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Sample records for barley wheat triticale

  1. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption. PMID:2824731

  2. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  3. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  4. [Development of Triticale and soft wheat forms with substituted wheat and rye chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Suvorova, E Iu; Cherednichenko, V N; Semenov, V I

    2000-01-01

    During hybridization between winter forms of hexaploid (6x) triticale and soft wheat varieties the intergenomic substitution of alian chromosomes occurs. As a result of these crosses the forms of 6x-triticale with D(R)-substitution of chromosomes in R-rye genome by wheat ones of D-genome and wheat revertants with rye chromosomes replacing the wheat ones are originated. This is the simplest and the most effective technique for developing of selected lines of triticale and soft wheat with alien substituted chromosomes and valuable genes transfer. PMID:11213630

  5. Preprocessed barley, rye, and triticale as a feedstock for an integrated fuel ethanol-feedlot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Wang, Sunmin; Ingledew, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    Rye, triticale, and barley were evaluated as starch feedstock to replace wheat for ethanol production. Preprocessing of grain by abrasion on a Satake mill reduced fiber and increased starch concentrations in feed-stock for fermentations. Higher concentrations of starch in flours from preprocessed cereal grains would increase plant throughput by 8-23% since more starch is processed in the same weight of feedstock. Increased concentrations of starch for fermentation resulted in higher concentrations of ethanol in beer. Energy requirements to produce one L of ethanol from preprocessed grains were reduced, the natural gas by 3.5-11.4%, whereas power consumption was reduced by 5.2-15.6%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Genome Variation Within Triticale in Comparison to its Wheat and Rye Progenitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome variation in the intergeneric wheat-rye hybrid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) has been a puzzle to scientists and plant breeders since the first triticale was synthesized. The existence of unexplained genetic variation in triticale as compared to the parents has been a hindrance to bre...

  7. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    PubMed

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Hao; Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement. PMID:27182983

  8. Genetic interactions between wheat and rye genomes in triticale : 1. Cytological results.

    PubMed

    Jung, C; Lelley, T; Röbbelen, G

    1985-07-01

    Six primary triticale lines were produced from two advanced breeding lines of Triticum durum and three inbred genotypes of Secale cereale. The wheat and rye parents and the triticale derivatives were crossed in all possible combinations within each species group. Chiasma and univalent frequency of parents and hybrids were determined. The primary triticale lines had more univalents and less chiasmata per pollen mother cell than the corresponding wheat and rye parents together. The parental wheat F1 exhibited negative heterosis for chiasma frequency whereas all rye hybrids had much higher chiasma frequencies than their inbred parents. Triticale F1s generally showed lower chiasma frequencies and more univalents than their parents, but the degree of pairing failure was dependent upon which of the parental species within the triticale, wheat or rye, was in the heterozygous state. F1s with heterozygous wheat genome only showed the least reduction in chiasma number (presumably caused by gene actions within the wheat genome), while F1s with heterozygous rye genome showed high reduction in chiasma frequency and an increase in pairing failure (induced by negative interactions between the heterozygous rye and the wheat genome in triticale). A high correlation was found between the frequency of undisturbed pollen mother cells and the frequency of aneuploids in the subsequent generation. A higher number of aneuploids occurred in those populations which were heterozygous for the rye genome. PMID:24253015

  9. Evaluation of triticale accessions for resistance to wheat bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on wheat and other small grains. Several triticale accessions were reported to possess high levels of resistance to wheat Xtu strains. In this study, we evaluated a worldwide collection of 502 triticale acces...

  10. Spontaneous and Divergent Hexaploid Triticales Derived from Common Wheat × Rye by Complete Elimination of D-Genome Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyou; Ji, Wanquan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Methodology/Principal Findings Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales. Conclusion This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, “genome shock” was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced. PMID:25781330

  11. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat – Rye –Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat—rye—Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement. PMID:27182983

  12. Identification and sequence analysis of grain softness protein in selected wheat, rye and triticale.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, M A S; Bobojonov, V

    2012-01-01

    Grain softness protein (GSP) is an important protein for overcoming milling and grain defenses in the innate immunity systems of cereals. The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand GSP sequences in selected wheat, rye and triticale. Using sequences for this gene from a sequence database, we performed clustering analysis to compare the sequences obtained from 3 germplasms with other studied sequences for GSP. The maximum difference between the Hirmand GSP genotype in wheat and the database sequences was 23% in EF109396 and EF109399. Most amino acid variation between the GSP sequences involved the same amino acids. The Nikita rye GSP gene showed 64% identity with DQ269918 and AY667063. The isoelectric point in the GSP of wheat and Lasko triticale was significantly higher than that of rye GSP. In addition, parameters such as optical density, grand average of hydrophobicity, percentage of hydrophobicity and hydrophilic amino acids, and number of alpha helices and beta sheets in GSP were similar in wheat and triticale but not in wheat and rye. PMID:22869084

  13. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    PubMed

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I

    2015-03-01

    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture. PMID:26027372

  14. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. PMID:26072587

  15. Biotype differences for resistance to Russian wheat aphid in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a worldwide insect pest of barley, causing crop losses each year. Previously identified resistant barley lines do not show variable reactions to the eight USA RWA biotypes identified by wheat reactions. However, additional RWA isolates have been identified outside the ...

  16. Epidemiology and control of rusts of wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2008 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2008, stripe rust occurred in 18 st...

  17. Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

  18. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  19. Mitotic and meiotic behavior of rye chromosomes in wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid x triticale progeny.

    PubMed

    Xie, Q; Kang, H; Sparkes, D L; Tao, S; Fan, X M; Xu, L; Fan, X; Sha, L; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; Zhou, Y

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rye chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis was analyzed in a subset comprising 33 F3 lines from the cross of wheat, Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid (AABBDDNsNs) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR), as visualized by genomic in situ hybridization. The results indicated that 31 of the total lines contained 4-14 rye chromosomes. Twenty-eight combinations had more rye chromosomes than the F1 hybrids, suggesting the occurrence of spontaneous quantitative increment. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected in all of the combinations tested. Mitotic analysis showed that rye chromosomes progressed normally with the wheat counterparts without loss. However, abnormal meiosis was found in almost all lines. Similar progression between wheat and rye genomes appeared from interphase to metaphase I. It was at anaphase I that many rye univalents lagged behind those of wheat, followed by equational division. This resulted in the formation of chromosomal segments and micronuclei at telophase I or II. Micronuclei could also be generated from the immobilized univalents in the periphery of cells. Synapsis and translocations between wheat and rye genomes, chromosome bridges, and unreduced gametes were detected. Therefore, it is proposed that rye chromosome elimination may involve chromatid lagging, fragmentation and micronucleation, or the immobilization of certain univalents during meiosis instead of mitosis in the relatively advanced generations. This mechanism, together with spontaneous incremental increase of rye chromosome number, permitted the generation of various germplasms for wheat improvement. PMID:23315875

  20. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    PubMed

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  1. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  2. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  3. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  4. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  5. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  6. Barley germplasm resistant to both Russian wheat aphid and greenbug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are potential pests on winter cereals grown in the southern plains. In outbreak years, both aphids can drastically reduce grain yield of susceptible cultivars. In barley, two single dominant genes, R...

  7. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  8. NH 3 soil and soil surface gas measurements in a triticale wheat field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, A.; Blatter, A.; Gut, A.; Högger, D.; Meixner, F.; Ammann, C.; Nathaus, F. J.

    We present a new approach for a continuous determination of NH 3 concentration in the open pore space of the soil and on the soil surface. In a semi-permeable membrane of 0.5 m length a flow of 0.5 s1pm maintained. In the tube the NH 3 concentration adjusts itself to the surrounding air concentration by diffusion through the membrane. Continuous measurements have been performed in a triticale wheat field over a period of several weeks in a field experiment at Bellheim (FRG) during June and July 1995 within the frame of the European program EXAMINE (Exchange of Atmospheric Ammonia with European Ecosystems). Soil concentrations are generally below the detection limit of 0.1 μg m -3. We conclude, that the investigated soil is generally a sink for NH 3. The NH 3 concentration on the soil surface shows a diurnal variation due to a combination of physico-chemical desorption and adsorption phenomena associated with changes in wetness of the surrounding surfaces and the NH 3 concentration in the canopy.

  9. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  10. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  11. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

  12. Brightening triticale's future

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, J.P. ); Francois, L.E. ); Webster, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Triticales, hybrids of wheat and rye, were first developed a century ago to take advantage of the natural disease resistances found in each parent. Yields of up to 30 percent more than wheat have been obtained on marginal lands. The hybrids have been grown mainly for animal feed with some used to make flour for human consumption. Growth under adverse conditions has been found in soils that are sandy, cold, infertile, dry, and mineral deficient as well as in soils of high acidity and alkalinity and of high boron and aluminum content. The NRC predicts that triticales will be grown increasingly on marginal land due to climate changes caused by the greenhouse effect.

  13. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  14. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  15. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  16. In vitro antioxidant activities of barley, husked oat, naked oat, triticale, and buckwheat wastes and their influence on the growth and biomarkers of antioxidant status in rats.

    PubMed

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Flis, Marianna; Zieliński, Henryk; Wróblewska, Monika; Antoszkiewicz, Zofia; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2006-06-14

    The study was aimed at verification of the following hypothesis: differences in antioxidant capacity of diets consisting of different cereals and byproducts affect the antioxidant status of the consumers of these diets. To validate that hypothesis this study investigated the contents of polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in vitro of cereals and their fractions (barley, husked and naked oat, oat bran, and triticale); the nutritional and antioxidant properties of diets containing these cereals, applied in a 4-week feeding experiment on rats, were also assessed. Among the cereals examined, the highest TAC was reported for barley (13.16 micromol of Trolox/g) and the lowest for naked oat (3.84 micromol of Trolox/g). Compared with cereals, the TAC of buckwheat waste was 2-3 times higher (25.2 micromol of Trolox/g). The antioxidant capacity of diets, calculated in vitro, ranged from 6.35 micromol of Trolox/g for naked oat type diet to 10.51 micromol of Trolox/g for barley type diet. Results of an in vitro study were confirmed in changes of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the serum of rats fed diets with the highest and lowest antioxidant capacities in vitro; the barley diet increased the activity of GPx (37.63 units/mL) and decreased the level of TBARS (4.82 microg/g), whereas the naked oat diet had an opposite effect (31.16 units/mL and 5.91 microg/g, respectively). PMID:16756343

  17. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    PubMed

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. PMID:25148951

  18. Comparison between wheat, triticale, rye, soyabean oil and strain of laying bird on the production, and cholesterol and fatty acid contents of eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafey, T M; Dingle, J G; McDonald, M W

    1992-05-01

    1. The effects of feeding three types of cereal grain (wheat, triticale or rye) and soyabean oil (0 or 20 g/kg) over a 12-week period on the production, yolk cholesterol and yolk fatty acid concentrations of three strains of laying pullets were studied. 2. Pullets fed on wheat- or triticale-based diets had higher body weight gains, egg productions, egg weights, egg mass and lower yolk cholesterol concentrations than pullets fed on rye-based diets. However, there were no significant differences between the cereals in yolk cholesterol content. 3. There were no significant differences between the three cereals in total food consumption of pullets nor of yolk weight nor yolk concentration of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. 4. Pullets fed on triticale-based diets had higher yolk linoleic acid concentrations and lower yolk oleic acid: linoleic acid ratios than pullets fed on rye- or wheat-based diets. 5. Soyabean oil supplementation increased egg production, egg mass, yolk linoleic concentration and yolk unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, but reduced yolk oleic acid: linoleic acid ratio. 6. There were differences between strains of pullets in weight gain, food consumption, rate of lay, egg weight and yolk cholesterol, but not in yolk fatty acid concentrations. 7. It was concluded that wheat- or triticale-based diets gave good production of eggs of lower cholesterol content, that soyabean oil supplementation gave eggs with a high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio and that two strains of layers produced eggs with lower yolk cholesterol concentrations than a third strain. PMID:1623420

  19. Natural field infections of wheat and triticale by fungi from the complex of fungi Stagonospora nodorum/Septoria tritici under climatic conditions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Gilon, M; Arseniuk, E

    2014-01-01

    Stagonospora nodorum and Septoria tritici are classified as necrotrophic fungi that cause glume and leaf blotch and speckled leaf blotch of cereals and grasses worldwide. Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) occur quite often in complexes and are classified among the most destructive diseases to their hosts, what also was found in the present study. The intensity of diseases caused on wheat and triticale in Poland is associated with weather and environmental conditions. Moderate temperatures in the range of 20 - 23 degrees C and high relative humidity are conducive for the occurrence and development of both, SNB and STB. Results of presently reported experiments confirm that species of Stagonospora nodorum and S. tritici complex on wheat and triticale occur naturally throughout the country. In addition, statistical tests proved that the natural infections of triticale and wheat varieties in field nurseries are statistically different between locations and within each location. Plants were subjected to phenotypic evaluation, taking into account the degree of infection of leaves and glumes (Poznań et al., 2011). The reported data are generally in coincidence with our previous findings, however, they need to be confirmed on multi annual basis. PMID:26072590

  20. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  1. Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  2. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) interactions with barley, rice, and wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A choice test revealed that Hessian fly adults deposited approximately three times more eggs on wheat seedlings than on barley or rice seedlings. On a barley seedling, 49.4% of eggs were deposited on either the abaxial leaf-surface or the coleoptile and first leaf-sheath (C&FLS), where newly hatche...

  3. Registration of seventeen spring two-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  4. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designate both a fall final planting date and a spring final planting date, and for which the actuarial... planted spring barley. 6. If you elect this endorsement for winter barley, the contract change, cancellation, and termination dates applicable to wheat in the county will be applicable to all your spring...

  5. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designate both a fall final planting date and a spring final planting date, and for which the actuarial... planted spring barley. 6. If you elect this endorsement for winter barley, the contract change, cancellation, and termination dates applicable to wheat in the county will be applicable to all your spring...

  6. Transgenic Field Trials for FHB Resistance and Related Research in Wheat and Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic wheat and barley lines expressing genes with the potential to reduce FHB and DON have been tested in field trials in Minnesota since 1997 and in North Dakota since 2001 (barley only). Replicated trials are planted, grown, and harvested to meet containment regulations of the Animal and Pla...

  7. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2009 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2009 field screening nursery, with 128 wheat and 208 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and untransformed controls were submitted by the University of Minnesota (19+1 wheat), the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (4+2 wheat) and USDA (48+1 barley). Lines wit...

  8. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2008 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 field screening nursery, with 64 wheat and 208 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries were submitted by Rutgers University (5 wheat), University of North Texas (2 wheat) and USDA (48 barley). In addition to the submitted transgenic entries, untransformed contr...

  9. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  10. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  11. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fred Y; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  12. Evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calender models for the 1979 crop year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazare, C. V.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    During the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, spring wheat planting date and crop development stage estimates based on historical normals were improved by the use of the Feyerherm planting date and Robertson spring wheat crop calendar models. The Supporting Research Crop Calendar Project element modified the Robertson model to reduce bias at cardinal growth stages within the growing season. These models were tested in 1980 along with a state-of-the-art barley model (Williams) against a ground-truth data set from 49 calendar year 1979 segments in the U.S. Great Plains spring wheat and barley region.

  13. Comparative mapping of HKT genes in wheat, barley, and rice, key determinants of Na+ transport, and salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobai; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang; Lagudah, Evans S; Munns, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Salt tolerance of plants depends on HKT transporters (High-affinity K(+) Transporter), which mediate Na(+)-specific transport or Na(+)-K(+) co-transport. Gene sequences closely related to rice HKT genes were isolated from hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) or barley (Hordeum vulgare) for genomic DNA southern hybridization analysis. HKT gene sequences were mapped on chromosomal arms of wheat and barley using wheat chromosome substitution lines and barley-wheat chromosome addition lines. In addition, HKT gene members in the wild diploid wheat ancestors, T. monococcum (A(m) genome), T. urartu (A(u) genome), and Ae. tauschii (D(t) genome) were investigated. Variation in copy number for individual HKT gene members was observed between the barley, wheat, and rice genomes, and between the different wheat genomes. HKT2;1/2-like, HKT2;3/4-like, HKT1;1/2-like, HKT1;3-like, HKT1;4-like, and HKT1;5-like genes were mapped to the wheat-barley chromosome groups 7, 7, 2, 6, 2, and 4, respectively. Chromosomal regions containing HKT genes were syntenic between wheat and rice except for the chromosome regions containing the HKT1;5-like gene. Potential roles of HKT genes in Na(+) transport in rice, wheat, and barley are discussed. Determination of the chromosome locations of HKT genes provides a framework for future physiological and genetic studies investigating the relationships between HKT genes and salt tolerance in wheat and barley. PMID:18325922

  14. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. PMID:26725190

  15. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight: 2011 field nursery report.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 field screening nursery, with 56 wheat and 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and untransformed controls were submitted by the University of North Texas (9+1 wheat), and USDA (17+2 barley). Lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were a...

  16. High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

    2012-12-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

  17. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. PMID:26156223

  18. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

  19. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  20. Registration of 'Sidney' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sidney' (Reg. No. , PI 641939) is a spring, two-rowed, Russian wheat aphid-resistant, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed for the high dry plains of eastern Colorado and western Nebraska where RWA is a persistent pest. Sidney was developed by USDA-ARS, in Stillwater, OK, and tested coop...

  1. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  2. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  3. The TRI101 story: engineering wheat and barley to resist Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease of wheat and barley in the United States and Canada. FHB epidemics have been on the increase since 1993, and have caused severe monetary damage for the growers and the seed industry. Along with reduced yields,...

  4. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, G H; Whyte, J; McArthur, R; Nestel, P J

    1991-05-01

    Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic men aged 30-59 y were provided with comparable barley and wheat foods for each of 4 wk in a crossover-designed experiment. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of two sources of dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides, NSP) on blood lipids and glucose concentrations. Barley contains beta-glucan as a source of soluble dietary fiber (DF) whereas wheat contains the largely insoluble cellulose and hemicellulose fiber. Total dietary fiber increased from a previous intake of 21-38 g/d during the period of study for the two groups. Consumption of barley relative to wheat foods was associated with a significant fall in both plasma total cholesterol (6%, P less than 0.05) and in low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (7%, P less than 0.02) whereas triglyceride and glucose concentrations did not change significantly. It is concluded that barley dietary fiber is more effective than wheat dietary fiber at lowering blood cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men. PMID:1850576

  5. The TRI101 Story: Engineering Wheat and Barley to Resist Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease of wheat and barley in the United States and Canada. The disease process depends on high humidity and the presence of inoculum (fungal spores), and therefore, the amount of disease can vary from year to year wi...

  6. Modeling light and temperature effects on leaf emergence in wheat and barley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, T.; Bugbee, B.

    1991-01-01

    Phenological development affects canopy structure, radiation interception, and dry matter production; most crop simulation models therefore incorporate leaf emergence rate as a basic parameter. A recent study examined leaf emergence rate as a function of temperature and daylength among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. Leaf emergence rate and phyllochron were modeled as functions of temperature alone, daylength alone, and the interaction between temperature and daylength. The resulting equations contained an unwieldy number of constants. Here we simplify by reducing the constants by > 70%, and show leaf emergence rate as a single response surface with temperature and daylength. In addition, we incorporate the effect of photosynthetic photon flux into the model. Generic fits for wheat and barley show cultivar differences less than +/- 5% for wheat and less than +/- 10% for barley. Barley is more sensitive to daylength changes than wheat for common environmental values of daylength, which may be related to the difference in sensitivity to daylength between spring and winter cultivars. Differences in leaf emergence rate between cultivars can be incorporated into the model by means of a single, nondimensional factor for each cultivar.

  7. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005-2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers' specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  8. The wheat and barley vernalization gene VRN3 is an orthologue of FT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat and barley varieties require an extended exposure to low temperatures to accelerate flowering (vernalization), whereas spring varieties do not have this requirement. In this study, we show that in these species the vernalization gene VRN3 is completely linked to a gene similar to Arabid...

  9. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  10. Locations of quantitative trait loci conferring Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley germplasm STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) infestations of barley reduce grain yield and quality and have caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western United States since 1986. Our objective was to map genes conferring resistance to RWA feeding damage in the germplasm line STARS-93...

  11. Modeling light and temperature effects on leaf emergence in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Volk, T; Bugbee, B

    1991-01-01

    Phenological development affects canopy structure, radiation interception, and dry matter production; most crop simulation models therefore incorporate leaf emergence rate as a basic parameter. A recent study examined leaf emergence rate as a function of temperature and daylength among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. Leaf emergence rate and phyllochron were modeled as functions of temperature alone, daylength alone, and the interaction between temperature and daylength. The resulting equations contained an unwieldy number of constants. Here we simplify by reducing the constants by > 70%, and show leaf emergence rate as a single response surface with temperature and daylength. In addition, we incorporate the effect of photosynthetic photon flux into the model. Generic fits for wheat and barley show cultivar differences less than +/- 5% for wheat and less than +/- 10% for barley. Barley is more sensitive to daylength changes than wheat for common environmental values of daylength, which may be related to the difference in sensitivity to daylength between spring and winter cultivars. Differences in leaf emergence rate between cultivars can be incorporated into the model by means of a single, nondimensional factor for each cultivar. PMID:11537630

  12. Protein and quality characterization of triticale translocation lines in breadmaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-D1d locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of high molecular weight glutenin loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the breadmaking quality of triticale. One means of achieving such restor...

  13. Triticale biotic stresses--an overview.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones. For such an notable example may serve races of Puccinia recondita. In the latter respect triticale also appears to be a bridge facilitating a direct contact between the pathogens, e.g. between physiological forms of the most important cereal rusts. Such contacts stimulate somatic hybridization on bridging triticale plant and may finally result in new hybrid pathotypes carrying virulence genes (factors) to all three hosts, i.e. triticale, wheat and rye. In addition to all triticale commercial and agronomical values, triticale still is and it will continue to be bridging transfers of resistance genes to various pathogens and pests mainly from rye to wheat. The paper will describe main diseases affecting triticale worldwide. The first disease which occurred on this cereal in epidemic proportions was stem rust (Pucinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Australia. Leaf and stripe rusts (P. recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis) are also have gained in importance everywhere triticale is grown. In recent years, at least in Poland, powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis occurred in epidemic proportions in quite a number of winter triticale cultivars. Similar phenomenon has been observed with quite a number of other diseases caused by facultative pathogens, such as the most damaging to triticale the Stagonospora spp. leaf and glume blotch disease complex and other pathogens like Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium culmorum, and F

  14. Genetic basis of triticale breeding (x triticale). IV. Embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales

    SciTech Connect

    Gordei, I.A.; Khodortsova, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported on enhancing the efficiency of embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales (AABBRR, 2n = 42). The antioxidant tomatoside has a positive effect on the reduction of progamous incompatibility of wheat with rye and increases the output of wheat-rye amphihaploids. It has been established that irradiation of embryos, cultured on nutrient medium, with helium-neon laser, increases significantly (P < 0.01) the regeneration frequency of the wheat-rye hybrid embryos. The highest frequency (40%) of amphidiploids was obtained by treating the plants with 0.15% colchicine through roots during the tillering phase. Hexaploid triticales from 11 cross combinations between tetraploid wheats (AABB, 2n = 28) and diploid rye (RR, 2n = 14) formed the initial material for breeding.

  15. Development of a multiplexed PCR detection method for Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses, Wheat Spindle Streak Virus, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses (B/CYDVs), Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic (WSSMV), Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic (SBWMV) Mosaic Virus and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) constitute the most economically important group of wheat viruses. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chai...

  16. Physiological Responses of Resistant and Susceptible Barley, Hordeum vulgare to the Russian Wheat Aphid, Diurpahis noxia (Mordvilko)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on the mechanisms of resistance in barley, Hordeum vulgare L., to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Knowledge of the physiological responses of barley to D. noxia feeding is critical to identifying resistance mechanisms and unde...

  17. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

  18. Introgression and characterization of barley yellow dwarf virus resistance from Thinopyrum intermedium into wheat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Ohm, H; Goulart, L; Lister, R; Appels, R; Benlhabib, O

    1995-04-01

    Wheatgrasses (species of Agropyron complex) have previously been reported to be resistant to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). To introgress this resistance into wheat, Triticum aestivum x Thinopyrum (Agropyron) intermedium hybrids were advanced through a backcrossing program and reaction to BYDV, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is reported for the first time in backcross populations of wide hybrids between wheat and wheatgrasses. ELISA values revealed highly resistant to highly susceptible segregants in backcrosses. BYDV resistance was expressed in some backcross derivatives. Continued selection, based on cytology and ELISA in each generation, eliminated most of the unwanted wheatgrass chromosomes and produced self-fertile BYDV resistant wheat lines. The BYDV resistant lines with 2n = 42 had normal chromosome pairing similar to wheat, and their F1 hybrids with wheat had two univalents. DNA analyses showed that the source of alien chromatin in these BYDV resistant wheat lines is distinguishable from that in other Th. intermedium derived BYDV resistant wheat lines. Chromosome pairing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses indicated that the 42 chromosome resistant Purdue wheat lines are substitution lines in which chromosome 7D was replaced by a chromosome from Th. intermedium that was carrying gene(s) for BYDV resistance. PMID:18470179

  19. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

  20. Proteins in Intercellular Washing Fluid from Noninoculated and Rust-Affected Leaves of Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Holden, David W.; Rohringer, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19°C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF. To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25°C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley. IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19°C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664314

  1. Triticale Lines Resistant to Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA) is one of the most common aphid pests of small grains worldwide. Triticale is a promising source of resistance to BCOA that may be developed further or crossed with wheat to transfer resistance to that crop. Several entries of triticale were evaluated against BCOA in a...

  2. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability. PMID:26400358

  3. Triticale allergy in a farmer.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 29-year-old farmer with hay fever and atopic dermatitis since adolescence who had developed work-related asthma about 5 years earlier. He was sensitized to grass pollen, wheat and rye flour, dust from the floors of the animal facilities (cows and pigs) and grain barn, and a battery of animal feed from his farm. Work-relatedness of his asthma was demonstrated by serial measurements of spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide at work and during a holiday. Immunoblot analyses revealed dominant IgE-binding to grass pollen and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat). IgE inhibition experiments demonstrated that sensitization to triticale was not due to cross-reactivity to grass pollen. Testing of specific IgE-antibodies to recombinant wheat allergens showed sensitizations to profilin, peroxidase, and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins type I subfamily 9.1 and 9.7. We conclude that triticale allergy may occur as a distinct allergy in farmers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:501-505, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26814013

  4. Economic aspects of triticale growing: Australian farmer experience.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katharine V; Elleway, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Australian farmers grow triticale for economic benefit. A range of farmers in different localities, with different farm size, soil type, rainfall and proximity to markets, were asked why they grew triticale and how it contributed to their farm economics. The main encouragements to grow triticale relate to its agronomic prowess: its reliability and magnitude of production on all soil types and particularly in conditions in which other crops are relatively poor producers. Also in favour of triticale is its ability to produce economic return following a high yielding wheat crop, whilst providing soil benefits as a rotation crop reducing root and stubble diseases. Triticale's versatility and utility as high grade animal feed, by supplying grazing, fodder for conservation, and grain for on-farm animal production, further encourages farmers to include triticale in their cropping programs. The main inhibitor to growing triticale relates to the cost and ease of marketing the product, relative to other crops, and even triticale enthusiasts do not persist with triticale, if the economics are not in its favour. A downturn in the dairy industry, and the cessation of triticale grain receivals at bulk handling sites has resulted in a contraction of triticale production in some regions. Less triticale is likely to be grown where farmers have to provide their own storage, find their own markets, freight the product further, or have limited market options. New specific markets, such as high grade hay from reduced-awn triticale varieties, for the horse industry, may increase the profitability of triticale producing enterprises. PMID:26072584

  5. Early evidence for the use of wheat and barley as staple crops on the margins of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade A.; Lu, Hongliang; Hein, Anke M.; Schmidt, Amanda H.

    2015-01-01

    We report directly dated evidence from circa 1400 calibrated years (cal) B.C. for the early use of wheat, barley, and flax as staple crops on the borders of the Tibetan Plateau. During recent years, an increasing amount of data from the Tibetan Plateau and its margins shows that a transition from millets to wheat and barley agriculture took place during the second millennium B.C. Using thermal niche modeling, we refute previous assertions that the ecological characteristics of wheat and barley delayed their spread into East Asia. Rather, we demonstrate that the ability of these crops to tolerate frost and their low growing degree-day requirements facilitated their spread into the high-altitude margins of western China. Following their introduction to this region, these crops rapidly replaced Chinese millets and became the staple crops that still characterize agriculture in this area today. PMID:25902511

  6. Use of wheat and rye SSR markers to map QTL controlling partial resistance to Stagonospora nodorum blotch disease in a DH population of winter triticale 'Pinokio' x 'Bogo'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), is one of the most important foliar and glume diseases in triticale as well as other cereals. Due to the complexity of resistance mechanisms, it is difficult to assess resistance of triticale cultivars by conventional methods. Inheritance of SNB resistance in triti...

  7. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    PubMed

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary. PMID:25806585

  8. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. PMID:26111197

  9. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  10. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  11. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db). PMID:25328200

  12. Nonrandom distribution and frequencies of genomic and EST-derived microsatellite markers in rice, wheat, and barley

    PubMed Central

    La Rota, Mauricio; Kantety, Ramesh V; Yu, Ju-Kyung; Sorrells, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    Background Earlier comparative maps between the genomes of rice (Oryza sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were linkage maps based on cDNA-RFLP markers. The low number of polymorphic RFLP markers has limited the development of dense genetic maps in wheat and the number of available anchor points in comparative maps. Higher density comparative maps using PCR-based anchor markers are necessary to better estimate the conservation of colinearity among cereal genomes. The purposes of this study were to characterize the proportion of transcribed DNA sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSR or microsatellites) by length and motif for wheat, barley and rice and to determine in-silico rice genome locations for primer sets developed for wheat and barley Expressed Sequence Tags. Results The proportions of SSR types (di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats) and motifs varied with the length of the SSRs within and among the three species, with trinucleotide SSRs being the most frequent. Distributions of genomic microsatellites (gSSRs), EST-derived microsatellites (EST-SSRs), and transcribed regions in the contiguous sequence of rice chromosome 1 were highly correlated. More than 13,000 primer pairs were developed for use by the cereal research community as potential markers in wheat, barley and rice. Conclusion Trinucleotide SSRs were the most common type in each of the species; however, the relative proportions of SSR types and motifs differed among rice, wheat, and barley. Genomic microsatellites were found to be primarily located in gene-rich regions of the rice genome. Microsatellite markers derived from the use of non-redundant EST-SSRs are an economic and efficient alternative to RFLP for comparative mapping in cereals. PMID:15720707

  13. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample. PMID:26197287

  14. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds. PMID:26788318

  15. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  16. Protein and Quality Characterization of Triticale Translocation Lines in Bread Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-Did locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of storage protein loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the bread making quality of triticale. One means to achieve such restoration of the gen...

  17. Evaluating the ability of the barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing system to simultaneously silence two wheat genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for rapid assessment of gene function in plants. The ability of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) VIGS system to simultaneously silence two genes was assessed by comparing the extent of down-regulation of the wheat PDS and SGT1 genes afte...

  18. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2012 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 field screening nursery consisted of 42 wheat and 24 barley entries evaluated in side by side experiments. Entries within each species experiment were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a field located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries, and u...

  19. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  20. Measurement of Wheat Hardness by Seed Scarifier and Barley Pearler And Comparison with Single-Kernel Characterization System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new procedure based on a seed scarifier (SS) for measuring wheat hardness was described and investigated along with methods of barley pearler (BP) and single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Hardness measured by SS and BP was expressed as percentage of kernel weight remained after abrading ...

  1. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  2. Evaluating the Ability of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System to Simultaneously Silence Two Wheat Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for rapid assessment of gene function in plants. The ability of the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) VIGS system to simultaneously silence two genes was assessed by comparing the extent of down-regulation of the wheat PDS and SGT1 genes afte...

  3. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  4. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase detoxifies deoxynivalenol and provides high levels of resistance to Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that results in huge economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and decreas...

  5. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance to deter herbivores and attract natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 ml containing 1, 100,...

  6. The gene Sr33, an ortholog of barley Mla genes, encodes resistance to wheat stem rust race Ug99.

    PubMed

    Periyannan, Sambasivam; Moore, John; Ayliffe, Michael; Bansal, Urmil; Wang, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Deal, Karin; Luo, Mingcheng; Kong, Xiuying; Bariana, Harbans; Mago, Rohit; McIntosh, Robert; Dodds, Peter; Dvorak, Jan; Lagudah, Evans

    2013-08-16

    Wheat stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, afflicts bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). New virulent races collectively referred to as "Ug99" have emerged, which threaten global wheat production. The wheat gene Sr33, introgressed from the wild relative Aegilops tauschii into bread wheat, confers resistance to diverse stem rust races, including the Ug99 race group. We cloned Sr33, which encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat protein. Sr33 is orthologous to the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mla mildew resistance genes that confer resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The wheat Sr33 gene functions independently of RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 chaperones. Haplotype analysis from diverse collections of Ae. tauschii placed the origin of Sr33 resistance near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. PMID:23811228

  7. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  8. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristian H; Schjoerring, Jan K; Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Husted, Søren

    2011-05-11

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences between organic and conventional crops were found in the content of essential plant nutrients when statistically analyzed individually. However, chemometric analysis of multielemental fingerprints comprising up to 14 elements allowed discrimination. The discrimination power was further enhanced by analysis of up to 25 elements derived from semiquantitative ICP-MS. It is concluded that multielemental fingerprinting with semiquantitative ICP-MS and chemometrics has the potential to enable authentication of organic crops. PMID:21417209

  9. Crop weather models of barley and spring wheat yield for agrophysical units in North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate barley yield and spring wheat yield from weather data for Agrophysical units(APU) in North Dakota. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU models show sight improvements in some of the statistics of the models, e.g., explained variation. These models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. The comparison will indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  10. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  11. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  12. Population Subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from Barley and Wheat in the Upper Midwestern United States at the Turn of the Century.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junmin; Lofgren, Lotus; Ma, Zhanhong; Ward, Todd J; Kistler, H Corby

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part correlated with the spectrum of trichothecene mycotoxins (chemotype) produced by individuals within each population. In contrast, a recent study of F. graminearum obtained from diseased barley in the upper Midwestern United States concluded that only a single population was present, consisting of individuals with various chemotypes. To test whether strains derived from different hosts potentially have different population dynamics, we obtained the barley strains used in the previous study and compared them with wheat strains isolated at a similar time and geographic origin. A total of 247 F. graminearum isolates from barley were assigned firmly into two clusters using a Bayesian clustering method. Subdivision within the barley population corresponded to the previously described NA1 (correlated with the 15ADON chemotype) and NA2 (correlated with the 3ADON chemotype) populations from wheat. However, in both sampling periods the barley population exhibited a higher level of genetic differentiation between NA1 and NA2 populations, fewer admixed individuals and evidence of unidirectional gene introgression (15ADON strains with NA2 genetic backgrounds). These results suggest less recombination between NA1 and NA2 populations on barley compared with wheat. The frequency of 3ADON chemotype strains in the most recently surveyed barley population suggests a latitudinal cline from the northern (49%), central (40%) to the southern (29%) sampling area. The potential to produce a novel trichothecene, 3α-acetoxy,7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothe-9-ene (NX-2), was not detected in the barley population but occurred at a low rate (2.4%) in the wheat population. PMID:26107972

  13. [Transgenic wheat expressing virus-derived hairpin RNA is resistant to Barley yellow dwarf virus].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Xiao, Hong; Li, Shi-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo-Min

    2007-01-01

    An expression vector expected to induce RNA interference against Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which expressed a composite hpRNA with the dsRNA stem homologous of BYDV GPV replicase gene and the antisense RNA loop homologous of coat protein gene, was designed without marker gene. The vector was transferred into callus cells from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos by particle bombardment. To select the positive transformants as early as possible, a rapid PCR, which does not need extract wheat DNA instead of few leaves, was used at regeneration stage of plantlets. Totally 21 plants proved to contain alien sequence. Antivirus test with high dose infected virus revealed that, 9 plants showed low level of resistance to BVDV, 6 plants showed moderate resistance and 6 plants showed high level of resistance. Interestingly, both low and moderate levels of resistance plants were no symptoms when infected by viruses at low dose. It suggests the dose- dependent effect of the resistance mediated by hpRNA to BYDV-GPV. PMID:17284432

  14. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  15. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from barley and wheat in the upper Midwestern United States at the turn of the century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part c...

  16. Identification of resistance to races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici with broad virulence in triticale (X Triticosecale)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale), a hybrid between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale), is known to be an excellent source of resistance to wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. A collection of 567 triticale accessions originating from 21 countries was evaluated for ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF D-GENOME SUBSTITUTIONS ON AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND END-USE QUALITY OF 'PRESTO' TRITICALE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaploid triticale (2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and wheat (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) differ in their R and D genomes. An unanswered question is whether introgressions of the D-genome chromatin could improve triticale. For example, in hexaploid wheat, the endosperm storage proteins, which determine bread-maki...

  18. Aluminum tolerance association mapping in triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crop production practices and industrialization processes result in increasing acidification of arable soils. At lower pH levels (below 5.0), aluminum (Al) remains in a cationic form that is toxic to plants, reducing growth and yield. The effect of aluminum on agronomic performance is particularly important in cereals like wheat, which has promoted the development of programs directed towards selection of tolerant forms. Even in intermediately tolerant cereals (i.e., triticale), the decrease in yield may be significant. In triticale, Al tolerance seems to be influenced by both wheat and rye genomes. However, little is known about the precise chromosomal location of tolerance-related genes, and whether wheat or rye genomes are crucial for the expression of that trait in the hybrid. Results A mapping population consisting of 232 advanced breeding triticale forms was developed and phenotyped for Al tolerance using physiological tests. AFLP, SSR and DArT marker platforms were applied to obtain a sufficiently large set of molecular markers (over 3000). Associations between the markers and the trait were tested using General (GLM) and Multiple (MLM) Linear Models, as well as the Statistical Machine Learning (SML) approach. The chromosomal locations of candidate markers were verified based on known assignments of SSRs and DArTs or by using genetic maps of rye and triticale. Two candidate markers on chromosome 3R and 9, 15 and 11 on chromosomes 4R, 6R and 7R, respectively, were identified. The r2 values were between 0.066 and 0.220 in most cases, indicating a good fit of the data, with better results obtained with the GML than the MLM approach. Several QTLs on rye chromosomes appeared to be involved in the phenotypic expression of the trait, suggesting that rye genome factors are predominantly responsible for Al tolerance in triticale. Conclusions The Diversity Arrays Technology was applied successfully to association mapping studies performed on triticale

  19. Characteristics of modern triticale quality: glutenin and secalin subunit composition and mixograph properties.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Angela L; Appelbee, Marie; Trethowan, Richard M

    2014-05-28

    Triticale is a hardy, high yielding cereal crop with a reputation for poor gluten strength. The secalogluten formation capacity was investigated in 17 modern triticale cultivars by defining their HMW glutenin and 75K γ-secalin alleles and then assessing SDS-sedimentation height and mixograph parameters in a subset of cultivars. The allelic diversity was poor with only 13 alleles identified at four loci; nevertheless, sufficient variability existed to allow secalogluten improvement through crossbreeding and selection. SDS-sedimentation height of triticale (35.5 mm) and mixing time (2.7 min) was equivalent to soft wheat but significantly less than hard wheat. However, flour protein content was 16% less in triticale compared to wheat, despite similar grain protein contents, suggesting triticale stores a lower proportion of grain protein in the endosperm. The confounding factor of protein content must be considered as part of an equitable analysis of gluten quality in cultivar breeding, in the interpretation of previous triticale research, and when comparing triticale to wheat. Improved glutenin properties will expand the utility of triticale in human food products and, thus, increase potential profitability. PMID:24792750

  20. Effects of Planting Date and Barley Variety on Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, P A; Hein, G L; Peairs, F B; Smith, C M

    2014-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest in the western Great Plains of the United States, where it causes hundreds of millions of dollars of losses to barley and wheat production through reduced yields. Experiments to evaluate the effect of early planting and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on D. noxia were conducted at Fort Collins, CO; Tribune, KS; and Sidney, NE, in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Treatments included two planting dates and four cultivars, the D. noxia-resistant barley cultivars 'Stoneham' (Otis*4/STARS 9577B) and 'Sidney' (Otis*4/STARS 9301B), the susceptible cultivar 'Otis', and Otis treated with thiamethoxam. In tiller samples collected from May through early July, consistently lower D. noxia populations were found in plots planted ≍30 d earlier than normal at Fort Collins in all three years, and at Tribune in 2007. With one location-year exception, lower D. noxia populations occurred on plants of resistant varieties or the susceptible variety Otis treated with thiamethoxam than on untreated Otis plants. There were no significant differences in D. noxia populations produced on plants of either resistant variety and susceptible Otis plants treated with thiamethoxam. Interactions between resistant varieties and early planting resulted in reduced D. noxia populations at Fort Collins in 2007 and 2009, and at Tribune and Sidney in 2007. Planting D. noxia-resistant barley varieties, planting varieties earlier than normal, and the synergistic effect of resistant variety and early planting can significantly reduce D. noxia infestations on barley in the western High Plains. PMID:26309288

  1. Comparative analysis of prolamin and glutelin fractions from wheat, rye, and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    PubMed

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-09-01

    The safety of gluten-free foods is essential for celiac disease (CD) patients to prevent serious complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are recommended for gluten analysis to monitor the compliance of gluten-free products to the Codex threshold of 20 mg gluten/kg. However, due to the specific features of each gluten ELISA test kit, the results often deviate systematically and largely depend on the characteristics of the antibody. This comprehensive study assessed the specificities and sensitivities of three monoclonal (R5, G12, and Skerritt) and two polyclonal antibodies to the alcohol-soluble prolamin and alcohol-insoluble glutelin fractions of gluten from wheat, rye, and barley, all of which harbor CD-active epitopes. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography served as independent reference method to quantify gluten protein concentrations and allow comparisons of different gluten fractions within one kit and between kits. Wheat prolamins were detected quite accurately by all antibodies, but high variability between antibody specificities and sensitivities was observed for rye and barley prolamins and rye glutelins, and the largest discrepancies were found for wheat and barley glutelins. The gluten content (sum of prolamins and glutelins) was either overestimated up to six times (rye) or underestimated up to seven times (barley). Overestimation of gluten contents may unnecessarily limit the availability of gluten-free products, but underestimation represents a serious health risk for CD patients. It is important to consider these differences between antibodies used in kits and consider what each kit is capable of measuring, especially with samples where the source of gluten is unknown. PMID:27342795

  2. Factorial combinations of protein interactions generate a multiplicity of florigen activation complexes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengxia; Lin, Huiqiong; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of a mobile flowering signal (florigen) that is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Two FT monomers and two DNA-binding bZIP transcription factors interact with a dimeric 14-3-3 protein bridge to form a hexameric protein complex. This complex, designated as the 'florigen activation complex' (FAC), plays a critical role in flowering. The wheat homologue of FT, designated FT1 (= VRN3), activates expression of VRN1 in the leaves and the SAM, promoting flowering under inductive long days. In this study, we show that FT1, other FT-like proteins, and different FD-like proteins, can interact with multiple wheat and barley 14-3-3 proteins. We also identify the critical amino acid residues in FT1 and FD-like proteins required for their interactions, and demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are necessary bridges to mediate the FT1-TaFDL2 interaction. Using in vivo bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays, we demonstrate that the interaction between FT1 and 14-3-3 occurs in the cytoplasm, and that this complex is then translocated to the nucleus, where it interacts with TaFDL2 to form a FAC. We also demonstrate that a FAC including FT1, TaFDL2 and Ta14-3-3C can bind to the VRN1 promoter in vitro. Finally, we show that relative transcript levels of FD-like and 14-3-3 genes vary among tissues and developmental stages. Since FD-like proteins determine the DNA specificity of the FACs, variation in FD-like gene expression can result in spatial and temporal modulation of the effects of mobile FT-like signals. PMID:26252567

  3. Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

  4. Variation between Ethiopian and North American Barley Varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in Response to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia. PMID:25373187

  5. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  6. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  7. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide. PMID:24423565

  8. Aberrant mRNA processing of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance gene in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael A; Steinau, Martin; Park, Robert F; Rooke, Lee; Pacheco, Maria G; Hulbert, Scot H; Trick, Harold N; Pryor, Anthony J

    2004-08-01

    The maize Rp1-D gene confers race-specific resistance against Puccinia sorghi (common leaf rust) isolates containing a corresponding avrRp1-D avirulence gene. An Rp1-D genomic clone and a similar Rp1-D transgene regulated by the maize ubiquitin promoter were transformed independently into susceptible maize lines and shown to confer Rp1-D resistance, demonstrating that this resistance can be transferred as a single gene. Transfer of these functional transgenes into wheat and barley did not result in novel resistances when these plants were challenged with isolates of wheat stem rust (P. graminis), wheat leaf rust (P. triticina), or barley leaf rust (P. hordei). Regardless of the promoter employed, low levels of gene expression were observed. When constitutive promoters were used for transgene expression, a majority of Rp1-D transcripts were truncated in the nucleotide binding site-encoding region by premature polyadenylation. This aberrant mRNA processing was unrelated to gene function because an inactive version of the gene also generated such transcripts. These data demonstrate that resistance gene transfer between species may not be limited only by divergence of signaling effector molecules and pathogen avirulence ligands, but potentially also by more fundamental gene expression and transcript processing limitations. PMID:15305606

  9. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  10. Transgenic Wheat Expressing a Barley UDP-Glucosyltransferase Detoxifies Deoxynivalenol and Provides High Levels of Resistance to Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Shin, Sanghyun; Heinen, Shane; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Berthiller, Franz; Nersesian, Natalya; Clemente, Thomas; McCormick, Susan; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat that results in economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase (HvUGT13248) were developed and evaluated for FHB resistance, DON accumulation, and the ability to metabolize DON to the less toxic DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Point-inoculation tests in the greenhouse showed that transgenic wheat carrying HvUGT13248 exhibited significantly higher resistance to disease spread in the spike (type II resistance) compared with nontransformed controls. Two transgenic events displayed complete suppression of disease spread in the spikes. Expression of HvUGT13248 in transgenic wheat rapidly and efficiently conjugated DON to D3G, suggesting that the enzymatic rate of DON detoxification translates to type II resistance. Under field conditions, FHB severity was variable; nonetheless, transgenic events showed significantly less-severe disease phenotypes compared with the nontransformed controls. In addition, a seedling assay demonstrated that the transformed plants had a higher tolerance to DON-inhibited root growth than nontransformed plants. These results demonstrate the utility of detoxifying DON as a FHB control strategy in wheat. PMID:26214711

  11. Polycistronic artificial miRNA-mediated resistance to Wheat dwarf virus in barley is highly efficient at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Kis, András; Tholt, Gergely; Ivanics, Milán; Várallyay, Éva; Jenes, Barnabás; Havelda, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Infection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) strains on barley results in dwarf disease, imposing severe economic losses on crop production. As the natural resistance resources against this virus are limited, it is imperative to elaborate a biotechnological approach that will provide effective and safe immunity to a wide range of WDV strains. Because vector insect-mediated WDV infection occurs during cool periods in nature, it is important to identify a technology which is effective at lower temperature. In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) using a barley miRNA precursor backbone, which target different conservative sequence elements of the WDV strains. Potential amiRNA sequences were selected to minimize the off-target effects and were tested in a transient sensor system in order to select the most effective constructs at low temperature. On the basis of the data obtained, a polycistronic amiRNA precursor construct (VirusBuster171) was built expressing three amiRNAs simultaneously. The construct was transformed into barley under the control of a constitutive promoter. The transgenic lines were kept at 12-15 °C to mimic autumn and spring conditions in which major WDV infection and accumulation take place. We were able to establish a stable barley transgenic line displaying resistance to insect-mediated WDV infection. Our study demonstrates that amiRNA technology can be an efficient tool for the introduction of highly efficient resistance in barley against a DNA virus belonging to the Geminiviridae family, and this resistance is effective at low temperature where the natural insect vector mediates the infection process. PMID:26136043

  12. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance. PMID:21039455

  13. Anti-biofilm and sporicidal activity of peptides based on wheat puroindoline and barley hordoindoline proteins.

    PubMed

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Alfred, Rebecca L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-07-01

    The broad-spectrum activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and low probability of development of host resistance make them excellent candidates as novel bio-control agents. A number of AMPs are found to be cationic, and a small proportion of these are tryptophan-rich. The puroindolines (PIN) are small, basic proteins found in wheat grains with proposed roles in biotic defence of seeds and seedlings. Synthetic peptides based on their unique tryptophan-rich domain (TRD) display antimicrobial properties. Bacterial endospores and biofilms are highly resistant cells, with significant implications in both medical and food industries. In this study, the cationic PIN TRD-based peptides PuroA (FPVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and Pina-M (FSVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and the related barley hordoindoline (HIN) based Hina (FPVTWRWWTWWKG-NH2 ) were tested for effects on planktonic cells and biofilms of the common human pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and the non-pathogenic Listeria innocua. All peptides showed significant bactericidal activity. Further, PuroA and Pina-M at 2 × MIC prevented initial biomass attachment by 85-90% and inhibited >90% of 6-h preformed biofilms of all three organisms. However Hina, with a substitution of Lys-9 with uncharged Thr, particularly inhibited Listeria biofilms. The PIN based peptides were also tested against vegetative cells and endospores of Bacillus subtilis. The results provided evidence that these tryptophan-rich peptides could kill B. subtilis even in sporulated state, reducing the number of viable spores by 4 log units. The treated spores appeared withered under scanning electron microscopy. The results establish the potential of these tryptophan-rich peptides in controlling persistent pathogens of relevance to food industries and human health. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27238815

  14. Phytosiderophores influence on cadmium mobilization and uptake by wheat and barley plants.

    PubMed

    Shenker, M; Fan, T W; Crowley, D E

    2001-01-01

    A constant anthropogenic release of cadmium to the environment has resulted in a continuous buildup of Cd in soils. Uptake and accumulation of Cd in plant tissue and in grains may lead to food chain transfer to humans. Application of synthetic chelates was suggested to increase metal mobilization and facilitate phytoextraction as a means for the remediation of metal-polluted soils. However, most of the chelate-extracted metal may be leached rather than mobilized to plant roots. In contrast to the synthetic chelates added to soils, plant-produced chelators called phytosiderophores (PS) are excreted directly to the rhizosphere. Previous studies have shown that PS facilitate uptake of Zn and Fe by graminaceous plants. In this study, a two-step PS mediation of Cd uptake was hypothesized: (i) extraction and chelation in the soil solution, and (ii) delivery of the chelated Cd to the uptake system of the plant. We examined Cd extraction by PS, the synthetic chelate HEDTA [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid], and a fungal siderophore rhizoferrin from solid-phase Cd phosphate at pH 7.3 with and without Fe competition in the presence of Ca and Mg as additional competing metals. While rhizoferrin did not extract Cd, PS and HEDTA did extract Cd even in the presence of Fe. Yet, uptake of Cd by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants was not significantly influenced by Fe stress, but instead was controlled primarily by Cd2+ activity in solution. These results suggest that even though Cd may be mobilized by PS, there is no significant uptake of the Cd-PS complex by the plant roots. PMID:11790018

  15. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. PMID:25217023

  16. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant genotypes for future breeding programmes by identifying suitable sowing times for specific genotypes. High temperature stress, when combined with drought during late sowing, decreased the days to visible awns, days to heading and days to ripe harvest, finally negatively affecting the growth and development of plants and resulting in a lower plant population m−2, tillers plant−1, plant height and dry matter production m−2. On the other hand, low temperature in combination with early sowing increased the number of days to germination, reduced seedling stand establishment and tillering capacity, finally affecting the growth and development of the crops. Compared to overall performance and optimum sowing date, barley genotypes ‘Zernograd.770’ and ‘Nutans’, and wheat genotype ‘Line4’ performed best in both late (high temperature with drought) and early (low temperature) stress conditions. PMID:23961209

  17. Identification of somatic hybridization between Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei through virulence and molecular characterization of isolates from wheat, barley and grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley and many grass species. Somatic hybridization is a possible mechanism for generating variation in an asexually reproducing population, but evidence is lacking. There are also questions about the possibility of somatic hybridization between t...

  18. Association mapping of Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) infestations of barley cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking, and prevent unrolling of leaves which traps spikes and reduces grain yield. Resistant accessions identified in the NSGC were used to develop adapted, resistant germplasm and cultivars. This study identified...

  19. Association mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia [Kurdjumov]) is an ongoing problem in the western USA. Infestations in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking and prevent unrolling of emerging leaves which trap spikes and severely reduce fertility and grain yield. Resistant...

  20. Analysis of the Fusarium graminearum species complex from wheat, barley, and maize in South Africa provides evidence of species-specific differences in host preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 560 members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) collected from diseased wheat, barley and maize in South Africa was determined using a microsphere-based multilocus genotyping assay. Although three trichothecene types (3-ADON, 15-AD...

  1. Variation of cadmium concentration in Swedish wheat and barley. An indicator of changes in daily cadmium intake during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, T; Linnman, L; Elinder CarlGustaf

    1975-07-01

    In order to evaluate whether or not an increase in daily cadmium intake may be taking place, 75 wheat samples (spring wheat and fall wheat) harvested from the same "nonpolluted'' farm fields between the years 1916 and 1972 were analyzed. The individual scatter was large but a significant (Psmaller than.05) tendency toward increasing concentration with time was evident for fall wheat. A similar tendency was found for spring wheat, through not a statistical significance. This increase may be explained by general air contamination or the cumulative effect of fertilizers. There was a clear covariation in cadmium concentrations of differenc genotypes of wheat and barley harvested in the same year despite yearly variations in average concentration. PMID:1147697

  2. Regression and direct methods do not give different estimates of digestible and metabolizable energy values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    Direct or indirect methods can be used to determine the DE and ME of feed ingredients for pigs. In situations when only the indirect approach is suitable, the regression method presents a robust indirect approach. Three experiments were conducted to compare the direct and regression methods for determining the DE and ME values of barley, sorghum, and wheat for pigs. In each experiment, 24 barrows with an average initial BW of 31, 32, and 33 kg were assigned to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design. The 4 diets consisted of 969 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg plus minerals and vitamins for the direct method; a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD); the RD + 300 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg; and the RD + 600 g barley, sorghum, or wheat/kg. The 3 corn-soybean meal diets were used for the regression method. Each diet was fed to 6 barrows in individual metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation followed by a 5-d period of total but separate collection of feces and urine in each experiment. Graded substitution of barley or wheat, but not sorghum, into the RD linearly reduced ( < 0.05) dietary DE and ME. The direct method-derived DE and ME for barley were 3,669 and 3,593 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The regressions of barley contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of barley DMI in kilograms generated 3,746 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,647 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME for sorghum by the direct method were 4,097 and 4,042 kcal/kg DM, respectively; the corresponding regression-derived estimates were 4,145 and 4,066 kcal/kg DM. Using the direct method, energy values for wheat were 3,953 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,889 kcal ME/kg DM. The regressions of wheat contribution to DE and ME in kilocalories against the quantity of wheat DMI in kilograms generated 3,960 kcal DE/kg DM and 3,874 kcal ME/kg DM. The DE and ME of barley using the direct method were not different (0.3 < < 0.4) from those obtained using the regression method (3,669 vs. 3,746 and 3,593 vs. 3,647 kcal

  3. Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye.

    PubMed

    McGough, Norma; Cummings, John H

    2005-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a lifelong intolerance to the gluten found in wheat, barley and rye, and some patients are also sensitive to oats. The disease is genetically determined, with 10% of the first-degree relatives affected and 75% of monozygotic twins being concordant. Of the patients with coeliac disease 95% are human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive. Characteristically, the jejunal mucosa becomes damaged by a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response that is thought to be initiated by a 33-mer peptide fragment in A2 gliadin, and patients with this disorder have raised levels of anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their blood. Coeliac disease is the major diagnosable food intolerance and, with the advent of a simple blood test for case finding, prevalence rates are thought to be approximately 1:100. Classically, the condition presented with malabsorption and failure to thrive in infancy, but this picture has now been overtaken by the much more common presentation in adults, usually with non-specific symptoms such as tiredness and anaemia, disturbance in bowel habit or following low-impact bone fractures. Small intestinal biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and shows a characteristically flat appearance with crypt hypoplasia and infiltration of the epithelium with lymphocytes. Diet is the key to management and a gluten-free diet effectively cures the condition. However, this commitment is lifelong and many aisles in the supermarket are effectively closed to individuals with coeliac disease. Compliance can be monitored by measuring antibodies in blood, which revert to negative after 6-9 months. Patients with minor symptoms, who are found incidentally to have coeliac disease, often ask whether it is necessary to adhere to the diet. Current advice is that dietary adherence is necessary to avoid the long-term complications, which are, principally, osteoporosis and small bowel lymphoma. However, risk of these complications diminishes very

  4. Fine mapping of barley locus Rps6 conferring resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a major disease of wheat that is causing large economic losses in many wheat-growing regions of the world. Deployment of Pst resistance genes has been an effective strategy for controlling this pathogen, but many of these gen...

  5. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  6. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  7. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  8. Sequencing of chloroplast genomes from wheat, barley, rye and their relatives provides a detailed insight into the evolution of the Triticeae tribe.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Christopher P; Senerchia, Natacha; Stein, Nils; Akhunov, Eduard D; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8-9 million years ago (MYA). The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1-2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3-4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae. PMID:24614886

  9. Proteinaceous toxins of Stagonospora nodorum, the causal agent of triticale leaf and glume blotch.

    PubMed

    Walczewski, Jakub; Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    S. nodorum is an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of cereals and grasses worldwide. In past several years appeared in literature quite a number of reports on existence of proteinaceous effectors produced by the fungus which induce necrosis in cereal host tissue. These host specific toxins induce necrosis by interacting with specific, dominant host genes. Up to the present research on S. nodorum toxin resistance was conducted only with wheat. Because wheat chromosomes are present in triticale genome, it is highly likely that mechanism used by S. nodorum for necrosis induction in triticale is the same as in wheat. Simple pilot experiment conducted in our laboratory, confirms that mechanism of necrosis induction via proteinaceous toxins is similar for both, wheat and triticale. PMID:26072591

  10. Registration of 'RWA 1758' Russian Wheat Aphid-Resistant Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: 'RWA 1758' (Reg. No. _______; P.I. 648913) is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. RWA 1758 was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance and resistance to damage cau...

  11. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  12. Methods for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Hexaploid Wheat using barley stripe mosaic virus vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a useful functional genomics tool for rapidly creating gene knockout phenotypes that can be used to infer gene function. Until recently, VIGS has only been possible in dicotyledonous plants. However, the development of vectors based on barley stripe mosaic vi...

  13. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  14. Maize Debris Increases Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Severity in North Carolina Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the eastern U.S., wheat is often planted with minimal or no tillage into maize residues. We conducted a field experiment in the North Carolina Piedmont to compare the effects of three maize residue treatments (unchopped, chopped, and removed) on Fusarium head blight (FHB) in two winter wheat cul...

  15. Living Gluten Free | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Avoid - Processed Foods that May Contain Wheat, Barley or Rye. Wheat and Wheat Products Foods to ... bran, wheat germ, cracked wheat, hydrolyzed wheat protein barley rye triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) ...

  16. Seasonal abundance of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat and their role as barley yellow dwarf virus vectors in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Chapin, J W; Thomas, J S; Gray, S M; Smith, D M; Halbert, S E

    2001-04-01

    Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) seasonal flight activity and abundance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and the significance of aphid species as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus were studied over a nine-year period in the South Carolina coastal plain. Four aphid species colonized wheat in a consistent seasonal pattern. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki), colonized seedlingwheat immediately after crop emergence, with apterous colonies usually peaking in December or January and then declining for the remainder of the season. These two aphid species are unlikely to cause economic loss on wheat in South Carolina, thus crop managers should not have to sample for the subterranean R. rufiabdominalis colonies. Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), was the second most abundant species and the most economically important. Rhopalosiphum padi colonies usually remained below 10/row-meter until peaking in February or March. Barley yellow dwarf incidence and wheat yield loss were significantly correlated with R. padi peak abundance and aphid-day accumulation on the crop. Based on transmission assays, R. padi was primarily responsible for vectoring the predominant virus serotype (PAV) we found in wheat. Pest management efforts should focus on sampling for and suppressing this aphid species. December planting reduced aphid-day accumulation and barley yellow dwarf incidence, but delayed planting is not a practical management option. English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), was the last species to colonize wheat each season, and the most abundant. Sitobion avenae was responsible for late-season virus transmission and caused direct yield loss by feeding on heads and flag leaves during an outbreak year. PMID:11332833

  17. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr

    2014-08-01

    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  18. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected. PMID:25364928

  19. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  20. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  1. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined. PMID:25071816

  2. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers. PMID:27463368

  3. [The use of native triticale in poultry. 3. Use in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Richter, G; Lemser, A

    1993-01-01

    In three trials with a total of 3240 white laying hybrids, 10 to 72% Triticale of the variety "Grado" was used as a substitute for maize and wheat. The feeding of Triticale had no influence on feed consumption, laying performance, feed efficiency, mortality or weight gain. In two of three trials the egg weight was lowered with an increasing amount of Triticale in the diet. After supplementation of 1 or 1.5% sunflower oil to the diets with 50 resp. 72% Triticale the egg weight increased again to the level of the control group. With the exception of one group, there was no correlation between breaking strength and deformation of the eggs. The colour intensity of the egg yolk was decreased with increasing amounts of Triticale in the diet. It can be concluded, that laying hen feed supplemented with oil may contain up to 50% Triticale, but in non-supplemented diets the highest amount of Triticale should be only 20% because of the risk of linoleic acid shortage. PMID:8517768

  4. Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major problem in cereal production as it can reduce quality and yield. B. graminis has evolved eight distinct formae speciales (f.sp.) which display strict host specialization. In the last decade, powdery mildew has emerged on triticale, the artificial intergeneric hybrid between wheat and rye. This emergence is probably triggered by a host range expansion of the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici. To gain more precise information about the evolutionary processes that led to this host range expansion, we pursued a combined pathological and genetic approach. Results B. graminis isolates were sampled from triticale, wheat and rye from different breeding regions in Europe. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolates collected from triticale are highly pathogenic on most of the tested triticale cultivars. Moreover, these isolates were also able to infect several wheat cultivars (their previous hosts), although a lower aggressiveness was observed compared to isolates collected from wheat. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene regions identified two statistically significant clades, which to a certain extent correlated with pathogenicity. No differences in virulence profiles were found among the sampled regions, but the distribution of genetic variation demonstrated to be geography dependent. A multilocus haplotype network showed that haplotypes pathogenic on triticale are distributed at different sites in the network, but always clustered at or near the tips of the network. Conclusions This study reveals a genetic structure in B. graminis with population differentiation according to geography and host specificity. In addition, evidence is brought forward demonstrating that the host range expansion of wheat isolates to the new host triticale occurred recently and multiple times at different locations in Europe. PMID:22658131

  5. Strategies for controlling increasingly important stripe rusts of wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has historically been a destructive disease in the western United States, but has become increasingly important in the Great Plains and southeastern states since 2000. The disease has caused yield losses of more than 231 million b...

  6. Gene discovery and molecular pre-breeding for insect resistance in wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-breeding research has a significant role in linking between genetic resources and breeding as it shortens the time frame between genetic enhancement and the development of new, improved crop varieties. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of w...

  7. Genetic Characterization of Resistance to Wheat Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Landrace and Wild Barley Accessions Identifies the rpg4/Rpg5 Locus.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Bullo Erena; Smith, Kevin P; Brueggeman, Robert S; Steffenson, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Race TTKSK of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) threatens the production of wheat and barley worldwide because of its broad-spectrum virulence on many widely grown cultivars. Sources of resistance against race TTKSK were recently identified in several barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) and wild barley accessions (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum). The objectives of this study were to characterize the inheritance of resistance to wheat stem rust race TTKSK in four barley landraces (Hv501, Hv545, Hv602, and Hv612) and two wild barley (WBDC213 and WBDC345) accessions, map the resistance genes, and determine the allelic relationships among the genes in these accessions and the previously described rpg4/Rpg5 locus. Resistant accessions were crossed with the susceptible cv. Steptoe and resulting F3 populations were evaluated for resistance to race TTKSK at the seedling stage. Segregation of F3 families in populations involving the resistance sources of Hv501, Hv545, Hv612, WBDC213, and WBDC345 fit a 1:2:1 ratio for homozygous resistant (HR)/segregating (SEG)/homozygous susceptible (HS) progenies (with χ2=2.27 to 5.87 and P=0.053 to 0.321), indicating that a single gene confers resistance to race TTKSK. Segregation of F3 families in cross Steptoe/Hv602 did not fit a 1:2:1 ratio (HR/SEG/HS of 20:47:43 with χ2=11.95 and P=0.003), indicating that more than one gene is involved in imparting resistance to race TTKSK. Bulked segregant analysis using >1,500 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers positioned a resistance locus in all six populations on chromosome 5HL in very close proximity to the known location of the rpg4/Rpg5 complex locus. Allelism tests were conducted by making crosses among resistant accessions Hv501, Hv545, and Hv612 and also Q21861 with the rpg4/Rpg5 complex. No segregation was observed in F2 families inoculated with race TTKSK, demonstrating that all Hv lines carry the same allele for resistance and that it

  8. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  9. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health. PMID:24987082

  10. Evaluation of triticale as energy crop in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cantale, Cristina; Correnti, Angelo; Farneti, Anna; Felici, Fabio; Mentuccia, Luciano; Pignatelli, Vito; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy represents a target of the European 2020 strategy for economical growth and sustainable competitiveness. Cereals are considered a promising biomass producing crop in temperate regions of Europe to be used for both fuel alcohol and biogas production. Among cereals, triticale represents a good candidate for this kind of application, showing a number of advantages such as high grain yield even in marginal environments, tolerance to drought, tolerance to more acid soils, lower production costs and lower susceptibility to biotic stresses. The aim of this study was to compare yield and quality of eight triticale lines grown in marginal areas in a two-year experiment. Italian variety, Magistral, and a bread wheat variety (EW9) were selected for comparison. Data from fields, chemical analyses and preliminary results from fermentation are reported. PMID:26072589

  11. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  12. What I Need to Know about Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten may also be used in products such ... bran, wheat germ, cracked wheat, hydrolyzed wheat protein Barley Rye Triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) ...

  13. IDENTIFYING TRITICALE (X TRITICOSECALE WITTMACK) FORAGE LINES ADAPTED TO NEBRASKA'S GROWING CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale, a human-made crop that combines the diversity of wheat and rye, is mainly used as a forage crop in Nebraska; therefore, cultivar selection should encompass high energy content of the forage and good grain yield so the seed can be economically produced. Hence, the objective of this study w...

  14. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2010 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  15. Mapping field spatial distribution patterns of isoproturon-mineralizing activity over a three-year winter wheat/rape seed/barley rotation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Devers-Lamrani, M; Spor, A; Rouard, N; Porcherot, M; Beguet, J; Martin-Laurent, F

    2013-03-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the activity of soil microorganisms able to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) pesticide was investigated over a three-year long crop rotation between 2008 and 2010. Isoproturon mineralization was higher in 2008, when winter wheat was treated with this herbicide, than in 2009 and 2010, when rape seed and barley were treated with different herbicides. Under laboratory conditions, we showed that isoproturon mineralization was not promoted by sulfonylurea herbicide applied on barley crop in 2010. IPU mineralization was shown to be highly variable at the field scale in years 2009 and 2010. Principal component analyses and analyses of similarities revealed that soil pH and equivalent humidity, and to a lesser extent soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main drivers of isoproturon-mineralizing activity variance. Using a rather simple model that yields the rate of isoproturon mineralization as a function of soil pH and equivalent humidity, we explained up to 85% of the variance observed. Mapping field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization over the three-year survey indicated higher variability in 2009 and in 2010 as compared to 2008, suggesting that isoproturon treatment applied to winter wheat promoted isoproturon mineralization activity and reduced its spatial variability. Field-scale distribution of isoproturon mineralization showed important similarity to the distribution of soil pH, equivalent humidity and to a lesser extent to soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity (CEC) thereby confirming our model. PMID:23246724

  16. Preparation and characterization of enzymatically hydrolyzed prolamins from wheat, rye, and barley as references for the immunochemical quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten.

    PubMed

    Gessendorfer, Benedict; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the intolerance to a group of proteins called gluten present in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats. The only therapy is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. The standard method for gluten determination in foods produced for CD patients is the R5-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as proposed by the recent Codex Alimentarius Draft Revised Standard. This test is based on the determination of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble proteins of gluten, and is available as a sandwich ELISA for intact proteins and as a competitive ELISA for gluten-derived peptides. While the suitability of the sandwich ELISA including a wheat prolamin (gliadin) reference for calibration has been shown by various studies and a ring test, the competitive ELISA still lacks a convenient reference for the quantitation of gluten peptides in fermented cereal foods (e.g., sourdough products, starch syrup, malt extracts, beer). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare a suitable reference for the quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten in fermented wheat, rye, and barley products. The prolamin fractions from barley (hordein) and rye (secalin) were isolated from corresponding flours by means of a modified preparative Osborne fractionation. The prolamin fraction from wheat was obtained as reference gliadin from the Prolamin Working Group. The prolamin fractions were successively digested by pepsin and trypsin or pepsin and chymotrypsin procedures, which have been used for CD-specific toxicity tests on cereal storage proteins for many years. The protein/peptide content (N x 5.7) of the prolamin fractions and digests, which was the basis for the calculation of the gluten content by means of ELISA, varied between 67.1% and 96.0%. The prolamin fractions and enzymatic digests were then tested for their response in both sandwich and competitive assays. Intact prolamins responded similarly in both ELISA showing

  17. Aneuploidy among androgenic progeny of hexaploid triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Sylwia; Rabiza-Swider, Julita; Zimny, Janusz; Lukaszewski, Adam J

    2011-04-01

    Doubled haploids are an established tool in plant breeding and research. Of several methods for their production, androgenesis is technically simple and can efficiently produce substantial numbers of lines. It is well suited to such crops as hexaploid triticale. Owing to meiotic irregularities of triticale hybrids, aneuploidy may affect the efficiency of androgenesis more severely than in meiotically stable crops. This study addresses the issue of aneuploidy among androgenic regenerants of triticale. Plant morphology, seed set and seed quality were better predictors of aneuploidy, as determined cytologically, than flow cytometry. Most aneuploids were hypoploids and these included nullisomics, telosomics, and translocation lines; among 42 chromosome plants were nulli-tetrasomics. Rye chromosomes involved in aneuploidy greatly outnumbered wheat chromosomes; in C(0) rye chromosomes 2R and 5R were most frequently involved. While the frequency of nullisomy 2R was fairly constant in most cross combinations, nullisomy 5R was more frequent in the most recalcitrant combination, and its frequency increased with time spent in culture with up to 70% of green plants recovered late being nullisomic 5R. Given that 5R was not involved in meiotic aberrations with an above-average frequency, it is possible that its absence promotes androgenesis or green plant regeneration. Overall, aneuploidy among tested combinations reduced the average efficiency of double haploid production by 35% and by 69% in one recalcitrant combination, seriously reducing the yield of useful lines. PMID:21170716

  18. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J; Wawrzyniak, Maria; Lemańczyk, Grzegorz; Wrzesińska, Danuta; Piesik, Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 10(4) difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl(-1)) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min(-1); 125 ng · min(-1)), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min(-1)) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus. PMID:23588742

  19. Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

  20. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  1. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  2. Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight resistance in four winter triticale populations.

    PubMed

    Kalih, R; Maurer, H P; Miedaner, T

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes significant reductions in yield and quality in wheat, rye, and triticale. In triticale, knowledge of the genetic architecture of FHB resistance is missing but essential due to modern breeding requirements. In our study, four doubled-haploid triticale populations (N=120 to 200) were evaluated for resistance to FHB caused by artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in four environments. DArT markers were used to genotype triticale populations. Seventeen quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance were detected across all populations; six of them were derived from rye genome and located on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R, which are here reported for the first time. The total cross-validated ratio of the explained phenotypic variance for all detected QTL in each population was 41 to 68%. In all, 17 QTL for plant height and 18 QTL for heading stage were also detected across all populations; 3 and 5 of them, respectively, were overlapping with QTL for FHB. In conclusion, FHB resistance in triticale is caused by a multitude of QTL, and pyramiding them contributes to higher resistance. PMID:25689622

  3. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  4. Timing and rate of genome variation in triticale following allopolyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Gustafson, J Perry

    2006-08-01

    The timing and rate of genomic variation induced by allopolyploidization in the intergeneric wheat-rye (Triticum spp. - Secale cereale L.) hybrid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses with 2 sets of primers, EcoRI-MseI (E-M) and PstI-MseI (P-M), which primarily amplify repetitive and low-copy sequences, respectively. The results showed that allopolyploidization induced genome sequence variation in triticale and that a great degree of the genome variation occurred immediately following wide hybridization. Specifically, about 46.3% and 36.2% of the wheat parental band loss and 74.5% and 68.4% of the rye parental band loss occurred in the F1 hybrids (before chromosome doubling) for E-M and P-M primers, respectively. The sequence variation events that followed chromosome doubling consisted of continuous modifications that occurred at a very small rate compared with the rate of variation before chromosome doubling. However, the rate of sequence variation involving the rye parental genome was much higher in the first 5 generations following chromosome doubling than in any subsequent generation. Surprisingly, the highest rate of rye genomic variation occurring after chromosome doubling was in C3 or later, but not in C1. The data suggested that the cytoplasm and the degree of the relationship between the parental genomes were the key factors in determining the direction, amount, timing, and rate of genomic sequence variation occurring during intergeneric allopolyploidization. PMID:17036070

  5. Nitrogen Rates for Dryland Triticale Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland farmers/ranchers in the CGPR have recently taken an interest in triticale as a hay crop. Triticale is well adapted and its forage is palatable and nutritionally competitive with other annual forages grown in the region. On deficient soils, triticale’s forage-yield response to applied fertili...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack)...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack)...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack)...

  9. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack)...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack)...

  11. 77 FR 24678 - Announcement of Small, Socially-Disadvantaged Producer Grant (SSDPG) Application Deadlines in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... and vegetables; grains, such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, rice, corn, and sorghum; legumes... market for the product. Examples include milling wheat into flour, slaughtering livestock or...

  12. The homeodomain transcription factor TaHDZipI-2 from wheat regulates frost tolerance, flowering time and spike development in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Chew, William; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Yang, Nannan; Singh, Rohan; Bazanova, Natalia; Shavrukov, Yuri; Guendel, Andre; Munz, Eberhard; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Homeodomain leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development under stresses. Functions of the TaHDZipI-2 gene isolated from the endosperm of developing wheat grain were revealed. Molecular characterization of TaHDZipI-2 protein included studies of its dimerisation, protein-DNA interactions and gene activation properties using pull-down assays, in-yeast methods and transient expression assays in wheat cells. The analysis of TaHDZipI-2 gene functions was performed using transgenic barley plants. It included comparison of developmental phenotypes, yield components, grain quality, frost tolerance and the levels of expression of potential target genes in transgenic and control plants. Transgenic TaHDZipI-2 lines showed characteristic phenotypic features that included reduced growth rates, reduced biomass, early flowering, light-coloured leaves and narrowly elongated spikes. Transgenic lines produced 25-40% more seeds per spike than control plants, but with 50-60% smaller grain size. In vivo lipid imaging exposed changes in the distribution of lipids between the embryo and endosperm in transgenic seeds. Transgenic lines were significantly more tolerant to frost than control plants. Our data suggest the role of TaHDZipI-2 in controlling several key processes underlying frost tolerance, transition to flowering and spike development. PMID:26990681

  13. Economic evaluation of the effects of planting date and application rate of imidacloprid for management of cereal aphids and barley yellow dwarf in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Royer, T A; Giles, K L; Nyamanzi, T; Hunger, R M; Krenzer, E G; Elliot, N C; Kindler, S D; Payton, M

    2005-02-01

    The effects of planting date and application rate of imidacloprid for control of Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae), and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in hard red winter wheat were studied. The first experiment was conducted from 1997 to 1999 at two locations and consisted of three planting dates and four rates of imidacloprid-treated seed. The second experiment was conducted from 2001 to 2002 in Stillwater, OK, and consisted of two varieties of hard red winter wheat seed and four rates of imidacloprid. Aphid densities, occurrence of BYDV, yield components, and final grain yield were measured, and yield differences were used to estimate the economic return obtained from using imidacloprid. In the first study, aphid populations responded to insecticide rate in the early and middle plantings, but the response was reduced in the late planting. Yields increased as insecticide rate increased but did not always result in a positive economic return. In the second study, imidacloprid seed treatments reduced aphid numbers and BYD occurrence, protected yield, and resulted in a positive economic return. The presence of aphids and BYDV lowered yield by reducing fertile head density, total kernel weight, and test weight. Whereas the application of imidacloprid seed treatments often provided positive yield protection, it did not did not consistently provide a positive economic return. A positive economic return was consistently obtained if the cereal aphid was carrying and transmitting BYDV and was more likely to occur if wheat was treated with a low rate if imidacloprid and planted in a "dual purpose" planting date window. PMID:15765670

  14. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  15. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars 'Hewo' and 'Magnat'. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  16. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars ‘Hewo’ and ‘Magnat’. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  17. Allopolyploidization Accommodated Genomic Sequence Changes in Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allopolyploidization is one of the major evolutionary modes of plant speciation. Recent interest in studying allopolyploids has provided significant novel insight into the mechanisms shaping allopolyploid formation. Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a good species to study the evolutionary c...

  18. Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

    2014-01-01

    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science. PMID:24437370

  19. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed

  20. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2-18 mg kg(-1) range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. PMID:26454460

  1. Effect of microbial phytase on phosphorus digestibility in non-heat-treated and heat-treated wheat-barley pig diets.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Poulsen, H D

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in a non-heat-treated and a heat-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum)-barley (Hordeum vulgare) diet fed without inorganic P in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The basal diet was ground and half of the batch was steam pelleted at 81°C and crumbled. Phytase was added at 0, 250, and 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg as-fed (Aspergillus niger). The study comprised 36 pigs from 6 litters. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed 1 of 6 diets for 12 d: 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. The ATTD of P was highest (P < 0.01) for the non-heat-treated diets and highest (P < 0.01) for the phytase-supplemented diets. Heat treatment reduced plant phytase activity by 25% whereby the ATTD of P decreased (P < 0.01) from 57 to 49%. Microbial phytase increased the ATTD of P to a maximum of 64 and 61% in the non-heat-treated and heat-treated diets corresponding to an increase of 7 and 12%-units. Responses for ATTD of P did not differ between 250 vs. 500 FTU/kg as-fed. In conclusion, processing of feed (meal or pellets) containing plant phytase should be considered to avoid over- or underestimation of effects of microbial phytase. PMID:23365331

  2. Aluminum Tolerance Genes on the Short Arm of Chromosome 3R Are Linked to Organic Acid Release in Triticale1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian Feng; Taketa, Shin; Yang, Zhen Ming

    2000-01-01

    Triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, shows a high degree of Al tolerance that is inherited from rye, but the mechanisms of high Al tolerance in both rye and triticale are unknown. We found that the short arm of chromosome 3R carries genes necessary for Al tolerance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmark cv Currency). Detailed comparative studies with a 3DS.3RL translocation line (ST22) and a non-substitution line (ST2) were conducted. Root elongation was similarly inhibited by Al in ST2 and ST22 during the first 12 h of Al treatment, but more strongly in ST22 than in ST2 at 18 h and thereafter. The root inhibition induced by other metals (Cu, Cd, and La) was similar between ST2 and ST22, suggesting that the action of the genes for Al tolerance on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is highly specific to Al. A 2-fold larger amount of malate and citrate was released from the roots of ST2 than from ST22 at 12 and 18 h after Al treatment, respectively. The marked lag phase in the inhibition of root elongation and the release of organic acids implies that the expression of genes on the short arm of triticale chromosome 3R is induced by Al, and that these genes are necessary for the release of organic acids. PMID:10712531

  3. Dynamic behaviour of inflorescence-bearing Triticale and Triticum stems.

    PubMed

    Zebrowski, J

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical response of cereal plant shoots to load caused by wind and gravity in the field is swaying in flexure around the vertical or near vertical transient equilibrium position determined by the stationary component of the wind pressure. The aim of this work was to characterise the kinematic and dynamic attributes and their interrelations in freely swaying inflorescence-bearing stems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Triticale. The fundamental natural frequency of the stems appeared to be considerably lower than predicted from the theory of vibration using the model of a cantilever beam oscillator and assuming the spring constant to be equal to the force-deflection ratio. Because of the rate of deformation and visco-elastic behaviour of the plant material, a discrepancy of about 10% was found between the dynamic and static stem bending resistance. The presence of the tip inflorescence caused vibrating vertical stems to behave as compressed columns in which the effective spring constant was strongly biased by the apical load due to the weight of the inflorescence. At the late milk stage, in the freely swaying stems of wheat and Triticale, the resistance to dynamic lateral loads was reduced by about 30% as a result of compression exerted by the inflorescence. So the prominent effect of the tip inflorescence on the dynamic behaviour (the effective spring constant and the natural frequency) of the stem is attributed to the non-negligible magnitude of the inflorescence weight relative to the critical load producing elastic buckling in slender vertical structures. Stem softening as a consequence of increasing inflorescence weight is assumed to be one of the essential factors reducing the lodging resistance in cereal crops at the late milk stage. The feasibility of the compressed-column approach for predicting the dynamic bending performance of slender vertical plant organs is discussed. PMID:11536897

  4. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  5. The Barley Phytomer

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Brian P.; Franckowiak, Jerome D.; Lundqvist, Udda; Lyon, Jackie; Pitkethly, Ian; Thomas, William T. B.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological mutants have been useful in elucidating the phytomeric structure of plants. Recently described mutants have shed new light on the ontogeny (development of plant structures) and the phytomeric system of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Since the current model for barley phytomers was not adequate to explain the nature of some mutants, a new model is proposed. Methods New phytomer mutants were detected by visual assessment of mutant families in the Optic barley mutation grid population. This was done at various growth stages using laboratory, glasshouse and field screens. Simple explanations were adopted to account for aberrant phytomer phenotypes and a thesis for a new phytomer model was developed. Key Results and Conclusions A barley phytomer model is presented, in which the origins of vegetative and generative structures can be explained by a single repeating phytomer unit. Organs on the barley plant are divided into two classes, single or paired, depending on their origin. Paired structures are often fused together to create specific organs. The model can be applied to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and related grasses. PMID:17901062

  6. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  7. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  8. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  9. Strengths and Limitations of Operational Use of 1 Km EO Biophysical Products for Regional Prediction of Grain Yelds in Europe (wheat, barley and maize)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, M.; LEO, O.; Lopez-Lozano, R.; Baruth, B.; Duveiller, G.; Garcia-Condado, S.; Hooker, J.; Seguini, L.

    2014-12-01

    The site-specific relationship between EO indicators and actual crop yields has been explored in many different studies, describing semi-empirical regression models between spatially aggregated biophysical parameters or vegetation indices and observed yields (from field measurements or official statistics). However, when considering larger extensions -from countries to continents- agro-climatic conditions and crop management may differ substantially among regions, and these differences may greatly influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and the observed yields, which may be also driven by limiting factors other than green biomass formation. The present study aims to better assess the contribution of EO indicators within an operational crop yield forecasting system in Europe and neighbouring countries, by evaluating how these above mentioned geographic differences influence the relationship between biophysical indicators and crop yield. We therefore explore, as a first step, the correspondence between fAPAR time-series (1999-2013) and the inter-annual yield variability of wheat, barley and grain maize, at sub-national level across Europe (270-450 Administrative Units, depending on crop). In a second step, we map the agro-climatic contexts in which EO indicators better explain the observed yield inter-annual variability, identify the influence of some meteorological events on the fAPAR -yield relationship and provide some recommendations for further investigation. The results indicate that in water-limited environments (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Sea areas), fAPAR is highly correlated with yields whereas in northern Europe, crop yield appears much less limited by leaf area expansion along the season, and the relationship between yield and EO products becomes more difficult to interpret.

  10. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  15. Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ingestion of gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye and barley) in susceptible individuals. This response ... Malt and Malt Extract Rye Semolina Spelt Triticale Wheat Wheat Germ Wheat Starch Gluten Intolerance Group (GIG) ...

  16. Exploiting Regulatory Variation to Identify Genes Underlying Quantitative Resistance to the Wheat Stem Rust Pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously mapped mRNA transcript abundance traits 1 eQTL (expression- quantitative trait loci) using the Barley1 Affymetrix array and "whole plant" tissue from 139 progeny of the Steptoe x Morex (St/Mx) reference barley mapping population. Of the 22,840 probesets (genes) on the array, 15,987 rep...

  17. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  18. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  19. Silencing of the HvCKX1 gene decreases the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase level in barley and leads to higher plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Wojciech; Galuszka, Petr; Gasparis, Sebastian; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Stable RNA interference-based technology was used to silence the expression of the HvCKX1 gene in barley and the TaCKX1 gene in wheat and triticale. The silencing cassettes containing the fragments of these genes in the sense and antisense orientations were cloned into the pMCG161 binary vector and used for Agrobacterium-based transformation. Out of the five cultivars representing the three studied species, transgenic plants were obtained from one barley cultivar Golden Promise, one wheat cultivar Kontesa, and one triticale cultivar Wanad. Almost 80% of 52 regenerated lines of Golden Promise exhibited significantly decreased cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzyme activity in bulked samples of their T(1) roots. There was a positive correlation between the enzyme activity and the plant productivity, expressed as the yield, the number of seeds per plant, and the 1000 grain weight. Additionally, these traits were associated with a greater root mass. Lower CKX activity led to a higher plant yield and root weight. This higher plant productivity and altered plant architecture were maintained in a population of segregating T(1) plants. The levels of HvCKX1 transcript accumulation were measured in various tissues of Golden Promise and Scarlett non-transgenic barley plants in order to choose the most appropriate plant organs to study the expression and/or silencing of the gene in those transgenic lines. The highest levels of the HvCKX1 transcript were detected in spikes 0 days after pollination (0 DAP), 7 DAP, and 14 DAP, and in the seedling roots. The analysis of HvCKX1 gene expression and CKX enzyme activity and the evaluation of the phenotype were performed in the progeny of seven selected transgenic T(1) lines. The relative expression of HvCKX1 measured in the spikes 0 DAP and 14 DAP, respectively, ranged from 0.52+/-0.04 to 1.15+/-0.26 and from 0.47+/-0.07 to 0.89+/-0.15. The lowest relative values were obtained for the enzyme activity in the spikes at 0 DAP

  20. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  1. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley. PMID:23216085

  2. Elemental concentrations in Triticale straw, a potential bioenergy feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is produced on more than three million ha world wide including 344,000 ha in the USA. Straw resulting from triticale production could provide feedstock for bioenergy production in many regions of the world, but high concentrations of certain elements, including s...

  3. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  4. Hardness locus sequence variation and endosperm texture in spring barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain texture is an important quality parameter in both wheat and barley. Cultivars with good malting quality tend to be softer than their poor malting counterparts. Harder textured barley seeds with lower dry matter digestibility may potentially be better in feed quality for beef cattle. Most gr...

  5. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  6. Reflectance characteristics of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) stress and abundance in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)) infests wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and other small grains and grasses. Russian wheat aphid infestations are unpredictable in time and space. In favorable conditions, Russian wheat aphid feeding can result in heavy...

  7. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  11. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  12. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  13. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our overall goal is to identify genes that play a role in resistance to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and to develop and test transgenic wheat carrying these genes. In particular, we are interested in identifying genes that protect barley and wheat from the effects of trichothecenes. Previously, we con...

  14. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  15. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  16. Solid-phase extraction method for the isolation of plant thionins from European mistletoe, wheat and barley using zirconium silicate embedded in poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) hollow-monoliths.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shah; Güzel, Yüksel; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-09-01

    Thionins are cysteine-rich, biologically active small (∼5 kDa) and basic proteins occurring ubiquitously in the plant kingdom. This study describes an efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the selective isolation of these pharmacologically active proteins. Hollow-monolithic extraction tips based on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) with embedded zirconium silicate nano-powder were designed, which showed an excellent selectivity for sulphur-rich proteins owing to strong co-ordination between zirconium and the sulphur atoms from the thiol-group of cysteine. The sorbent provides a combination of strong hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions which may help in targeted separation of certain classes of proteins in a complex mixture based upon the binding strength of different proteins. European mistletoe, wheat and barley samples were used for selective isolation of viscotoxins, purothionins and hordothionins, respectively. The enriched fractions were subjected to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to prove the selectivity of the SPE method towards thionins. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis, tryptic digests of SPE eluates were examined. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to diode-array detection was employed for the purification of individual isoforms. The developed method was found to be highly specific for the isolation and purification of thionins. PMID:23861184

  17. Barley stripe mosaic and Barley yellow stripe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley stripe mosaic was described in Wisconsin as "barley false stripe" in 1910, making it perhaps the first cereal virus disease described in the United States. The disease has been reported from most barley-producing areas of the world, including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, an...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  2. Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

  3. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  4. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  5. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of wheat dwarf virus (WDV) isolates from Hungary and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Tóbiás, Istvan; Shevchenko, Oleksiy; Kiss, Balázs; Bysov, Andriy; Snihur, Halina; Polischuk, Valery; Salánki, Katalin; Palkovics, László

    2011-01-01

    Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is the most ubiquitous virus in cereals causing huge losses in both Hungary and Ukraine. The presence of barley-and wheat-adapted strains has been confirmed, suggesting that the barley strain is restricted to barley, while the wheat strain is present in both wheat and barley plants. Five WDV isolates from wheat plants sampled in Hungary and Ukraine were sequenced and compared with known WDV isolates from GenBank. Four WDV isolates belonged to the wheat strain. Our results indicate that WDV-Odessa is an isolate of special interest since it has originated from wheat, but belongs to the barley-adapted strain, providing novel data on WDV biology and raising issues of pathogen epidemiology. PMID:21905629

  6. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  7. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  8. XPS and IGC characterization of steam treated triticale straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyan; Boluk, Yaman

    2010-10-01

    The surface chemical composition and surface energy of native and steam treated triticale straws have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to reveal the effect of steam treatment temperature and time. The XPS results show that the contents of C elements and C-C group on the exterior surface of native triticale straw are much higher than those on the interior surface, indicating that there was a high quantity of wax on the exterior surface of the native triticale straw. Upon steam treatment, both carbon levels and C-C groups reduce with increasing steam temperature and treatment time of the exterior surfaces. However, the effect of steam treatment on the interior surface is very limited. In terms of the surface acid and base properties, the steam treated samples exhibited higher acid and base properties than the native sample, indicating a more polar surface of the steam treated sample.

  9. Assessment of photosystem II thermoluminescence as a tool to investigate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on the cyclic/chlororespiratory electron pathways in wheat and barley leaves.

    PubMed

    Bürling, Kathrin; Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Cornic, Gabriel; Hunsche, Mauricio; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2014-06-01

    Thermoluminescence emission from wheat leaves was recorded under various controlled drought stress conditions: (i) fast dehydration (few hours) of excised leaves in the dark (ii) slow dehydration (several days) obtained by withholding watering of plants under a day/night cycle (iii) overnight rehydration of the slowly dehydrated plants at a stage of severe dessication. In fast dehydrated leaves, the AG band intensity was unchanged but its position was shifted to lower temperatures, indicating an activation of cyclic and chlororespiratory pathways in darkness, without any increase of their overall electron transfer capacity. By contrast, after a slow dehydration the AG intensity was strongly increased whereas its position was almost unchanged, indicating respectively that the capacity of cyclic pathways was enhanced but that they remained inactivated in darkness. Under more severe dehydration, the AG band almost disappeared. Rewatering caused its rapid bounce significantly above the control level. No significant differences in AG emission could be found between the two drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat cultivars. The afterglow thermoluminescence emission in leaves provides an additional tool to follow the increased capacity and activation of cyclic electron flow around PSI in leaves during mild, severe dehydration and after rehydration. PMID:24767121

  10. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

  11. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  12. N response of no-till dryland winter triticale forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland winter triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...

  13. Present and perspectives in Romanian triticale breeding program.

    PubMed

    Ittu, Gheorghe; Saulescu, Nicolae; Ittu, Mariana; Mustatea, Pompiliu

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is grown in Romania, mainly, in the hilly regions on the acid poor fertile soils and covers, yearly, around 100-130 thousands ha or 1.5% from the arable land. Since 1971, when the breeding program has been started, up to present, it has been developed an adapted triticale germplasm for the Romanian environmental conditions and 12 new varieties have been registered. Genetic progress for yield, estimated over a 27 years, is by 46 kg ha(1) year(1) or 0.80% year(1), similarly with those realized in the most dynamic triticale breeding programs of the world. The improving of yields has been achieved by an increased number of kernels per spikes, plumpness of kernels, test weight and reduction of the plant height by introduction in the Romanian triticale germplasm of RhtB1b (Rht1) and Ddw1 (Hl) genes. The genetic gain for reduction of plant height, in this period, was estimated at 1.16 cm yr(1). Further progress regarding yield stability under conditions of global climatic changes, a broader genetic diversity for preharvest sprouting (PHS), drought tolerance, earliness, high canopy albedo, diseases resistance, especially for fusarium head blight (low DON content in kernels), leaf rust and BYDV, is required. PMID:26072586

  14. Soil Profile Nitrate Response to Nitrogen Fertilization of Winter Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) as a winter crop has the potential to utilize residual nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) from previous crops, thus reducing its availability for leaching. Our objectives were to quantify nitrogen (N) capture and changes in soil NO3-N levels in response to N fertili...

  15. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  16. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of crown rust resistance in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. hordei, primarily occurs on barley in the Great Plain regions of the United States. However, a few genotypes of common wheat were found to be susceptible to this pathogen among 750 wheat accessions evaluated. To investigate the genetics of crown ru...

  17. Aphid Feeding Activates Expression of a Transcriptome of Oxylipin-Based Defense Signals in Wheat Involved in Resistance to Herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage by the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, significantly reduces wheat and barley yields worldwide. In compatible interactions, virulent RWA populations flourish and susceptible plants suffer extensive leaf chlorophyll loss. In incompatible interactions, RWA reproduction and populatio...

  18. Genetical Genomic Dissection of Stem Rust Infection in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify breeding and biochemical targets that will mitigate a stem rust epidemic currently threatening barley and wheat crops worldwide, we have performed QTL and eQTL mapping experiments to connect genetic loci that confer stem rust resistance with gene expression networks that are responsive t...

  19. Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

  20. Biotic stresses in barley: Insect problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is an overview of the 5 major insects of barley, Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, bird cherry-oat aphid, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle, with emphasis on research reported in the last 20 years. History, distribution, plant damage, yield losses, host plant resistance, biological...

  1. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P < 0.05) average daily gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness. Feeding FS increased (P < 0.05) plasma ALA compared to CON and SS and consistently increased (P < 0.01) ALA and non-conjugated and non-methylene interrupted dienes (NCD), whereas SS tended to decrease ALA in fat. Inclusion of DDGS with FS further increased (P < 0.02) ALA and decreased (P < 0.05) NCD and 18:1-t10 in fat. The fact that the levels of n-3 fatty acids in SQ fat from steers fed DDGS + FS were higher than those obtained with FS alone, has obvious benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef. PMID:23054550

  2. Novel, non-destructive cereal quality analysis: potential for triticale.

    PubMed

    Manley, Marena

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, NIR hyperspectral imaging and X-ray computed technology (XCT) can each in its own way contribute to the effective analysis of whole grain triticale. With NIR spectroscopy only giving an average result, NIR hyperspectral imaging gives spatial as well as spectral information of a sample. Chemical information as well as the localisation of the chemical compounds is thus obtained. XCT advanced on these two techniques in that it allows three dimensional (3D) visualisation of the internal structure of a sample. The availability of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) instruments and now also nanoCT instruments allow high resolution images of the microstructure of samples to be obtained. These techniques, reviewed in this paper, can be used in association, each with their own advantages and disadvantages, to most effectively analyse whole grain triticale. PMID:26072581

  3. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  4. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  5. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  6. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Maurer, Hans Peter; Li, Guoliang; Tucker, Matthew R; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A; Hahn, Volker; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm. PMID:24927281

  7. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known so...

  9. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  10. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.305 Misrepresentation...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.305 Misrepresentation...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.303 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.303 Time and method...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.306 - Refunds; joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.306 Refunds; joint and...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.306 - Refunds; joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.306 Refunds; joint and...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.305 Misrepresentation...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.303 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.303 Time and method...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.306 - Refunds; joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.306 Refunds; joint and...

  19. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  20. Optimum Stand Density of Spring Triticale for Grain Yield and Alfalfa Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) has promise as a feed crop in the North Central U.S. and could be used as a companion crop for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) establishment. The objectives of this research were to assess the suitability of a short-statured spring triticale as a companion crop for a...

  1. Identifying Winter Forage Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) Strains for the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), a human-made crop, is mainly used as a forage crop in the central Great Plains. A successful triticale cultivar should have high forage yield with good quality, and also high grain yield so the seed can be economically produced. Hence, the purpose of this study...

  2. Chromosome engineering, mapping, and transferring of resistance to Fusarium head blight disease from Elymus tsukushiensis into wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and wheat corn rotation agriculture have spawned massive epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on cereal crops mainly wheat and barley since the 1990’s and devastated farm economies of north central US and many of the major wheat growing regions of the world. Wheat has limited resis...

  3. Association genetics in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applied and basic barley geneticists have begun to use association genetics as a tool to identify and fine map polymorphisms directly in breeding populations or diversity panels. Barley presents an ideal system because its populations present different extents of LD, from long-range LD in elite cult...

  4. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A

    2014-11-01

    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P < 0.02) DMI. Mean ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.04) and durations of pH < 5.8 and pH < 5.5 greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than for barley diets. However, ruminal pH was not affected by wheat type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than barley diets with no effect of wheat type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P < 0.04), whereas butyrate (P < 0.01) and ratio of acetate to propionate tended to be lower (P < 0.09), with the high as compared to low level of monensin. Replacing barley with wheat in finishing diets did not affect the duodenal flow or the digestibility of OM, likely as a result of greater (P < 0.01) NDF digestion from barley offsetting the increased (P < 0.03) supply of digested starch from wheat. Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P < 0.03) duodenal supply of OM and nonammonia N with no differences in total tract nutrient digestion. The increased monensin concentration decreased the flow of OM (P < 0.01), total N (P < 0.05), and microbial protein (P < 0.05) to the small intestine due to decreased DMI. These results indicated that hard and soft wheat exhibited digestive characteristics

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  6. The transcriptome of Fusarium graminearum during the infection of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes head blight disease in wheat and barley. To help understand the infection process on wheat we studied global gene expression of F. graminearum in a time series from 24 to 196 hours after inoculation, compared to a water control. The infection is rapid and already after 48...

  7. Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

  8. Resistance to Stem Rust Pathotype TTKSK Maps to the Rgp4/Rpg5 Complex of Chromosome 5H of Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) pathotype TTKSK (original isolate synonym Ug99) is a serious threat to both wheat and barley production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread from eastern Africa. Line Q21861 is one of the most resistant bar...

  9. [Luminescent and physiological indices of triticale under the treatment of seeds with growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Kalmatskaia, O A; Karavaev, V A; Gunar, L É; Miakin'kov, A G

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the before-sowing treatment of triticale seeds with growth regulators epin and zircon resulted in the increase in the F742/F686 ratio of the stationary fluorescence intensities of the plant leaves at the wavelength bands, 742 and 686 nm, corresponding to the maxima in the leaf fluorescence spectrum. Triticale under the treatment of seeds with growth regulators showed higher chlorophyll content, higher productivity and higher indices of the crop yield. PMID:25868356

  10. Intrachromosomal mapping of seven biochemical loci in barley, Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Heun, M; Gale, M D

    1993-10-01

    Seven biochemical loci, AmpA, Amy1, Amy2, Est-H5, Hor1, Hor2, and Wsp-H1, have been intrachromosomally mapped in the barley genome using a previously published RFLP-based genetic map. In all cases, the map locations confirmed prior chromosome assignments and agreed closely with the map positions of their homoeoloci in hexaploid wheat. PMID:24190199

  11. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  12. Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

  13. Deoxynivalenol in food prepared from wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin found in wheat, barley, corn and foods prepared from these grains. DON induces variable toxic effects in animals including feed refusal, decreased weight gain, or altered immune function. The effect of DON on human health is not well understood, however,...

  14. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P. PMID:26020749

  15. REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

  16. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  17. Barley Yellow Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

  18. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most widespread and economically important virus disease of cereals. The viruses causing BYD were initially grouped based on common biological properties, including persistent and often strain-specific transmission by aphids and induction of yellowing symptoms. The...

  19. Engineering high-level aluminum tolerance in barley with the ALMT1 gene.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Ryan, Peter R; Hebb, Diane M; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-10-19

    Acidity is a serious limitation to plant production on many of the world's agricultural soils. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations solubilized by the acidity rapidly inhibit root growth and limit subsequent uptake of water and nutrients. Recent work has shown that the ALMT1 gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum) encodes a malate transporter that is associated with malate efflux and Al tolerance. We generated transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants expressing ALMT1 and assessed their ability to exude malate and withstand Al stress. ALMT1 expression in barley conferred an Al-activated efflux of malate with properties similar to those of Al-tolerant wheat. The transgenic barley showed a high level of Al tolerance when grown in both hydroponic culture and on acid soils. These findings provide additional evidence that ALMT1 is a major Al-tolerance gene and demonstrate its ability to confer effective tolerance to acid soils through a transgenic approach in an important crop species. PMID:15471989

  20. Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Content of Chloroplast Pigments in Barley Leaf Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (scab) has been a devastating disease of wheat and barley in recent years across grain growing areas from Minnesota and the Dakotas to the Carolinas. The fungal pathogen causing the disease (Fusarium graminearum) produces a toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) that can be toxic when inf...

  1. Metabolic profiling of early F. graminearum infection in barley seed spike tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have utilized microarray analysis to characterize gene expression occurring during infection of barley and wheat by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). We have analyzed this plant-microbe interaction from the other extreme - the changes in the metabolome arising from th...

  2. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  3. Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tort...

  4. Greenhouse and Field Demonstration of Microbial Supression of Fusarium Head Blight in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of wheat and barley responsible for extensive losses in quality and yield. The primary causative agent for FHB is Gibberella zeae (anamorph = Fusarium graminearum) which initially infects spikes to produce dark brown water-soaked spots on glumes of florets an...

  5. Categories and inheritance of resistance to Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 in a selection from wheat cereal introduction 2401

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is one of the most devastating insect pests of wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum spp.) in the world. Yield losses and control costs are valued at several hundred million dollars each year. The use of D. noxia-resi...

  6. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

  7. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha‑1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m‑2 s‑1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m‑2 s‑1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  8. Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  9. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -600 mm growth period rainfall. References Harnos, Zs. 1993. Időjárás és időjárás-termés összefüggéseinek idősoros elemzése. In: Aszály 1983 (Szerk.: Baráth, Cs-né., Győrffy, B., és Harnos, Zs.). KÉE. Budapest Johnston, A. E. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. José, A. B., Estáquio, M. J., and Márton, L. 2001. Results of Crotalaria ssp. effects on soil conservation. In: Congress on Conservation Agriculture, (Eds Armando, M. V.), ECAF., Madrid, 5, pp 1-4. Márton, L. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, p. 9. Márton, L. 2001b. Climate change, N-fertilisation effect on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. In: Rural development-Ecologically farming-Agriculture, (Eds Palkovics, M.), University Veszprém, Keszthely, pp 924-929. Márton, L. 2002a. Climate-Rainfall Change (CRC) and mineral fertilisation (MF) effects on different crop production. In: Challenges of the new millennium our joint responsibility. (Eds A. Borhidi). MTA ÖBKI. Budapest. 1, pp 110-111. Márton, L. 2002b. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Production 51: 529-542. Márton, L. 2003. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of triticale. Plant Production. In press Márton, L., and Pekli, J. 2003. Plant production under sub-arctical and temperate climate conditions. SZIU. Gödöllő Acknowledgement This research was supported by Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-Budapest Adderss of the author Dr. Márton László Ph.D Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1022 H-Budapest, Herman O. u. 15. E-mail:marton@rissac.hu

  10. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  11. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  12. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    PubMed

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  13. Barley Genomics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

  14. Virulence of Gibberella zeae on Wheat following Independent Disruptions of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant-fungal interaction that occurs when Fusarium graminearum invades small grains such as wheat and barley is complicated and involves many interactions between the invading fungus and the plant host. Although trichothecene toxins are not required for the initial infection of wheat, they are ...

  15. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  16. Distribution and diversity of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) samples were collected from 73 sites in Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming in 2005. Collection sites were 8-40 km apart in distance depended continuity of the wheat and barley fields. We collected 3-5 infested tillers/site, depending on i...

  17. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale, and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AquaCrop model requires canopy cover (CC) measurements to define crop growth and development. Some previously collected data sets that would be useful for calibrating and validating AquaCrop contain only leaf area index (LAI) data, but could be used if relationships were available relating LAI t...

  18. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  19. Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid feeds on barley, oats, rye, triticale, and wheat by sucking plant juices. Its feeding may stunt plants and lead to yield loss, but it does not cause symptoms of yellowing and leaf curling. Bird cherry-oat aphid is also a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus. Biological, cultu...

  20. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  1. Analysis of barley by NIRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of a rapid method of analysis of barley for moisture, starch, protein, oil, ash and Beta-glucan was attempted. One hundred forty-three barley grain samples of 3 types (hulled, hulless and malt) over 2 growing seasons and from various locations in the United States were utilized in the s...

  2. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

  3. Effect of dietary inclusion of triticale dried distillers' grain and oilseeds on quality and fatty acid profile of meat from feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, M L; McAllister, T A; Hernandez-Calva, L M; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J

    2014-05-01

    This study compared carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of longissimus thoracis (LT) from feedlot cattle fed barley grain with or without oilseed (OS). Six diets containing no oilseed (No-OS), 10% ground flaxseed (FS), 10% high oleate sunflower seeds (SS) with or without 30% triticale dried distiller's grain (DDGS) were prepared. Feeding DDGS increased chroma at 24 and 144 h post mortem. Feeding FS increased weight% of LT PUFA (P<0.05) compared to No-OS or SS. An OS by DDGS interaction occurred for 18:3n-3 (P<0.05) where FS increased weight% of 18:3n-3 (P<0.05), a response accentuated (P<0.05) by DDGS. Feeding DDGS increased weight% of LT 18:2n-6 (P<0.05), but neither OS nor DDGS affected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, t7,c9 &c9,t11-18:2). Feeding FS increased weight% of n-3 FA, and both FS and SS increased t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. Combination feeding of DDGS and FS further increased weight% of n-3 FA and tempered increases in t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. The findings suggest a new strategy to increase beef omega-3 fatty acids efficiently through inclusion of a combination of DDGS and FS in feedlot diet. PMID:24530992

  4. Winter triticale response to nitrogen fertilization when grown after corn or soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) could be more widely grown as a forage, grain, or cover crop in the U.S. Corn and Soybean Belt, but research needed to establish best management practices is limited. This study was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer needed to opti...

  5. Transcript profiling of wheat genes expressed during feeding by two different biotypes of Diuraphis noxia.

    PubMed

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Swanevelder, Zacharias H; Lapitan, Nora L V

    2010-08-01

    Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)(Russian wheat aphid) has severe economic impacts on wheat and barley production in the United States. The interaction between the Russian wheat aphid and its cereal hosts is poorly understood. However, the recent appearance of new biotypes in the United States showed that specific interactions exist between wheat resistance loci and Russian wheat aphid biotypes. At present, Dn7 is the only known gene in hexaploid wheat that confers resistance against all U.S. Russian wheat aphid biotypes. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of Dn7-mediated resistance against two U.S. Russian wheat aphid biotypes (Russian wheat aphid 1 and Russian wheat aphid 2). Using GeneChip Wheat Genome Arrays, we compared transcript profiles of resistant and susceptible lines infested with either Russian wheat aphid 1 or Russian wheat aphid 2 using two time intervals (5 and 48 h after infestation). Russian wheat aphid feeding on hexaploid wheat led to the induction of groups of genes functioning in oxidative and general stress, photosynthesis, cell respiration and energy production, signal transduction, calcium-dependent signaling, pathogenesis related (PR) responses, and defense compound synthesis. The number of differentially expressed genes was higher in plants infested with Russian wheat aphid 1 compared with those infested with Russian wheat aphid 2. Although most genes involved in basic cellular functions were shared, unique genes were also obtained. This finding may indicate subtle differences in genes induced in response to different virulence proteins. PMID:22127172

  6. Barley yellow dwarf viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Rasochová, L

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses represent one of the most economically important and ubiquitous groups of plant viruses. This review focuses primarily on four research areas in which progress has been most rapid. These include (a) evidence supporting reclassification of BYDVs into two genera; (b) elucidation of gene function and novel mechanisms controlling gene expression; (c) initial forays into understanding the complex interactions between BYDV virions and their aphid vectors; and (d) replication of a BYDV satellite RNA. Economic losses, symptomatology, and means of control of BYD are also discussed. PMID:15012520

  7. Rapid Identification of Genes Contributing to FH Resistance in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wheat and barley with improved Fusarium head blight resistance will be greatly aided by knowledge of the plant genes that make essential contributions to the FHB resistance mechanism. This knowledge will permit identification of the best naturally occurring variants for use in breedin...

  8. Aerial application methods for increasing spray deposition on wheat heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease of wheat and barley in several small grain production areas in the United States and, as such, the development and evaluation of aerial application technologies that enhance the efficacy of fungicides with aerial spray applications is critical to its man...

  9. Application of Brachypodium to the genetic improvement of wheat roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon to be used to study grass roots. The aim of such research is to develop knowledge that can be used by plant breeders to create higher yielding cultivars of cereal grains like wheat and barley. It is desirable to use a mode...

  10. Damage and quality assessment in wheat by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight is a fungal disease that affects the world's small grains, such as wheat and barley. Attacking the spikelets during development, the fungus causes a reduction of yield and grain of poorer processing quality. It also is a health concern because of the secondary metabolite, deoxyn...

  11. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Christof; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Wobus, Ulrich; Röder, Marion S

    2009-01-01

    Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference expression map of regulators

  12. Ten Years of Continuous Annual No-Till Cropping vs. Winter Wheat - Fallow in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-yr experiment was conducted to evaluate continuous annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hor...

  13. Relationship between climatic factors and distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in the dryland wheat production areas of Eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted by collecting soil samples to estimate nematode densities in soil from winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring legumes (lentil, chickpea, and pea) fields during 2010 and 2011. Pratylenchus spp. were observed in 60 percent of sampled fields. However, nematod...

  14. Development of methodologies for virus detection in soybean and wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Stephanie R A; Martins, Thais P; Duarte, Macária F; Barbosa, Andreza V; Lau, Douglas; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Sanches, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Seeds that contain large amounts of oil, starch, fibers and phenols are the most difficult tissues for RNA extraction. Currently, there are some reports of virus detection in seeds using commercial kits for RNA extraction. However, individual seeds were used, which may not be always suitable for analyses that deal with large amounts of seeds. Sangha [1] described a simple, quick and efficient protocol for RNA extraction and downstream applications in a group of seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas), mustard (Brassica sp.) and rice (Oryza sativa). We tested this protocol for soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (×Triticosecale) seeds and further reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to have a faster and more practical method for virus detection from seeds than the traditional scheme of seed planting and subsequent Elisa/RT-PCR from leaves. The essential points in the method are:•Some modifications in the protocol [1] were done in order to increase performance: Wheat and triticale seeds are incubated with water prior to maceration. An amount of 1.2 g of dry soybean seeds is used to maceration.•RT-PCR is used for detection of Wheat streak mosaic virus from wheat seeds and RT-qPCR for detection of Soybean mosaic virus from soybean seeds.•The method may be tested for other viruses, however, pre-validation will be needed. PMID:27408831

  15. Albinism in barley androgenesis.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

  16. The genetic diversity of triticale genotypes involved in Polish breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Agnieszka; Orłowska, Renata; Machczyńska, Joanna; Bednarek, Piotr T

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity analysis of triticale populations is useful for breeding programs, as it helps to select appropriate genetic material for classifying the parental lines, heterotic groups and predicting hybrid performance. In our study 232 breeding forms were analyzed using diversity arrays technology markers. Principal coordinate analysis followed by model-based Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed the presence of weak data structuring with three groups of data. In the first group, 17 spring and 17 winter forms were clustered. The second and the third groups were represented by 101 and 26 winter forms, respectively. Polymorphic information content values, as well as Shannon's Information Index, were higher for the first (0.319) and second (0.309) than for third (0.234) group. AMOVA analysis demonstrated a higher level of within variation (86 %) than among populations (14 %). This study provides the basic information on the presence of structure within a genetic pool of triticale breeding forms. PMID:27066368

  17. Steam explosion pretreatment of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) straw for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Roberto A; García-Aparicio, María P; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-01-25

    Triticale, a non-food based, low-cost and well-adapted crop in marginal lands has been considered as a potential 1G and 2G feedstock for bio-ethanol production. In this work, triticale straw was evaluated as a source of fermentable sugars by combination of uncatalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment conditions with severities from 3.05 to 4.12 were compared in order to identify conditions that favour the recovery of hemicellulose-derived sugars, cellulose digestibility or the combined sugars yield (CSY) from the pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis. Xylose oligosaccharide was the major sugar in hydrolysates from all pretreatment conditions. Maximum hemicellulose-sugars recovery (52% of the feedstock content) was obtained at 200 °C and 5 min. The highest cellulose digestibility (95%) was found at 200 °C - 15 min, although glucose recovery from hydrolysis was maximised at 200 °C - 10 min (digestibility >92%) due to higher mass yield of pretreated solids. The maximum CSY (nearly 77% of theoretical content) was obtained at 200 °C - 5 min. Sugar loss after pretreatment was observed to higher extent at harsher severities. However, the concentrations of sugar degradation products and acetic acid were at levels below tolerance limits of the downstream biological conversions. Steam explosion pretreatment without acid impregnation is a good technology for production of fermentable sugars from triticale straw. This work provides foundation for future autohydrolysis steam explosion optimization studies to enhanced sugars recovery and digestibility of triticale straw. PMID:26477303

  18. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  19. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  20. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and ‘Miracle-Wheat’

    PubMed Central

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Youssef, Helmy M.; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. ‘Compositum-Barley’ and tetraploid ‘Miracle-Wheat’ (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation ‘Miracle-Wheat’ produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in ‘Compositum-Barley,’ i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched headt (bht) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid ‘Miracle-Wheat.’ Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bht locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of ‘Miracle-Wheat.’ mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat’s yield potential. PMID:26156223

  1. Analysis of T-DNA integration and generative segregation in transgenic winter triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the genetic transformation of the major cereal crops has become relatively routine, to date only a few reports were published on transgenic triticale, and robust data on T-DNA integration and segregation have not been available in this species. Results Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of stable transgenic winter triticale cv. Bogo carrying the selectable marker gene HYGROMYCIN PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE (HPT) and a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). Progeny of four independent transgenic plants were comprehensively investigated with regard to the number of integrated T-DNA copies, the number of plant genomic integration loci, the integrity and functionality of individual T-DNA copies, as well as the segregation of transgenes in T1 and T2 generations, which also enabled us to identify homozygous transgenic lines. The truncation of some integrated T-DNAs at their left end along with the occurrence of independent segregation of multiple T-DNAs unintendedly resulted in a single-copy segregant that is selectable marker-free and homozygous for the gfp gene. The heritable expression of gfp driven by the maize UBI-1 promoter was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusions The used transformation method is a valuable tool for the genetic engineering of triticale. Here we show that comprehensive molecular analyses are required for the correct interpretation of phenotypic data collected from the transgenic plants. PMID:23006412

  2. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  3. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  4. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation amount, distribution and nitrogen (N)-, phosphorus (P2O5)-, potassium (K2O)-, calcium (CaO)-, and magnesium (MgO) fertilization interaction effects were studied on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agro-ecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41' 60'' and E: 220 2' 80'') on triticale (X Triticosecale W.) yield from 1999 to 2006. At the trial set up in 1962, the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg-1, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 43 mg kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg kg-1 in the plowed (0-25 cm) layer. From 1980 to 2006, the experiment consisted of 32x4=128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertilizer rates in kg ha-1 year-1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P2O5), potassium 90 (K2O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO3) and magnesium 140 (MgCO3). The groundwater table has had at a depth of 2-3 m below the surface. The main results are as follows. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was -25% less than for average years. The application of N alone, or of NP and NK treatments, led to yield reduction of -19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused an -28.3% drop during these types of years. In the wet years, the yield decreased by -22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in the case of N, NP, or NK nutrition with an -14.1%; and increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. In the very wettest year, the yields were dropped -43.1% on control soils, -39.3% of N, NP, or NK loadings and -35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationships between rainfall quantitiy during the vegetation period N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrition and yield were characterised by polynomial correlations (control: R= 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 displays an endophytic lifestyle in cultivated cereals and enhances yield in barley.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Alós, Enriqueta; Rey, María Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an indigenous inhabitant of olive roots, displays an endophytic lifestyle in this woody crop and exerts biocontrol against the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae Here we report microscopy evidence that the strain PICF7 is also able to colonize and persist on or in wheat and barley root tissues. Root colonization of both cereal species followed a similar pattern to that previously reported in olive, including inner colonization of the root hairs. This demonstrates that strain PICF7 can colonize root systems of distant botanical species. Barley plants germinated from PICF7-treated seeds showed enhanced vegetative growth. Moreover, significant increases in the number of grains (up to 19.5%) and grain weight (up to 20.5%) per plant were scored in this species. In contrast, growth and yield were not significantly affected in wheat plants by the presence of PICF7. Proteomics analysis of the root systems revealed that different proteins were exclusively found depending on the presence or absence of PICF7 and only one protein with hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity was exclusively found in both PICF7-inoculated barley and wheat plants but not in the controls. PMID:27130938

  6. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  7. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of

  8. Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

  9. The potential of an insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley to protect from DMH-induced intestinal tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, G H; Jorgensen, L; Royle, P

    1993-01-01

    The influence of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber supplements from barley and wheat on colon cancer risk was assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats from four weeks of age on a semipurified (AIN76A) rat diet modified to contain 20% fat of mixed animal and plant origin and 5% dietary fiber. Gastrointestinal tumors were induced with dimethylhydrazine given weekly for five weeks at 15 mg/kg body wt by subcutaneous injection, commencing four weeks after rats were established on the experimental diets. At 32 weeks of age, rats were killed and tumors assessed. The insoluble dietary fiber-rich source from barley (spent barley grain, SBG) was significantly more effective at preventing induced tumors than soluble fiber-rich commercial barley bran. There were no significant differences among the results for the other three fiber sources, which were intermediate in their influence. Both incidence of rats affected and tumor mass index were reduced, the latter significantly, when SBG was compared with commercial barley bran. SBG also produced a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration (down 17%, p < 0.05) relative to wheat bran, but commercial barley bran was not different from wheat bran at this stage. Pure cellulose and outer-layer barley bran were, by comparison, only moderately effective in cancer prevention. SBG, like wheat bran, is a good source of cellulose and hemicellulose. It is also a good source of proteins, polyphenolics, fatty acids (including alpha-linolenic), vitamin E, and minerals. Further research is needed to clarify the relevance of these other factors to the differences observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8389043

  10. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant. PMID:26252423

  11. Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speers, C. M.; Gurian, P. L.; Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by soil texture, introduces the greatest uncertainty in N2O emissions, with the remaining parameters contributing to lesser, but still significant uncertainty. Therefore, as barley is introduced onto a farm for biofuel production, it is most important to carefully control the fertilizer additions, and to monitor the soil texture class characteristics.

  12. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  13. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    PubMed

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pH<4.0 after two backslopping steps), and of Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella confusa and Weissella cibaria in the case of the bakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. PMID:27088869

  14. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  15. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  16. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  17. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  18. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  19. Development of a method using multispectral imagery and spatial pattern metrics to quantify stress to wheat fields caused by Diuraphis noxia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, is an important pest of winter wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare that has caused an annual economic loss estimated at over 1 billion dollars since it first appeared in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the p...

  20. Genome assembly of Diuraphis noxia strain: RWA2 Russian wheat aphid. Bioproject: PRJNA233413. Assembly No. ASM118638v1 (Dnoxia_1.0)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

  1. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation. PMID:26679010

  2. A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

  3. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition. PMID:27323191

  4. Transcriptome analysis of the vernalization response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Greenup, Aaron G; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N; Walford, Sally A; Millar, Anthony A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Vernalization Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Greenup, Aaron G.; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N.; Walford, Sally A.; Millar, Anthony A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  6. Interactions between Metopolophium festucae cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, S E; Bjur, J; Ingwell, L; Unger, L; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between an invasive aphid, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium, and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) were studied under laboratory conditions. M. festucae cerealium is an economic pest of wheat and barley that has recently been found in high population densities in wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. BYDV-PAV is the most prevalent and injurious species of BYDV worldwide and in the Pacific Northwest. Although M. festucae sensu stricto (Theobald 1917) has been reported previously as a vector of some BYDV isolates, there is no confirmed transmission of BYDV by M. festucae cerealium. Two experiments examined the ability of M. festucae cerealium to transmit BYDV-PAV. The first used single aphids caged to indicator plants of a BYDV-susceptible winter wheat cultivar and the second used multiple aphids on each test plant. M. festucae cerealium did not transmit BYDV-PAV in either experiment, whereas transmission by a known BYDV vector, Rhopalosiphum padi L., was consistently high (≥ 93%). A third experiment compared the intrinsic growth rate, days until first reproduction and daily reproduction by M. festucae cerealium on sham-inoculated and BYDV-PAV-infected wheat, but detected no differences. The findings are reviewed in light published data on M. festucae species, BYDV transmission, and the potential pest status of this new invading aphid. PMID:26896673

  7. Interactions between Metopolophium festucae cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV)

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, S. E.; Bjur, J.; Ingwell, L.; Unger, L.; Bosque-Pérez, N. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between an invasive aphid, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium, and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) were studied under laboratory conditions. M. festucae cerealium is an economic pest of wheat and barley that has recently been found in high population densities in wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. BYDV-PAV is the most prevalent and injurious species of BYDV worldwide and in the Pacific Northwest. Although M. festucae sensu stricto (Theobald 1917) has been reported previously as a vector of some BYDV isolates, there is no confirmed transmission of BYDV by M. festucae cerealium. Two experiments examined the ability of M. festucae cerealium to transmit BYDV-PAV. The first used single aphids caged to indicator plants of a BYDV-susceptible winter wheat cultivar and the second used multiple aphids on each test plant. M. festucae cerealium did not transmit BYDV-PAV in either experiment, whereas transmission by a known BYDV vector, Rhopalosiphum padi L., was consistently high (≥93%). A third experiment compared the intrinsic growth rate, days until first reproduction and daily reproduction by M. festucae cerealium on sham-inoculated and BYDV-PAV-infected wheat, but detected no differences. The findings are reviewed in light published data on M. festucae species, BYDV transmission, and the potential pest status of this new invading aphid. PMID:26896673

  8. Physical and sensory properties of all-barley and all-oat breads with additional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace H

    2011-01-26

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is a substituted cellulose that reduces serum cholesterol at modest intake levels. HPMC has also been used for decades in gluten-free breads at a level to optimize loaf volume. Because consumers resist the consumption of whole wheat breads, the sensory and physical properties of all oat and barley breads incorporating HPMC were evaluated. Oat and barley also contain β-glucan, a glucose polymer similar to HPMC that also lowers cholesterol. The textural and sensory properties of the breads were determined by instrumental and chemical methods and sensory panels. HPMC increased the loaf volume of the breads by up to 2 times and decreased hardness immediately after baking and after up to 3 days of storage. Barley bread with HPMC was rated the highest in overall acceptability by sensory panelists compared to oat and wheat breads with or without HPMC. PMID:21189014

  9. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  10. The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice.

    PubMed

    Krzyżowska, M; Wincenciak, M; Winnicka, A; Baranowski, A; Jaszczak, K; Zimny, J; Niemiałtowski, M

    2010-01-01

    The safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and feed is performed to identify the possible effects upon animal and human health, also the long-term, multigenerational influence upon functioning of different organs and systems, such as the immune system. In this study C57BL/6J mice were fed for five consecutive generations with pellets containing 20% of conventional triticale grain (control) vs. pellets containing 20% of the transgenic triticale grain resistant to BASTA herbicide (experimental). The F5 experimental animals showed enlarged inguinal and axillary lymph nodes, but not spleens, and increased WBC counts in blood (but within the norm for Mus musculus). Immunophenotyped cell suspensions derived from spleens, inguinal and axillaris lymph nodes and PBMCs from blood showed the significant decrease in the percentage of T cells in spleen and lymph nodes and the B cells in lymph nodes and blood of the F5 experimental mice in comparison to the control F5 mice. Immunoblotting analysis of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL- 6, IFN-gamma levels in serum showed significantly increased IL-2 levels and decreased IL-6 levels in the F5-experimental mice sera. No significant changes in the levels of IgE in sera in both mice groups were observed. The obtained results indicate that multigenerational use of feeds for rodents containing the GM-triticale leads to expansion of the B cell compartment in the secondary lymphoid organs, but it is not caused by malignant processes or the allergic response. PMID:21033555

  11. Genetic mapping of a 7R Al tolerance QTL in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Niedziela, A; Bednarek, P T; Labudda, M; Mańkowski, D R; Anioł, A

    2014-02-01

    Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a relatively new cereal crop. In Poland, triticale is grown on 12 % of arable land ( http://www.stat.gov.pl ). There is an increasing interest in its cultivation due to lowered production costs and increased adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, it has an insufficient tolerance to the presence of aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil. The number of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in triticale and their chromosomal location is not known. Two F2 mapping biparental populations (MP1 and MP15) segregating for aluminum (Al) tolerance were tested with AFLP, SSR, DArT, and specific PCR markers. Genetic mapping enabled the construction of linkage groups representing chromosomes 7R, 5R and 2B. Obtained linkage groups were common for both mapping populations and mostly included the same markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) allowed identification of a single QTL that mapped to the 7R chromosome and explained 25 % (MP1) and 36 % (MP15) of phenotypic variation. The B1, B26 and Xscm150 markers were 0.04 cM and 0.02 cM from the maximum of the LOD function in the MP1 and MP15, respectively and were highly associated with aluminum tolerance as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Moreover, the molecular markers B1, B26, Xrems1162 and Xscm92, previously associated with the Alt4 locus that encoded an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ScALMT1) that was involved in Al tolerance in rye (Secale cereale) also mapped within QTL. Biochemical analysis of plants represented MP1 and MP15 mapping populations confirmed that the QTL located on 7R chromosome in both mapping populations is responsible for Al tolerance. PMID:24222435

  12. Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...

  13. Reduction of Rhizoctonia bare patch win wheat with barley rotations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major fungal root disease in no-till cropping systems. In an 8-year experiment comparing various dryland no-till cropping systems near Ritzville, Washington, Rhizoctonia bare patch first appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8. ...

  14. A new class of wheat gliadin genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Olin D; Dong, Lingli; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q

    2012-01-01

    The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1. PMID:23284903

  15. A New Class of Wheat Gliadin Genes and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Olin D.; Dong, Lingli; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1. PMID:23284903

  16. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  17. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy R

    2016-02-01

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat and maize. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus evaded thorough molecular characterization for many years due to the experimental challenges of mite transmission and manipulating multisegmented negative sense RNA genomes. Recently, the complete genome sequence of a Nebraska isolate of WMoV revealed eight segments, plus a variant sequence of the nucleocapsid protein-encoding segment. Here, near-complete and partial consensus sequences of five more WMoV isolates are reported and compared to the Nebraska isolate: an Ohio maize isolate (GG1), a Kansas barley isolate (KS7), and three Ohio wheat isolates (H1, K1, W1). Results show two distinct groups of WMoV isolates: Ohio wheat isolate RNA segments had 84% or lower nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate, whereas GG1 and KS7 had 98% or higher nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate. Knowledge of the sequence variability of WMoV isolates is a step toward understanding virus biology, and potentially explaining observed biological variation. PMID:26590326

  18. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought. PMID:27450489

  19. Transmission of the Aegilops ovata chromosomes carrying gametocidal factors in hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M; Majka, M; Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, A; Ponitka, A; Pudelska, H; Belter, J; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of this work was to induce the chromosome rearrangements between Aegilops ovata (UUMM) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR) by expression of the gametocidal factor located on the chromosome 4M. The Aegilops ovata × Secale cereale (UUMMRR) amphiploids and triticale 'Moreno' were used to produce hybrids by reciprocal crosses. Chromosome dynamics was observed in subsequent generations of hybrids during mitotic metaphase of root meristems and first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells. Chromosomes were identified by genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using pTa71, pTa791, pSc119.2 and pAs1 DNA probes. It has been shown that the origin of the genetic background had an influence on Aegilops chromosome transmission. Moreover, it has been reported that the preferential transmission of chromosome 4M appeared during both androgenesis and gynogenesis. It is also hypothesised that the expression of the triticale Gc gene suppressor had an influence on the semi-fertility of hybrids but did not inhibit the chromosome rearrangements. This paper also describes the double haploid production, which enabled to obtain plants with two identical copies of triticale chromosomes with translocations of Aegilops chromatin segments. PMID:26825077

  20. The effects of seeding sterile triticale on a native plant community after wildfire in a pinyon pinemountain mahogany woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitman, B.A.; Draper, T.M.; Esque, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire seeding with grasses is a common practice for emergency rehabilitation of burned woodlands. However, most post-seeding monitoring does not address consequences to native flora. In November 2004, the US Forest Service hand-seeded triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), a sterile wheatrye hybrid, on a small burned area in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, United States. A monitoring project using paired plots was designed to quantify the effects of seeding triticale on density and species richness of native annual and perennial plants, cover of perennial plants, and aboveground production of annual plants. We did not find any effects of triticale seeding on annual plant species or most responses of perennial plants. However, the density of woody perennial seedlings was significantly lower 2 years after triticale was added. Although we found a smaller impact from seeding with exotic grass than other studies, quantifiable costs to native vegetation were observed. We caution against the use of non-native grass for seeding in areas with naturally low perennial recruitment. ?? IAWF 2009.

  1. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  2. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4). PMID:25793656

  3. The wheat Sr50 gene reveals rich diversity at a cereal disease resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identify the wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr50 by physical mapping, mutation and complementation as homologous to barley Mla encoding a Coiled-Coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. We show that Sr50 confers a unique resistance specificity, different from Sr31 and oth...

  4. Wheat glutenin alters protein body structure in maize but not levels of endogenous storage proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grains are an important nutritional source of amino acids for humans and livestock worldwide. They belong to three subfamilies of grasses or Poaceae. Wheat, barley, and oats belong to the subfamily Pooideae, rice to the Ehrhartoideae, and maize, millets, sugarcane, and sorghum to the Panicoid...

  5. Fusarium damage assessment in wheat kernels by Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight is a fungal disease that affects the world's small grains, such as wheat and barley. Attacking the spikelets during development, the fungus causes a reduction of yield and grain of poorer processing quality. Secondary metabolites that often accompany the fungus, such as deoxyn...

  6. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: som...

  7. Relative amounts of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in foods prepared from wheat flour under commerically relevant conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin found in wheat, barley, corn and in food products of cereal origin. DON causes variable effects in animals including feed refusal, decreased weight gain, or altered immune function. DON's human health effects are not well understood, and there is concern ...

  8. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  9. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  10. Spatial Patterns of Trichothecene Genotypes of Gibberella zeae in Wheat Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto) is the principal causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley in the USA. Grain infected with G. zeae often contains the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), threatening the health of humans and...

  11. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  12. Trichothecene genotypes of gibberella zeae from winter wheat fields in the Eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum), is a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. Grain infected with G. zeae may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Strains of G. zeae that produce DON may a...

  13. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  14. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  15. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  16. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  17. An examination of the possibility of lowering the glycemic index of oat and barley flakes by minimal processing.

    PubMed

    Granfeldt, Y; Eliasson, A C; Björck, I

    2000-09-01

    Differences in glycemic responses to various starchy foods are related to differences in the rate of starch digestion and absorption. In this study, the importance of the degree of gelatinization and the product thickness for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to rolled oats and barley were studied in healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women). Thick (1.0 mm) rolled oats were made from raw or preheated (roasted or steamed) kernels. In addition, thin (0.5 mm) rolled oats were made from roasted or roasted and steamed (processed under conditions simulating commercial production) oat kernels. Finally, steamed rolled barley kernels (0.5 or 1.0 mm) were prepared. All thin flakes elicited high glucose and insulin responses [glycemic index (GI), 88-118; insulinemic index (II), 84-102], not significantly different from white wheat bread (P: > 0.05). In contrast, all varieties of thick oat flakes gave significantly lower metabolic responses (GI, 70-78; II, 58-77) than the reference bread (P: < 0.05). Thick barley flakes, however, gave high glucose and insulin responses (GI, 94; II, 84), probably because the botanical structure underwent more destruction than the corresponding oat flakes. We conclude that minimal processing of oat and barley flakes had a relatively minor effect on GI features compared with the more extensive commercial processing. One exception was thick oat flakes, which in contrast to the corresponding barley flakes, had a low GI. PMID:10958814

  18. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. PMID:25403947

  19. 7 CFR 1421.303 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time and method for application. 1421.303 Section... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.303 Time and method...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1421.305... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.305 Misrepresentation...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.306 - Refunds; joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refunds; joint and several liability. 1421.306... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Grazing Payments for the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.306 Refunds; joint and...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  6. Immunological investigation for the presence of lunasin, a chemopreventive soybean peptide, in the seeds of diverse plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lunasin, a 43-amino acid soybean bioactive peptide, exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. All soybean varieties that have been examined contain lunasin. It has also been reported in a few other plant species including Amaranth, black nightshade, wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Int...

  7. 78 FR 21015 - Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... set forth in the Notice to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V (48 FR 29115, June 24, 1983), the programs and... / Tuesday, April 9, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit... wheat, barley, oats, or triticale acreage used for grazing and regarding the eligibility of...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.303 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time and method for application. 1421.303 Section 1421.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.303 Time and method...

  9. Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

  10. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  11. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    PubMed

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:27340221

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. PMID:26948880

  14. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  15. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  16. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers. PMID:11540734

  17. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium. PMID:26612893

  18. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  19. Adult plant development in triticale (× triticosecale wittmack) is controlled by dynamic genetic patterns of regulation.

    PubMed

    Würschum, Tobias; Liu, Wenxin; Alheit, Katharina V; Tucker, Matthew R; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2014-09-01

    Many biologically and agronomically important traits are dynamic and show temporal variation. In this study, we used triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) as a model crop to assess the genetic dynamics underlying phenotypic plasticity of adult plant development. To this end, a large mapping population with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four partially connected families from crosses among six parents was scored for developmental stage at three different time points. Using genome-wide association mapping, we identified main effect and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) at all three time points. Interestingly, some of these QTL were identified at all time points, whereas others appear to only contribute to the genetic architecture at certain developmental stages. Our results illustrate the temporal contribution of QTL to the genetic control of adult plant development and more generally, the temporal genetic patterns of regulation that underlie dynamic traits. PMID:25237110

  20. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping.

  1. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping. PMID:23942574

  2. Wheat Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a chapter of a book entitled “Wheat: Chemistry and Technology”, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

  3. Cover Crop Biomass and Corn Yield Following 13 Rye, Wheat, and Triticale Cultivars Used as Winter Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce nitrate leaching and erosion in corn-soybean rotations in the upper Midwest. The cover crop growing season between harvest and planting of corn and soybean, however, is short and cold. Additionally, previous studies in Iowa have indicated that winter r...

  4. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  5. Variation in the wheat AP2 homoeologs, the genes underlying lodicule development.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shunzong; Wang, Ning; Sakuma, Shun; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Koba, Takato; Komatsuda, Takao

    2013-09-01

    The bread wheat genome harbors three homoeologs of the barley gene HvAP2, which determines the cleistogamous/non-cleistogamous flowering. The three homoeologs, TaAP2-A, TaAP2-B and TaAP2-D, are derived from the A, B and D genomes. The importance of lodicule swelling in assuring non-cleistogamous flowering in a range of wild and domesticated wheat accessions of varying ploidy level was established. Re-sequencing of wheat AP2 homoeologous genes was carried out to identify natural variation at both the nucleotide and polypeptide level. The sequences of wheat AP2 homoeologs are highly conserved even across different ploidy levels and no functional variants at the key miR172 targeting site were detected. These results indicate that engineering of cleistogamous wheat will require the presence of a functional TaAP2 modification at each of the three homoeologs. PMID:24273420

  6. [INFLUENCE OF AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE 10/1 ON ASSOCIATIVE NITROGEN FIXATION AND INTRAVARIETAL POLYMORPHISM OF SPRING TRITICALE].

    PubMed

    Patika, V P; Nadkernichna, O V; Shahovnina, O O

    2015-01-01

    It is shown, that the perspective Ukrainian sorts of spring triticale characterizes by considerable polymorphism by associative N2-fixing ability in root zone of plants. Application of active strain Azospirillum brasilense 10/1 promotes the decline of variability of this sign within the limits of sort, increase potential nitrogen activity is on the average in 3,2-4,7 times and also distributing normalizations in the selections of the inoculated plants. PMID:26638482

  7. Colonization of wheat heads by antagonist Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 when applied alone or in combination with different concentrations of Prosaro® and the effect on Fusarium head blight development in field-grown wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The significant and consistent reduction of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of wheat and barley remains elusive though research results indicate that utilizing an integrated pest management approach achieves the greatest level of disease/toxin control. The use of y...

  8. DNA barcoding to identify all life stages of holocyclic cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat and other poaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the mtDNA was sequenced in eight holocyclic monoecious aphids that occur on wheat, barley, oat, and sorghum in the US. The first 640 bp of the 3' end were considered as a DNA barcoding technique for species identification. DNA barcoding successfully...

  9. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  10. Celiac disease: In vitro and in vivo safety and tolerability of wheat-free sorghum food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease is a condition in which genetically predisposed people have an autoimmune reaction to gluten proteins found in all wheat types and closely related cereals such as barley and rye. This reaction causes the formation of autoantibodies and the destruction of the villi in the small intesti...

  11. Evaluation of tolerance of 20 wheat cultivars to Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxza (Mordvilko) at seedling stage under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Rassoulian, Gh Reza; Shekarian, B

    2003-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (R.W.A) is an aggressive pest of wheat, barley and other small grains in different parts of the world and during, the recent years in Iran. This aphid causes high damage, so that much insecticides have been used against it. At present time utilization of resistant varieties is one of the most important methods to control it. Therefore in order to evaluate the tolerance of 20 wheat cultivars, seeds were planted in 18 cm diameter plastic pots and put in cages. One week after infestation the seedling foliage were cut and put in separate plastic bags, also roots were washed and put in other plastic bags. Number of aphids and plant heights and weights were analyzed based on ANOVA and treatment means were compared. The results indicated that the cultivars of yavaras, Arvand mutant, Bezostia and Alamut had a high tolerance at seedling stage. PMID:15149118

  12. A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

  13. Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 μg/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

  14. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  15. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  16. Relationship among yield and plant specific traits on triticale Romanian varieties in Timisoara environment.

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Gallia; Sarac, Ioan; Ciulca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    The paper assesses the behavior of triticale genotypes in the evolution of the environment in Timisoara area during 2001 - 2011. The triticale varieties and lines were bred in the Eastern part of Romania [RICIC Fundulea] with a different climate pattern than Timisoara. We intended to see the yield evolution during a long period of cultivation [10 years--3 varieties bred before 2000; Group 1] and the new genotypes bred after 2000; Group 2] cultivated during 6 - 2 years. Each year, new different varieties (in total 32) and new lines (in total 78) were also under observation. For 10 years, the best variety from the first Group was Titan [5643.2 ± 710.2 kg/ha; CV% = 39.8]. From the second Group, the highest yield average revealed Haiduc variety [6207.2 ± 715.0 kg/ha; CV% = 34.6. During 3 years of cultivation Nera, Matroz and Negoiu pointed out 7936 kg/ha, 7542 kg/ha and 7266 kg/ha respectively. Nedeea and Oda overpasses 8500 and 7500 kg/ha during 2010 - 2011 respectively. The 2011 agricultural year was improper for cereals. It was affected by high temperature, and small amounts of precipitations. Only 64.16% of the average amounts of precipitation were accumulated. In these conditions the best varieties were Gorun and Haiduc performing 7190 kg/ha and 7058 kg/ha respectively. 40% of the tested varieties yielded less than 4500 kg/ha. From the farmers' point of view the best varieties were Titan and Gorun. In terms of the eight plant traits studied in 2011, the phenotypic similarity [ps] between varieties was variable. According to obtained results, we advise the farmers to compose a complex of varieties that should be proper for their specific environment. The favorable combination for cultivation in a stable environmental condition are Gorun [7190 kg/ha] and Matroz [6863 kg/ha] with ps = 93.23% revealing a high similarity. In an unstable environment, the best variety combination for cultivation are: Titan [6025 kg/ha] and Haiduc [7058 kg/ha] [ps = 49.94%], Titan [6025

  17. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  18. Change in Biotypic Diversity of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puterka, G J; Giles, K L; Brown, M J; Nicholson, S J; Hammon, R W; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Michaels, G J; Bynum, E D; Springer, T L; Armstrong, J S; Mornhinweg, D W

    2015-04-01

    A key component of Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), management has been through planting resistant wheat cultivars. A new biotype, RWA2, appeared in 2003 which caused widespread damage to wheat cultivars containing the Dn4 gene. Biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations has not been addressed since 2005 when RWA2 dominated the biotype complex. Our objectives were to determine the biotypic diversity in the Central Great Plains and Colorado Plateau at regional (2010, 2011, 2013) and local (2012) levels and detect the presence of new Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Regional and within-field aphid collections were screened against Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat genotypes containing genes Dn3, Dn4, Dn6, Dn7, Dn9, CI2401; and resistant barley STARS 9301B. In 2010, all aphid collections from Texas were avirulent to the Dn4 resistance gene in wheat. Regional results revealed Dn4 avirulent RWA6 was widespread (55-84%) in populations infesting wheat in both regions. Biotypes RWA1, 2, and 3/7 were equally represented with percentages<20% each while RWA8 was rarely detected. Combining percentages of RWA1, 6, and 8 across regions to estimate avirulence to Dn4 gene revealed high percentages for both 2011 (64-80%) and 2013 (69-90%). In contrast, the biotype structure at the local level differed where biotype percentages varied up to ≥2-fold between fields. No new biotypes were detected; therefore, Dn7, CI2401, and STARS9301B remained resistant to all known Russian wheat aphid biotypes. This study documents a shift to Dn4 avirulent biotypes and serves as a valuable baseline for biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations prior to the deployment of new Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars. PMID:26470192

  19. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  20. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain. PMID:24817784

  1. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  2. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  3. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  4. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  6. Cytogenetic Behavior of Trigeneric Hybrid Progeny Involving Wheat, Rye and Psathyrostachys huashanica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Diao, Cheng-Dou; Tang, Lin; Wang, Yi; Xu, Li-Li; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Trigeneric hybrids are commonly used as bridges to transfer genes from some wild species to cultivated wheat and to measure the genomic interaction between donor species. We previously reported that trigeneric germplasms were produced by crossing wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploids (PHW-SA, 2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs) with hexaploid triticale (Zhongsi 828, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR). In the present study, chromosome pairing behavior and the genome constitution of the F4 progenies of wheat-rye-P. huashanica trigeneric hybrids were studied. Cytological analysis showed that the chromosome number of F4 progenies ranged from 39 to 46, and 57.5% of them had 42 chromosomes. The mean meiotic configuration of F4 lines was 1.71 univalents, 20.26 bivalents, 0.04 trivalents, and 0.001 quadrivalents per pollen mother cell. Among the lines with 2n = 42, the average pairing configuration was 1.21 univalents, 16.22 ring bivalents, 4.16 rod bivalents, and 0.01 trivalents. This result indicated that these lines were cytologically stable. Other lines with 2n = 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, and 46, bearing a high number of univalents or multivalents, showed abnormal meiotic behavior. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) revealed that all F4 lines had 11-14 rye chromosomes, but no P. huashanica chromosomes. The complete set of 14 rye chromosomes was found in 19 lines. At meiosis, GISH detected 1-6 univalents with hybridization signals of rye in 13 lines. Bivalents with fluorescence signals were identified in each line, ranging from 3 to 7. A quadrivalent with hybridization signals was observed in only 1 line, K13-714-8. Lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, and chromosome fragments hybridizing with the probe were not discovered in any of the lines. These results inferred that the behavior of rye chromosomes was normal during meiosis. In addition, 21 lines of 2n = 42 (91.3%) with 12 or 14 rye chromosomes, always contained 6 or 7 bivalents bearing fluorescence signals. This

  7. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Ecological quality has a well established dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. There is, therefore, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant nutrition-, rotation-, protection-, etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980's have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports the climate change (rainfall) x soil (acidic sandy brown forest) x mineral N-fertilisation x plant interactions on triticale yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. The agrochemical parameters of the soil were as follows: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100*g-1, total N 34 mg*kg-1, AL-P2O5 43 mg*kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg*kg-1. From 1962 to 1980 the experiment consisted of 2x16x4x4=512 plots and from 1980 of 32x4=128 plots in split-split plot and factorial random block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertiliser rates in kg*ha-1*year-1 were nitrogen 45, phosphorus 24 (P2O5), potassium 40 (K2O), magnesium 7.5 (MgO) until 1980 and nitrogen 75

  8. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation amount, distribution and nitrogen (N)-, phosphorus (P2O5)-, potassium (K2O)-, calcium (CaO)-, and magnesium (MgO) fertilization interaction effects were studied on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agro-ecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41' 60'' and E: 220 2' 80'') on triticale (X Triticosecale W.) yield from 1999 to 2006. At the trial set up in 1962, the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg-1, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 43 mg kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg kg-1 in the plowed (0-25 cm) layer. From 1980 to 2006, the experiment consisted of 32x4=128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertilizer rates in kg ha-1 year-1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P2O5), potassium 90 (K2O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO3) and magnesium 140 (MgCO3). The groundwater table has had at a depth of 2-3 m below the surface. The main results are as follows. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was -25% less than for average years. The application of N alone, or of NP and NK treatments, led to yield reduction of -19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused an -28.3% drop during these types of years. In the wet years, the yield decreased by -22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in the case of N, NP, or NK nutrition with an -14.1%; and increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. In the very wettest year, the yields were dropped -43.1% on control soils, -39.3% of N, NP, or NK loadings and -35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationships between rainfall quantitiy during the vegetation period N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrition and yield were characterised by polynomial correlations (control: R= 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0

  9. Extended metAFLP approach in studies of tissue culture induced variation (TCIV) in triticale.

    PubMed

    Machczyńska, Joanna; Orłowska, Renata; Zimny, Janusz; Bednarek, Piotr Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of the theoretical background of the metAFLP approach which allows for partition of complex variation into sequence changes, de novo methylation and demethylation of the regenerants derived via in vitro tissue culture methods in the case of triticale. It was demonstrated that, independent of whether andro- or embryogenesis was used for plant regeneration, the level of sequence changes identified between regenerants is about 10 %. Moreover, DNA demethylation prevails over de novo methylation of the regenerants compared to the donor plant. The metAFLP approach allows for the evaluation of numerous quantitative characteristics. For instance, one may quantify the number of sites unaffected by tissue culture approaches, global site DNA methylation etc. It is suggested that the approach could be useful for breeders in order to control plant material uniformity or for the evaluation of modified in vitro tissue culture approaches allowing for control of the (epi)mutation level. The extended metAFLP approach presented here delivers sufficient background for the evaluation of software that could facilitate analyses of the tissue culture induced variation. PMID:25242884

  10. Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley.

    PubMed

    Yan, G P; Chen, X M

    2006-08-01

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA. To develop a molecular map for mapping the gene, F(8 )recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the Steptoe X GZ cross through single-seed descent. Seedlings of the parents and RILs were evaluated for resistance to races PSH-14 and PSH-54 of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genomic DNA was extracted from the parents and 182 F(8 )RILs and used for linkage analysis. The resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) technique was used to identify molecular markers for rpsGZ. A linkage group for the gene was constructed with 12 RGAP markers, of which two markers co-segregated with the resistance locus, and two markers were closely linked to the locus with a genetic distance of 0.9 and 2.0 cM, respectively. These four markers were present only in the susceptible parent. The closest marker to the resistance allele was 11.7 cM away. Analyses of two sets of barley chromosome addition lines of wheat with the two RGAP markers that were cosegregating with the susceptibility allele showed that rpsGZ and the markers were located on the long arm of barley chromosome 4H. Further, tests with four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed the chromosomal location of the rpsGZ gene and also integrated the RGAP markers into the known SSR-based linkage map of barley. The closest SSR marker EBmac0679 had a genetic distance of 7.5 cM with the gene in the integrated linkage map constructed with the 12 RGAP markers and 4 SSR markers. The information on chromosomal location and molecular markers for rpsGZ should be useful for incorporating this gene into commercial

  11. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: II. Micrometeorological flux studies and comparison with upscaling from porometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Busch, J.; Lösch, R.

    1996-05-01

    During June and July 1995 a field experiment was conducted at a 9 ha field of cereal crop (triticale) located in Bellheim, Germany. Our investigation focused on the exchange processes of H 2O and CO 2 and micrometeorological quantities within and above the triticale canopy. Data were collected by porometer measurements at leaf scale, and canopy scale flux measurements using eddy correlation techniques. Due to the senescent state of triticale, the CO 2 exchange was generally small. The micrometeorological flux data are compared to estimates which were upscaled from porometer measurements. The results of one particular day are selected for presentation. The good agreement for both the CO 2 and H 2O fluxes, indicates that a relatively simple and direct upscaling procedure from single leaf porometry data may correctly describe the net exchange of an entire canopy.

  12. Dual aphid resistance in hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  13. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  14. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  16. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  17. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  18. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  19. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  1. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  2. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  4. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  5. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  6. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  7. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official inspection services shall be: Item Tolerance Timer switch:...

  8. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  9. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in some agronomic and forage quality characters of spring triticale in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Aljarrah, Mazen; Oatway, Lori; Albers, Susan; Bergen, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate variability, broad sense heritability, and genetic advance for dry matter yield (DMY), days to anthesis (ANTH), plant height (HT), in-vitro fiber digestibility-30h (IVFD), lignin (LIGN), starch (STAR %), crude protein content (CP %), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in spring triticale genotypes. Eighteen genotypes were tested at the Field Crop Development Centre (FCDC) in Lacombe, Alberta in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Combined analysis of variance was carried out using SAS Enterprise 4.2 statistical package. Heritability was estimated following the variance component method. Simple correlation coefficients were determined among all traits using two years average data. The genotype mean squares were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for DMY, ANTH, HT, IFVD, ADF, NDF, STAR %, LIGN, and CP %. The effect of year was also highly significant on all studied traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genetic coefficient of variation for all traits, indicating high influence of the environment on these traits. The significant genetic variability and the high heritability combined with high genetic advance of HT, STAR% and ADF in triticale genotypes suggested that selection could be successfully practiced for those traits. Correlation analysis showed significant and positive correlation of DMY with ANTH and HT, indicating that late and tall genotypes are more suitable as a forage type and they tend to produce more biomass yield. However, DMY did not show any significant correlation with the digestibility. IVFD and STAR % were negatively correlated with LIGN. In general, these results indicated that breeding for low lignin and high starch content will improve the digestibility in triticale genotypes. The preliminary results of this study were promising. Further research must include more diverse

  10. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection. PMID:25868512

  11. The wheat powdery mildew genome shows the unique evolution of an obligate biotroph.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Oberhaensli, Simone; Parlange, Francis; Buchmann, Jan P; Shatalina, Margarita; Roffler, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Spanu, Pietro D; Bruggmann, Rémy; Amselem, Joelle; Quesneville, Hadi; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Paape, Timothy; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    Wheat powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis forma specialis tritici, is a devastating fungal pathogen with a poorly understood evolutionary history. Here we report the draft genome sequence of wheat powdery mildew, the resequencing of three additional isolates from different geographic regions and comparative analyses with the barley powdery mildew genome. Our comparative genomic analyses identified 602 candidate effector genes, with many showing evidence of positive selection. We characterize patterns of genetic diversity and suggest that mildew genomes are mosaics of ancient haplogroups that existed before wheat domestication. The patterns of diversity in modern isolates suggest that there was no pronounced loss of genetic diversity upon formation of the new host bread wheat 10,000 years ago. We conclude that the ready adaptation of B. graminis f.sp. tritici to the new host species was based on a diverse haplotype pool that provided great genetic potential for pathogen variation. PMID:23852167

  12. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  13. Wheat-related disorders: A broad spectrum of ‘evolving’ diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, GB

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, cereals have always been recognized as a fundamental food. Human evolution, through the development of cooking, led to the production of food rich in gluten, in order to take full advantage of the nutritional properties of this food. The result has been that gluten intolerance has arisen only in those populations that developed the art of cooking wheat. It is also recognized that wheat, one of the central elements of the Mediterranean diet, cannot be tolerated in some individuals. Among the wheat-related pathologies, coeliac disease is the best known: it is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which develops in genetically predisposed individuals. The most common manifestation is the malabsorption of nutrients. Recently, another wheat-related disease has appeared: non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, defined as the onset of a variety of manifestations related to wheat, rye and barley ingestion, in patients in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. In this paper we will explore the damaging power of wheat, analysing the harmful process by which it realizes the onset of clinical manifestations associated with wheat-related disorders. PMID:25083282

  14. De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Xiaolu; Peng, Fan; Wang, Ruijiao; Jiang, Yulin; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Xiao, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Construction as well as characterization of a polish wheat transcriptome is a crucial step to study useful traits of polish wheat. In this study, a transcriptome, including 76,014 unigenes, was assembled from dwarf polish wheat (DPW) roots, stems, and leaves using the software of Trinity. Among these unigenes, 61,748 (81.23%) unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases and classified into differentially functional types. Aligning this transcriptome against draft wheat genome released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), 57,331 (75.42%) unigenes, including 26,122 AB-specific and 2,622 D-specific unigenes, were mapped on A, B, and/or D genomes. Compared with the transcriptome of T. turgidum, 56,343 unigenes were matched with 103,327 unigenes of T. turgidum. Compared with the genomes of rice and barley, 14,404 and 7,007 unigenes were matched with 14,608 genes of barley and 7,708 genes of rice, respectively. On the other hand, 2,148, 1,611, and 2,707 unigenes were expressed specifically in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Finally, 5,531 SSR sequences were observed from 4,531 unigenes, and 518 primer pairs were designed. PMID:27429972

  15. The susceptibility response to BYDV in Avena sativa: Using the wheat gene microarry as a tool for measuring gene expression in oat in response to BYDV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of wheat and barley microarrays for gene expression analyses have opened the ability to identify genes whose expression patterns change relative to some applied treatment. The development of these gene arrays has only been possible because of the large amount of EST sequencing. Bec...

  16. Expression of the N-terminal 99 Amino Acids of Yeast Ribosomal Protein L3 in Transgenic Wheat Confers Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease for wheat or barley. The contamination of important agricultural products with the trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) or 4,15-diacetoxyscirpeno1 (DAS) produced by Fusarium species poses a major health concern for both human and ani...

  17. Genetic markers and biochemical evaluation in the winter triticale identification and breeding.

    PubMed

    Abugalieva, A I; Turuspekov, E K; Abugalieva, S I; Savin, T V

    2014-01-01

    Winter hexaploid triticale lines and cultivars were identified by protein (storage and enzyme) and DNA markers. The locus of B-Amy-2 and Adh-1 were characterized by two alleles, Mdh-1 by 3 alleles, B-Amy-1 and Mdh-2 by 4 alleles and the locus controlling cathodic peroxidase isozymes, a-amylase and esterase by 6, 9 and 12 alleles, respectively. Intra-and intervarietal variation, for the enzyme coding loci, gliadin and glutenine were found. According to the isoenzyme analysis and the grain quality lines 28 and 49 (softness, high amylose content: 28.9-25.6, protein: 11,6- 11,2% and albumin 50-43%) could be marked as genotypes suitable for brewing and were characterized by allele b-Amy-1-b. Genotypes 1420 and 1434 are good for bread making with a hardness index between 52 and 62 and a W value (alveograph) of 110- 120. Allele a-Amy-b is positively correlated with amylose content (r = 0.601) and negatively with protein content (r - 0.490), the correlation of the presence of allele 1-Amy-1-b and amylose content is r- 0.549. Three breeding lines had 40% amylose content in grain and flour. Furthermore, the presence of allele Mdh-1 was associated with a high content of glutenin (r = 0.568), and controlled by genes localized in a single linkage group. Also statistically significant correlations for Mdh-1 -a and Prx-D containing albumin to total protein (%) could observed. It was illustrated that the peroxidase activity and free proline content can be used as resistance markers to abiotic factors. PMID:26072592

  18. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  19. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  20. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  1. Wheat Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

  2. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chalupska, D.; Lee, H. Y.; Faris, J. D.; Evrard, A.; Chalhoub, B.; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

    2008-01-01

    The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3–2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

  3. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes.

    PubMed

    Chalupska, D; Lee, H Y; Faris, J D; Evrard, A; Chalhoub, B; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P

    2008-07-15

    The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3-2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

  4. Tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic variation in triticale (× Triticosecale spp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) regenerants.

    PubMed

    Machczyńska, Joanna; Zimny, Janusz; Bednarek, Piotr Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Plant regeneration via in vitro culture can induce genetic and epigenetic variation; however, the extent of such changes in triticale is not yet understood. In the present study, metAFLP, a variation of methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, was used to investigate tissue culture-induced variation in triticale regenerants derived from four distinct genotypes using androgenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The metAFLP technique enabled identification of both sequence and DNA methylation pattern changes in a single experiment. Moreover, it was possible to quantify subtle effects such as sequence variation, demethylation, and de novo methylation, which affected 19, 5.5, 4.5% of sites, respectively. Comparison of variation in different genotypes and with different in vitro regeneration approaches demonstrated that both the culture technique and genetic background of donor plants affected tissue culture-induced variation. The results showed that the metAFLP approach could be used for quantification of tissue culture-induced variation and provided direct evidence that in vitro plant regeneration could cause genetic and epigenetic variation. PMID:26337939

  5. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  6. UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

  7. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  8. 2008 FHB Analysis of Transgenic Barley Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic lines have been developed with the goal of reducing FHB and DON in barley. Replicated field trials for FHB reaction of 48 Conlon transgenic lines were conducted in 2008 in Langdon, ND and Rosemount, MN. The Langdon trials consisted of three replicates in hill plots in an inoculated misted...

  9. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  10. Fusarium-Resistant Barley Through Genetic Transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation with antifungal genes could provide barley with the resistance to Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). More molecular studies are needed to 1) identify effective anti-Fusarium genes, 2) develop more tissue-specific gene promoters to target expression to the path of infection, and 3) ...

  11. Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prowashonupana, a barley variety with high ß-glucan content, was dry blended with flaxseed at 10, 20, and 50% for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) that is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preve...

  12. Thionin antifungal peptide synthesis in transgenic barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In seeds and vegetative organs of barley and other cereals, thionins are processed into peptides with pronounced anti-microbial properties. In vitro studies demonstrated the toxicity of a- and ß-hordothionins (HTHs) to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Increasing the expression of thionin g...

  13. Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

  14. Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...

  15. Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies. PMID:25457306

  16. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  17. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

  18. Studies on maternal inheritance in polyploid wheats with cytoplasmic DNAs as genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Vedel, F; Quetier, F; Cauderon, Y; Dosba, F; Doussinault, G

    1981-07-01

    Restriction fragment patterns of DNA fragments obtained after EcoRI cleavage of chloroplastic (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs isolated from different wheat species were compared. T. aestivum, T. timopheevi, Ae. speltoides, Ae. sharonensis and T. urartu gave species specific mt DNA patterns. Consequently, the cytoplasmic genomes of wheat cannot have originated from contemporary Ae. speltoides, Ae. sharonensis and T. urartu species. It is shown that cp and mt DNAs of Ae. ventricosa, a tetraploid used to transfer eyespot resistance into T. aestivum, contains cp and mt DNAs differing from DNAs isolated from T. aestivum and other wheats. In contrast, the cytoplasmic DNAs of Ae. ventricosa and Ae. squarrosa reveal an important homology, suggesting that Ae. squarrosa was the female parent of Ae. ventricosa. Disomic addition lines (T. aestivum - Ae. ventricosa) in both Ae. ventricosa cytoplasm and T. aestivum cytoplasm contained cytoplasmic DNAs identical to those of the maternal parent. Restriction patterns of the cp and mt DNAs isolated from eight lines of Triticale differing in their cytoplasm have been compared to those of the maternal parent. A strict maternal inheritance has been observed in each case. PMID:24276485

  19. The study of two barley Type I-like MADS-box genes as potential targets of epigenetic regulation during seed development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MADS-box genes constitute a large family of transcription factors functioning as key regulators of many processes during plant vegetative and reproductive development. Type II MADS-box genes have been intensively investigated and are mostly involved in vegetative and flowering development. A growing number of studies of Type I MADS-box genes in Arabidopsis, have assigned crucial roles for these genes in gamete and seed development and have demonstrated that a number of Type I MADS-box genes are epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone modifications. However, reports on agronomically important cereals such as barley and wheat are scarce. Results Here we report the identification and characterization of two Type I-like MADS-box genes, from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a monocot cereal crop of high agronomic importance. Protein sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the putative proteins are related to Type I MADS-box proteins, and classified them in a distinct cereal clade. Significant differences in gene expression among seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size were revealed for both genes. One of these genes was shown to be induced by the seed development- and stress-related hormones ABA and JA whereas in situ hybridizations localized the other gene to specific endosperm sub-compartments. The genomic organization of the latter has high conservation with the cereal Type I-like MADS-box homologues and the chromosomal position of both genes is close to markers associated with seed quality traits. DNA methylation differences are present in the upstream and downstream regulatory regions of the barley Type I-like MADS-box genes in two different developmental stages and in response to ABA treatment which may be associated with gene expression differences. Conclusions Two barley MADS-box genes were studied that are related to Type I MADS-box genes. Differential expression in different seed developmental

  20. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326