  14. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts. PMID:25938194

  15. Analysis of Drought-Induced Proteomic and Metabolomic Changes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves and Roots Unravels Some Aspects of Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Klaudia; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Bednarek, Paweł; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g., phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed approximately 100 drought-affected low molecular weight compounds representing various metabolite types with amino acids being the most affected metabolite class. We compared the results from proteomic and metabolomic analyses to search for existing relationship between these two levels of molecular organization. We also uncovered organ specificity of the observed changes and revealed differences in the response to water deficit of drought susceptible and tolerant barley lines. Particularly, our results indicated that several of identified proteins and metabolites whose accumulation levels were increased with drought in the analyzed susceptible barley variety revealed elevated constitutive accumulation levels in the drought-resistant line. This may suggest that constitutive biochemical predisposition represents a better drought tolerance mechanism than inducible responses. PMID:27512399

  16. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  17. Analysis of Drought-Induced Proteomic and Metabolomic Changes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves and Roots Unravels Some Aspects of Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Klaudia; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Bednarek, Paweł; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g., phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed approximately 100 drought-affected low molecular weight compounds representing various metabolite types with amino acids being the most affected metabolite class. We compared the results from proteomic and metabolomic analyses to search for existing relationship between these two levels of molecular organization. We also uncovered organ specificity of the observed changes and revealed differences in the response to water deficit of drought susceptible and tolerant barley lines. Particularly, our results indicated that several of identified proteins and metabolites whose accumulation levels were increased with drought in the analyzed susceptible barley variety revealed elevated constitutive accumulation levels in the drought-resistant line. This may suggest that constitutive biochemical predisposition represents a better drought tolerance mechanism than inducible responses. PMID:27512399

  18. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  19. Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and β-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-β-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley. PMID:24871534

  20. Molecular size and net charge of pathogenesis-related enzymes from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) infected with Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem.

    PubMed

    Rothe, G M; Welschbillig, N; Reiss, E

    1998-05-01

    Molecular size and net charge of isoforms of pathogenesis-related (PR) chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase were studied in uninfected barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) leaves and in barley leaves infected with the pathogenic fungus Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem. Molecular characteristics were determined by time-dependent polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions and by applying an extended version of the computer program MOL-MASS (Rothe, G. M., Weidmann, H., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 703-709). Uninfected barley leaves contained predominantly one peroxidase isozyme but also three very weak peroxidases. Activities of all of these three peroxidases increased considerably after infection with Drechslera teres. The molecular masses of peroxidases 1 and 3 were estimated to be 38 +/- 5 and 42 +/- 7 kDa and their apparent valences at pH 8.4 were Z = 3.13 and 3.20, respectively. Amongst the chitinase isoforms, chitinase 1 and chitinase 2 appeared after infection, while chitinase 3 was also observed in uninfected leaves of barley. The molecular mass of chitinase 3 (31 +/- 6 kDa; f/fo = 1.20) was larger than that of chitinase 1 (20 +/- 2 kDa; f/fo = 1.04) and chitinase 2 (23 +/- 3 kDa; f/fo = 1.06). The valence of constitutive chitinase 3 (Z = 1.44 +/- 0.81) at pH 8.4 was lower than that of adaptive chitinase 1 (Z = 3.27 +/- 1.02) and chitinase 2 (Z = 2.96 +/- 1.38). Infection of barley leaves with Drechslera teres also induced the hydrolytic enzyme beta-1,3-glucanase 1; beta-1,3-glucanase 2 appeared in uninfected and in infected leaves. Constitutive beta-1,3-glucanase 2 was smaller (molecular mass 19 +/- kDa; f/fo = 1.05) than adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (molecular mass 26 +/- 4 kDa; f/fo = 1.07). The valence of adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (Z = 9.58 +/- 4.17) was approximately threefold that of beta-1,3-glucanase 2 (Z = 2.80 +/- 0.93). PMID:9629909

  1. Studies of the Regulation of Nitrate Influx by Barley Seedlings Using 13NO3−1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, M. Yaeesh; Glass, Anthony D. M.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Fernando, Mala

    1989-01-01

    Using 13NO3−, effects of various NO3− pretreatments upon NO3− influx were studied in intact roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klondike). Prior exposure of roots to NO3− increased NO3− influx and net NO3− uptake. This `induction' of NO3− uptake was dependent both on time and external NO3− concentration ([NO3−]). During induction influx was positively correlated with root [NO3−]. In the postinduction period, however, NO3− influx declined as root [NO3−] increased. It is suggested that induction and negative feedback regulation are independent processes: Induction appears to depend upon some critical cytoplasmic [NO3−]; removal of external NO3− caused a reduction of 13NO3− influx even though mean root [NO3−] remained high. It is proposed that cytoplasmic [NO3−] is depleted rapidly under these conditions resulting in `deinduction' of the NO3− transport system. Beyond 50 micromoles per gram [NO3−], 13NO3− influx was negatively correlated with root [NO3−]. However, it is unclear whether root [NO3−] per se or some product(s) of NO3− assimilation are responsible for the negative feedback effects. PMID:16666881

  2. Mutation at the circadian clock gene EARLY MATURITY 8 adapts domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to short growing seasons

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Sebastien; Turner, Adrian S.; Gruszka, Damian; Christodoulou, Vangelis; Davis, Seth J.; von Korff, Maria; Laurie, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is an autonomous oscillator that produces endogenous biological rhythms with a period of about 24 h. This clock allows organisms to coordinate their metabolism and development with predicted daily and seasonal changes of the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both evolutionary fitness and agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, we show that commercial barley varieties bred for short growing seasons by use of early maturity 8 (eam8) mutations, also termed mat-a, are severely compromised in clock gene expression and clock outputs. We identified EAM8 as a barley ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) and demonstrate that eam8 accelerates the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and inflorescence development. We propose that eam8 was selected as barley cultivation moved to high-latitude short-season environments in Europe because it allowed rapid flowering in genetic backgrounds that contained a previously selected late-flowering mutation of the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1. We show that eam8 mutants have increased expression of the floral activator HvFT1, which is independent of allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The selection of independent eam8 mutations shows that this strategy facilitates short growth-season adaptation and expansion of the geographic range of barley, despite the pronounced clock defect. PMID:22566625

  3. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific filial determinant of seed total phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cultivated cereal and legume seed crops, inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or “phytic acid”) typically accounts for 75% (±10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). Genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation in some cases can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In non-mutant barley (Horde...

  4. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  5. Stimulation of Phenolics, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities During Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Ha, K-S; Jo, S-H; Mannam, V; Kwon, Y-I; Apostolidis, E

    2016-06-01

    The rationale of this study was to enhance the nutritional quality of dry barley seeds. In this study we are evaluating the effect of germination on barley seeds relevant to total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity (in terms of DPPH free-radical scavenging) and the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Barley seeds were germinated for 18.5, 24, 30, 48, and 67 h and then extracted in water. The total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities changed with germination time. More specifically, within the first 48 h of germination the total phenolic content increased from 1.1 mg/g fresh weight (0 h) to 3.4 mg/g fresh weight (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Similarly, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was significantly increased from an IC50 128.82 mg/mL (0 h) to an IC50 18.88 mg/mL (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Significant maltase inhibitory activity was observed only with 48 h-germinated extract. Antioxidant activities increased continuously from an IC50 15.72 mg/mL at 0 h to and IC50 5.72 mg/mL after 48 h of germination. Based on our observations, barley seed germination was over after 48 h. During the progress of germination phenolic compounds are becoming available and are more easily extracted. After 48 h, lignification is initiated resulting to the decreased total phenolic content and observed antioxidant and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition activities. The above results indicate the positive effect of germination in barley seeds for enhanced antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. PMID:27188780

  6. Comparative analyses of genotoxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defence system under exposure of methyl parathion and hexaconazole in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the comparative effects of methyl parathion and hexaconazole on genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidative defence system and photosynthetic pigments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety karan-16). The seeds were exposed with three different concentrations, i.e. 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 % for 6 h after three pre-soaking durations 7, 17 and 27 h which represents G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Ethyl methane sulphonate, a well-known mutagenic agent and double distilled water, was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results indicate significant decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentrations of pesticides, and the extent was higher in methyl parathion. Chromosomal aberrations were found more frequent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Treatment with the pesticides induced oxidative stress which was evident with higher contents of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the increase was more prominent in methyl parathion. Contents of total phenolics were increased; however, soluble protein content showed a reverse trend. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were significantly up-regulated, and more increase was noticed in hexaconazole. Increments in total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were observed up to 0.1 % but decreased at higher concentration (0.5 %), and the reductions were more prominent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Methyl parathion treatment caused more damage in the plant cells of barley as compared to hexaconazole, which may be closely related to higher genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26286802

  7. Modulation of the nitrate reductase transcript by cytokinin and abscisic acid in etiolated barley seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jia-ling; Enl, J.R.; Chen, Chong-maw )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the hormonal modulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) on the level of NR poly(A)RNA was studied in etiolated barley seedlings using a {sup 32}P-labelled NR cDNA as a probe. Enhancement of NR activity by 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M BA was measurable only after 60 minutes of exposure of the seedlings to light, while a significant stimulatory effect on the transcript level could by clearly detected within 15 minutes. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly(A)RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of BA applied to the seedlings. The stimulatory effects seen for BA were nullified by ABA. The counteractive effects of ABA on BA were dose-responsive, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations of ABA. Evidence suggests that the interaction of BA and ABA on NR activity is at the transcriptional level, however, is also possible that interactions occur at the postranscriptional level as well.

  8. Increased expression of six ZIP family genes by zinc (Zn) deficiency is associated with enhanced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn; Genc, Yusuf; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2015-09-01

    Low zinc (Zn) in soils reduces yield and grain Zn content. Regulation of ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) family genes is a major mechanism in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil. Although several Zn deficiency-inducible ZIP genes are identified in cereals, there has been no systematic study on the association of Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation with expression of ZIP family genes. We measured Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants by resupplying 0.5 μM Zn, and quantified the transcripts of thirteen HvZIP genes. Subcellular localization and tissue-specific expression were also determined for Zn deficiency-inducible HvZIP genes. Zn deficiency enhanced the capacity of uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, and sustained the enhanced capacity for 6 d after Zn resupply. Six HvZIP genes were highly induced in roots of Zn-deficient plants, and their proteins were localized in the plasma membrane. Tissue-specific expression in roots supports their roles in uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn under low Zn conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the physiological roles of ZIP genes in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil, and pave the way for development of new strategies to improve Zn-deficiency tolerance and biofortification in cereals. PMID:25904503

  9. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

  10. Water-deficiency conditions differently modulate the methylome of roots and leaves in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Mroziewicz, Anna; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    One of the strategies of plant adaptation to stress is the modulation of gene expression, which may result from the regulation of DNA methylation. This study attempted to characterize and compare the barley methylome of leaves and roots under water-deficiency treatment and in the subsequent rewatering phase. Our results, obtained using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism sequencing analysis, indicated that the overall DNA methylation level in the barley genome was high and in general stable under water-deficiency conditions. Nevertheless, numerous differentially methylated sites (DMSs) were induced by stress in the leaves and roots. Equal proportions of novel stress-induced methylation and demethylation events were observed within the genes in the leaves, but new methylations dominated in the roots. Repetitive elements preferentially underwent demethylation in the leaves and novel methylations in the roots. Importantly, rewatering and plant recovery resulted in the reversibility of the majority of stress-induced methylation events, but this process was more efficient in the leaves than in the roots. Different biological processes were enriched within the subsets of the DMSs that were identified in the genic regions of leaves and roots. We assume that the organ specificity of the methylome changes in response to water deficiency might be an important regulatory mechanism that leads to multi-level mechanisms of stress tolerance in barley. PMID:26739862

  11. The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abulnaja, Khalid O.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on testing the hypolipidemic activity of two doses of barley bran on hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats weighing 180–200 gm were divided into four groups. The first group (G1) was the negative control, the second group (G2) was the positive control group fed 2% cholesterol in the diet, and rats of the third and the fourth groups were fed 2% cholesterol and were cosupplemented with 5% and 10% barley bran, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic rats of (G2) showed an increase in lipid profile, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, whereas kidney function, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin total protein, and total bilirubin were not significantly affected compared with the negative control group in G1. Moreover, histology of heart, liver, and kidney of G2 rats showed histopathological changes compared with the negative control. Administration of the two doses of barley bran in G3 and G4 to the hypercholesterolemic rats ameliorated the level of lipids, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney tissues nearly restored the normal state as in G1. PMID:25866539

  12. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. PMID:26427614

  13. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  14. Root-to-shoot signalling: apoplastic alkalinization, a general stress response and defence factor in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Felle, H H; Herrmann, A; Hückelhoven, R; Kogel, K-H

    2005-12-01

    We used a noninvasive microprobe technique to record in substomatal cavities of barley leaves the apoplastic pH response to different stress situations. When K+ (or Na+) activity at the roots of intact plants was increased from 1 to 50 mM, the leaf apoplastic pH increased by 0.4 to 0.6 units within 8 to 12 min when stomata were open, and within 15 to 20 min when stomata were closed. This reaction was accompanied by a correlative increase in K+ activity. Addition of 1 microM abscisic acid caused an apoplastic alkalinization of 0.5 to 0.8 units, and low temperatures (4 degrees C) increased pH by 0.2 to 0.3 units. Addition of 100 mM sorbitol or pH changes in the range 4.0 to 7.9 had no effect, ruling out that osmotic potential and/or pH is the carried signal. On detached leaves, the same treatments yielded qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the xylem is the most likely signal path. Following the attack of powdery mildew, the apoplastic pH of barley leaves substantially increases. We demonstrate that in susceptible barley, pretreatment (soil drench) with the resistance-inducing chemical benzo- (1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester markedly enhances this pH response. This is consistent with previous finding that apoplastic alkalinization is related to the degree of resistance towards this fungus. PMID:16389490

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a New QTL for Salinity Tolerance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun; Zhou, Gaofeng; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Cai, Shengguan; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that affect agricultural production. Genome wide association study (GWAS) has been widely used to detect genetic variations in extensive natural accessions with more recombination and higher resolution. In this study, 206 barley accessions collected worldwide were genotyped with 408 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and evaluated for salinity stress tolerance using salinity tolerance score – a reliable trait developed in our previous work. GWAS for salinity tolerance had been conducted through a general linkage model and a mixed linkage model based on population structure and kinship. A total of 24 significant marker-trait associations were identified. A QTL on 4H with the nearest marker of bPb-9668 was consistently detected in all different methods. This QTL has not been reported before and is worth to be further confirmed with bi-parental populations. PMID:27446173

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a New QTL for Salinity Tolerance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yun; Zhou, Gaofeng; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Cai, Shengguan; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that affect agricultural production. Genome wide association study (GWAS) has been widely used to detect genetic variations in extensive natural accessions with more recombination and higher resolution. In this study, 206 barley accessions collected worldwide were genotyped with 408 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and evaluated for salinity stress tolerance using salinity tolerance score - a reliable trait developed in our previous work. GWAS for salinity tolerance had been conducted through a general linkage model and a mixed linkage model based on population structure and kinship. A total of 24 significant marker-trait associations were identified. A QTL on 4H with the nearest marker of bPb-9668 was consistently detected in all different methods. This QTL has not been reported before and is worth to be further confirmed with bi-parental populations. PMID:27446173

  17. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Methods Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9–13, 14–18, 19–23 and 24–28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Key Results Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Conclusions Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative

  18. Allelopathic Plants. Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual cereal and one of the first agricultural crops to be domesticated. It is a versatile crop and is broadly used as a food grain for human consumption, malt source for brewing, and feed grain for livestock. On-farm crop uses include pasture, a hay and silage sou...

  19. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20 °C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10 °C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

  20. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  1. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  2. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Vera L.; Temperton, Vicky M.; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm−3) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g−1) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24–340 seeds m−2) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0–10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4–1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m−2 suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  3. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  4. Registration of the BISON genetic stocks in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) at Oregon State University, and evaluated for resistance to barley stripe rust (BSR, incited by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) and agronomic potential. The NILs, henceforth the BISON lines (Barley stripe ...

  5. 1H, 13C, 15N backbone and side chain NMR resonance assignments for the N-terminal RNA recognition motif of the HvGR-RBP1 protein involved in the regulation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) senescence

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Katelyn E.; Tripet, Brian P.; Parrott, David; Fischer, Andreas M.; Copié, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence is an important process in the developmental life of all plant species. Senescence efficiency influences important agricultural traits such as grain protein content and plant growth, which are often limited by nitrogen use. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating this highly orchestrated process. To enhance our understanding of leaf senescence and its regulation, we have undertaken the structural and functional characterization of previously unknown proteins that are involved in the control of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Previous microarray analysis highlighted several barley genes whose transcripts are differentially expressed during senescence, including a specific gene which is greater than 40 fold up-regulated in the flag leaves of early- as compared to late-senescing near-isogenic barley lines at 14 and 21 days past flowering (anthesis). From inspection of its amino acid sequence, this gene is predicted to encode a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein herein referred to as HvGR-RBP1. HvGR-RBP1 has been expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli, and preliminary NMR data analysis has revealed that its glycine-rich C-terminal region [residues: 93–162] is structurally disordered whereas its N-terminal region [residues: 1–92] forms a well-folded domain. Herein, we report the complete 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of backbone and sidechain atoms, and the secondary structural topology of the N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain of HvGR-RBP1, as a first step to unraveling its structural and functional role in the regulation of barley leaf senescence. PMID:23417794

  6. Identification and characterization of a partially functional mutation of the cellulose-synthase-like (CslF6) gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical induced barley mutant m351 was first selected for its low level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in an effort to find barley lines with varied grain MLG contents. The MLG decrease in m351 was associated with thinned endosperm cell walls and increased levels of fructans ...

  7. Development of the terrestrial biotic ligand model for predicting nickel toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare): ion effects at low pH.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2009-08-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the potential for Al3+, Mg2+, and H+ to influence Ni2+ toxicity for barley seedlings grown in acidic aqueous solutions and to assess the capacity of a two-site terrestrial biotic ligand model (tBLM) to accurately predict 50% effect activities (EA50s). To accomplish these objectives, 48-h EA50Ni2+ values were obtained for three sets of exposures in which the pH and activity of Al3+ and Mg2+ were varied. Exposures contained both Al alone and in combination with Mg so that compound ion effects could be investigated. A tBLM was then constructed to predict EA50Ni2+ values from the exposure solution chemistry. The results show a slight protective effect of H+ against Ni2+ toxicity and a strong protective effect of Mg2+, as indicated by a 4.6- and 8.0-fold increase in the measured EA50Ni2+ values corresponding to changes in pH from 6.0 to 4.5 and {Mg2+} from 0 to 1.40 mM, respectively. Increasing solution {Al3+} from 0 to 0.5 microM had no effect on Ni2+ toxicity, although Al itself negatively affected root elongation. Comparison of EA50 values calculated as both Ni2+ and measured concentration of total Ni in the root ([Root-Ni]T) showed [Root-Ni]T to be a more normalized measure of Ni bioavailability. The strong correlation between root growth inhibition and tBLM-predicted root-Ni accumulation suggests that toxicity was influenced by Ni2+ binding to low-affinity ligands within the cell wall, in addition to Ni2+ uptake through Mg2+ transporters. Predicted EA50Ni2+ values generated with the model were all within a factor of +/-1.5 from measured values--a result that emphasizes the advantage of using the tBLM for risk assessment. PMID:19374472

  8. Barley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots synthesise volatile aldehydes with a strong age-dependent pattern and release (E)-non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal after mechanical injury.

    PubMed

    Delory, Benjamin M; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2016-07-01

    In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major importance for setting up experiments to study the implication of these compounds in biotic interactions. Such analyses, however, remain challenging because of the belowground location of plant root systems. In this context, this study describes the evolution of the root VOC production pattern of barley (Hordeum distichon L.) at five developmental stages from germination to the end of tillering and evaluates the emission of the identified VOCs in an artificial soil. VOCs produced by crushed root tissues and released by unexcavated root systems were analysed using dynamic sampling devices coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology (synchronous SCAN/SIM). The results showed that, at each analysed developmental stage, crushed barley roots produced mainly four volatile aldehydes: hexanal; (E)-hex-2-enal; (E)-non-2-enal; and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. Higher total and individual VOC concentrations were measured in 3-day-old seminal roots compared with older phenological stages. For each developmental stage, the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was greater for linoleic acid than α-linolenic acid and the greatest LOX activities using linoleic and α-linolenic acids as substrates were measured in 7- and 3-day-old roots, respectively. The analysis of VOCs released by barley roots into the soil showed that (E)-non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal were the only VOCs emitted in quantifiable amounts by mechanically injured roots. PMID:27031425

  9. Downregulation of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) leucine-rich repeat, non-arginine-aspartate receptor-like protein kinase reduces expression of numerous genes involved in plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Parrott, David L; Huang, Li; Fischer, Andreas M

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors represent a first line of plant defense against pathogens. Comparing the flag leaf transcriptomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) near-isogenic lines varying in the allelic state of a locus controlling senescence, we have previously identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene (LRR-RLK; GenBank accession: AK249842), which was strongly upregulated in leaves of early-as compared to late-senescing germplasm. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this gene codes for a subfamily XII, non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) LRR-RLK. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a two-fold reduction of transcript levels as compared to controls. Transcriptomic comparison of leaves from untreated plants, from plants treated with virus only without any plant sequences (referred to as 'empty virus' control), and from plants in which AK249842 expression was knocked down identified numerous genes involved in pathogen defense. These genes were strongly induced in 'empty virus' as compared to untreated controls, but their expression was significantly reduced (again compared to 'empty virus' controls) when AK249842 was knocked down, indicating that their expression partially depends on the LRR-RLK investigated here. Expression analysis, using datasets from BarleyBase/PLEXdb, demonstrated that AK249842 transcript levels are heavily influenced by the allelic state of the well-characterized mildew resistance a (Mla) locus, and that the gene is induced after powdery mildew and stem rust infection. Together, our data suggest that AK249842 is a barley pattern recognition receptor with a tentative role in defense against fungal pathogens, setting the stage for its full functional characterization. PMID:26820571

  10. Germination and microwave processing of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) changes the structural and physicochemical properties of β-d-glucan & enhances its antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Masoodi, F A

    2016-11-20

    The nutraceutical potential of β-d-glucan is largely dependent on its structure, size and viscosity. The present study analyzed the effect of germination and microwave processing of barley on the structural, size, antioxidant and thermal characteristics of β-d-glucan. The molecular weight and viscosity of β-d-glucan obtained from germinated barley (GGB) were the lowest (144kDa and 37.33cp) as compared to β-d-glucan from microwave processed barley (GMB) and unprocessed barley (GUB). The GGB exhibited higher antioxidant potential than GMB and GUB. The Structural elucidation by ATR-FTIR revealed scission in polymeric chain and β glycosydic linkage of β-d-glucan obtained from processed barley. The highest peak intensity at glycosydic linkage in GGB confirms more scission in the molecule. The DSC curve of GGB showed the highest transition temperature. It was concluded that germination of barley can be a good approach for enhancing the antioxidant potential of β-d-glucan. PMID:27561541

  11. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Thus, for routine screening of barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

  12. Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

  13. Status of greenhouse seedling screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous or virulifer...

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley. PMID:26110389

  15. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations from the countries of East Asia (China, Nepal, Pakistan, India)].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2012-08-01

    In this study, starch gel electrophoresis was used to examine polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci in 201 accessions of barley landraces from China (including Tibet), Nepal, Pakistan, and India. Altogether, 50 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.2269 were determined for the Hrd A locus, 65 alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.1612 were determined for the Hrd B locus, and five alleles with the frequencies of 0.001-0.4537 were determined for the Hrd Flocus. In barley populations from these countries, irregular distribution of alleles and allele frequencies was observed. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in populations from known sampling sites revealed cluster structure of local barley populations within each country. Local populations formed five differently sized clusters in Nepal, four such clusters in India, three clusters in China, and three clusters, in Pakistan. These results suggest that variation and allele frequency distribution of the hordein-coding loci in the countries of East Asia resulted from the introduction and spreading of barley forms through the husbandmen migrations. PMID:23035545

  16. Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

  17. Investigating the molecular structural features of hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in relation to metabolic characteristics using synchrotron-based fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Beattie, Aaron D; Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-11-27

    The synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) technique was used to quantify molecular structural features of the four hulless barley lines with altered carbohydrate traits [amylose, 1-40% of dry matter (DM); β-glucan, 5-10% of DM] in relation to rumen degradation kinetics, intestinal nutrient digestion, and predicted protein supply. Spectral features of β-glucan (both area and heights) in hulless barley lines showed a negative correlation with protein availability in the small intestine, including truly digested protein in the small intestine (DVE) (r = -0.76, P < 0.01; r = -0.84, P < 0.01) and total metabolizable protein (MP) (r = -0.71, P < 0.05; r = -0.84, P < 0.01). Variation in absorption intensities of total carbohydrate (CHO) was observed with negative effects on protein degradation, digestion, and potential protein supply (P < 0.05). Molecular structural features of CHO in hulless barley have negative effects on the supply of true protein to ruminants. The results clearly indicated the impact of the carbohydrate-protein structure and matrix. PMID:24156528

  18. In silico and in vitro analyses of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates generated from crude barley (Hordeum vulgare) protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Wynne, Kieran; O'Connor, Paula; Gallagher, Eimear; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K; Hayes, Maria

    2016-07-15

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) plays a key role in control of hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, which frequently co-exist. Our current work utilised in silico methodologies and peptide databases as tools for predicting release of ACE-I inhibitory peptides from barley proteins. Papain was the enzyme of choice, based on in silico analysis, for experimental hydrolysis of barley protein concentrate, which was performed at the enzyme's optimum conditions (60 °C, pH 6.0) for 24 h. The generated hydrolysate was subjected to molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filtration, following which the non-ultrafiltered hydrolysate (NUFH), and the generated 3 kDa and 10 kDa MWCO filtrates were assessed for their in vitro ACE-I inhibitory activities. The 3 kDa filtrate (1 mg/ml), that demonstrated highest ACE-I inhibitory activity of 70.37%, was characterised in terms of its peptidic composition using mass spectrometry and 1882 peptides derived from 61 barley proteins were identified, amongst which 15 peptides were selected for chemical synthesis based on their predicted ACE-I inhibitory properties. Of the synthesized peptides, FQLPKF and GFPTLKIF were most potent, demonstrating ACE-I IC50 values of 28.2 μM and 41.2 μM respectively. PMID:26948626

  19. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops. PMID:25982739

  20. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  1. Influence of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) extract on phytoplankton dominated by Scenedesmus species in laboratory conditions: the importance of the extraction duration.

    PubMed

    Pęczuła, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    The response of a natural phytoplankton assemblage dominated by algae of the genus Scenedesmus to the addition of barley straw extract was studied in a laboratory experiment. The aim of the study was to compare the inhibiting effect of water extracts obtained by soaking the straw for 1, 2 and 3 months. We analysed the response of four species, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Scenedesmus ecornis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Scenedesmus acuminatus, during 14 days of their exposure to different types of barley straw extract. S. subspicatus and S. ecornis responded with decreasing numbers only to the addition of the 3-month solution (ANOVA; F = 290.1, p <0.001; and F = 11.8, p <0.01, respectively); the two other species were inhibited by all types of extracts. The results indicate the need for more research on the importance of extraction duration to the inhibitory abilities of barley straw which can be applied in the management of water quality in water bodies. PMID:23482372

  2. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  3. Proteome analysis of metabolic proteins (pI 4-7) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) malts and initial application in malt quality discrimination.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Mu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Jun-Yong; Li, Xiao-Min; Gao, Xian-Li; Lu, Jian

    2013-01-16

    Barley malt is essential for beer production. In the present study, the nonprolamin fractions including proteins with structural functions or metabolic activities were extracted from barley malts of the widely used cultivars Gangpi and Baudin in China. The metabolic proteomes (pI 4-7) were constructed and compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) identification. There were 333 and 354 spots detected in the 2DE gels of Gangpi and Baudin malts, respectively, and about 90% of these spots were shared by the two malts. For all, 377 were successfully identified to 192 proteins, most of which were enzymes and enzyme inhibitors, suggesting important roles in barley malting and the mashing stage of brewing. The Baudin malt was found to contain more spots representing amylases, pathogen-related proteins, and chaperones than the Gangpi malt. In addition, enzymes involved in glycolysis and redox pathways showed significantly different profiles between the two malts, permitting a more in-depth elucidation of the relationship between differential proteins and malt qualities. PMID:23198685

  4. Inhibition of nitrate transport by anti-nitrate reductase IgG fragments and the identification of plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase in roots of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Membrane associated nitrate reductase (NR) was detected in plasma membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) roots. The PM associated NR was not removed by washing vesicles with 500 millimolar NaCl and 1 millimolar EDTA and represented up to 4% of the total root NR activity. PM associated NR was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 whereas soluble NR was only increased 1.7-fold. The latency was a function of the solubilization of NR from the membrane. NR, solubilized from the PM fraction by Triton X-100 was inactivated by antiserum to Chlorella sorokiniana NR. Anti-NR immunoglobulin G fragments purified from the anti-NR serum inhibited NO3- uptake by more than 90% but had no effect on NO2- uptake. The inhibitory effect was only partially reversible; uptake recovered to 50% of the control after thorough rinsing of roots. Preimmune serum immunoglobulin G fragments inhibited NO3- uptake 36% but the effect was completely reversible by rinsing. Intact NR antiserum had no effect on NO3- uptake. The results present the possibility that NO3- uptake and NO3- reduction in the PM of barley roots may be related.

  5. REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

  6. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanling; Shabala, Sergey; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Chunji; Zhang, Wenying; Zhou, Meixue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective. Methods In this study, a double haploid (DH) population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1) and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD) and waterlogged (SalinityW) conditions at two different sowing times. Results Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs. PMID:26247774

  8. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. Results The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC) and leaf wilting (WS). QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. Conclusions The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars. PMID:22817330

  9. Interactions between ethylene, CO/sub 2/, and ABA on GA/sub 3/-induced amylase synthesis in barley aleurone tissue. [Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya

    SciTech Connect

    Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    Gibberellic acid-induced synthesis and release of ..cap alpha..-amylase in barley aleurone tissue was inhibited by abscisic acid. This inhibition was relieved by simultaneous application of ethylene ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 100 microliters per liter. When CO/sub 2/ was applied, it eliminated the effect of 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene and reimposed the abscisic acid inhibition. All concentrations of CO/sub 2/ tested from 400 to 10/sup 5/ microliters per liter counteracted the effect of 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene, but had no observable effect on any higher concentration of ethylene. The results indicate that some processes necessary for embryo growth may be subject to regulation by ethylene and carbon dioxide at naturally occurring concentrations of the gases.

  10. Crystallisation of wild-type and variant forms of a recombinant plant enzyme β-D-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and preliminary X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Luang, Sukanya; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Streltsov, Victor A; Hrmova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Wild-type and variant crystals of a recombinant enzyme beta-d-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were obtained by macroseeding and cross-seeding with microcrystals obtained from native plant protein. Crystals grew to dimensions of up to 500 x 250 x 375 mum at 277 K in the hanging-drops by vapour-diffusion. Further, the conditions are described that yielded the wild-type crystals with dimensions of 80 x 40 x 60 mum by self-nucleation vapour-diffusion in sitting-drops at 281 K. The wild-type and recombinant crystals prepared by seeding techniques achived full size within 5-14 days, while the wild-type crystals grown by self-nucleation appeared after 30 days and reached their maximum size after another two months. Both the wild-type and recombinant variant crystals, the latter altered in the key catalytic and substrate-binding residues Glu220, Trp434 and Arg158/Glu161 belonged to the P4(3)2(1)2 tetragonal space group, i.e., the space group of the native microcrystals was retained in the newly grown recombinant crystals. The crystals diffracted beyond 1.57-1.95 A and the cell dimensions were between a = b = 99.2-100.8 A and c = 183.2-183.6 A. With one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated Matthews coefficients were between 3.4-3.5 A(3).Da(-1) and the solvent contents varied between 63.4% and 64.5%. The macroseeding and cross-seeding techniques are advantageous, where a limited amount of variant proteins precludes screening of crystallisation conditions, or where variant proteins could not be crystallized. PMID:20717535

  11. The Maltase Involved in Starch Metabolism in Barley Endosperm Is Encoded by a Single Gene.

    PubMed

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Saalbach, Gerhard; Waugh, Robbie; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    During germination and early seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare), maltase is responsible for the conversion of maltose produced by starch degradation in the endosperm to glucose for seedling growth. Despite the potential relevance of this enzyme for malting and the production of alcoholic beverages, neither the nature nor the role of maltase is fully understood. Although only one gene encoding maltase has been identified with certainty, there is evidence for the existence of other genes and for multiple forms of the enzyme. It has been proposed that maltase may be involved directly in starch granule degradation as well as in maltose hydrolysis. The aim of our work was to discover the nature of maltase in barley endosperm. We used ion exchange chromatography to fractionate maltase activity from endosperm of young seedlings, and we partially purified activity for protein identification. We compared maltase activity in wild-type barley and transgenic lines with reduced expression of the previously-characterised maltase gene Agl97, and we used genomic and transcriptomic information to search for further maltase genes. We show that all of the maltase activity in the barley endosperm can be accounted for by a single gene, Agl97. Multiple forms of the enzyme most likely arise from proteolysis and other post-translational modifications. PMID:27011041

  12. The Maltase Involved in Starch Metabolism in Barley Endosperm Is Encoded by a Single Gene

    PubMed Central

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Waugh, Robbie; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    During germination and early seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare), maltase is responsible for the conversion of maltose produced by starch degradation in the endosperm to glucose for seedling growth. Despite the potential relevance of this enzyme for malting and the production of alcoholic beverages, neither the nature nor the role of maltase is fully understood. Although only one gene encoding maltase has been identified with certainty, there is evidence for the existence of other genes and for multiple forms of the enzyme. It has been proposed that maltase may be involved directly in starch granule degradation as well as in maltose hydrolysis. The aim of our work was to discover the nature of maltase in barley endosperm. We used ion exchange chromatography to fractionate maltase activity from endosperm of young seedlings, and we partially purified activity for protein identification. We compared maltase activity in wild-type barley and transgenic lines with reduced expression of the previously-characterised maltase gene Agl97, and we used genomic and transcriptomic information to search for further maltase genes. We show that all of the maltase activity in the barley endosperm can be accounted for by a single gene, Agl97. Multiple forms of the enzyme most likely arise from proteolysis and other post-translational modifications. PMID:27011041

  13. Leaf proteome alterations in the context of physiological and morphological responses to drought and heat stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rollins, J A; Habte, E; Templer, S E; Colby, T; Schmidt, J; von Korff, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify barley leaf proteins differentially regulated in response to drought and heat and the combined stresses in context of the morphological and physiological changes that also occur. The Syrian landrace Arta and the Australian cultivar Keel were subjected to drought, high temperature, or a combination of both treatments starting at heading. Changes in the leaf proteome were identified using differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The drought treatment caused strong reductions of biomass and yield, while photosynthetic performance and the proteome were not significantly changed. In contrast, the heat treatment and the combination of heat and drought reduced photosynthetic performance and caused changes of the leaf proteome. The proteomic analysis identified 99 protein spots differentially regulated in response to heat treatment, 14 of which were regulated in a genotype-specific manner. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions in photosynthesis, but also in detoxification, energy metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that de novo protein biosynthesis, protein quality control mediated by chaperones and proteases, and the use of alternative energy resources, i.e. glycolysis, play important roles in adaptation to heat stress. In addition, genetic variation identified in the proteome, in plant growth and photosynthetic performance in response to drought and heat represent stress adaption mechanisms to be exploited in future crop breeding efforts. PMID:23918963

  14. Leaf proteome alterations in the context of physiological and morphological responses to drought and heat stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    von Korff, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify barley leaf proteins differentially regulated in response to drought and heat and the combined stresses in context of the morphological and physiological changes that also occur. The Syrian landrace Arta and the Australian cultivar Keel were subjected to drought, high temperature, or a combination of both treatments starting at heading. Changes in the leaf proteome were identified using differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The drought treatment caused strong reductions of biomass and yield, while photosynthetic performance and the proteome were not significantly changed. In contrast, the heat treatment and the combination of heat and drought reduced photosynthetic performance and caused changes of the leaf proteome. The proteomic analysis identified 99 protein spots differentially regulated in response to heat treatment, 14 of which were regulated in a genotype-specific manner. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions in photosynthesis, but also in detoxification, energy metabolism, and protein biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that de novo protein biosynthesis, protein quality control mediated by chaperones and proteases, and the use of alternative energy resources, i.e. glycolysis, play important roles in adaptation to heat stress. In addition, genetic variation identified in the proteome, in plant growth and photosynthetic performance in response to drought and heat represent stress adaption mechanisms to be exploited in future crop breeding efforts. PMID:23918963

  15. What are the implications of variation in root hair length on tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in combination with water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L.K.; George, T.S.; Thompson, J.A.; Wright, G.; Lyon, J.; Dupuy, L.; Hubbard, S.F.; White, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus commonly limits crop yield and is frequently applied as fertilizer; however, supplies of quality rock phosphate for fertilizer production are diminishing. Plants have evolved many mechanisms to increase their P-fertilizer use efficiency, and an understanding of these traits could result in improved long-term sustainability of agriculture. Here a mutant population is utilized to assess the impact of root hair length on P acquisition and yield under P-deficient conditions alone or when combined with drought. Methods Mutants with various root hair phenotypes were grown in the glasshouse in pots filled with soil representing sufficient and deficient P treatments and, in one experiment, a range of water availability was also imposed. Plants were variously harvested at 7 d, 8 weeks and 14 weeks, and variables including root hair length, rhizosheath weight, biomass, P accumulation and yield were measured. Key Results The results confirmed the robustness of the root hair phenotypes in soils and their relationship to rhizosheath production. The data demonstrated that root hair length is important for shoot P accumulation and biomass, while only the presence of root hairs is critical for yield. Root hair presence was also critical for tolerance to extreme combined P deficit and drought stress, with genotypes with no root hairs suffering extreme growth retardation in comparison with those with root hairs. Conclusions The results suggest that although root hair length is not important for maintaining yield, the presence of root hairs is implicit to sustainable yield of barley under P-deficient conditions and when combined with extreme drought. Root hairs are a trait that should be maintained in future germplasm. PMID:22539540

  16. The identification of new cytosolic glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and their expression during leaf senescence

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Marmagne, Anne; Talbotec, Joël; Krupinska, Karin; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase are two master enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation in plants. Their roles in nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen use efficiency have been proposed. In this report, the genes coding for the cytosolic glutamine synthetases (HvGS1) and asparagine synthetases (HvASN) in barley were identified. In addition to the three HvGS1 and two HvASN sequences previously reported, two prokaryotic-like HvGS1 and three HvASN cDNA sequences were identified. Gene structures were then characterized, obtaining full genomic sequences. The response of the five HvGS1 and five HvASN genes to leaf senescence was then studied. Developmental senescence was studied using primary and flag leaves. Dark-exposure or low-nitrate conditions were also used to trigger stress-induced senescence. Well-known senescence markers such as the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents were monitored in order to characterize senescence levels in the different leaves. The three eukaryotic-like HvGS1_1, HvGS1_2, and HvGS1_3 sequences showed the typical senescence-induced reduction in gene expression described in many plant species. By contrast, the two prokaryotic-like HvGS1_4 and HvGS1_5 sequences were repressed by leaf senescence, similar to the HvGS2 gene, which encodes the chloroplast glutamine synthetase isoenzyme. There was a greater contrast in the responses of the five HvASN and this suggested that these genes are needed for N remobilization in senescing leaves only when plants are well fertilized with nitrate. Responses of the HvASN sequences to dark-induced senescence showed that there are two categories of asparagine synthetases, one induced in the dark and the other repressed by the same conditions. PMID:25697791

  17. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Christof; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Wobus, Ulrich; Röder, Marion S

    2009-01-01

    Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference expression map of regulators

  18. Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K

    Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare. PMID:18697732

  19. Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved gronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley ...

  20. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  1. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  2. An efficient method for flanking sequence isolation in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adapter ligation method was developed to determine native barley (Hordeum vulgare) sequences flanking Ds insertions and barley ESTs. This method is simple and efficient, with the majority of queries returning valid sequence information. This report describes the protocol in detail, quantifies its...

  3. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  4. The Barley Phytomer

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Brian P.; Franckowiak, Jerome D.; Lundqvist, Udda; Lyon, Jackie; Pitkethly, Ian; Thomas, William T. B.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological mutants have been useful in elucidating the phytomeric structure of plants. Recently described mutants have shed new light on the ontogeny (development of plant structures) and the phytomeric system of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Since the current model for barley phytomers was not adequate to explain the nature of some mutants, a new model is proposed. Methods New phytomer mutants were detected by visual assessment of mutant families in the Optic barley mutation grid population. This was done at various growth stages using laboratory, glasshouse and field screens. Simple explanations were adopted to account for aberrant phytomer phenotypes and a thesis for a new phytomer model was developed. Key Results and Conclusions A barley phytomer model is presented, in which the origins of vegetative and generative structures can be explained by a single repeating phytomer unit. Organs on the barley plant are divided into two classes, single or paired, depending on their origin. Paired structures are often fused together to create specific organs. The model can be applied to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and related grasses. PMID:17901062

  5. UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

  6. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  7. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  8. Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

  9. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  10. Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...

  11. Hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance through nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of ion homeostasis in barley seedling roots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Wu, Fei-Hua; He, En-Ming; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are emerging as messenger molecules involved in the modulation of plant physiological processes. Here, we investigated a signalling network involving H2S and NO in salt tolerance pathway of barley. NaHS, a donor of H2S, at a low concentration of either 50 or 100 μM, had significant rescue effects on the 150 mM NaCl-induced inhibition of plant growth and modulated the K+/Na+ balance by decreasing the net K+ efflux and increasing the gene expression of an inward-rectifying potassium channel (HvAKT1) and a high-affinity K+ uptake system (HvHAK4). H2S and NO maintained the lower Na+ content in the cytoplast by increasing the amount of PM H+-ATPase, the transcriptional levels of PM H+-ATPase (HvHA1) and Na+/H+ antiporter (HvSOS1). H2S and NO modulated Na+ compartmentation into the vacuoles with up-regulation of the transcriptional levels of vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter (HvVNHX2) and H+-ATPase subunit β (HvVHA-β) and increased in the protein expression of vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter (NHE1). H2S mimicked the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) by increasing NO production, whereas the function was quenched with the addition of NO scavenger. These results indicated that H2S increased salt tolerance by maintaining ion homeostasis, which were mediated by the NO signal. PMID:26213372

  12. Light/dark modulation of enzyme activity in developing barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, M.H.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Light/dark modulation of the ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, NADP{sup +}-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was measured in the developing primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase and NADP{sup +}-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were fully light activated even at the earliest developmental stage sampled. In contrast, light modulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase exhibited a complex response to leaf developmental status. Light stimulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity (measured at pH 8.0) increased progressively during leaf development. On the other hand, acid fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity (measured at pH 6.0) was inhibited by light, and this light inhibition was greater in the base of the leaf than in the tip of the leaf.

  13. Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Activity in Developing Seedlings and Chloroplasts of Barley and Its Virescens Mutant 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Lawrence W.; Zalik, Saul

    1981-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity of whole tissue homogenates and chloroplast preparations was analyzed as the acetyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of [14C]bicarbonate into an acid-stable product. The absolute requirement for ATP and MgCl2, the complete inhibition with avidin, and end-product analysis were consistent with the presence of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Little difference was found between the mutant and normal tissue homogenates from the 1- to 3-day growth stages, during which period both showed a 3-fold increase. However, by 4 days, the activity of the mutant exceeded that of the normal. Fractionation studies showed that the enzyme was a soluble protein present in the stromal fraction of chloroplasts. The biotin content was also highest in the stroma, although it was found in the lamellar fraction as well. For both the mutant and the normal, the highest acetyl-CoA carboxylase activities were obtained in the stromal preparations from 4-day seedlings (54 and 31 nmoles per milligram protein per minute for the mutant and the normal, respectively) with a progressive decline by 6 and 8 days. The difference between the mutant and the normal was not due to the accumulation of an inhibitor in the normal. PMID:16661731

  14. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley. PMID:23216085

  15. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 Protein, a Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Protein Involved in the Regulation of Barley Plant Development and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The timing of whole-plant senescence influences important agricultural traits such as yield and grain protein content. Post-transcriptional regulation by plant RNA-binding proteins is essential for proper control of gene expression, development, and stress responses. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution NMR structure and nucleic acid-binding properties of the barley glycine-rich RNA-binding protein HvGR-RBP1, whose transcript has been identified as being >45-fold up-regulated in early—as compared to late—senescing near-isogenic barley germplasm. NMR analysis reveals that HvGR-RBP1 is a multidomain protein comprising a well-folded N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a structurally disordered C-terminal glycine-rich domain. Chemical shift differences observed in 2D 1H–15N correlation (HSQC) NMR spectra of full-length HvGR-RBP1 and N-HvGR-RBP1 (RRM domain only) suggest that the two domains can interact both in-trans and intramolecularly, similar to what is observed in the tobacco NtGR-RBP1 protein. Further, we show that the RRM domain of HvGR-RBP1 binds single-stranded DNA nucleotide fragments containing the consensus nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCTGX-3′ with low micromolar affinity in vitro. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal glycine-rich (HvGR) domain of Hv-GR-RBP1 can interact nonspecifically with ssRNA in vitro. Structural similarities with other plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins suggest that HvGR-RBP1 may be multifunctional. Based on gene expression analysis following cold stress in barley and E. coli growth studies following cold shock treatment, we conclude that HvGR-RBP1 functions in a manner similar to cold-shock proteins and harbors RNA chaperone activity. HvGR-RBP1 is therefore not only involved in the regulation of barley development including senescence, but also functions in plant responses to environmental stress. PMID:25495582

  16. An Ac/Ds-mediated gene trap system for functional genomics in barley

    PubMed Central

    Lazarow, Katina; Lütticke, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene trapping is a powerful tool for gene discovery and functional genomics in both animals and plants. Upon insertion of the gene trap construct into an expressed gene, splice donor and acceptor sites facilitate the generation of transcriptional fusions between the flanking sequence and the reporter. Consequently, detection of reporter gene expression allows the identification of genes based on their expression pattern. Up to now rice is the only cereal crop for which gene trap approaches exist. In this study we describe a gene trap system in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) based on the maize transposable elements Ac/Ds. Results We generated gene trap barley lines by crossing Ac transposase expressing plants with multiple independent transformants carrying the Ds based gene trap construct GTDsB. Upstream of the β-Glucuronidase start codon GTDsB carries splice donor and acceptor sites optimized for monocotyledonous plants. DNA blot analysis revealed GTDsB transposition frequencies of 11% and 26% in the F1 and F2 generation of gene trap lines and perpetuation of transposition activity in later generations. Furthermore, analysis of sequences flanking transposed GTDsB elements evidenced preferential insertion into expressed regions of the barley genome. We screened leaves, nodes, immature florets, pollinated florets, immature grains and seedlings of F2 plants and detected GUS expression in 51% (72/141) of the plants. Thus, reporter gene expression was found in 24 of the 28 F1 lines tested and in progeny of all GTDsB parental lines. Conclusion Due to the frequent transposition of GTDsB and the efficient expression of the GUS reporter gene, we conclude that this Ac/Ds-based gene trap system is an applicable approach for gene discovery in barley. The successful introduction of a gene trap construct optimized for monocots in barley contributes a novel functional genomics tool for this cereal crop. PMID:19178688

  17. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  18. Biochemical heterogeneity of malt is caused by both biological variation and differences in processing: I. Individual grain analyses of biochemical parameters in differently steeped barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malts.

    PubMed

    Kleinwächter, Maik; Müller, Christian; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Selmar, Dirk

    2014-03-15

    Using individual grain analyses, the degree of inherent biological variation in germinating barley seeds has been established. Even under homogenous laboratory conditions, the activities of the germination-related enzymes α-amylase, β-amylase and β-glucanase varied by a factor of two to three. The comparison with single grain analyses of different industrially produced malts (steeping systems without aeration, with air suction and pressurised aeration) revealed that the heterogeneity of these malts nearly tripled. This increase may be due to the gradients in O2 and CO2 that arise in large industrial steeping vessels. The most homogenous malting in the industrial systems was achieved without any aeration during steeping. Therefore, to improve homogeneity, the common practise of steep aeration should be omitted. Germination progression was quite different within the three exhaustively aerated attempts, which indicated that gaseous composition was not the only factor affecting germination progression. PMID:24206681

  19. Collinearity of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in the genus Hordeum and Secale cereale as revealed by 3H-derived FISH analysis.

    PubMed

    Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Stein, Nils; Houben, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Crop wild relatives are considered as important genetic resources of allelic diversity for domesticated crop species. Their utilization in breeding programs, however, is often limited due to crossing barriers and genome incompatibilities. Wild relatives of barley possess attractive properties and hence allelic diversity for adapting barley better to changing environmental conditions. Therefore, gaining a better knowledge about genomic synteny between cultivated barley and wild relatives of the same genus is an important task. To visualize genomic collinearity in related species, 22 genomic single-copy and 14 complementary DNA (cDNA) chromosome 3H-specific probes were mapped to the chromosomes of Hordeum bulbosum, Hordeum marinum, Hordeum pubiflorum, Hordeum murinum, and Secale cereale by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Most probes showed reliable signals confirming homoeology between cultivated barley and related species. Differences in order and position of FISH markers demonstrated sequence movements or small-scale chromosomal rearrangements within genus Hordeum and confirmed interchromosomal rearrangements between barley and rye. Comparison between repeat-free genomic and cDNA probes showed that gene-containing single-copy genomic DNA (gDNA) probes are performing more reliably for FISH-based analysis of synteny. PMID:26883649

  20. The Effect of Nitrogen Nutrition on the Cellular Localization of Glutamine Synthetase Isoforms in Barley Roots.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, L. J.; Tobin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) was detected by immunogold localization in the cytosol and plastids of roots of 7-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klaxon) seedlings grown in the presence or absence of NO3- (15 mM) or NH4+ (30 mM). The number of GS polypeptides changed during root development, and this was affected by N nutrition. There was no evidence of a NO3--inducible root plastid GS.In apical 5- to 10-mm regions of the root the concentration of immunogold labeling of cytosolic GS was higher in the cortical parenchyma than in the vascular cells of the stele, irrespective of N nutrition. This labeling was at least 50% higher in both cell types in N-free compared with N-grown (either NO3- or NH4+) seedlings. In contrast, GS specific activity was highest in roots of NO3--grown seedlings. It is suggested that this indicates the presence of inactive GS in roots grown without N. This study has identified both cell- and development-specific responses of GS to N nutrition. PMID:12226350

  1. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  2. Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

  3. Beta-amylase degradation by serine endoproteinases from green barley malt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows at least three di...

  4. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-09-16

    The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

  6. Barley Genomics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

  7. Nitric oxide mediated amelioration of arsenic toxicity which alters the alternative oxidase (Aox1) gene expression in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Pragyan; Singh, Aradhana; Singh, A K

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner. Other enzyme activities like catalase and superoxide dismutase increased with the increase in concentrations but it fell down at higher concentration of arsenic. Pretreatment of nitric oxide results in the enhanced expression of alternative oxidase which showed the adaptation of alternative pathway during the arsenic stress and it also enhances the growth ability and adaptability towards the arsenic stress. The results support the conclusion that nitric oxide ameliorates the arsenic toxicity not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by affecting other mechanism of detoxification. PMID:26036416

  8. Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases: purification, characterization and determination of primary structures from cDNA clones.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R C; Burton, R A; Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

    2001-01-01

    A family 51 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, designated AXAH-I, has been purified from extracts of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings by fractional precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa and releases L-arabinose from cereal cell wall arabinoxylans with a pH optimum of 4.3, a catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of 6.9 s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency factor (k(cat)/K(m)) of 0.76 (ml x s(-1) x mg(-1)). Whereas the hydrolysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to C(O)3 of backbone (1-->4)-beta-xylosyl residues proceeds at the fastest rate, alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues on doubly substituted xylosyl residues are also hydrolysed, at lower rates. A near full-length cDNA encoding barley AXAH-I indicates that the mature enzyme consists of 626 amino acid residues and has a calculated pI of 4.8. A second cDNA, which is 81% identical with that encoding AXAH-I, encodes another barley AXAH, which has been designated AXAH-II. The barley AXAHs are likely to have key roles in wall metabolism in cereals and other members of the Poaceae. Thus the enzymes could participate in the modification of the fine structure of arabinoxylan during wall deposition, maturation or expansion, or in wall turnover and the hydrolysis of arabinoxylans in germinated grain. PMID:11336650

  9. Antioxidants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Biogenic Compounds in Grain Extracts of Barleys.

    PubMed

    Maliar, Tibor; Slaba, Gabriela; Nemeček, Peter; Maliarová, Mária; Benková, Michaela; Havrlentová, Michaela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav; Kraic, Ján

    2015-11-01

    The content of biogenic compounds and the biological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-grain extracts was evaluated. The sufficiently large and heterogeneous set of barley genotypes (100 accessions) enabled the selection of special genotypes interesting for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. Barley genotypes with the highest contents of phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, biogenic thiols, and amines, radical-scavenging activity, as well as inhibitory activities of trypsin, thrombin, collagenase, urokinase, and cyclooxygenase were identified. PMID:26567946

  10. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  11. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  12. Registration of ‘Merem’ spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merem’ is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as “02Ab17271”. ‘02Ab17271’ is a selection fro...

  13. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  14. EYTHYLENE INFLUENCES GREEN PLANT REGENERATION FROM BARLEY CALLUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

  15. Registration of 'Clearwater' Low-Phytate Hulless Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Clearwater' is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Clearwater was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance in combination with low-phyta...

  16. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  17. Potassium-dependent changes in the expression of membrane-associated proteins in barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, M.; Kulpa, J.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Halcyon) seedlings which has been grown in full strength complete inorganic nutrient media (containing 6 millimolar K{sup +}) had high internal K{sup +} concentrations and low values of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx when influx was measured from solutions containing 100 micromolar K{sup +}. Transfer of these plants to solutions lacking K{sup +} resulted in significant reductions of root and shoot K{sup +} concentrations and values of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx increased by greater than 10-fold within 3 days. When plants treated in this way were returned to complete solutions, containing K{sup +}, the changes induced by K{sup +} deprivation were reversed. Parallel studies of microsomal membranes by means of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the expression of a group of polypeptides increased or decreased in parallel with changes of K{sup +} ({sup 86}Rb{sup +}) influx. Most prominent of these were 45 and 34 kilodalton polypeptides which specifically responded to K{sup +} status of the barley plants; their expression was not enhanced by N or P deprivation. The 45 kilodalton polypeptide was susceptible to degradation by a membrane associated protease when microsomes were washing in buffer containing 0.2 millimolar PMSF. This loss was prevented by increasing PMSF concentration to 2 millimolar.

  18. Short-Term Experiments on Ion Transport by Seedlings and Excised Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhang-Zhi; Yan, Xiaolong; Jalil, Abdul; Norlyn, Jack D.; Epstein, Emanuel

    1992-01-01

    The absorption of K+ by excised roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv California Mariout) has been systematically compared with that of entire, undisturbed seedlings. Some experiments have also been done with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and an amphiploid obtained from a cross between it and salt-tolerant tall wheatgrass (Lophopyrum elongatum Host Löve [syn. Agropyron elongatum Host]). For all three genotypes, the rate of K+ absorption measured in a 20-min period was identical for entire 8-d-old seedlings and their excised roots within the experimental error. Manipulation gentler than root excision, viz. careful transfer of seedlings from one experimental solution to another, was also without effect on the rate of K+ absorption. Absorption of K+ measured by assay of its 86Rb label in the tissue was identical with that measured by K+ depletion of the experimental solutions assayed chemically. For the plant materials and conditions of these experiments, the excised root technique for studying ion transport into roots is validated. The advantages of the technique, and findings differing from the present ones, are discussed. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653217

  19. Large-scale expression profiling and physiological characterization of jasmonic acid mediated adaptation of barley to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered moderately salt-tolerant compared to other cereals. Recent transcriptome studies on salinity stress response in barley indicated regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and JA-responsive genes by salt stress. From that observation it was hypothesized t...

  20. Small-Interfering RNAs from Natural Antisense Transcripts Derived from a Cellulose Synthase Gene Modulate Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-induced gene silencing of members of the cellulose synthase/cellulose synthase-like (CesA/Csl) gene superfamily in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Blackhulless) using the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus reduced theincorporation of D-14C-Glc into cellulose and into mixed-linkage (1'3),(1'4)-'-D-glucans ...

  1. Sequencing of 15,622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework....

  2. Effect of supplemental UV-B and UV-A on phenolic accumulation, growth and photosynthesis in barley and soybean seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lan; Gitz, D.C. III; Huerta, A.J.; McClure, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Barley (Atlas 68) and soybeans (Williams, Pella and Hobbit) were grown under 260 {mu}E m{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} cool-white fluorescent light plus: (1) no supplemental illumination, (2) UV-B from Phillips FS40 lamps to simulate 30% O{sub 3} depletion at 40{degree}N, or (3) UV-A from Mylar-filtered FS40 lamps. In barley primary leaves, neither UV-A nor UV-B had any effect on the accumulation of flavonoids or ferulic acid in the epidermis. In contrast, in barley mesophyll flavonoids were increased ca. 40% by UV-A and ca. 80% by UV-B and mesophyll ferulic acid increased ca. 10 fold under either UV-A or UV-B. In soybean primary leaves UV-A had no effect on flavonoid (all were epidermal) accumulation in any variety, but UV-B increased flavonoid accumulation ca. 20% in Williams, 100% in Pella and almost 10-fold in Hobbit. UV-A and UV-B effects on growth rates and selected photosynthetic parameters will be presented.

  3. Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    PubMed

    Yan, G P; Chen, X M

    2006-08-01

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA. To develop a molecular map for mapping the gene, F(8 )recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the Steptoe X GZ cross through single-seed descent. Seedlings of the parents and RILs were evaluated for resistance to races PSH-14 and PSH-54 of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genomic DNA was extracted from the parents and 182 F(8 )RILs and used for linkage analysis. The resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) technique was used to identify molecular markers for rpsGZ. A linkage group for the gene was constructed with 12 RGAP markers, of which two markers co-segregated with the resistance locus, and two markers were closely linked to the locus with a genetic distance of 0.9 and 2.0 cM, respectively. These four markers were present only in the susceptible parent. The closest marker to the resistance allele was 11.7 cM away. Analyses of two sets of barley chromosome addition lines of wheat with the two RGAP markers that were cosegregating with the susceptibility allele showed that rpsGZ and the markers were located on the long arm of barley chromosome 4H. Further, tests with four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed the chromosomal location of the rpsGZ gene and also integrated the RGAP markers into the known SSR-based linkage map of barley. The closest SSR marker EBmac0679 had a genetic distance of 7.5 cM with the gene in the integrated linkage map constructed with the 12 RGAP markers and 4 SSR markers. The information on chromosomal location and molecular markers for rpsGZ should be useful for incorporating this gene into commercial

  4. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

  5. The hordeum toolbox - the barley CAP genotype and phenotype resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of DNA markers in public sector plant breeding is now the norm. Such markers are common across breeding programs and this commonality enables and enhances collaboration. Thus, large collaborative research projects that measure several phenotypes across multiple environments coupled with the ...

  6. Evaluation of a barley core collection for spot form net blotch reaction reveals distinct genotype specific pathogen virulence and host susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spot form net blotch (SFNB) caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. maculata Smedeg., (anamorph Drechslera teres [Sacc.] Shoem.) is a major foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. SFNB epidemics have recently been observed in major barley producing countries, suggesting that the loca...

  7. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  8. First Detection of Puccinia hordei virulence to barley leaf rust resistance gene Rph3 and combination with virulence to Rph7 in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei Otth., has been problematic in United States barley, Hordeum vulgare L., production in the Mid-Atlantic coast region and California. During the early 1990’s P. hordei pathoytpes with virulence to resistance gene Rph7 caused average yield losses from 6-16%....

  9. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  10. Evidence of Phytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Hordeum vulgare L. Exposed to CeO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Alessandro; Filippi, Antonio; Pošćić, Filip; Musetti, Rita; Salvatici, Maria C.; Giordano, Cristiana; Vischi, Massimo; Bertolini, Alberto; Marchiol, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) are considered emerging contaminants since they are perceived as a potential threat to the environment and the human health. The reactions of living organisms when exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) or NPs of different size are not well known. Very few studies on NPs–plant interactions have been published, so far. For this reason there is also great concern regarding the potential NPs impact to food safety. Early genotoxic and phytotoxic effects of cerium oxide NPs (nCeO2) and titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2) were investigated in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L. Caryopses were exposed to an aqueous dispersion of nCeO2 and nTiO2 at, respectively 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg l-1 for 7 days. Genotoxicity was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPDs) and mitotic index on root tip cells. Differences between treated and control plants were observed in RAPD banding patterns as well as at the chromosomal level with a reduction of cell divisions. At cellular level we monitored the oxidative stress of treated plants in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ATP content. Again nCeO2 influenced clearly these two physiological parameters, while nTiO2 were ineffective. In particular, the dose 500 mg l-1 showed the highest increase regarding both ROS generation and ATP content; the phenomenon were detectable, at different extent, both at root and shoot level. Total Ce and Ti concentration in seedlings was detected by ICP-OES. TEM EDSX microanalysis demonstrated the presence of aggregates of nCeO2 and nTiO2 within root cells of barley. nCeO2 induced modifications in the chromatin aggregation mode in the nuclei of both root and shoot cells. PMID:26635858

  11. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

  12. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  13. Competition between uptake of ammonium and potassium in barley and Arabidopsis roots: molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hoopen, Floor ten; Cuin, Tracey Ann; Pedas, Pai; Hegelund, Josefine N.; Shabala, Sergey; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Jahn, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Plants can use ammonium (NH4+) as the sole nitrogen source, but at high NH4+ concentrations in the root medium, particularly in combination with a low availability of K+, plants suffer from NH4+ toxicity. To understand the role of K+ transporters and non-selective cation channels in K+/NH4+ interactions better, growth, NH4+ and K+ accumulation and the specific fluxes of NH4+, K+, and H+ were examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Arabidopsis seedlings. Net fluxes of K+ and NH4+ were negatively correlated, as were their tissue concentrations, suggesting that there is direct competition during uptake. Pharmacological treatments with the K+ transport inhibitors tetraethyl ammonium (TEA+) and gadolinium (Gd3+) reduced NH4+ influx, and the addition of TEA+ alleviated the NH4+-induced depression of root growth in germinating Arabidopsis plants. Screening of a barley root cDNA library in a yeast mutant lacking all NH4+ and K+ uptake proteins through the deletion of MEP1–3 and TRK1 and TRK2 resulted in the cloning of the barley K+ transporter HvHKT2;1. Further analysis in yeast suggested that HvHKT2;1, AtAKT1, and AtHAK5 transported NH4+, and that K+ supplied at increasing concentrations competed with this NH4+ transport. On the other hand, uptake of K+ by AtHAK5, and to a lesser extent via HvHKT2;1 and AtAKT1, was inhibited by increasing concentrations of NH4+. Together, the results of this study show that plant K+ transporters and channels are able to transport NH4+. Unregulated NH4+ uptake via these transporters may contribute to NH4+ toxicity at low K+ levels, and may explain the alleviation of NH4+ toxicity by K+. PMID:20339151

  14. Genetic differentiation and geographical relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinctive landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each chromosome chosen for this study ...

  15. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  16. Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

  17. Irrigated, No-Till Corn and Barley Response to Nitrogen in Northern Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting irrigated, conventional till (CT) systems to no-till (NT) production systems can potentially reduce soil erosion, fossil fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen fertilization (6 N rates) effects on irrigated, corn (Zea mays L.) and malting barley (Hordeum distichon L.)...

  18. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON YIELD OF TWO FIELD-GROWN BARLEY CULTIVARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Barley Hordeum vulgare L. is grown in some regions of the USA with potentially phytotoxic concentrations of ozone(O3), yet relatively little is known of the growth and yield responses of the crop species to 03. A two-year study was conducted in the Central Valley of California to...

  19. Near-infrared transmission and reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of dietary fiber in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and an NIR Systems 6500 spectrometer were used to obtain transmission and ref...

  20. Registration of ‘julie’ high ß-glucan spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Julie’, a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Julie is a selection from the cross 10/Azhul//CD...

  1. Origin of barley accessions with multiple disease resistance determined by SSR analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although only 1% of accessions of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L.) in the USDA National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) are of unknown origin, these accessions represent 20% of the accessions with multiple disease resistance (MR). These accessions were originally obtained in 1930...

  2. Tillage and irrigation method effects on yield and quality of sugarbeet and malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced-tillage and high-efficiency irrigation systems reduce fuel and water inputs compared to conventional practices, but these alternative management systems have not been extensively evaluated in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)/malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping systems. A field study com...

  3. Registration of 'RWA 1758' Russian Wheat Aphid-Resistant Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: 'RWA 1758' (Reg. No. _______; P.I. 648913) is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. RWA 1758 was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance and resistance to damage cau...

  4. Registration of 'Sidney' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sidney' (Reg. No. , PI 641939) is a spring, two-rowed, Russian wheat aphid-resistant, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed for the high dry plains of eastern Colorado and western Nebraska where RWA is a persistent pest. Sidney was developed by USDA-ARS, in Stillwater, OK, and tested coop...

  5. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  6. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  7. Strip tillage and high-efficiency irrigation applied to a sugarbeet- barley rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strip tillage (ST) and high-efficiency overhead irrigation methods reduce fuel and water inputs compared to conventional practices, but have not been extensively evaluated in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)-malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping systems. A field study comparing conventional till...

  8. A physical, genetic and functional sequence assembly of the barley genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is amongst the oldest of our domesticated crop plants and remains one of the world’s most important crop species. It has a diploid genome of 5.1 gigabases, almost twice the size of those of human and maize. To meet global demand for food, fuel and fibre, it is commonly ...

  9. Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use ma...

  10. A Low Phytic Acid Barley Mutation Alters Gene Expression in Early Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have reduced levels of seed phytate, the most abundant form of phosphorus in seeds, and increases in seed inorganic phosphorus. To understand how lpa mutations affect metabolic and developmental processes during seed growth, gene expression ...