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Sample records for barn swallows hirundo

  1. First observation of African tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus predating on barn swallows Hirundo rustica in flight.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G C; Jacobs, F; Evans, S W; Smit, N J

    2014-01-01

    A population of African tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus from the Schroda Dam, actively prey on barn swallows Hirundo rustica in flight. This behaviour was discovered during a radio telemetry study and documented using a motion picture video camera. These results show that an avivorous diet is a part of the feeding biology of H. vittatus, and may occur in other populations. PMID:24354922

  2. Clock gene polymorphism and scheduling of migration: a geolocator study of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Gaia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Liechti, Felix; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Circannual rhythms often rely on endogenous seasonal photoperiodic timers involving ‘clock’ genes, and Clock gene polymorphism has been associated to variation in phenology in some bird species. In the long-distance migratory barn swallow Hirundo rustica, individuals bearing the rare Clock allele with the largest number of C-terminal polyglutamine repeats found in this species (Q8) show a delayed reproduction and moult later. We explored the association between Clock polymorphism and migration scheduling, as gauged by light-level geolocators, in two barn swallow populations (Switzerland; Po Plain, Italy). Genetic polymorphism was low: 91% of the 64 individuals tracked year-round were Q7/Q7 homozygotes. We compared the phenology of the rare genotypes with the phenotypic distribution of Q7/Q7 homozygotes within each population. In Switzerland, compared to Q7/Q7, two Q6/Q7 males departed earlier from the wintering grounds and arrived earlier to their colony in spring, while a single Q7/Q8 female was delayed for both phenophases. On the other hand, in the Po Plain, three Q6/Q7 individuals had a similar phenology compared to Q7/Q7. The Swiss data are suggestive for a role of genetic polymorphism at a candidate phenological gene in shaping migration traits, and support the idea that Clock polymorphism underlies phenological variation in birds. PMID:26197782

  3. Clock gene polymorphism and scheduling of migration: a geolocator study of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Gaia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Liechti, Felix; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Circannual rhythms often rely on endogenous seasonal photoperiodic timers involving 'clock' genes, and Clock gene polymorphism has been associated to variation in phenology in some bird species. In the long-distance migratory barn swallow Hirundo rustica, individuals bearing the rare Clock allele with the largest number of C-terminal polyglutamine repeats found in this species (Q8) show a delayed reproduction and moult later. We explored the association between Clock polymorphism and migration scheduling, as gauged by light-level geolocators, in two barn swallow populations (Switzerland; Po Plain, Italy). Genetic polymorphism was low: 91% of the 64 individuals tracked year-round were Q7/Q7 homozygotes. We compared the phenology of the rare genotypes with the phenotypic distribution of Q7/Q7 homozygotes within each population. In Switzerland, compared to Q7/Q7, two Q6/Q7 males departed earlier from the wintering grounds and arrived earlier to their colony in spring, while a single Q7/Q8 female was delayed for both phenophases. On the other hand, in the Po Plain, three Q6/Q7 individuals had a similar phenology compared to Q7/Q7. The Swiss data are suggestive for a role of genetic polymorphism at a candidate phenological gene in shaping migration traits, and support the idea that Clock polymorphism underlies phenological variation in birds. PMID:26197782

  4. The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: An experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Vortman, Yoni; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Wilkins, Matthew R; Bradley, Rachel J; Lotem, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we provide experimental evidence that manipulations of these traits result in different reproductive consequences in two subspecies of barn swallow: (H. r. erythrogaster in North America and H. r. transitiva in the East Mediterranean). Experimental results in Colorado, USA, demonstrate that males with (1) darkened ventral coloration and (2) shortened streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. In contrast, exaggeration of both traits improved reproductive performance within H. r. transitiva in Israel: males with a combination treatment of darkened ventral coloration and elongated streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. Collectively, these experimental results fill an important gap in our understanding for how divergent sexual selection maintains phenotype differentiation in closely related populations, an important aspect of the speciation process. PMID:27436630

  5. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  6. Nestling rearing is antioxidant demanding in female barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, David; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    Reproduction is a demanding activity, since organisms must produce and, in some cases, protect and provision their progeny. Hence, a central tenet of life-history theory predicts that parents have to trade parental care against body maintenance. One physiological cost thought to be particularly important as a modulator of such trade-offs is oxidative stress. However, evidence in favour of the hypothesis of an oxidative cost of reproduction is contradictory. In this study, we manipulated the brood size of wild barn swallows Hirundo rustica soon after hatching of their nestlings to test whether an increase in nestling rearing effort translates into an increased oxidative damage and a decreased antioxidant protection at the end of the nestling rearing period. We found that, while plasma oxidative damage was unaffected by brood size enlargement, females rearing enlarged broods showed a decrease in plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants during the nestling rearing period. This was not the case among females rearing reduced broods and among males assigned to either treatment. Moreover, individuals with higher plasma oxidative damage soon after the brood size manipulation had lower plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants at the end of the nestling rearing period, suggesting that non-enzymatic antioxidants were depleted to buffer the negative effects of high oxidative damage. Our findings point to antioxidant depletion as a potential mechanism mediating the cost of reproduction among female birds.

  7. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Bazzi, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt. PMID:24826890

  8. Corticosterone secretion patterns prior to spring and autumn migration differ in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica L.).

    PubMed

    Raja-aho, Sari; Lehikoinen, Esa; Suorsa, Petri; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Vainio, Minna; Vosloo, Dalene; Eeva, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies of long-distance migratory birds show that behavioural and physiological changes associated with predictable or unpredictable challenges during the annual cycle are distinctively regulated by hormones. Corticosterone is the primary energy regulating hormone in birds. Corticosterone levels are elevated during stresses but they are also modulated seasonally according to environmental conditions and life-history demands. We measured the baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica L.) just before spring and autumn migrations in South Africa and Finland, respectively. Barn swallows completing their pre-breeding moult had low body condition (residual body mass) and high baseline corticosterone levels in the wintering grounds. In contrast, baseline corticosterone levels in Finland were low and not related to residual mass. These data contradict the first prediction of the migration modulation hypothesis (MMH) by showing no association with baseline corticosterone levels and pre-migratory fuelling. Yet, the adrenocortical response to the capture and handling stress was notably blunted in South Africa compared to a strong response in Finland. Further, individuals that had started fuelling in Finland showed a reduced response to the handling stress. Taken together, elevated baseline corticosterone levels and high residual mass may blunt the adrenocortical response in long-distance migrants and aerial feeders such as the barn swallow. This observation lends support to the second prediction of the MMH. PMID:23649753

  9. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Kardynal, Kevin J; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Albrecht, Gretchen; Salvadori, Antonio; Cadman, Michael D; Liechti, Felix; Fox, James W

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8) and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5)) traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3) and New Brunswick (n = 10), Canada) which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67%) birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America. PMID:26065914

  10. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Keith A.; Kardynal, Kevin J.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; Albrecht, Gretchen; Salvadori, Antonio; Cadman, Michael D.; Liechti, Felix; Fox, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8) and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5)) traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3) and New Brunswick (n = 10), Canada) which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67%) birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America. PMID:26065914

  11. Sex allocation according to multiple sexually dimorphic traits of both parents in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Romano, A; Romano, M; Caprioli, M; Costanzo, A; Parolini, M; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2015-06-01

    Parents should differentially invest in sons or daughters depending on the sex-specific fitness returns from male and female offspring. In species with sexually selected heritable male characters, highly ornamented fathers should overproduce sons, which will be more sexually attractive than sons of less ornamented fathers. Because of genetic correlations between the sexes, females that express traits which are under selection in males should also overproduce sons. However, sex allocation strategies may consist in reaction norms leading to spatiotemporal variation in the association between offspring sex ratio (SR) and parental phenotype. We analysed offspring SR in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) over 8 years in relation to two sexually dimorphic traits: tail length and melanin-based ventral plumage coloration. The proportion of sons increased with maternal plumage darkness and paternal tail length, consistently with sexual dimorphism in these traits. The size of the effect of these parental traits on SR was large compared to other studies of offspring SR in birds. Barn swallows thus manipulate offspring SR to overproduce 'sexy sons' and potentially to mitigate the costs of intralocus sexually antagonistic selection. Interannual variation in the relationships between offspring SR and parental traits was observed which may suggest phenotypic plasticity in sex allocation and provides a proximate explanation for inconsistent results of studies of sex allocation in relation to sexual ornamentation in birds. PMID:25913917

  12. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  13. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Péter L.; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I.; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  14. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas.

  15. Importance of farmland in urbanized areas as a landscape component for barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) nesting on concrete buildings.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas. PMID:25813627

  16. Sex-Related Effects of Reproduction on Biomarkers of Oxidative Damage in Free-living Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Rubolini, Diego; Colombo, Graziano; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Clerici, Marco; Colombo, Roberto; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we focus on the oxidative costs of reproduction, especially egg laying, by investigating the effects of breeding stage (pre- vs. post-laying) and progression of the season on three biomarkers of oxidative damage (OD) to plasma proteins, namely the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts and of protein thiol groups (PSH), and the protein carbonyl (PCO) content. Moreover, we investigated whether males and females differed in plasma OD levels, because the inherent sex differences in reproductive roles and physiology may originate sex-specific patterns of OD during breeding. We found that MDA-protein adduct levels were higher in the pre-laying than in the post-laying phase, that males had lower levels of MDA-modified proteins than females, and that the decline of MDA-protein adduct concentration between the pre- and the post-laying phase was more marked for females than males. In addition, MDA-protein adduct levels declined with sampling date, but only during the pre-laying phase. On the other hand, plasma PCO levels increased from the pre- to the post-laying phase in both sexes, and females had higher levels of PCO than males. PSH concentration was unaffected by breeding stage, sex or sampling date. On the whole, our findings indicate that biomarkers of protein oxidation closely track the short-term variation in breeding stage of both male and female barn swallows. Moreover, the higher protein OD levels observed among females compared to males suggest that egg laying entails oxidative costs, which might negatively

  17. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Khoriauli, Lela; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Santagostino, Marco; Saino, Nicola; Giulotto, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age) and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual’s siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and relative telomere

  18. Low Variation in the Polymorphic Clock Gene Poly-Q Region Despite Population Genetic Structure across Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Lovette, Irby J.; Safran, Rebecca J.; Billerman, Shawn M.; Huber, Gernot H.; Vortman, Yoni; Lotem, Arnon; McGowan, Andrew; Evans, Matthew R.; Cooper, Caren B.; Winkler, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of several species have reported a latitudinal cline in the circadian clock gene, Clock, which influences rhythms in both physiology and behavior. Latitudinal variation in this gene may hence reflect local adaptation to seasonal variation. In some bird populations, there is also an among-individual association between Clock poly-Q genotype and clutch initiation date and incubation period. We examined Clock poly-Q allele variation in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), a species with a cosmopolitan geographic distribution and considerable variation in life-history traits that may be influenced by the circadian clock. We genotyped Barn Swallows from five populations (from three subspecies) and compared variation at the Clock locus to that at microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found very low variation in the Clock poly-Q region, as >96% of individuals were homozygous, and the two other alleles at this locus were globally rare. Genetic differentiation based on the Clock poly-Q locus was not correlated with genetic differentiation based on either microsatellite loci or mtDNA sequences. Our results show that high diversity in Clock poly-Q is not general across avian species. The low Clock variation in the background of heterogeneity in microsatellite and mtDNA loci in Barn Swallows may be an outcome of stabilizing selection on the Clock locus. PMID:22216124

  19. Abundance and genetic damage of barn swallows from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Koyama, K; Tedeschi, D J; Kitamura, W; Sukuzi, H; Ostermiller, S; Arai, E; Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed or modeled the distribution of the radionuclides released by the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Few studies however have investigated its consequences for the local biota. We tested whether exposure of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) nestlings to low dose ionizing radiation increased genetic damage to their peripheral erythrocytes. We estimated external radiation exposure by using thermoluminescent dosimeters, and by measuring radioactivity of the nest material. We then assessed DNA damage by means of the neutral comet assay. In addition, we conducted standard point-count censuses of barn swallows across environmental radiation levels, and estimated their abundance and local age ratio. Radioactivity of nest samples was in the range 479-143,349 Bq kg(-1), while external exposure varied between 0.15 and 4.9 mGy. Exposure to radioactive contamination did not correlate with higher genetic damage in nestlings. However, at higher levels of radioactive contamination the number of barn swallows declined and the fraction of juveniles decreased, indicating lower survival and lower reproduction and/or fledging rate. Thus, genetic damage to nestlings does not explain the decline of barn swallows in contaminated areas, and a proximate mechanism for the demographic effects documented here remains to be clarified. PMID:25838205

  20. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  1. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B; Hubbard, Joanna K; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male-male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems. PMID:26423842

  2. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Goatcher, Buddy L; Melancon, Mark J; Matson, Cole W; Bickham, John W

    2006-10-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites. PMID:16779575

  3. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  4. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 mu g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  5. Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Caprioli, Manuela; Parolini, Marco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) toward the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrues larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex allocation decisions has seldom been performed. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we showed a positive correlation between the proportion of sons and maternal annual survival. We then experimentally demonstrated that this association did not depend on the differential costs of rearing offspring of either sex. Finally, we showed that maternal lifespan positively predicted lifespan of sons but not of daughters. Because in barn swallows lifespan is a strong determinant of lifetime reproductive success, the results suggest that mothers overproduce offspring of the sex that benefits the most from maternal quality. Hence, irrespective of mechanisms causing the SR bias and mother-son covariation in lifespan, we provide strong evidence that sex allocation decisions of mothers can highly impact on their lifetime fitness. PMID:26990898

  6. Geographic Variation in Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) from Northern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The number of subspecies recognized in Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot (Cliff Swallow) from Alaska, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States ranges from one (Peters 1960) to three (e.g., Jewett et al. 1953, Oberholser, 1920, breeding from central Alaska to the central Great Basin, and two disjunct populations of nominate pyrrhonota, breeding on the west coast and east of the Rocky Mountains. Although various authors have reported measurements of wing chord, they have not provided quantitative data for other plumage characters, and they disagree in the characterizations and ranges of the subspecies they recognize. Because of this, I reviewed the geographic variation among the northern populations. My study is confined to specimens from Alaska, Canada, and the contigeous United States south to Merced County in California, both slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Montana and Colorado, and northern half of the eastern United States from Kansas east to Virginia (Figure 1). The A.O.U. (1957) gave the breeding range of hypopolia as extending from Alaska and Mackenzie to southeastern British Columbia, the eastern parts of Washington, Oregon, and central-eastern California, central Nevada, northern Utah, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming, and the range of nominate pyrhonota as from southwestern British Columbia, western Oregon and Washington to southern California, southern Nevada, southern and eastern Utag, and east of the Rocky Mountains. I excluded specimens of H. p. ganieri Phillips, 1986, a subspecies (Browning 1990) that breeds from at least west-central Tennessee to Texas, and H. p. tachina Oberholser, 1903 (sensu Phillips 1986), which breeds north to central California, Utah, Arizona, and new Mexico. I follow Phillips (1973) for the use of the generic name Hirundo for the Cliff Swallow, Hellmayr (1935) for the use of the specific name pyrrhonota.

  7. Foraging at the edge of the world: low-altitude, high-speed manoeuvering in barn swallows.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A; Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers. Using multi-camera videography synchronized with wind-velocity measurements, we tracked coursing manoeuvers in pursuit of prey. Wind speed averaged 1.3-2.0 m s(-1) across the atmospheric boundary layer, exhibiting a shear gradient greater than expected, with instantaneous speeds of 0.02-6.1 m s(-1) While barn swallows tended to flap throughout turns, they exhibited reduced wingbeat frequency, relying on glides and partial bounds during maximal manoeuvers. Further, the birds capitalized on the near-earth wind speed gradient to gain kinetic and potential energy during both flapping and gliding turns; providing evidence that such behaviour is not limited to large, fixed-wing soaring seabirds and that exploitation of wind gradients by small aerial insectivores may be a significant aspect of their aeroecology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528781

  8. Better red than dead: carotenoid-based mouth coloration reveals infection in barn swallow nestlings.

    PubMed Central

    Saino, N; Ninni, P; Calza, S; Martinelli, R; De Bernardi, F; Møller, A P

    2000-01-01

    Nestling birds solicit food from their parents by displaying their open brightly coloured gapes. Carotenoids affect gape colour, but also play a central role in immunostimulation. Therefore, we hypothesize that, by differentially allocating resources to nestlings with more brightly coloured gapes, parents favour healthy offspring which are able to allocate carotenoids to gape coloration without compromising their immune defence. We demonstrated that, in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, (i) parents differentially allocate food to nestlings with an experimentally brighter red gape, (ii) nestlings challenged with a novel antigen (sheep red blood cells, SRBCs) have less bright gape colour than their control siblings, (iii) nestlings challenged with SRBCs but also provided with the principal circulating carotenoid (lutein) have more brightly coloured red gapes than their challenged but unsupplemented siblings and (iv) the gape colour of nestlings challenged with SRBCs and provisioned with lutein exceeds that of siblings that were unchallenged. This suggests that parents may favour nestlings with superior health by preferentially feeding offspring with the brightest gapes. PMID:10670953

  9. Antioxidants, radiation and mutation as revealed by sperm abnormality in barn swallows from Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Møller, A. P.; Surai, P.; Mousseau, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced levels of antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamins A and E can increase DNA damage caused by free radicals. Exposure to radiation has been proposed to reduce levels of antioxidants that are used for DNA repair and this reduction may be responsible for increased levels of mutation in radioactively contaminated areas. We test this hypothesis using field measures of antioxidants in blood, liver and eggs of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica while relating these to levels of mutation as reflected by the frequency of abnormal sperm. Antioxidant levels in blood, liver and eggs were reduced in Chernobyl, Ukraine, compared with an uncontaminated control area, and levels of antioxidants correlated negatively with levels of background radiation. The frequency of abnormal sperm was almost an order of magnitude higher in Chernobyl than in the control area and was negatively related to antioxidant levels in blood and liver. This is consistent with the hypothesis of a direct link between radiation and individual levels of antioxidants, suggesting that levels of mutation differ among individuals owing to individual differences in the abundance of antioxidants. PMID:15705548

  10. Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q7) and two rare (Q6, Q8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q7/Q8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q7/Q8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

  11. Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Matthew Reed

    A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the

  12. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success. PMID:24317898

  13. Sex-Related Effects of an Immune Challenge on Growth and Begging Behavior of Barn Swallow Nestlings

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by subjecting nestlings to an immune challenge (injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS) that simulates a bacterial infection, and assessed the effects on growth, feather quality, expression of morphological (gape coloration) and behavioral (posture) begging displays involved in parent-offspring communication, as well as on food allocation by parents. Compared to sham-injected controls, LPS-treated chicks suffered a depression of body mass and a reduction of palate color saturation. In addition, LPS treatment resulted in lower feather quality, with an increase in the occurrence of fault bars on wing feathers. The color of beak flanges, feather growth and the intensity of postural begging were affected by LPS treatment only in females, suggesting that chicks of either sex are differently susceptible to the immune challenge. However, irrespective of the effects of LPS, parents equally allocated food among control and challenged offspring both under normal food provisioning and after a short period of food deprivation of the chicks. These results indicate that bacterial infection and the associated immune response entail different costs to offspring of either sex, but a decrease in nestling conditions does not affect parental care allocation, possibly because the barn swallow adopts a brood-survival strategy. Finally, we showed that physiological stress induced by pathogens impairs plumage quality, a previously neglected major negative impact of bacterial infection which could severely affect fitness, particularly among long-distance migratory birds

  14. Expression of multiple sexual signals by fathers and sons in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow: are advertising strategies heritable?

    PubMed

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  15. Expression of Multiple Sexual Signals by Fathers and Sons in the East-Mediterranean Barn Swallow: Are Advertising Strategies Heritable?

    PubMed Central

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J.; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  16. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher at Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background (> 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained > 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels (< 5 ppm).

  17. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher a Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background ( gt 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained gt 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels ( lt 5 ppm).

  18. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  19. Barn Again! Indiana Barns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This final issue of the "Indiana History Bulletin" focuses on Indiana barns. Four articles feature the barn theme: (1) "Smithsonian Exhibit on Barns Will Tour Indiana in 2001-2002"; (2) "Indiana Barns," which contains several photographs of old barns; (3) "Indiana Barn Types," which contains drawings of different barn types; and (4) "Preserving…

  20. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Swallowing Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Dysphagia Table of Contents ( ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Swallowing Disorders? Having trouble swallowing (dysphagia) is a symptom ...

  1. Swallowing soap

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Swallowing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    Dysphagia; Impaired swallowing; Choking - food; Globus sensation ... The process of swallowing involves several steps. These include Chewing food Moving it into the back of the mouth Moving it down the ...

  3. Dirt - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002840.htm Dirt - swallowing To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. This article is about poisoning from swallowing or eating dirt. This article is for information ...

  4. Swallow syncope

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Paul W.; McMillan, Denis G.; Simon, Jerome B.

    1985-01-01

    Swallowing is considered a rare cause of syncope. The five patients described in this report had a spectrum of gastrointestinal tract or cardiovascular disease. For each patient there was a clear association between swallowing and the onset of syncope. Prompt diagnosis of this potentially lethal condition is essential, and electrocardiographic monitoring during swallowing is advisable in all cases in which syncope is suspected. PMID:3995448

  5. Swallowing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the bottom of the esophagus to relax ( Achalasia ) Scarring that narrows the esophagus. This may be ... used if cancer is causing the swallowing problem. Achalasia or spasms of the esophagus may also respond ...

  6. 1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in distance marks southern boundary of the original north barn area. Camera pointed SE. - Longacres, Barn 3, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  7. Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy) Do you have problems swallowing? ... Some names you might hear are: Endoscopy Endoscopic Evaluation of swallowing FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) ...

  8. Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hear are: videofluoroscopic swallowing study, or videofluoroscopy modified barium swallow, or MBS esophagram cookie swallow The American ... give you different foods and drinks mixed with barium. The barium makes the food and liquid show ...

  9. View south, barn, north elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, barn, north elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  10. View north, barn, south elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, barn, south elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  11. View west, barn, east elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, barn, east elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  12. View east, barn, west elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, barn, west elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  13. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN (CENTER) (STRUCTURE 2) AND CORNER OF MILK HOUSE (STRUCTURE 3) FROM SOUTHEAST - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  14. LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is built on a fieldstone foundation with a heavy-timber, mortise and tenon wood construction. A bank of window openings spans the south and east walls. Every other opening is covered with an operable shutter that is hinged to the window header above. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  15. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. 1. VIEW OF JAMES H. LANE BARN (HEREAFTER LANE BARN) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF JAMES H. LANE BARN (HEREAFTER LANE BARN) FROM L.D.S. CHURCH GROUNDS ON IDAHO HIGHWAY 26, APPROXIMATELY 1/4 MILE EAST OF THE MAIN INTERSECTION OF RICHFIELD, IDAHO. CAMERA IS POINTING SOUTH. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  17. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  18. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... a perfect study, but it is the best method to gather information about how you/your child swallows and the risk there may be for food or liquids going into the airway. The Speech Pathologist plans the TBS so that a sample of a few swallows of various textures shows ...

  19. Watercolor paints - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the person swallowed the paint, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not to. DO NOT give anything to drink if the person has symptoms that make it ... Use soap and water to wash any paint off skin and clothes.

  20. Syncope with Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Manu, Stephen; Aziz, Peter F

    2016-05-01

    Swallowing can be a trigger for syncope and can cause significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized. A 13-year-old presented with clusters of transient complete atrioventricular block after repair of a sinus venosus atrial septal defect. Pacemaker implantation was successful in treating these symptoms. PMID:26891888

  1. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  2. GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground floor is used for animal pens. On the left is an area enclosed for chickens. The Jenne milking stanchions remain along the south end of the barn.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. The Barnes Foundation: A Place for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Rika

    2007-01-01

    This article tells the story of the author's invitation to teach at the Barnes Foundation, and her transformative experience as a teacher in this extraordinary place. The author comes to realize that the Barnes is the physical realization of a philosophical dream, and progresses to an understanding of how Albert C. Barnes collected and assembled…

  4. 2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar to those of barns in middle barn area (Barns 1A through 8B). Part of 'panorama' with photo WA-201-13-1. - Longacres, Barn 41, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  5. Swallowing Disorders: What Families Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Tom; Rende, Barbara

    Swallowing problems can result from a catastrophic illness or injury, and the family's role is very important in implementing the swallowing precautions recommended by the rehabilitation team. Explained in this pamphlet are the stages of the normal swallowing sequence, symptoms of a swallowing disorder, medical conditions associated with…

  6. [Dysphagia. Are swallowing sounds diagnostically useful?].

    PubMed

    Kley, C; Biniek, R

    2005-12-01

    The origin and importance of swallowing sounds in dysphagia have been discussed in previous research. Those studies report a general similarity in the sound patterns of different swallowing actions. The current paper confirms this. In addition, the origin of swallowing sound patterns is examined more closely. Finally, we simultaneously analyzed the swallowing sounds of healthy voluntary subjects and patients with swallowing disorders using X-ray cinematography. Videoendoscopy was also done. As expected, we found a variety of sound sequences differing from those of healthy subjects. Patients with tracheal tubes or cannulae constitute a special group whose swallowing sounds give additional information about the act of swallowing. PMID:16133430

  7. Utility of a Clinical Swallowing Exam for Understanding Swallowing Physiology.

    PubMed

    Rangarathnam, Balaji; McCullough, Gary H

    2016-08-01

    A clinical swallowing examination (CSE) is generally believed to be inadequate for making judgments regarding swallowing physiology compared to objective assessments. A large volume of studies has heavily focused on identifying aspiration using a CSE and research addressing physiologic information gathered from a CSE is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the CSE for assessing physiology compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Data were derived from a prior investigation of sixty adult patients post-stroke tested with CSE and VFSS. The CSE included an examination of historical measures, oral motor/speech/voice, and trial swallows. The VFSS consisted of swallows of controlled portions of thin, thick, puree, and solid boluses. Previous results from these patients demonstrated significant accuracy in making binary estimates of aspiration and the presence of dysphagia. This analysis of data focused on physiologic measures, as well as overall dysphagia severity and diet recommendations. Significant associations between CSE and VFSS ratings were observed for hyolaryngeal elevation, overall swallowing severity, and diet recommendations. These findings were specific for certain bolus consistencies. These data suggest that the CSE may not provide significant physiological information other than hyolaryngeal excursion. This does not preclude the fact that the CSE is important in providing substantial information about overall dysphagia severity. It appears that the CSE is more powerful than simply a "screening" tool. More prospective research designs are warranted to substantiate the strengths of the CSE. PMID:26970759

  8. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. 12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to left and barn ramp at center - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  11. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can reduce sensation. After a stroke, food or liquid could enter the airway/lungs without the survivor ... working. The survivor may be given food and liquid to swallow. Efforts to make sure survivors with ...

  12. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  13. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb ... t chew gum until they fully understand the importance of not swallowing it. By age 5, most ...

  14. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    PubMed

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (<1%), 10% contained residues of rodenticides, difenacoum or brodifacoum, in their livers. Difenacoum was in the range 0.005-0.106 microg g(-1) fresh weight, and brodifacoum was in the range 0.019-0.515 microg g(-1). Minimum levels of detection were about 0.005 microg g(-1) for both chemicals. Mice fed for 1 day on food containing difenacoum and brodifacoum died after 2-11 days. Within these mice residues were present at greater concentration in the liver than in the rest of the carcass. The mean mass of residue in a whole 35g mouse was estimated at 10.17 microg (range 4.73-20.65 microg) for difenacoum and 15.36 microg (range 8.07-26.55) for brodifacoum. Such poisoned mice were fed to Barn Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable

  15. Understanding differences between healthy swallows and penetration-aspiration swallows via compressive sensing of tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.

    2014-05-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of swallowing difficulties. A recent contribution showed that swallowing accelerometry signals for healthy swallows and swallows indicating laryn- geal penetration or tracheal aspiration have different time-frequency structures, which may be problematic for compressive sensing schemes based on time-frequency dictionaries. In this paper, we examined the effects of dif- ferent swallows on the accuracy of a compressive sensing scheme based on modulated discrete prolate spheroidal sequences. We utilized tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals recorded from four patients during routinely schedule videofluoroscopy exams. In particular, we considered 77 swallows approximately equally distributed between healthy swallows and swallows presenting with some penetration/aspiration. Our results indicated that the swallow type does not affect the accuracy of a considered compressive sensing scheme. Also, the results con- firmed previous findings that each individual axis contributes different information. Our findings are important for further developments of a device which is to be used for long-term monitoring of swallowing difficulties.

  16. Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination and Swallowing Safety in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Irene; Rosenbek, John C.; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrate abnormal respiratory events when swallowing thin liquids. In addition, this study sought to define associations between respiratory events, swallowing apnea duration, and penetration–aspiration (P–A) scale scores. Thirty-nine individuals with PD were administered ten trials of a 5-ml thin liquid bolus. P–A scale score quantified the presence of penetration and aspiration during the swallowing of a 3-oz sequential bolus. Participants were divided into two groups based on swallowing safety judged during the 3-oz sequential swallowing: Group 1 = P–A ≤ 2; Group 2 = P–A ≥ 3. Swallows were examined using videofluoroscopy coupled with a nasal cannula to record respiratory signals during the event(s). Findings indicated that expiration was the predominant respiratory event before and after swallowing apnea. The data revealed no differences in our cohort versus the percentages of post-swallowing events reported in the literature for healthy adults. In addition, individuals with decreased swallowing safety, as measured by the P–A scale, were more likely to inspire after swallows and to have shorter swallowing apnea duration. Individuals who inspired before swallow also had longer swallowing apnea duration. The occurrence of inspiratory events after a swallow and the occurrence of shorter swallowing apnea durations may serve as important indicators during clinical swallowing assessments in patients at risk for penetration or aspiration with PD. PMID:20623304

  17. Reproductive vulnerability: Parental attendance around hatching in roseate (Sterna dougallii) and common (S. hirundo) terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1991-01-01

    Presence of one or both members of a pair at the nest site during the incubation and early chick stage reduces reproductive losses due to predation and weather stresses. The authors monitored the presence of pair members by the temporary removal of one member of several pairs of Roseate (Sterna dougallii ) and Common (Sterna hirundo ) Terns at nests at Cedar Beach, New York, to determine if vulnerability varies by reproductive stage, to compare species differences that might partially account for declines in Roseate Tern populations, and to examine their response to trapping. There were significant differences between species in the time to return to the nest following an initial disturbance, and Roseate Terns that were trapped and released took longer to return to the nest and resume incubating than did Common Terns. The nests of Roseate Terns were vulnerable (neither adult in attendance) for longer time than were the nests of Common Terns.

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  19. 5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, milk house to left, barn ramp at center, and east side of dairy barn at center right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a Cleaning Mill to the barn's hayloft c. 1960. This photograph shows the elevator, chaff shoot, and metal funnel that still remain. The barn's gambrel roof is supported by a three-hinged arch truss system) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  1. Effects of chemoradiotherapy on voice and swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Cathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Chemotherapy has been found to result in comparable survival rates to surgery for head and neck cancer. However, toxicity can often be worse after chemoradiotherapy, with impairment in voice, swallowing, nutrition, and quality of life. Investigators are attempting to modify radiotherapy treatment regimens to spare organs that have an impact on swallowing. This review will highlight voice and swallowing impairment seen after chemoradiotherapy, as well as treatment for voice and swallowing disorders in this population. Results of newer radiotherapy regimens will also be highlighted. Recent findings Specific oropharyngeal swallowing motility disorders after chemoradiotherapy have been identified. Damage to specific structures has been correlated with specific pharyngeal phase swallow impairment. Swallowing function and quality of life have been examined over time, with improvement seen in both. Preventive/prophylactic swallow exercise programs have been encouraging. Chemoradiotherapy effects on voice have been identified in terms of acoustic, aerodynamic, and patient and clinician-rated perception of function. Improvement in voice has also been observed over time after chemoradiotherapy. Voice therapy has been found to have a positive impact on voice and perceptual measures in this population. Summary Current studies show some improvement in swallow function after swallow and voice therapy in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Further, there is a suggestion of improved swallow function with sparing of organs with specific radiotherapy protocols. Future research needs to focus on specific voice and swallow treatment regimens in the head and neck cancer patient treated with chemoradiotherapy, specifically, timing, frequency, duration, and specific treatment types. PMID:19337126

  2. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  3. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  4. How to swallow an elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.B.

    1995-03-01

    There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

  5. Teledynamic Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; McCullough, Gary; He, Xuming; McWeeny, Elizabeth; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to test the feasibility and clinical utility of a real-time Internet-based protocol for remote, telefluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Method: In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated 32 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke or head/neck cancer. All…

  6. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  7. Ultrastructure of the Interlamellar Membranes of the Nacre of the Bivalve Pteria hirundo, Determined by Immunolabelling

    PubMed Central

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio J.; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Marin, Frédéric; Checa, Antonio G.

    2015-01-01

    The current model for the ultrastructure of the interlamellar membranes of molluscan nacre imply that they consist of a core of aligned chitin fibers surrounded on both sides by acidic proteins. This model was based on observations taken on previously demineralized shells, where the original structure had disappeared. Despite other earlier claims, no direct observations exist in which the different components can be unequivocally discriminated. We have applied different labeling protocols on non-demineralized nacreous shells of the bivalve Pteria. With this method, we have revealed the disposition and nature of the different fibers of the interlamellar membranes that can be observed on the surface of the nacreous shell of the bivalve Pteria hirundo by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minor chitin component consists of very thin fibers with a high aspect ratio and which are seemingly disoriented. Each fiber has a protein coat, which probably forms a complex with the chitin. The chitin-protein-complex fibers are embedded in an additional proteinaceous matrix. This is the first time in which the sizes, positions and distribution of the chitin fibers have been observed in situ. PMID:25909912

  8. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  9. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  11. 9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of construction near southeast corner - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  12. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. 5. FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1) SOUTHEAST END WITH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1) SOUTHEAST END WITH WALL OF MILKING BARN (STRUCTURE 2) IN FOREGROUND - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  15. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead leads to attic crawl space. Camera is pointed SW. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  18. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 3. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH LITTLE WOOD RIVER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH LITTLE WOOD RIVER AND IDAHO IRRIGATION COMPANY PUMP HOUSE ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  20. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. 1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, BARN - Konig-Speicher Farm, North side of Church Road, south of Tulpehocken Creek, North Heidelberg Township (moved to Willow Street, Lenhartsville, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  2. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  3. Delayed Initiation of the Pharyngeal Swallow: Normal Variability in Adult Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Lee, Fu-Shing; Walters, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine bolus head timing and location relations with the onset of hyoid movement at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow and at the onset of swallow-related apnea. Method: Bolus head timing and location and the timing of swallow-related apnea were recorded from frame-by-frame analyses of…

  4. INTERIOR OF THE BARN LOOKING EAST. The photograph was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF THE BARN LOOKING EAST. The photograph was taken from the concrete flooring of the central space. The change in floor height can be seen behind the chairs on the left. Also seen is the barn’s structural system of posts and collar beams with diagonal or block braces. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. 6. View west up barn ramp to east side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View west up barn ramp to east side of dairy barn, Nemours Estate carillon tower visible in right background - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  6. 4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING NORTH. BEHIND IT ARE THE CHICKEN COOP, CA-2078-A (small structure) AND THE OLD BARN, CA-2078-B - Eugene O'Neill House, New Barn, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS IN THE LOFT. NOTE THE END OF THE GARAGE AT THE LEFT OF THE BARN. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. Characteristics and fertilizer value of compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost dairy barn (CDB) manure is a new manure source on dairy farms. Only two published studies report manure composition in CDBs. One determined composition in the upper 30 cm of 12 barns and the other summarized sample analyses from the entire pack depth from 6 barns. The visually apparent unifo...

  9. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Spadaro, Alessandro; Giannoni, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles), the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles) in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG) and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC) and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC). The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p < 0.0001). The duration of swallowing was significantly higher in the SNOC subjects. Gender and age were not related to electromyographic activation. Healthy SOC and SNOC behaved in different ways. Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of

  10. Swallowing: A Professional and Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Petronchak, JoAnn; Eicher, Peggy S.

    2008-01-01

    For humans, successful drinking is a necessity early in life. In fact, swallowing can be observed with ultrasound at approximately the 16th week of pregnancy. The fetus "drinks" amniotic fluid as a way to filter fetal debris and to help maintain the amniotic fluid level for its mother. All this "swallowing practice" in utero enables the fetus to…

  11. Nitrogen availability from compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new dairy cow housing with deep bedding, commonly called compost dairy barns (CDB), is being adopted by small- to medium-sized farms. There have been no reports of nitrogen (N) availability from this manure. In laboratory and field trials, we characterized the nutrient content and N ava...

  12. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  13. Acoustic discrimination of healthy swallows from upper airway movements.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Mark D; Crary, Michael A; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous swallowing in dysphagic individuals has been shown to occur at a lower rate compared to healthy controls, and passive swallowing detection may function as a valid screening test to identify dysphagia in at-risk populations. To automate swallow identification, acoustic source and vocal tract features were extracted from two types of swallows and eight upper airway movements from nine healthy subjects. Swallow vs non-swallow classification accuracy was 96.3 ± 1.1%. The results provide useful methods for further development of automated tools for identification of patients with swallowing impairment. PMID:23927214

  14. October 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-26

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b), March 2008 (Argonne 2008c), and July 2008 (Argonne 2008d) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fourth

  15. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262

  16. Obesity epidemic: time to swallow the frog.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ross E

    2003-11-01

    Mark Twain once said, "If you have to swallow a frog, don't stare at it too long." I believe that members of the healthcare community have been staring at the obesity epidemic for too long. PMID:20086443

  17. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  18. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, LOOKING SOUTH (This northern-most facade of the barn was originally a board and batten wall with two sliding doors. In the early decades of the twentieth century Frederick Edward Arnold moved the wall and doors; they now make up the north end of bay 3. This was done to ease machine storage) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p < 0.02) and disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration. PMID:21096774

  20. Computer-assisted detection of swallowing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Chan; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Woo Hyung; Kim, Hee Chan; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate classification performance of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for diagnosing swallowing difficulty based on the hyoid movement data attained from videofluoroscopic swallowing study, the hyoid kinematics during the swallowing of 2 mL of liquid barium solution were analyzed for 90 healthy volunteers and 116 dysphagic stroke patients. SVM was used to classify the kinematic results as normal or dysfunctional swallowing. Various kernel functions and kernel parameters were used for optimization. Features were selected to find an optimal feature subset and to minimize redundancy. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under a receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to assess the discrimination performance. In 19 out of 26 features, mean comparison revealed a significant difference between healthy subjects and dysphagic patients. By reducing the number of features to 10, an AUC of 0.9269 could be reached. Common features showing the best classification in both kernel functions included forward maximum excursion time, upward maximum excursion time, maximum excursion length, upward maximum velocity time, upward maximum acceleration time, maximum acceleration, maximum acceleration time, and mean acceleration. SVM-based classification method with the use of kernel functions showed an outstanding (AUC of 0.9269) discrimination performance for either healthy or dysphagic hyoid movement during swallowing. We expect that this classification method will be useful as an adjunct diagnostic tool by providing automatic detection of swallowing dysfunction as well as a research tool providing deeper understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27480734

  1. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  2. 14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking south - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  3. THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. (The barn’s gambrel roof is supported by seven bents made-up of diagonal stilts, collar beams, and cross-bracing that tie into the support columns on the ground floor and the sill plates. Also visible are the cables installed across each bent in 2000-02 to reinforce the construction, the hay door at the gable end, and the ladder and opening accessing the barn’s ground floor.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  4. BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph was taken from the east side of the hedgerow along Fort Casey Road. Also shown are the mechanic’s shop, to the west of the barn; the tractor shed, directly south of the shop; and the monitor-roofed hay and lambing barn to the east. The Hugh Crockett house sat between the tractor shed and the hay and lambing barn. Only its chimney remains. - Boyer Farm, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. Swallowing dysfunction following endotracheal intubation: Age matters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Ku, Shih-Chi; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate postextubation swallowing dysfunction (PSD) 21 days after endotracheal extubation and to examine whether PSD is time-limited and whether age matters.For this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 151 adult critical care patients (≥20 years) who were intubated for at least 48 hours and had no pre-existing neuromuscular disease or swallowing dysfunction. Participants were assessed for time (days) to pass bedside swallow evaluations (swallow 50 mL of water without difficulty) and to resume total oral intake. Outcomes were compared between younger (20-64 years) and older participants (≥65 years).PSD, defined as inability to swallow 50 mL of water within 48 hours after extubation, affected 92 participants (61.7% of our sample). At 21 days postextubation, 17 participants (15.5%) still failed to resume total oral intake and were feeding-tube dependent. We found that older participants had higher PSD rates at 7, 14, and 21 days postextubation, and took significantly longer to pass the bedside swallow evaluations (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.006) and to resume total oral intake (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.003) than their younger counterparts. Older participants also had significantly higher rates of subsequent feeding-tube dependence than younger patients (24.1 vs 5.8%; P = 0.008).Excluding patients with pre-existing neuromuscular dysfunction, PSD is common and prolonged. Age matters in the time needed to recover. Swallowing and oral intake should be monitored and interventions made, if needed, in the first 7 to 14 days postextubation, particularly for older patients. PMID:27310972

  6. Chemical Sensing Regulates Mastication/Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kensuke; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Mastication and swallowing are the first stage of digestion involving several motor processes such as food intake, intra-oral food transport, bolus formation and chewing and swallowing reflex. These complicated motor functions are accomplished by the well-coordinated activities in the jaw, hyoid, tongue, facial and pharyngeal muscles. Although the basic activity patterns of these movements are controlled by the brainstem pattern generators, these movements generate various peripheral sensory inputs. Among the sensory inputs, it is well-known that somatic sensory inputs play important roles in reflexively modulating the movements so that the final motor outputs fit the environmental demand. However, little is known about the effects of chemical sensory inputs such as taste and olfaction originating from the ingested foods by these movements. A possible reason could be raised that cognition of the chemical sensory inputs at the higher brain also influences the movements, so it is difficult to discuss the neural mechanisms underlying the observed effect. In this review, we focus on the effects of chemical sensory inputs on the masticatory movements and initiation of swallowing. We first summarize chemical sensory inputs occurring during mastication and swallowing, and their receptive mechanisms. In addition, we will introduce the effect of application of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution as an umami taste to the oropharynx on the swallow initiation which is involuntary controlled and the possible neural mechanisms underlying this effect is discussed. PMID:26881439

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW. RED BARN WITH HEX SIGNS. DATE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. RED BARN WITH HEX SIGNS. DATE AND NAME PAINTED IN CENTER OF FRONT WALL. SIGNS ARE LIGHT GREEN AND YELLOW IN WHITE CIRCLES. LOWER ONES WERE PAINED OVER OLD TEAR DROP SWASTIKA. DOORS AND WINDOWS HAVE PEDIMENT HEADS - H. & S. Hoffman Barn (1853), Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  8. CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge once spanned Crockett Lake. The pylons are all that remain. The Crockett barn’s hipped roof can be seen just under the tree line left of center. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  10. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. 2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west and north sides of barn, northwest side of light tower, and west northwest and north northeast sides of keeper's house - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  12. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that entire south side has been covered by briar bushes. Bushes also obscure west side of creamery to the right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is constructed of hand-hewn, 10" square post and beams with mortise and tenon, pegged joints. The photograph also shows the hayfork and track, double doors on the north façade, and window opening. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  15. 2. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH RELATIONSHIP TO LITTLE WOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH RELATIONSHIP TO LITTLE WOOD RIVER. THE MAIN INTERSECTION OF RICHFIELD IS LOCATED THROUGH THE TREES IN THE RIGHT CENTER OF IMAGE. CAMERA IS POINTING NORTH/NORTHWEST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  16. INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions can be seen on the left. The space that originally served as the milking parlor has now been converted into animal pens for goats, chickens, and pigs.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  17. A Second Look at Douglas Barnes's "From Communication to Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits Douglas Barnes's book-length exploration of the implications for teachers of a constructivist epistemology, notably in relation to the importance of small-group talk in classrooms. Empirically based consideration of small-group exploratory pupil-pupil talk enabled Barnes to reveal the learning strategies such a context…

  18. The GEMPAK Barnes objective analysis scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Desjardins, M.; Kocin, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    GEMPAK, an interactive computer software system developed for the purpose of assimilating, analyzing, and displaying various conventional and satellite meteorological data types is discussed. The objective map analysis scheme possesses certain characteristics that allowed it to be adapted to meet the analysis needs GEMPAK. Those characteristics and the specific adaptation of the scheme to GEMPAK are described. A step-by-step guide for using the GEMPAK Barnes scheme on an interactive computer (in real time) to analyze various types of meteorological datasets is also presented.

  19. Effects of pollution on swallowing: how little we know

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.B.; Silver, K.H. )

    1992-06-01

    Swallowing is an essential function of the upper alimentary tract. It is highly complex, requiring precise coordination of numerous nerves and muscles of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Swallowing is integrated with other physiologic functions, including mastication and respiration. Impairments of swallowing may result from many different structural or physiologic disorders. Little is currently known about the direct effects of pollution on swallowing. Structures critical to swallowing, however, are vulnerable to damage by environmental hazards such as exposure to ionizing radiation or intake of toxins by ingestion or inhalation. The relationship of swallowing to environmental lung disease is an area of particular interest because impaired swallowing may result in aspiration of food particles into the lung, and because pollutants may hamper airway defense mechanisms. In this article, we discuss the possible impact of selected environmental agents on swallowing and suggest future directions for research.26 references.

  20. Esophageal perforation in a sword swallower.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, S A; Wells, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  1. Transdermal clonidine in patients with swallowing dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Gregory; Bharathan, Thayyullathil; Shifrin, Inna

    2014-09-01

    Patients with swallowing dysfunction are usually very ill and have a constellation of challenging issues requiring palliation. Accumulation of oropharyngeal secretions leads to a substantial effort of medical teams including doctors, nurses, respiratory therapists, and ancillary staff. We present 10 patients successfully treated with application of transdermal clonidine film. It was well tolerated, provided quick control of secretions, and reduced staff labor. We suggest that transdermal clonidine can be used as antisialogogue in patients with swallowing dysfunction. Clonidine pharmacology is physiologic grounds for this clinical application. PMID:24813023

  2. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  3. View of the cinder block milking barn (UT126D) and attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the cinder block milking barn (UT-126-D) and attached livestock barn (UT-126-B) with large barn (UT-126-A) in the foreground, looking east-northeast - Thomas Powers Ranch, Milking Barn, 4137 North Highway 224, Snyderville, Summit County, UT

  4. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis. PMID:21392404

  5. Effect of swallowing exercises in independent elderly.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Mai; Honda, Yasutoshi; Tasaka, Akinori; Nagasawa, Keiko; Ishida, Ryo; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swallowing exercises on oral function in independent elderly patients visiting the Department of Prosthodontics at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. Twenty-nine patients aged over 65 years (15 men and 14 women; mean age, 75.0 years) in whom treatment was completed at this college were enrolled in the study. The patients were instructed on how to perform swallowing exercises monthly (including at baseline) for the first 2 months from the start of the study and asked to perform those exercises at least once daily. At the beginning and end of the study (a 3-month study period), the Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test was conducted and occlusal force, oral diadochokinesis, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, stimulated whole saliva flow rate, salivary pH at rest, and salivary buffering capacity measured to determine the effects of the exercises on oral function. Analyses demonstrated significant increases in diadochokinesis rate (/ta/ and /ka/) and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (p<0.05), suggesting that the swallowing exercises promote the maintenance and improvement of oral function in the independent elderly. PMID:23903582

  6. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  7. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  8. [Preventing swallowing disorders in neurological patients].

    PubMed

    Poindessous, Jean-Luc; Basta, Martial; Da Silva, José; Tillard, Audrey; Rasquier, Stéphanie; Héron, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Swallowing disorders in neurological rehabilitation are common and important as they can have harmful consequences. A multi-disciplinary hospital team was created to study ways of preventing their occurrence. This article presents the areas to focus on and the main orientations of patient management. PMID:26654505

  9. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  10. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    PubMed

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness. PMID:27090424

  11. Effects of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date on growth and survival of Common Tern Sterna hirundo chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, J.M.; Hatch, J.J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date to growth and survival of second-hatched chicks (those chicks making the greatest contribution to differences in productivity among pairs) by exchanging clutches among nests of Common Terns Sterna hirundo matched for lay-date (range 13 May to 9 June). The mass of a second-laid egg in an exchanged clutch ranged from 17.70 to 23.80 g. Growth and survival were studied during three periods: early (days 0-3), middle (days 3-12) and late (days 12-25). Both egg mass and hatch-date were important predictors of hatchling mass (positive relationships), although there was no seasonal trend in egg mass. During the middle period, hatch-date was a significant predictor of mass gain and survival (inverse relationships). After controlling for hatch-date, other indices of parental quality made only small contributions to chick mass gain and survival. Our results suggest that although breeding early generally leads to greater overall survival of chicks, several important interactions among egg 'quality', parental quality and early laying may affect breeding success under specific conditions. ?? 2006 British Ornithologists' Union.

  12. RESPIRATORY–SWALLOW PHASE PATTERNS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO SWALLOWING IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Martin B.; McFarland, David H.; Dozier, Thomas S.; Blair, Julie; Ayers, Christopher; Michel, Yvonne; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Day, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Unstable respiratory–swallowing coordination has been associated with disorders and disease. The goals of this study were (1) to describe respiratory–swallow patterns in patients with dysphagia consequent to treatments for cancers of the oropharynx and (2) to determine the association between respiratory–swallow patterns, airway invasion, and overall severity of swallowing impairment. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional design compared respiratory–swallow patterns in 20 patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer and 20 healthy, age-matched control participants. Nasal airflow direction was synchronously recorded with videofluoroscopic imaging in participants who swallowed 5-mL thin liquid barium boluses. Results Respiratory–swallow patterns differed between groups. Most control participants initiated and completed swallowing bracketed by expiratory airflow. Swallowing in patients often interrupted inspiratory flow and was associated with penetration or aspiration of the bolus. Conclusions We suggest nonexpiratory bracketed respiratory–swallowing phase patterns in patients with oropharyngeal cancer may place patients at greater risk of airway penetration or aspiration during swallowing. PMID:19780056

  13. BARN, TOWER HOUSE, AND GRANARY FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN, TOWER HOUSE, AND GRANARY FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. (Image illustrates the granary’s skewed orientation in relationship to the other buildings on the site.) - Engle Farm, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  14. 19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  16. 15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  17. 6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, garage, and pole building to overall farmstead site, looking northwest - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  18. 11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, and residence to overall farmstead site, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  19. View southeast, general view, barn at left Woods Homestead, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, general view, barn at left - Woods Homestead, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  20. View west, interior, detail of joinery Woods Homestead, Barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, interior, detail of joinery - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  1. 13. PORT PROFILE VIEW OF BARN DOOR RUDDER, SCOW SCHOONER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PORT PROFILE VIEW OF BARN DOOR RUDDER, SCOW SCHOONER ALMA. NOTE RIGGING THAT ALLOWS STEERING WHEEL TO BE RAISED FOR VIEWING OVER HAY STACKS - Scow Schooner ALMA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, WINDMILL, AND POTATO CELLAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Hjelm Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  3. STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; SOUTH ELEVATION; EAST ELEVATION; NORTH ELEVATION; WEST ELEVATION. - Stirling's Quarters, 555 Yellow Springs Road, Tredyffrin Township, Valley Forge, Chester County, PA

  4. 4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, SHOWING DETAIL OF TRACK WORK AND OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM WAREHOUSE, SHOWING TRACK MATERIAL STORED IN YARD - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology. PMID:26607160

  7. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486138

  11. Particulate matter dynamics in naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and ventilation rates, in two naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns, were continuously monitored for two years. The first barn (B1) housed 400 fresh lactating cows, while the second barn (B2) housed 835 non-fresh lactating cows and 15 bulls. The relationships between PM concentrations and accepted governing parameters (environmental conditions and cattle activity) were examined. In comparison with other seasons, PM concentrations were lowest in winter. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in spring and autumn were relatively higher than those in summer. Overall: the concentrations in the barns and ambient air, for all the PM categories (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP), exhibited non-normal positively skewed distributions, which tended to overestimate mean or average concentrations. Only concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased with ambient air temperature (R2 = 0.60-0.82), whereas only concentrations of TSP increased with cattle activity. The mean respective emission rates of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP for the two barns ranged between 1.6-4.0, 11.9-15.0, and 48.7-52.5 g d-1 cow-1, indicating similar emissions from the two barns.

  12. Swallowing during ongoing fluid ingestion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Grill, H J

    1989-10-01

    In order to identify fixed versus flexible aspects of swallowing and oromotor control, we developed a method for the concurrent analysis of swallow frequency, swallow volume, and the temporal correlation between swallowing and rhythmic orolingual movements during prolonged bouts of fluid ingestion in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats. Rats actively ingested 0.1 M sucrose solutions infused intraorally: (a) at a constant rate within sessions; and (b) during separate sessions across which the rate of intraoral infusion (= ingestion rate) was varied. Salient characteristics of 'intraoral intake' included: (1) covariation of swallow frequency and swallow volume to mediate adjustments in the rate of ingestion; (2) emission of rhythmic coupled movements (5-7 Hz) of the jaw and tongue that serve to transport fluid through the mouth; (3) a 20-40 ms increase in the duration of the rhythmic movement cycle associated with swallow onset; and (4) emergence of pauses between bursts of rhythmic oromotor behavior with increases in cumulative intake. That intraoral intake and fluid ingestion via spout-licking (Weijnen et al., Brain Behav. Evol., 25, 1985) share all of these features suggests strongly that common neural processes, relatively uninfluenced by sources of sensory feedback attending contact with an environmental fluid source, underlie these aspects of normal fluid ingestion. The dynamic adjustment of swallow frequency and swallow volume presents a challenge to traditional models of reflexive swallow initiation derived primarily from the neurophysiological study of acute, non-behaving preparations. PMID:2804670

  13. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  14. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual ...

  15. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 嚥下障害 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Barium Swallow 바륨 조영검사 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  16. Vegetative expansion and seed output of swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallow-wort, and V. nigrum, black swallow-wort) are herbaceous, perennial, twining vines related to milkweeds (Apocynaceae). Pale swallow-wort is native to Ukraine and southeastern European Russia; black swallow-wort is native to southwestern Europe. Bot...

  17. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES OF THE BARN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. The sliding door on the barns east façade leads into the animal pens and milking stalls. The barn’s hip-on-gable roof is covered in corrugated metal. The gable end is clad in board and battens, matching the rest of the barns exterior. The pump house can be seen to the north; the garage to the west. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  19. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  20. Variability of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallow in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Daniel G.; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C.; Pitts, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design. Methods We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal. Results Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter); a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath) activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator), thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor) and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow. Conclusions The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior. PMID:25171095

  1. Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Loret, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

  2. Self-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Theresa A.; Mann, Eric A.; Stoklosa, Joseph B.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Hyolaryngeal elevation is essential for airway protection during swallowing and is mainly a reflexive response to oropharyngeal sensory stimulation. Targeted intramuscular electrical stimulation can elevate the resting larynx and, if applied during swallowing, may improve airway protection in dysphagic patients with inadequate hyolaryngeal motion. To be beneficial, patients must synchronize functional electrical stimulation (FES) with their reflexive swallowing and not adapt to FES by reducing the amplitude or duration of their own muscle activity. We evaluated the ability of nine healthy adults to manually synchronize FES with hyolaryngeal muscle activity during discrete swallows, and tested for motor adaptation. Hooked-wire electrodes were placed into the mylo- and thyrohyoid muscles to record electromyographic activity from one side of the neck and deliver monopolar FES for hyolaryngeal elevation to the other side. After performing baseline swallows, volunteers were instructed to trigger FES with a thumb switch in synchrony with their swallows for a series of trials. An experimenter surreptitiously disabled the thumb switch during the final attempt, creating a foil. From the outset, volunteers synchronized FES with the onset of swallow-related thyrohyoid activity (~225 ms after mylohyoid activity onset), preserving the normal sequence of muscle activation. A comparison between average baseline and foil swallows failed to show significant adaptive changes in the amplitude, duration, or relative timing of activity for either muscle, indicating that the central pattern generator for hyolaryngeal elevation is immutable with short term stimulation that augments laryngeal elevation during the reflexive, pharyngeal phase of swallowing. PMID:16107520

  3. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E.

    2015-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two naturally-ventilated dairy freestall barns measured for a total of 21 d, one week each in May, July, and September 2009, are presented in this article. The holding capacity of Barn 1 (B1) was 400 Holstein cows, while that for Barn 2 (B2) was 850 cows. Air samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the barns via a custom made multiplexer gas sampling system for measurement of gas concentrations using a photoacoustic infrared multigas analyzer. Barn ventilation rates were based on air velocity measured with arrays of 3-D ultrasonic anemometers at inlets and outlets. Gas concentrations (10 min means) in the barns ranged from: 443-789 ppm for CO2, 0.0-39.4 ppm for CH4, and 0.25-0.39 ppm for N2O; with mean concentrations ranging from 6 to 20%, 0 to 4%, and 26 to 180% above the average background concentrations for CO2, N2O, and CH4, respectively. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 enhanced concentrations were relatively stronger (R of 0.67-0.74) than between CO2 and N2O enhanced concentrations (R of 0.10-0.20). Environmental conditions did not significantly (p = 0.46) impact the enhanced concentrations of N2O in the barns. All three parameters (T, RH, and v) had significant (p < 0.01) influences on CO2 enhanced concentrations; while only T (p < 0.01) and v (p < 0.01) had significant influences on CH4 enhanced concentrations. Enhanced concentrations of CO2 and CH4 correlated negatively with all three parameters. The influence of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on CO2 enhanced concentrations was higher than that of v; while the effect v had on CH4 enhanced concentrations was slightly higher than that of the temperature-humidity index. The average emissions, based on hourly means, ranged from 5.3 to 10.7 kg d-1 AU-1 for CO2; 0.3 to 2.5 g d-1 AU-1 for N2O; and between 67 and 252 g d-1 AU-1 for CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions from the smaller barn, B1 (0.4-2.5 g d-1 AU-1), were significantly higher than from the larger barn, B2

  5. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Fontijn-Tekamp, Anneke; van der Bilt, Andries

    2005-08-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subjects (age 42 +/- 12 years) by counting the number of chewing cycles needed to prepare food for swallowing. The influence of oral physiology on the swallowing threshold was determined by measuring salivary flow rate, maximum bite force and masticatory performance. We used about 10 cm(3) of bread, toast, melba toast, breakfast cake, peanuts and cheese to determine the influence on the swallowing threshold of various food characteristics, e.g. hardness, moisture and fat. Furthermore, we tested the effect of buttering the bread, toast, melba toast and breakfast cake on the swallowing threshold. Salivary flow rates were significantly and negatively correlated with the number of chewing cycles of melba toast and breakfast cake. Hence, subjects with more saliva needed less chewing cycles for these dry products. Maximum bite force and masticatory performance had an influence on the swallowing threshold for the hard products only (carrot and peanut). Although significant, the correlation coefficients were less than 0.28. Thus, the oral physiology parameters explained less than 10% of the variance in the swallowing threshold. We found significantly different numbers of chewing cycles for the various foods, ranging from 17 for cake to 63 for carrot. Hard and dry products needed more chewing cycles until swallowing. Buttering the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles needed before swallowing. This was especially true for the dry products cake, melba toast and toast. Hard and dry products require more chewing cycles and longer time in mouth until swallowing for sufficient breakdown to take place and for enough saliva to be added to form a coherent bolus safe for

  6. Swallowing/ventilation interactions during oral swallow in normal children and children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Casas, M J; Kenny, D J; McPherson, K A

    1994-01-01

    Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer from feeding disorders. Twenty children with spastic CP and 20 neurologically normal children (age range 6.2-12.9 years) were monitored with ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity synchronized with surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings of masseter and infrahyoid muscles and respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) recordings during feeding tasks. A lip-cup contact detector signaled contact of the drinking cup on the lip during liquid tasks. Children with CP required more time than normals for collection and organization of 5 ml and 75 ml liquid boluses for swallowing. The ventilatory preparation phase, recovery to baseline resting ventilatory pattern after swallowing, and total time for task completion were longer in children with CP for 5-ml and 75-ml tasks. The interval from lip-cup contact until alteration of ventilation from baseline resting ventilatory pattern was longer for children with CP during 75-ml tasks but not for 5-ml tasks. The interval from completion of the task-related cookie swallow until initiation of the next swallow was longer in children with CP than in normal children. These data provide evidence that children with CP manage solid boluses more easily than liquid boluses and small liquid boluses more easily than large liquid boluses. This investigation statistically confirms empirically based recommendations that children with CP be allowed more time to complete feeding tasks and consume small volume drinks rather than large volume drinks. PMID:8131424

  7. CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett barn was constructed into the sloping landscape. The Pennsylvania Bank Barn construction style allows for access at ground level on both the upper and lower floors. The Crockett granary is visible on the right hand side of the photograph. Currently a property line runs between the two buildings. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. Multimodal swallowing evaluation with high-resolution manometry reveals subtle swallowing changes in early and mid-stage Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Corinne A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) has detrimental effects on swallowing function. Treatment options are largely behavioral; thus, patients would benefit from an earlier start to therapy. Early swallowing changes in PD are not well-known, so patients do not typically receive swallowing treatment until later in the progression of PD. Objective We used predictive modeling to determine what quantitative swallowing variables best differentiate individuals with early to mid-stage PD from healthy controls. Methods Participants included twenty-six individuals with early to mid-stage PD and 26 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Swallowing was evaluated by simultaneous high-resolution manometry and videofluoroscopy as well as the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ). Binomial logistic regression was performed on 4 sets of data: 1) high-resolution manometry only; 2) videofluoroscopy only; 3) SSQ only; and 4) all data combined. Results A model from a combined data set had the highest accuracy in differentiating individuals with PD from controls. The model included maximum pressure in the velopharynx (soft palate), pressure variability in the velopharynx, and the SSQ item concerning difficulty with saliva swallowing. No significant models could be generated using the videofluoroscopy data. Conclusions Individuals with PD show quantitative changes in pressure generation and are able to self-assess aspects of swallowing function in the early and mid-stages of PD, even in the absence of swallowing changes seen on videofluoroscopy. A multimodal approach for the assessment of swallowing may be more accurate for determining subtle swallowing changes that occur in the early stages of PD. PMID:26891176

  9. Assessment of Infant Oral Sensorimotor and Swallowing Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Brian; Arvedson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing is the result of a complex interface between the developing nervous system, various physiological systems, and the environment. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology, development, and assessment of feeding and swallowing during early infancy. In recent years, there have been exciting…

  10. Use of Electromagnetic Midsagittal Articulography in the Study of Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal H.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The tongue functions as the primary articulator during the oropharyngeal stages of swallowing. However, detailed descriptions of the kinematics and spatiotemporal variability of tongue behaviors during swallowing are limited to a handful of analyses of data from the X-ray microbeam database. In this article, a new technique, electromagnetic…

  11. Integrating Academic and Clinical Learning Using a Clinical Swallowing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to integrate classroom knowledge and a clinical swallowing assessment. Twenty master's-level graduate students in a dysphagia course conducted a clinical swallowing assessment with a resident of an independent retirement community. The exercise was designed to allow students an…

  12. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  13. Mechanisms of Airway Protection during Chin-Down Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Phoebe; Anderson, Cheryl; Humbert, Ianessa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of chin-down swallowing on laryngeal vestibule closure. It also investigated the technique's rehabilitative impact, by assessing the stability of effects across multiple trials and aftereffects in neutral swallows on cessation of the technique. Method: Duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (dLVC) was…

  14. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  15. Temporal and durational patterns associating respiration and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Klahn, M S; Perlman, A L

    1999-01-01

    This study obtained initial normative data on the temporal coordination of respiration and swallowing events in 12 young adults using a first-generation Respirodeglutometer. In addition, direction of airflow before and after deglutive apnea was obtained. Three swallows of two viscosities of bolus material were performed by each subject, yielding a total of 72 swallows. Qualitative and quanitative analyses were performed. Time of onset of submental surface electromyography and time of laryngeal movement were found to differ between males and females. Males began submental muscle contraction before females and laryngeal movement after females. Duration of deglutition apnea for all swallows was 0.75 +/- 0.14 sec. Expiration occurred before the deglutition apnea 93% of the time and after the deglutition apnea 100% of the time. A modal pattern of events obtained with the Respirodeglutometer was present in 42% of the swallows, and an additional 47% had only one event differ from that order. PMID:10341108

  16. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret Hess

    2012-01-01

    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  17. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  19. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from dairy barn floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have compound positive impacts on reducing NH3 emissions from dairy barns. Mixtures of feces-urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed four levels (g kg-1) of dietary tannin extract: 0 (0T), 4.5 (low tannin, LT), 9.0 (...

  20. Saving a Progressive Vision: Moving the Barnes Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the progressive understanding of art advanced by Albert Barnes, and asks how the educational vision for his large collection of art might be preserved as it has now moves from its location in the idyllic suburban setting in Merion, PA to the hustle and bustle of central Philadelphia. I submit that the vision will be endangered…

  1. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  2. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Fernandez-Caldas, E.; Reed, C.E.; May, J.J.; Pratt, D.S. )

    1989-08-01

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns.

  3. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  4. Oral medication delivery in impaired swallowing: thickening liquid medications for safe swallowing alters dissolution characteristics.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Yady J; Sparkes, Arron M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Nissen, Lisa M; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is available in a wide range of oral formulations designed to meet the needs of the population across the age-spectrum, but for people with impaired swallowing, i.e. dysphagia, both solid and liquid medications can be difficult to swallow without modification. The effect of a commercial polysaccharide thickener, designed to be added to fluids to promote safe swallowing by dysphagic patients, on rheology and acetaminophen dissolution was tested using crushed immediate-release tablets in water, effervescent tablets in water, elixir and suspension. The inclusion of the thickener, comprised of xanthan gum and maltodextrin, had a considerable impact on dissolution; acetaminophen release from modified medications reached 12-50% in 30 min, which did not reflect the pharmacopeia specification for immediate release preparations. Flow curves reflect the high zero-shear viscosity and the apparent yield stress of the thickened products. The weak gel nature, in combination with high G' values compared to G'' (viscoelasticity) and high apparent yield stress, impact drug release. The restriction on drug release from these formulations is not influenced by the theoretical state of the drug (dissolved or dispersed), and the approach typically used in clinical practice (mixing crushed tablets into pre-prepared thickened fluid) cannot be improved by altering the order of incorporation or mixing method. PMID:26857812

  5. Interactive image processing in swallowing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, Gail A.; Robbins, JoAnne; Rosenbek, John C.

    1991-06-01

    Dynamic radiographic imaging of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus during swallowing is used commonly in clinical diagnosis, treatment and research. Images are recorded on videotape and interpreted conventionally by visual perceptual methods, limited to specific measures in the time domain and binary decisions about the presence or absence of events. An image processing system using personal computer hardware and original software has been developed to facilitate measurement of temporal, spatial and temporospatial parameters. Digitized image sequences derived from videotape are manipulated and analyzed interactively. Animation is used to preserve context and increase efficiency of measurement. Filtering and enhancement functions heighten image clarity and contrast, improving visibility of details which are not apparent on videotape. Distortion effects and extraneous head and body motions are removed prior to analysis, and spatial scales are controlled to permit comparison among subjects. Effects of image processing on intra- and interjudge reliability and research applications are discussed.

  6. Swallowed dentures: Two cases and a review

    PubMed Central

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Isaev, Mubariz; Orujova, Lala; Isaev, Emin; Yaskin, Evgeniy; Neronov, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, anesthesiologists etc. in terms of prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscus necrosis, perforation, penetration to neighbor organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Presentation of cases First case is a 54-year-old female who accidentally swallowed retractable one-tooth denture during fall about 22 h before admission and clinical manifestation of acute small bowel obstruction developed. The patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with retrieval of the foreign body. The second case is a 31-year-old male who accidentally ingested fixed one-tooth prosthesis while eating which impacted in the ileocaecal valve. During the preparation to colonoscopy the denture spontaneously passed out with stools. Discussion Denture ingestion is more common among patients with psychoneurologic deficit, alcohol and drug abusers. Among healthy and younger population denture ingestion is rare. Both reported patients are not elder. Thus dislodgement of removable or fixed dentures is another risk factor of denture ingestion. Most common site of denture impaction is esophagus; small bowel impaction is rare. Moreover, in most reported cases, small bowel impaction of ingested dentures leads to small bowel perforation. In our first case the complication of denture ingestion appeared to be bowel obstruction what is even rarer. Conclusion Fixed dentures can be accidentally ingested as well as removable dentures. Denture loosening leads to accidental denture ingestion. Patients with denture loosening should be recommended to visit dentist as soon as possible. PMID:26635957

  7. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds. Figure 1 Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler. PMID:22408729

  8. Sensory Input Pathways and Mechanisms in Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on the physiology of swallowing has confirmed that the oropharyngeal swallowing process can be modulated, both volitionally and in response to different sensory stimuli. In this review we identify what is known regarding the sensory pathways and mechanisms that are now thought to influence swallowing motor control and evoke its response. By synthesizing the current state of research evidence and knowledge, we identify continuing gaps in our knowledge of these mechanisms and pose questions for future research. PMID:20814803

  9. Acoustic technique for determining timing of velopharyngeal closure in swallowing.

    PubMed

    Smith, D; Hamlet, S; Jones, L

    1990-01-01

    A pure tone sound source was introduced at a nostril and monitored by a miniature accelerometer on the throat. During velopharyngeal closure in a swallow, the pure tone component in the accelerometer signal was attenuated. Throat accelerometer recordings were made simultaneously with videofluoroscopy of a modified barium swallow in adults with normal velopharyngeal mechanisms. It was verified that the period of sound attenuation corresponded to the period of velar closure. This noninvasive method of monitoring otherwise silent velopharyngeal closure holds promise for normative studies on swallowing function, as an adjunct method in longitudinal assessment, and as a training aid. PMID:2249490

  10. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components. PMID:24236910

  11. Neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and detection of motor imagery of swallow for dysphagia rehabilitation-A review.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Ang, K K; Wang, C; Phua, K S; Guan, C

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing is an essential function in our daily life; nevertheless, stroke or other neurodegenerative diseases can cause the malfunction of swallowing function, ie, dysphagia. The objectives of this review are to understand the neural and cortical basis of swallowing and tongue, and review the latest techniques on the detection of motor imagery of swallow (MI-SW) and motor imagery of tongue movements (MI-TM), so that a practical system can be developed for the rehabilitation of poststroke dysphagia patients. Specifically, we firstly describe the swallowing process and how the swallowing function is assessed clinically. Secondly, we review the techniques that performed the neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and tongue based on different modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and magnetoencephalography. Thirdly, we review the techniques that performed detection and analysis of MI-SW and MI-TM for dysphagia stroke rehabilitation based on electroencephalography (EEG) and NIRS. Finally, discussions on the advantages and limitations of the studies are presented; an example system and future research directions for the rehabilitation of stroke dysphagia patients are suggested. PMID:27590970

  12. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  13. Swallowing and speech therapy after definitive treatment for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Samlan, Robin A; Webster, Kimberly T

    2002-10-01

    As the trend in laryngeal cancer treatment shifts towards organ-conservation surgeries and organ-preservation protocols, patients will more often retain anatomy vital to communication and swallowing. Despite a conservative approach, results of treatment may have debilitating effects. Rehabilitation efforts are directed towards a return to functional, if not normal, status. Although there are predictable trends in voice and swallowing disorders of patients with laryngeal cancer, posttreatment dysphonia and dysphagia are diverse in presentation. Considering the significant diversity of this population, speech pathologists should work closely with otolaryngologists to determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient. As this article demonstrates, voice and swallowing therapy are necessary components of the rehabilitation process following treatment for head and neck cancers. As always, treatment is tailored to the specific individual and based on information obtained during a thorough evaluation by a speech pathologist. Fortunately, with the help of voice and swallowing therapy, many patients return to functional communication and oral feeding. PMID:12587251

  14. Coordination of cough and swallow in vivo and in silico

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Teresa; Morris, Kendall; Lindsey, Bruce; Davenport, Paul; Poliacek, Ivan; Bolser, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Cough and swallow are airway protective behaviors. The pharyngeal phase of swallow prevents aspiration of oral material (saliva, food and liquid), by epiglottal movement, laryngeal adduction, and clearing of the mouth and pharynx. Cough is an aspiration-response behavior which removes material from the airway. Coordination of these behaviors is vital to protect the airway from further aspiration-promoting events, such as a swallow occurring during the inspiratory phase of cough. The operational characteristics, primary strategies, and peripheral inputs which coordinate cough and swallow are unknown. This lack of knowledge impedes understanding and treatment of deficits in airway protection, such as the co-occurrence of dystussia and dysphagia common in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as stroke. PMID:22198014

  15. March-June 2009 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-09-08

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fifth and sixth quarterly monitoring events, conducted in March and June

  16. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES. PMID:26987971

  17. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (p<0.05). Among 10 subjects, one scored 1-3 using the four evaluation criteria. Overall, no aspiration occurred and a significant improvement in the swallowing function score was observed (p<0.05) after taking the ginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function. PMID:27374286

  18. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature. PMID:26463293

  19. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. A direct method of measuring gaseous emissions from naturally ventilated dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Bogan, B. W.; Ni, J.-Q.; Cortus, E. L.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.

    2014-04-01

    Air pollutant emission rates from mechanically ventilated (MV) dairy barns are determined from the product of the differences in concentrations of pollutants in air at the inlet and exhaust points and the corresponding ventilation rates. In contrast to well defined entry and exit points in MV barns, large area air inlets or outlets characterize naturally ventilated (NV) freestall dairy barns. Complicating this scenario even more, pertinent airflow characteristics (velocity and direction) necessary for determining ventilation rates vary continuously, both temporally and spatially. This paper describes implementation of a direct method, generally equivalent to the approach used for MV barns, for determining air emission rates of NV barns. Ultrasonic anemometers (sonics) located at salient points in the barn openings mapped air inflow and outflow velocities necessary to calculate ventilation rates. Pollutant concentrations in the air entering or leaving the barn during a given period were measured at sampling points located next to the anemometers. The air inflow rates were, in general, higher than the air outflow rates from the barns, but diurnal profiles were similar. The observed ventilation characteristics were consistent with prevailing wind directions. Air inflows were observed predominantly at windward openings of the barn, while the outflows were mainly at the barn's leeward openings. Results indicated that either: (i) the average of the air inflow and outflow rates (averaging approach), or (ii) the air inflow rates (inflow-only approach) were credible representations of ventilation rates. Results also revealed use of an on-site weather station and one sonic mounted in the middle of each wall of the barn as a possible approach for determining barn ventilation rates. The suggested use of ventilation rates for interpolating missing concentrations from intermittent gas measurements could potentially increase the integrity of emission rates at significantly lower

  1. Dual tube, counter-flow heat exchange for turkey barns. First quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A prototype of the dual tube, counter-flow heat exchanger for turkey barns is presently built and installed in a turkey barn at Molly Creek Turkey Farm, Swanville, Minnesota. Phase 1 of the project selecting cooperator barn, and taking survey information, is now complete. Drawing existing barn for the design, is now complete; building test model is now complete; and building of prorotype is almost completed. The prototype is now ready for final items, testing and monitoring equipment installed, and to actually run under working conditions.

  2. Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g. bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g. distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e. random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g. shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or

  3. Mechanisms of recovery of swallow after supraglottic laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Logemann, J A; Gibbons, P; Rademaker, A W; Pauloski, B R; Kahrilas, P J; Bacon, M; Bowman, J; McCracken, E

    1994-10-01

    This study examines oropharyngeal swallow disorders and measures of pharyngeal and laryngeal movement during deglutition from videofluorographic studies of oropharyngeal swallow in 9 patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy and 9 age-matched normal subjects. The swallows of surgical patients were examined at 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Two critical factors in recovery of swallowing were identified: (a) airway closure at the laryngeal entrance, that is, the space between the arytenoid cartilage and the base of the tongue, and (b) the movement of the tongue base to make complete contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall. When patients achieved these two functions, they returned to normal swallowing. The duration of tongue base contact to the posterior pharyngeal wall and extent of anterior movement of the arytenoid increased significantly from 2 weeks to 3 months in the surgical patients. At 2 weeks postsurgery, patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy exhibited significantly shorter airway closure and tongue base to pharyngeal wall contact, reduced laryngeal elevation, increased width of cricopharyngeal (CP) opening, and later onset of airway closure and tongue base movement than normal subjects. These significant differences remained at 3 months postoperatively, although swallow measures were moving toward normal in the patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy. Comparison of patients not eating at 2 weeks with patients at the time of first eating revealed significantly longer duration of tongue base contact to the pharyngeal wall, longer duration of airway closure, and greater movement of the arytenoid in patients who were eating. Results indicate that the focus of swallowing therapy after supraglottic laryngectomy should be on improvement of posterior movement of the tongue base and anterior tilting of the arytenoid to close the airway entrance and improve bolus propulsion (in the case of the tongue base). PMID

  4. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, S.; Brace, R.A.; Longo, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) serum albumin (RISA), /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and /sup 103/Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age.

  5. Compost bedded pack dairy barn management, performance, and producer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Bewley, J M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterize herd performance, producer satisfaction and recommendations, and management practices used by compost bedded pack (CBP) managers in Kentucky (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Farms were visited between October 2010 and March 2011. A random selection of cows housed solely in the CBP were scored for locomotion and hygiene. Changes in monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association performance records, including milk production, SCC, reproductive performance, and daily bulk-tank somatic cell count after moving into the CBP were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3) was used to develop models to describe CBP moisture, CBP temperature at 20.3 cm, and mean herd hygiene. Producers provided 9.0 ± 2.2 m2 of pack space per cow (n = 44). Barns constructed with an attached feed alley cost $1,051 ± 407 per cow (n = 40). Barns constructed without an attached feed alley cost $493 ± 196 per cow (n = 13). Kiln-dried shavings required 0.05 ± 0.04 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 15). Green shavings required 0.07 ± 0.06 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 12). The most-frequently cited benefits of the CBP included cow comfort (n = 28), cow cleanliness (n = 14), and the low-maintenance nature of the system (n = 10). Increased stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperature increased pack temperature, measured at 20.3 cm below the CBP surface. Increased stirring depth, pasture-adjusted space per cow, and drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Mean herd locomotion and hygiene scores were 1.5 ± 0.3 (n = 34) and 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 34), respectively. Increased 20.3-cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved mean herd hygiene. Bulk-tank somatic cell count decreased from the year before to the year after moving into the CBP barn (323,692 ± 7,301 vs. 252,859 ± 7,112 cells/mL, respectively) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary

  6. A procedure for denoising dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry is an emerging tool for the assessment of dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). These signals however can be very noisy as a result of physiological and motion artifacts. In this note, we propose a novel scheme for denoising those signals, i.e. a computationally efficient search for the optimal denoising threshold within a reduced wavelet subspace. To determine a viable subspace, the algorithm relies on the minimum value of the estimated upper bound for the reconstruction error. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme using synthetic test signals demonstrated that the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient than minimum noiseless description length (MNDL)-based denoising. It also yields smaller reconstruction errors than MNDL, SURE and Donoho denoising methods. When applied to dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, the proposed scheme exhibits improved performance for dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallows. These results are important for the further development of medical devices based on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals. PMID:19940343

  7. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. Methods: We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. Result: After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Conclusion: Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties. PMID:27495080

  8. The relationship between masticatory and swallowing behaviors and body weight.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Carlos Alberto Camargo; Moysés, Marcos Ribeiro; van der Bilt, Andries; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Ribeiro, José Carlos Rabelo; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the main objective parameters of mastication among individuals with different body mass indexes. One hundred and sixty participants matched for gender and age were divided in the following groups according to their body mass index (BMI): Obese group (30 ≤ BMI < 35), Overweight group (25 ≤ BMI < 30), normal range group (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) and underweight group (17 ≤ BMI < 18.5). Each group was composed by forty subjects. The maximum bite force, the masticatory performance, chewing rate and three variables related to swallowing (number of chewing cycles, chewing time, and median particle size) were assessed in all groups. The oral conditions, including the number of teeth, number of occlusal units and salivary flow (unstimulated and stimulated) were also evaluated. Regardless of the BMI, males had a larger bite force and better masticatory and swallowing performances than females. They also chewed faster than females. Individuals of the obese group had the largest median particles sizes (both after 20 chewing cycles and at the moment of swallowing), which indicates a less good masticatory performance. The median particle sizes were negatively correlated with the number of teeth and number of occlusal units in the obese group. We did not observe large differences in masticatory performance and swallowing variables among the four weight groups, although there was a tendency that individuals of the obese group swallowed larger particles. The results of this study do not support the existence of an "obese chewing style". PMID:26253216

  9. A swallowed sewing needle migrating to the liver

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Ünal, Özkan; Özen, Özkan; Bora, Aydın; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2009-01-01

    Context: Swallowing foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Although most objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract with no untoward effect; long, sharppointed, or slender objects can perforate the gut. Migration of a swallowed object to the liver is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature up to now. The aim of this study is to draw attention to this subject once again by contributing a case report of a child with hepatic migration of a swallowed sewing needle. Case Report: A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency room of pediatrics department in our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed tenderness on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory examination revealed increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased white blood cell count. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed foreign body in the liver accompanied by surrounding abscess formation. The foreign body (sewing needle) was removed surgically after two operations. Conclusion: The children may not be able to remember the swallowing of the foreign body or they may try to hide such a condition. The radiological diagnosis in such cases which can be achieved by X-rays, ultrasonography or computed tomography is of critical importance, as well as getting detailed patient history for foreign body swallowing. PMID:22666694

  10. Central Nervous System Control of Voice and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review of the central nervous control systems for voice and swallowing has suggested that the traditional concepts of a separation between cortical and limbic and brain stem control should be refined and more integrative. For voice production, a separation of the non-human vocalization system from the human learned voice production system has been posited based primarily on studies of non-human primates. However, recent humans studies of emotionally based vocalizations and human volitional voice production has shown more integration between these two systems than previously proposed. Recent human studies have shown that reflexive vocalization as well as learned voice production not involving speech, involve a common integrative system. On the other hand, recent studies of non-human primates have provided evidence of some cortical activity during vocalization and cortical changes with training during vocal behavior. For swallowing, evidence from the macaque and functional brain imaging in humans indicates that the control for the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is not primarily under brain stem mechanisms as previously proposed. Studies suggest that the initiation and patterning of swallowing for the pharyngeal phase is also under active cortical control for both spontaneous as well as volitional swallowing in awake humans and non-human primates. PMID:26241238

  11. Automatic food intake detection based on swallowing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Besio, Walter; Sazonov, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fully automatic food intake detection methodology, an important step toward objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. The aim of such monitoring is to improve our understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity and eating disorders. The proposed methodology consists of two stages. First, acoustic detection of swallowing instances based on mel-scale Fourier spectrum features and classification using support vector machines is performed. Principal component analysis and a smoothing algorithm are used to improve swallowing detection accuracy. Second, the frequency of swallowing is used as a predictor for detection of food intake episodes. The proposed methodology was tested on data collected from 12 subjects with various degrees of adiposity. Average accuracies of >80% and >75% were obtained for intra-subject and inter-subject models correspondingly with a temporal resolution of 30s. Results obtained on 44.1 hours of data with a total of 7305 swallows show that detection accuracies are comparable for obese and lean subjects. They also suggest feasibility of food intake detection based on swallowing sounds and potential of the proposed methodology for automatic monitoring of ingestive behavior. Based on a wearable non-invasive acoustic sensor the proposed methodology may potentially be used in free-living conditions. PMID:23125873

  12. Hard to swallow: Developmental biological insights into pediatric dysphagia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A; Maynard, Thomas M; Karpinski, Beverly A; Zohn, Irene E; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2016-01-15

    Pediatric dysphagia-feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity--is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties that approximate those seen in pediatric dysphagia. Altered hindbrain patterning, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may result from disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on peripheral and central neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  13. Suppression of Abdominal Motor Activity during Swallowing in Cats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Teresa; Gayagoy, Albright G.; Rose, Melanie J.; Poliacek, Ivan; Condrey, Jillian A.; Musslewhite, M. Nicholas; Shen, Tabitha Y.; Davenport, Paul W.; Bolser, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    Diseases affecting pulmonary mechanics often result in changes to the coordination of swallow and breathing. We hypothesize that during times of increased intrathoracic pressure, swallow suppresses ongoing expiratory drive to ensure bolus transport through the esophagus. To this end, we sought to determine the effects of swallow on abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during expiratory threshold loading in anesthetized cats and in awake-healthy adult humans. Expiratory threshold loads were applied to recruit abdominal motor activity during breathing, and swallow was triggered by infusion of water into the mouth. In both anesthetized cats and humans, expiratory cycles which contained swallows had a significant reduction in abdominal EMG activity, and a greater percentage of swallows were produced during inspiration and/or respiratory phase transitions. These results suggest that: a) spinal expiratory motor pathways play an important role in the execution of swallow, and b) a more complex mechanical relationship exists between breathing and swallow than has previously been envisioned. PMID:26020240

  14. Suppression of the swallowing reflex by stimulation of the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yoshihide; Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ishizuka, Ken'Ichi; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    We study whether the red nucleus is involved in control of swallowing. The swallowing reflex was induced in anesthetized rats by repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. The electromyographic activities of the mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles were recorded in order to identify the swallowing reflex. Repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the red nucleus reduced the number of swallows. The onset latency of the first swallow was increased during repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. Microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the red nucleus also reduced the number of swallows. The onset latency of the first swallow was increased after microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. These results imply that the red nucleus is involved in the control of swallowing. PMID:26012722

  15. Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Yuji; Hayashi, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan. PMID:22315534

  16. Swallow Syncope: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Criteria, and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Glasser, Stephen; Dutta, Sudhir K.

    2014-01-01

    We recently encountered three patients with episodes of syncope associated with food ingestion. A 31-year-old woman had an episode of syncope in the hospital while drinking soda. Transient asystole was noted on the telemonitor, confirming the diagnosis of swallow syncope. The other two patients were 78- and 80 year old gentlemen, respectively, who presented with recurrent and transient episodes of dizziness during deglutition. Extensive work-up of syncope was negative in both cases and a diagnosis of swallow syncope was made by clinical criteria. These cases illustrate the challenging problem of swallow syncope. The diagnosis can be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation and confirmed with the demonstration of transient brady-arrhythmia during deglutition. Medical management includes avoiding trigger foods, use of anticholinergics, and/or placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:25038205

  17. Respiratory phase resetting and airflow changes induced by swallowing in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Paydarfar, D; Gilbert, R J; Poppel, C S; Nassab, P F

    1995-01-01

    1. Relationships between the timing of respiration and deglutition were studied in thirty awake healthy subjects at rest. Deglutition was monitored by submental electromyography, pharyngeal manometry and videofluoroscopy. Respiration was recorded by measurement of oronasal airflow and chest wall movement. Three types of deglutition were studied: injected bolus swallows, spontaneous swallows, and visually cued swallows of boluses previously placed in the mouth. 2. The effect of each swallow on respiratory rhythm was characterized by measurement of cophase, defined as the interval between the onset of deglutitive submental EMG activity to the onset of subsequent rescheduled inspirations. Cophase was determined for swallows initiated at different phases of the respiratory cycle. In all subjects deglutition caused phase resetting of respiratory rhythm. Cophase was largest for swallows initiated near the the inspiratory-expiratory (E-I) transition and smallest for swallows initiated near the expiratory-inspiratory (E-I) transition. The pattern of respiratory resetting by deglutition was topologically classified as type 0. This pattern was shown for swallows induced by bolus injection or visual cue, and for spontaneous swallows. 3. The incidence of spontaneous deglutition was influenced by the position of the swallow in the respiratory cycle. Few spontaneous swallows were initiated near the E-I transition whereas most occurred from late inspiration to mid-expiration. 4. Deglutition caused an abrupt decrease in airflow leading to an interval of apnoea, followed by a period of expiration. The duration of deglutition apnoea for spontaneous swallows was shorter than that for 5 ml bolus swallows, and was unaffected by the respiratory phase of swallow initiation. The period of expiration after swallowing was longest for swallows initiated at the I-E transition, and shortest for E-I swallows. 5. The intervals between bolus injection and the onset of deglutition apnoea, and the

  18. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  19. Spatial and nonspatial escape strategies in the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fiona E; Reiserer, Randall S; Tomarken, Andrew J; McDonald, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either with or without a discrete visible cue marking the location of the escape hole, which was either in a fixed or variable location across trials. In Experiment 2, all mice were trained with the discrete visible cue marking the target hole location. Two groups were identical to the cued-target groups from Experiment 1, with either fixed or variable escape locations. For these mice, the discrete cue either was the sole predictor of the target location or was perfectly confounded with the spatial extra-maze cues. The third group also used a cued variable target, but a curtain was drawn around the maze to prevent the use of spatial cues to guide navigation. Probe trials with all escape holes blocked were conducted to dissociate the use of spatial and discrete proximal cues. We conclude that the Barnes maze can be solved efficiently using spatial, visual cue, or serial-search strategies. However, mice showed a strong preference for using the distal room cues, even when a discrete visible cue clearly marked the escape location. Importantly, these data show that the cued-target control version of the Barnes maze as typically conducted does not dissociate spatial from nonspatial abilities. PMID:17101874

  20. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and wood shed roof, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  1. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing front and side. Note the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing front and side. Note the open door, the gate post, and log frame, facing northeast - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  2. Design and Calibration of Chambers for Measuring Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia, which can have detrimental effects on human health and natural ecosystems. In the U.S., relatively little is known about the processes that affect the rate and magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy barns. The end of a conventional tie-sta...

  3. 4. View northnorthwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north-northwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn and milk house, south and east sides - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 3. Overview of HiattStricklin property showing the house and barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Overview of Hiatt-Stricklin property showing the house and barn relationship. West side and south gable of barn in the foreground, facing northeast - Hiatt Property, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  5. Unheralded Historian: Mary Sheldon Barnes and Primary Source Material in History Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, James A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Mary Sheldon Barnes emerged as a leading historical methods professor and history textbook author. Although men dominated the field, she wrote several articles and books alone or with her husband Earl Barnes about primary source materials and teaching. She lived during an era in United States history…

  6. View of HiattStricklin barn showing north gable side and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hiatt-Stricklin barn showing north gable side and west back, facing southeast - Hiatt Property, Barn, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  7. View of HiattStricklin barn showing south gable side and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hiatt-Stricklin barn showing south gable side and east front. Note the double doors and high walls, facing northwest - Hiatt Property, Barn, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  8. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  9. Temporal Map Formation in the Barn Owl's Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibold, Christian; Kempter, Richard; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-12-01

    Barn owls provide an experimentally well-specified example of a temporal map, a neuronal representation of the outside world in the brain by means of time. Their laminar nucleus exhibits a place code of interaural time differences, a cue which is used to determine the azimuthal location of a sound stimulus, e.g., prey. We analyze a model of synaptic plasticity that explains the formation of such a representation in the young bird and show how in a large parameter regime a combination of local and nonlocal synaptic plasticity yields the temporal map as found experimentally. Our analysis includes the effect of nonlinearities as well as the influence of neuronal noise.

  10. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676