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Sample records for barn swallows hirundo

  1. First observation of African tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus predating on barn swallows Hirundo rustica in flight.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G C; Jacobs, F; Evans, S W; Smit, N J

    2014-01-01

    A population of African tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus from the Schroda Dam, actively prey on barn swallows Hirundo rustica in flight. This behaviour was discovered during a radio telemetry study and documented using a motion picture video camera. These results show that an avivorous diet is a part of the feeding biology of H. vittatus, and may occur in other populations. PMID:24354922

  2. The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: An experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Vortman, Yoni; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Wilkins, Matthew R; Bradley, Rachel J; Lotem, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we provide experimental evidence that manipulations of these traits result in different reproductive consequences in two subspecies of barn swallow: (H. r. erythrogaster in North America and H. r. transitiva in the East Mediterranean). Experimental results in Colorado, USA, demonstrate that males with (1) darkened ventral coloration and (2) shortened streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. In contrast, exaggeration of both traits improved reproductive performance within H. r. transitiva in Israel: males with a combination treatment of darkened ventral coloration and elongated streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. Collectively, these experimental results fill an important gap in our understanding for how divergent sexual selection maintains phenotype differentiation in closely related populations, an important aspect of the speciation process. PMID:27436630

  3. Clock gene polymorphism and scheduling of migration: a geolocator study of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Gaia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Liechti, Felix; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Circannual rhythms often rely on endogenous seasonal photoperiodic timers involving ‘clock’ genes, and Clock gene polymorphism has been associated to variation in phenology in some bird species. In the long-distance migratory barn swallow Hirundo rustica, individuals bearing the rare Clock allele with the largest number of C-terminal polyglutamine repeats found in this species (Q8) show a delayed reproduction and moult later. We explored the association between Clock polymorphism and migration scheduling, as gauged by light-level geolocators, in two barn swallow populations (Switzerland; Po Plain, Italy). Genetic polymorphism was low: 91% of the 64 individuals tracked year-round were Q7/Q7 homozygotes. We compared the phenology of the rare genotypes with the phenotypic distribution of Q7/Q7 homozygotes within each population. In Switzerland, compared to Q7/Q7, two Q6/Q7 males departed earlier from the wintering grounds and arrived earlier to their colony in spring, while a single Q7/Q8 female was delayed for both phenophases. On the other hand, in the Po Plain, three Q6/Q7 individuals had a similar phenology compared to Q7/Q7. The Swiss data are suggestive for a role of genetic polymorphism at a candidate phenological gene in shaping migration traits, and support the idea that Clock polymorphism underlies phenological variation in birds. PMID:26197782

  4. Clock gene polymorphism and scheduling of migration: a geolocator study of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Gaia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Liechti, Felix; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Circannual rhythms often rely on endogenous seasonal photoperiodic timers involving 'clock' genes, and Clock gene polymorphism has been associated to variation in phenology in some bird species. In the long-distance migratory barn swallow Hirundo rustica, individuals bearing the rare Clock allele with the largest number of C-terminal polyglutamine repeats found in this species (Q8) show a delayed reproduction and moult later. We explored the association between Clock polymorphism and migration scheduling, as gauged by light-level geolocators, in two barn swallow populations (Switzerland; Po Plain, Italy). Genetic polymorphism was low: 91% of the 64 individuals tracked year-round were Q7/Q7 homozygotes. We compared the phenology of the rare genotypes with the phenotypic distribution of Q7/Q7 homozygotes within each population. In Switzerland, compared to Q7/Q7, two Q6/Q7 males departed earlier from the wintering grounds and arrived earlier to their colony in spring, while a single Q7/Q8 female was delayed for both phenophases. On the other hand, in the Po Plain, three Q6/Q7 individuals had a similar phenology compared to Q7/Q7. The Swiss data are suggestive for a role of genetic polymorphism at a candidate phenological gene in shaping migration traits, and support the idea that Clock polymorphism underlies phenological variation in birds. PMID:26197782

  5. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  6. Nestling rearing is antioxidant demanding in female barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, David; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    Reproduction is a demanding activity, since organisms must produce and, in some cases, protect and provision their progeny. Hence, a central tenet of life-history theory predicts that parents have to trade parental care against body maintenance. One physiological cost thought to be particularly important as a modulator of such trade-offs is oxidative stress. However, evidence in favour of the hypothesis of an oxidative cost of reproduction is contradictory. In this study, we manipulated the brood size of wild barn swallows Hirundo rustica soon after hatching of their nestlings to test whether an increase in nestling rearing effort translates into an increased oxidative damage and a decreased antioxidant protection at the end of the nestling rearing period. We found that, while plasma oxidative damage was unaffected by brood size enlargement, females rearing enlarged broods showed a decrease in plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants during the nestling rearing period. This was not the case among females rearing reduced broods and among males assigned to either treatment. Moreover, individuals with higher plasma oxidative damage soon after the brood size manipulation had lower plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants at the end of the nestling rearing period, suggesting that non-enzymatic antioxidants were depleted to buffer the negative effects of high oxidative damage. Our findings point to antioxidant depletion as a potential mechanism mediating the cost of reproduction among female birds.

  7. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Bazzi, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt. PMID:24826890

  8. Corticosterone secretion patterns prior to spring and autumn migration differ in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica L.).

    PubMed

    Raja-aho, Sari; Lehikoinen, Esa; Suorsa, Petri; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Vainio, Minna; Vosloo, Dalene; Eeva, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies of long-distance migratory birds show that behavioural and physiological changes associated with predictable or unpredictable challenges during the annual cycle are distinctively regulated by hormones. Corticosterone is the primary energy regulating hormone in birds. Corticosterone levels are elevated during stresses but they are also modulated seasonally according to environmental conditions and life-history demands. We measured the baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica L.) just before spring and autumn migrations in South Africa and Finland, respectively. Barn swallows completing their pre-breeding moult had low body condition (residual body mass) and high baseline corticosterone levels in the wintering grounds. In contrast, baseline corticosterone levels in Finland were low and not related to residual mass. These data contradict the first prediction of the migration modulation hypothesis (MMH) by showing no association with baseline corticosterone levels and pre-migratory fuelling. Yet, the adrenocortical response to the capture and handling stress was notably blunted in South Africa compared to a strong response in Finland. Further, individuals that had started fuelling in Finland showed a reduced response to the handling stress. Taken together, elevated baseline corticosterone levels and high residual mass may blunt the adrenocortical response in long-distance migrants and aerial feeders such as the barn swallow. This observation lends support to the second prediction of the MMH. PMID:23649753

  9. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Kardynal, Kevin J; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Albrecht, Gretchen; Salvadori, Antonio; Cadman, Michael D; Liechti, Felix; Fox, James W

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8) and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5)) traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3) and New Brunswick (n = 10), Canada) which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67%) birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America. PMID:26065914

  10. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Keith A.; Kardynal, Kevin J.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; Albrecht, Gretchen; Salvadori, Antonio; Cadman, Michael D.; Liechti, Felix; Fox, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8) and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5)) traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3) and New Brunswick (n = 10), Canada) which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67%) birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America. PMID:26065914

  11. Sex allocation according to multiple sexually dimorphic traits of both parents in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Romano, A; Romano, M; Caprioli, M; Costanzo, A; Parolini, M; Rubolini, D; Saino, N

    2015-06-01

    Parents should differentially invest in sons or daughters depending on the sex-specific fitness returns from male and female offspring. In species with sexually selected heritable male characters, highly ornamented fathers should overproduce sons, which will be more sexually attractive than sons of less ornamented fathers. Because of genetic correlations between the sexes, females that express traits which are under selection in males should also overproduce sons. However, sex allocation strategies may consist in reaction norms leading to spatiotemporal variation in the association between offspring sex ratio (SR) and parental phenotype. We analysed offspring SR in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) over 8 years in relation to two sexually dimorphic traits: tail length and melanin-based ventral plumage coloration. The proportion of sons increased with maternal plumage darkness and paternal tail length, consistently with sexual dimorphism in these traits. The size of the effect of these parental traits on SR was large compared to other studies of offspring SR in birds. Barn swallows thus manipulate offspring SR to overproduce 'sexy sons' and potentially to mitigate the costs of intralocus sexually antagonistic selection. Interannual variation in the relationships between offspring SR and parental traits was observed which may suggest phenotypic plasticity in sex allocation and provides a proximate explanation for inconsistent results of studies of sex allocation in relation to sexual ornamentation in birds. PMID:25913917

  12. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Péter L.; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I.; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  13. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  14. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas.

  15. Importance of farmland in urbanized areas as a landscape component for barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) nesting on concrete buildings.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas. PMID:25813627

  16. Sex-Related Effects of Reproduction on Biomarkers of Oxidative Damage in Free-living Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Rubolini, Diego; Colombo, Graziano; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Clerici, Marco; Colombo, Roberto; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we focus on the oxidative costs of reproduction, especially egg laying, by investigating the effects of breeding stage (pre- vs. post-laying) and progression of the season on three biomarkers of oxidative damage (OD) to plasma proteins, namely the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts and of protein thiol groups (PSH), and the protein carbonyl (PCO) content. Moreover, we investigated whether males and females differed in plasma OD levels, because the inherent sex differences in reproductive roles and physiology may originate sex-specific patterns of OD during breeding. We found that MDA-protein adduct levels were higher in the pre-laying than in the post-laying phase, that males had lower levels of MDA-modified proteins than females, and that the decline of MDA-protein adduct concentration between the pre- and the post-laying phase was more marked for females than males. In addition, MDA-protein adduct levels declined with sampling date, but only during the pre-laying phase. On the other hand, plasma PCO levels increased from the pre- to the post-laying phase in both sexes, and females had higher levels of PCO than males. PSH concentration was unaffected by breeding stage, sex or sampling date. On the whole, our findings indicate that biomarkers of protein oxidation closely track the short-term variation in breeding stage of both male and female barn swallows. Moreover, the higher protein OD levels observed among females compared to males suggest that egg laying entails oxidative costs, which might negatively

  17. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Khoriauli, Lela; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Santagostino, Marco; Saino, Nicola; Giulotto, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age) and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual’s siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and relative telomere

  18. Low Variation in the Polymorphic Clock Gene Poly-Q Region Despite Population Genetic Structure across Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Lovette, Irby J.; Safran, Rebecca J.; Billerman, Shawn M.; Huber, Gernot H.; Vortman, Yoni; Lotem, Arnon; McGowan, Andrew; Evans, Matthew R.; Cooper, Caren B.; Winkler, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of several species have reported a latitudinal cline in the circadian clock gene, Clock, which influences rhythms in both physiology and behavior. Latitudinal variation in this gene may hence reflect local adaptation to seasonal variation. In some bird populations, there is also an among-individual association between Clock poly-Q genotype and clutch initiation date and incubation period. We examined Clock poly-Q allele variation in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), a species with a cosmopolitan geographic distribution and considerable variation in life-history traits that may be influenced by the circadian clock. We genotyped Barn Swallows from five populations (from three subspecies) and compared variation at the Clock locus to that at microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found very low variation in the Clock poly-Q region, as >96% of individuals were homozygous, and the two other alleles at this locus were globally rare. Genetic differentiation based on the Clock poly-Q locus was not correlated with genetic differentiation based on either microsatellite loci or mtDNA sequences. Our results show that high diversity in Clock poly-Q is not general across avian species. The low Clock variation in the background of heterogeneity in microsatellite and mtDNA loci in Barn Swallows may be an outcome of stabilizing selection on the Clock locus. PMID:22216124

  19. Abundance and genetic damage of barn swallows from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Koyama, K; Tedeschi, D J; Kitamura, W; Sukuzi, H; Ostermiller, S; Arai, E; Møller, A P; Mousseau, T A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed or modeled the distribution of the radionuclides released by the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Few studies however have investigated its consequences for the local biota. We tested whether exposure of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) nestlings to low dose ionizing radiation increased genetic damage to their peripheral erythrocytes. We estimated external radiation exposure by using thermoluminescent dosimeters, and by measuring radioactivity of the nest material. We then assessed DNA damage by means of the neutral comet assay. In addition, we conducted standard point-count censuses of barn swallows across environmental radiation levels, and estimated their abundance and local age ratio. Radioactivity of nest samples was in the range 479-143,349 Bq kg(-1), while external exposure varied between 0.15 and 4.9 mGy. Exposure to radioactive contamination did not correlate with higher genetic damage in nestlings. However, at higher levels of radioactive contamination the number of barn swallows declined and the fraction of juveniles decreased, indicating lower survival and lower reproduction and/or fledging rate. Thus, genetic damage to nestlings does not explain the decline of barn swallows in contaminated areas, and a proximate mechanism for the demographic effects documented here remains to be clarified. PMID:25838205

  20. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  1. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B; Hubbard, Joanna K; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-10-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male-male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems. PMID:26423842

  2. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  3. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 mu g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  4. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Goatcher, Buddy L; Melancon, Mark J; Matson, Cole W; Bickham, John W

    2006-10-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites. PMID:16779575

  5. Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Costanzo, Alessandra; Caprioli, Manuela; Parolini, Marco; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) toward the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrues larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex allocation decisions has seldom been performed. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we showed a positive correlation between the proportion of sons and maternal annual survival. We then experimentally demonstrated that this association did not depend on the differential costs of rearing offspring of either sex. Finally, we showed that maternal lifespan positively predicted lifespan of sons but not of daughters. Because in barn swallows lifespan is a strong determinant of lifetime reproductive success, the results suggest that mothers overproduce offspring of the sex that benefits the most from maternal quality. Hence, irrespective of mechanisms causing the SR bias and mother-son covariation in lifespan, we provide strong evidence that sex allocation decisions of mothers can highly impact on their lifetime fitness. PMID:26990898

  6. Geographic Variation in Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) from Northern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The number of subspecies recognized in Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot (Cliff Swallow) from Alaska, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States ranges from one (Peters 1960) to three (e.g., Jewett et al. 1953, Oberholser, 1920, breeding from central Alaska to the central Great Basin, and two disjunct populations of nominate pyrrhonota, breeding on the west coast and east of the Rocky Mountains. Although various authors have reported measurements of wing chord, they have not provided quantitative data for other plumage characters, and they disagree in the characterizations and ranges of the subspecies they recognize. Because of this, I reviewed the geographic variation among the northern populations. My study is confined to specimens from Alaska, Canada, and the contigeous United States south to Merced County in California, both slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Montana and Colorado, and northern half of the eastern United States from Kansas east to Virginia (Figure 1). The A.O.U. (1957) gave the breeding range of hypopolia as extending from Alaska and Mackenzie to southeastern British Columbia, the eastern parts of Washington, Oregon, and central-eastern California, central Nevada, northern Utah, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming, and the range of nominate pyrhonota as from southwestern British Columbia, western Oregon and Washington to southern California, southern Nevada, southern and eastern Utag, and east of the Rocky Mountains. I excluded specimens of H. p. ganieri Phillips, 1986, a subspecies (Browning 1990) that breeds from at least west-central Tennessee to Texas, and H. p. tachina Oberholser, 1903 (sensu Phillips 1986), which breeds north to central California, Utah, Arizona, and new Mexico. I follow Phillips (1973) for the use of the generic name Hirundo for the Cliff Swallow, Hellmayr (1935) for the use of the specific name pyrrhonota.

  7. Foraging at the edge of the world: low-altitude, high-speed manoeuvering in barn swallows.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A; Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers. Using multi-camera videography synchronized with wind-velocity measurements, we tracked coursing manoeuvers in pursuit of prey. Wind speed averaged 1.3-2.0 m s(-1) across the atmospheric boundary layer, exhibiting a shear gradient greater than expected, with instantaneous speeds of 0.02-6.1 m s(-1) While barn swallows tended to flap throughout turns, they exhibited reduced wingbeat frequency, relying on glides and partial bounds during maximal manoeuvers. Further, the birds capitalized on the near-earth wind speed gradient to gain kinetic and potential energy during both flapping and gliding turns; providing evidence that such behaviour is not limited to large, fixed-wing soaring seabirds and that exploitation of wind gradients by small aerial insectivores may be a significant aspect of their aeroecology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528781

  8. Better red than dead: carotenoid-based mouth coloration reveals infection in barn swallow nestlings.

    PubMed Central

    Saino, N; Ninni, P; Calza, S; Martinelli, R; De Bernardi, F; Møller, A P

    2000-01-01

    Nestling birds solicit food from their parents by displaying their open brightly coloured gapes. Carotenoids affect gape colour, but also play a central role in immunostimulation. Therefore, we hypothesize that, by differentially allocating resources to nestlings with more brightly coloured gapes, parents favour healthy offspring which are able to allocate carotenoids to gape coloration without compromising their immune defence. We demonstrated that, in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, (i) parents differentially allocate food to nestlings with an experimentally brighter red gape, (ii) nestlings challenged with a novel antigen (sheep red blood cells, SRBCs) have less bright gape colour than their control siblings, (iii) nestlings challenged with SRBCs but also provided with the principal circulating carotenoid (lutein) have more brightly coloured red gapes than their challenged but unsupplemented siblings and (iv) the gape colour of nestlings challenged with SRBCs and provisioned with lutein exceeds that of siblings that were unchallenged. This suggests that parents may favour nestlings with superior health by preferentially feeding offspring with the brightest gapes. PMID:10670953

  9. Antioxidants, radiation and mutation as revealed by sperm abnormality in barn swallows from Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Møller, A. P.; Surai, P.; Mousseau, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    Reduced levels of antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamins A and E can increase DNA damage caused by free radicals. Exposure to radiation has been proposed to reduce levels of antioxidants that are used for DNA repair and this reduction may be responsible for increased levels of mutation in radioactively contaminated areas. We test this hypothesis using field measures of antioxidants in blood, liver and eggs of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica while relating these to levels of mutation as reflected by the frequency of abnormal sperm. Antioxidant levels in blood, liver and eggs were reduced in Chernobyl, Ukraine, compared with an uncontaminated control area, and levels of antioxidants correlated negatively with levels of background radiation. The frequency of abnormal sperm was almost an order of magnitude higher in Chernobyl than in the control area and was negatively related to antioxidant levels in blood and liver. This is consistent with the hypothesis of a direct link between radiation and individual levels of antioxidants, suggesting that levels of mutation differ among individuals owing to individual differences in the abundance of antioxidants. PMID:15705548

  10. Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q7) and two rare (Q6, Q8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q7/Q8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q7/Q8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

  11. Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Matthew Reed

    A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the

  12. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success. PMID:24317898

  13. Sex-Related Effects of an Immune Challenge on Growth and Begging Behavior of Barn Swallow Nestlings

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by subjecting nestlings to an immune challenge (injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS) that simulates a bacterial infection, and assessed the effects on growth, feather quality, expression of morphological (gape coloration) and behavioral (posture) begging displays involved in parent-offspring communication, as well as on food allocation by parents. Compared to sham-injected controls, LPS-treated chicks suffered a depression of body mass and a reduction of palate color saturation. In addition, LPS treatment resulted in lower feather quality, with an increase in the occurrence of fault bars on wing feathers. The color of beak flanges, feather growth and the intensity of postural begging were affected by LPS treatment only in females, suggesting that chicks of either sex are differently susceptible to the immune challenge. However, irrespective of the effects of LPS, parents equally allocated food among control and challenged offspring both under normal food provisioning and after a short period of food deprivation of the chicks. These results indicate that bacterial infection and the associated immune response entail different costs to offspring of either sex, but a decrease in nestling conditions does not affect parental care allocation, possibly because the barn swallow adopts a brood-survival strategy. Finally, we showed that physiological stress induced by pathogens impairs plumage quality, a previously neglected major negative impact of bacterial infection which could severely affect fitness, particularly among long-distance migratory birds

  14. Expression of multiple sexual signals by fathers and sons in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow: are advertising strategies heritable?

    PubMed

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  15. Expression of Multiple Sexual Signals by Fathers and Sons in the East-Mediterranean Barn Swallow: Are Advertising Strategies Heritable?

    PubMed Central

    Vortman, Yoni; Safran, Rebecca J.; Reiner Brodetzki, Tali; Dor, Roi; Lotem, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    The level of expression of sexually selected traits is generally determined by genes, environment and their interaction. In species that use multiple sexual signals which may be costly to produce, investing in the expression of one sexual signal may limit the expression of the other, favoring the evolution of a strategy for resource allocation among signals. As a result, even when the expression of sexual signals is condition dependent, the relative level of expression of each signal may be heritable. We tested this hypothesis in the East-Mediterranean barn swallow (Hirundo rustica transitiva), in which males have been shown to express two uncorrelated sexual signals: red-brown ventral coloration, and long tail streamers. We show that variation in both signals may partially be explained by age, as well as by paternal origin (genetic father-son regressions), but that the strongest similarity between fathers and sons is the relative allocation towards one trait or the other (relative expression index), rather than the expression of the traits themselves. These results suggest that the expression of one signal is not independent of the other, and that genetic strategies for resource allocation among sexual signals may be selected for during the evolution of multiple sexual signals. PMID:25679206

  16. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher at Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background (> 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained > 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels (< 5 ppm).

  17. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher a Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background ( gt 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained gt 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels ( lt 5 ppm).

  18. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  19. Barn Again! Indiana Barns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This final issue of the "Indiana History Bulletin" focuses on Indiana barns. Four articles feature the barn theme: (1) "Smithsonian Exhibit on Barns Will Tour Indiana in 2001-2002"; (2) "Indiana Barns," which contains several photographs of old barns; (3) "Indiana Barn Types," which contains drawings of different barn types; and (4) "Preserving…

  20. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Swallowing Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Dysphagia Table of Contents ( ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Swallowing Disorders? Having trouble swallowing (dysphagia) is a symptom ...

  1. Swallowing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    Dysphagia; Impaired swallowing; Choking - food; Globus sensation ... The process of swallowing involves several steps. These include Chewing food Moving it into the back of the mouth Moving it down the ...

  2. Dirt - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002840.htm Dirt - swallowing To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. This article is about poisoning from swallowing or eating dirt. This article is for information ...

  3. Swallowing soap

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Swallow syncope

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Paul W.; McMillan, Denis G.; Simon, Jerome B.

    1985-01-01

    Swallowing is considered a rare cause of syncope. The five patients described in this report had a spectrum of gastrointestinal tract or cardiovascular disease. For each patient there was a clear association between swallowing and the onset of syncope. Prompt diagnosis of this potentially lethal condition is essential, and electrocardiographic monitoring during swallowing is advisable in all cases in which syncope is suspected. PMID:3995448

  5. Swallowing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the bottom of the esophagus to relax ( Achalasia ) Scarring that narrows the esophagus. This may be ... used if cancer is causing the swallowing problem. Achalasia or spasms of the esophagus may also respond ...

  6. 1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Barn 3. NW corner. Border shed (Barn A) in distance marks southern boundary of the original north barn area. Camera pointed SE. - Longacres, Barn 3, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  7. Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy) Do you have problems swallowing? ... Some names you might hear are: Endoscopy Endoscopic Evaluation of swallowing FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) ...

  8. Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hear are: videofluoroscopic swallowing study, or videofluoroscopy modified barium swallow, or MBS esophagram cookie swallow The American ... give you different foods and drinks mixed with barium. The barium makes the food and liquid show ...

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN (CENTER) (STRUCTURE 2) AND CORNER OF MILK HOUSE (STRUCTURE 3) FROM SOUTHEAST - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  10. View south, barn, north elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, barn, north elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  11. View north, barn, south elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, barn, south elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  12. View west, barn, east elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, barn, east elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  13. View east, barn, west elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, barn, west elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  14. LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is built on a fieldstone foundation with a heavy-timber, mortise and tenon wood construction. A bank of window openings spans the south and east walls. Every other opening is covered with an operable shutter that is hinged to the window header above. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  15. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. 1. VIEW OF JAMES H. LANE BARN (HEREAFTER LANE BARN) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF JAMES H. LANE BARN (HEREAFTER LANE BARN) FROM L.D.S. CHURCH GROUNDS ON IDAHO HIGHWAY 26, APPROXIMATELY 1/4 MILE EAST OF THE MAIN INTERSECTION OF RICHFIELD, IDAHO. CAMERA IS POINTING SOUTH. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  17. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  18. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... a perfect study, but it is the best method to gather information about how you/your child swallows and the risk there may be for food or liquids going into the airway. The Speech Pathologist plans the TBS so that a sample of a few swallows of various textures shows ...

  19. Syncope with Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Manu, Stephen; Aziz, Peter F

    2016-05-01

    Swallowing can be a trigger for syncope and can cause significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized. A 13-year-old presented with clusters of transient complete atrioventricular block after repair of a sinus venosus atrial septal defect. Pacemaker implantation was successful in treating these symptoms. PMID:26891888

  20. Watercolor paints - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the person swallowed the paint, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not to. DO NOT give anything to drink if the person has symptoms that make it ... Use soap and water to wash any paint off skin and clothes.

  1. GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground floor is used for animal pens. On the left is an area enclosed for chickens. The Jenne milking stanchions remain along the south end of the barn.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  2. The Swallow Park Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Villiers, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Hermanus Astronomy Centre recently erected a pair of back-to-back sundials in Swallow Park in the centre of Hermanus as part of the upgrading of this historical public park by the Ward committee. Since these two are intended to be the first of many different design sundials to be erected in Hermanus by the HAC, the designs were purposefully chosen to be "unusual" to illustrate the point that even unfamiliar designs and orientations give the same end result....

  3. The Barnes Foundation: A Place for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Rika

    2007-01-01

    This article tells the story of the author's invitation to teach at the Barnes Foundation, and her transformative experience as a teacher in this extraordinary place. The author comes to realize that the Barnes is the physical realization of a philosophical dream, and progresses to an understanding of how Albert C. Barnes collected and assembled…

  4. 2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar to those of barns in middle barn area (Barns 1A through 8B). Part of 'panorama' with photo WA-201-13-1. - Longacres, Barn 41, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  5. Swallowing Disorders: What Families Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Tom; Rende, Barbara

    Swallowing problems can result from a catastrophic illness or injury, and the family's role is very important in implementing the swallowing precautions recommended by the rehabilitation team. Explained in this pamphlet are the stages of the normal swallowing sequence, symptoms of a swallowing disorder, medical conditions associated with…

  6. [Dysphagia. Are swallowing sounds diagnostically useful?].

    PubMed

    Kley, C; Biniek, R

    2005-12-01

    The origin and importance of swallowing sounds in dysphagia have been discussed in previous research. Those studies report a general similarity in the sound patterns of different swallowing actions. The current paper confirms this. In addition, the origin of swallowing sound patterns is examined more closely. Finally, we simultaneously analyzed the swallowing sounds of healthy voluntary subjects and patients with swallowing disorders using X-ray cinematography. Videoendoscopy was also done. As expected, we found a variety of sound sequences differing from those of healthy subjects. Patients with tracheal tubes or cannulae constitute a special group whose swallowing sounds give additional information about the act of swallowing. PMID:16133430

  7. Utility of a Clinical Swallowing Exam for Understanding Swallowing Physiology.

    PubMed

    Rangarathnam, Balaji; McCullough, Gary H

    2016-08-01

    A clinical swallowing examination (CSE) is generally believed to be inadequate for making judgments regarding swallowing physiology compared to objective assessments. A large volume of studies has heavily focused on identifying aspiration using a CSE and research addressing physiologic information gathered from a CSE is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the CSE for assessing physiology compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Data were derived from a prior investigation of sixty adult patients post-stroke tested with CSE and VFSS. The CSE included an examination of historical measures, oral motor/speech/voice, and trial swallows. The VFSS consisted of swallows of controlled portions of thin, thick, puree, and solid boluses. Previous results from these patients demonstrated significant accuracy in making binary estimates of aspiration and the presence of dysphagia. This analysis of data focused on physiologic measures, as well as overall dysphagia severity and diet recommendations. Significant associations between CSE and VFSS ratings were observed for hyolaryngeal elevation, overall swallowing severity, and diet recommendations. These findings were specific for certain bolus consistencies. These data suggest that the CSE may not provide significant physiological information other than hyolaryngeal excursion. This does not preclude the fact that the CSE is important in providing substantial information about overall dysphagia severity. It appears that the CSE is more powerful than simply a "screening" tool. More prospective research designs are warranted to substantiate the strengths of the CSE. PMID:26970759

  8. 12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to left and barn ramp at center - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  10. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can reduce sensation. After a stroke, food or liquid could enter the airway/lungs without the survivor ... working. The survivor may be given food and liquid to swallow. Efforts to make sure survivors with ...

  12. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb ... t chew gum until they fully understand the importance of not swallowing it. By age 5, most ...

  13. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  14. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    PubMed

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (<1%), 10% contained residues of rodenticides, difenacoum or brodifacoum, in their livers. Difenacoum was in the range 0.005-0.106 microg g(-1) fresh weight, and brodifacoum was in the range 0.019-0.515 microg g(-1). Minimum levels of detection were about 0.005 microg g(-1) for both chemicals. Mice fed for 1 day on food containing difenacoum and brodifacoum died after 2-11 days. Within these mice residues were present at greater concentration in the liver than in the rest of the carcass. The mean mass of residue in a whole 35g mouse was estimated at 10.17 microg (range 4.73-20.65 microg) for difenacoum and 15.36 microg (range 8.07-26.55) for brodifacoum. Such poisoned mice were fed to Barn Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable

  15. Understanding differences between healthy swallows and penetration-aspiration swallows via compressive sensing of tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.

    2014-05-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of swallowing difficulties. A recent contribution showed that swallowing accelerometry signals for healthy swallows and swallows indicating laryn- geal penetration or tracheal aspiration have different time-frequency structures, which may be problematic for compressive sensing schemes based on time-frequency dictionaries. In this paper, we examined the effects of dif- ferent swallows on the accuracy of a compressive sensing scheme based on modulated discrete prolate spheroidal sequences. We utilized tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals recorded from four patients during routinely schedule videofluoroscopy exams. In particular, we considered 77 swallows approximately equally distributed between healthy swallows and swallows presenting with some penetration/aspiration. Our results indicated that the swallow type does not affect the accuracy of a considered compressive sensing scheme. Also, the results con- firmed previous findings that each individual axis contributes different information. Our findings are important for further developments of a device which is to be used for long-term monitoring of swallowing difficulties.

  16. 5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, milk house to left, barn ramp at center, and east side of dairy barn at center right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a Cleaning Mill to the barn's hayloft c. 1960. This photograph shows the elevator, chaff shoot, and metal funnel that still remain. The barn's gambrel roof is supported by a three-hinged arch truss system) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Reproductive vulnerability: Parental attendance around hatching in roseate (Sterna dougallii) and common (S. hirundo) terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1991-01-01

    Presence of one or both members of a pair at the nest site during the incubation and early chick stage reduces reproductive losses due to predation and weather stresses. The authors monitored the presence of pair members by the temporary removal of one member of several pairs of Roseate (Sterna dougallii ) and Common (Sterna hirundo ) Terns at nests at Cedar Beach, New York, to determine if vulnerability varies by reproductive stage, to compare species differences that might partially account for declines in Roseate Tern populations, and to examine their response to trapping. There were significant differences between species in the time to return to the nest following an initial disturbance, and Roseate Terns that were trapped and released took longer to return to the nest and resume incubating than did Common Terns. The nests of Roseate Terns were vulnerable (neither adult in attendance) for longer time than were the nests of Common Terns.

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination and Swallowing Safety in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Irene; Rosenbek, John C.; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrate abnormal respiratory events when swallowing thin liquids. In addition, this study sought to define associations between respiratory events, swallowing apnea duration, and penetration–aspiration (P–A) scale scores. Thirty-nine individuals with PD were administered ten trials of a 5-ml thin liquid bolus. P–A scale score quantified the presence of penetration and aspiration during the swallowing of a 3-oz sequential bolus. Participants were divided into two groups based on swallowing safety judged during the 3-oz sequential swallowing: Group 1 = P–A ≤ 2; Group 2 = P–A ≥ 3. Swallows were examined using videofluoroscopy coupled with a nasal cannula to record respiratory signals during the event(s). Findings indicated that expiration was the predominant respiratory event before and after swallowing apnea. The data revealed no differences in our cohort versus the percentages of post-swallowing events reported in the literature for healthy adults. In addition, individuals with decreased swallowing safety, as measured by the P–A scale, were more likely to inspire after swallows and to have shorter swallowing apnea duration. Individuals who inspired before swallow also had longer swallowing apnea duration. The occurrence of inspiratory events after a swallow and the occurrence of shorter swallowing apnea durations may serve as important indicators during clinical swallowing assessments in patients at risk for penetration or aspiration with PD. PMID:20623304

  1. Effects of chemoradiotherapy on voice and swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Cathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Chemotherapy has been found to result in comparable survival rates to surgery for head and neck cancer. However, toxicity can often be worse after chemoradiotherapy, with impairment in voice, swallowing, nutrition, and quality of life. Investigators are attempting to modify radiotherapy treatment regimens to spare organs that have an impact on swallowing. This review will highlight voice and swallowing impairment seen after chemoradiotherapy, as well as treatment for voice and swallowing disorders in this population. Results of newer radiotherapy regimens will also be highlighted. Recent findings Specific oropharyngeal swallowing motility disorders after chemoradiotherapy have been identified. Damage to specific structures has been correlated with specific pharyngeal phase swallow impairment. Swallowing function and quality of life have been examined over time, with improvement seen in both. Preventive/prophylactic swallow exercise programs have been encouraging. Chemoradiotherapy effects on voice have been identified in terms of acoustic, aerodynamic, and patient and clinician-rated perception of function. Improvement in voice has also been observed over time after chemoradiotherapy. Voice therapy has been found to have a positive impact on voice and perceptual measures in this population. Summary Current studies show some improvement in swallow function after swallow and voice therapy in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Further, there is a suggestion of improved swallow function with sparing of organs with specific radiotherapy protocols. Future research needs to focus on specific voice and swallow treatment regimens in the head and neck cancer patient treated with chemoradiotherapy, specifically, timing, frequency, duration, and specific treatment types. PMID:19337126

  2. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  3. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  4. How to swallow an elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.B.

    1995-03-01

    There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

  5. Teledynamic Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; McCullough, Gary; He, Xuming; McWeeny, Elizabeth; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to test the feasibility and clinical utility of a real-time Internet-based protocol for remote, telefluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Method: In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated 32 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke or head/neck cancer. All…

  6. Ultrastructure of the Interlamellar Membranes of the Nacre of the Bivalve Pteria hirundo, Determined by Immunolabelling

    PubMed Central

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio J.; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Marin, Frédéric; Checa, Antonio G.

    2015-01-01

    The current model for the ultrastructure of the interlamellar membranes of molluscan nacre imply that they consist of a core of aligned chitin fibers surrounded on both sides by acidic proteins. This model was based on observations taken on previously demineralized shells, where the original structure had disappeared. Despite other earlier claims, no direct observations exist in which the different components can be unequivocally discriminated. We have applied different labeling protocols on non-demineralized nacreous shells of the bivalve Pteria. With this method, we have revealed the disposition and nature of the different fibers of the interlamellar membranes that can be observed on the surface of the nacreous shell of the bivalve Pteria hirundo by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minor chitin component consists of very thin fibers with a high aspect ratio and which are seemingly disoriented. Each fiber has a protein coat, which probably forms a complex with the chitin. The chitin-protein-complex fibers are embedded in an additional proteinaceous matrix. This is the first time in which the sizes, positions and distribution of the chitin fibers have been observed in situ. PMID:25909912

  7. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  8. 9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Dairy barn and milk house yard wall, detail of construction near southeast corner - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  10. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. 5. FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1) SOUTHEAST END WITH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1) SOUTHEAST END WITH WALL OF MILKING BARN (STRUCTURE 2) IN FOREGROUND - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  12. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead leads to attic crawl space. Camera is pointed SW. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  15. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 3. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH LITTLE WOOD RIVER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH LITTLE WOOD RIVER AND IDAHO IRRIGATION COMPANY PUMP HOUSE ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  17. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  18. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  19. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  20. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. 1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, BARN - Konig-Speicher Farm, North side of Church Road, south of Tulpehocken Creek, North Heidelberg Township (moved to Willow Street, Lenhartsville, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  2. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  3. Delayed Initiation of the Pharyngeal Swallow: Normal Variability in Adult Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Lee, Fu-Shing; Walters, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine bolus head timing and location relations with the onset of hyoid movement at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow and at the onset of swallow-related apnea. Method: Bolus head timing and location and the timing of swallow-related apnea were recorded from frame-by-frame analyses of…

  4. 6. View west up barn ramp to east side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View west up barn ramp to east side of dairy barn, Nemours Estate carillon tower visible in right background - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. 4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING DOWN ON PROPERTY, SHOWING NEW BARN, LOOKING NORTH. BEHIND IT ARE THE CHICKEN COOP, CA-2078-A (small structure) AND THE OLD BARN, CA-2078-B - Eugene O'Neill House, New Barn, Kuss Road, Danville, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. 3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS IN THE LOFT. NOTE THE END OF THE GARAGE AT THE LEFT OF THE BARN. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  7. INTERIOR OF THE BARN LOOKING EAST. The photograph was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF THE BARN LOOKING EAST. The photograph was taken from the concrete flooring of the central space. The change in floor height can be seen behind the chairs on the left. Also seen is the barn’s structural system of posts and collar beams with diagonal or block braces. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. Characteristics and fertilizer value of compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost dairy barn (CDB) manure is a new manure source on dairy farms. Only two published studies report manure composition in CDBs. One determined composition in the upper 30 cm of 12 barns and the other summarized sample analyses from the entire pack depth from 6 barns. The visually apparent unifo...

  9. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Spadaro, Alessandro; Giannoni, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles), the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles) in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG) and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC) and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC). The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p < 0.0001). The duration of swallowing was significantly higher in the SNOC subjects. Gender and age were not related to electromyographic activation. Healthy SOC and SNOC behaved in different ways. Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of

  10. Swallowing: A Professional and Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Petronchak, JoAnn; Eicher, Peggy S.

    2008-01-01

    For humans, successful drinking is a necessity early in life. In fact, swallowing can be observed with ultrasound at approximately the 16th week of pregnancy. The fetus "drinks" amniotic fluid as a way to filter fetal debris and to help maintain the amniotic fluid level for its mother. All this "swallowing practice" in utero enables the fetus to…

  11. Nitrogen availability from compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new dairy cow housing with deep bedding, commonly called compost dairy barns (CDB), is being adopted by small- to medium-sized farms. There have been no reports of nitrogen (N) availability from this manure. In laboratory and field trials, we characterized the nutrient content and N ava...

  12. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  13. October 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-26

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b), March 2008 (Argonne 2008c), and July 2008 (Argonne 2008d) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fourth

  14. Acoustic discrimination of healthy swallows from upper airway movements.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Mark D; Crary, Michael A; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous swallowing in dysphagic individuals has been shown to occur at a lower rate compared to healthy controls, and passive swallowing detection may function as a valid screening test to identify dysphagia in at-risk populations. To automate swallow identification, acoustic source and vocal tract features were extracted from two types of swallows and eight upper airway movements from nine healthy subjects. Swallow vs non-swallow classification accuracy was 96.3 ± 1.1%. The results provide useful methods for further development of automated tools for identification of patients with swallowing impairment. PMID:23927214

  15. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262

  16. Obesity epidemic: time to swallow the frog.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ross E

    2003-11-01

    Mark Twain once said, "If you have to swallow a frog, don't stare at it too long." I believe that members of the healthcare community have been staring at the obesity epidemic for too long. PMID:20086443

  17. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  18. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, LOOKING SOUTH (This northern-most facade of the barn was originally a board and batten wall with two sliding doors. In the early decades of the twentieth century Frederick Edward Arnold moved the wall and doors; they now make up the north end of bay 3. This was done to ease machine storage) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  19. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p < 0.02) and disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration. PMID:21096774

  20. Computer-assisted detection of swallowing difficulty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Chan; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Woo Hyung; Kim, Hee Chan; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate classification performance of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for diagnosing swallowing difficulty based on the hyoid movement data attained from videofluoroscopic swallowing study, the hyoid kinematics during the swallowing of 2 mL of liquid barium solution were analyzed for 90 healthy volunteers and 116 dysphagic stroke patients. SVM was used to classify the kinematic results as normal or dysfunctional swallowing. Various kernel functions and kernel parameters were used for optimization. Features were selected to find an optimal feature subset and to minimize redundancy. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under a receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to assess the discrimination performance. In 19 out of 26 features, mean comparison revealed a significant difference between healthy subjects and dysphagic patients. By reducing the number of features to 10, an AUC of 0.9269 could be reached. Common features showing the best classification in both kernel functions included forward maximum excursion time, upward maximum excursion time, maximum excursion length, upward maximum velocity time, upward maximum acceleration time, maximum acceleration, maximum acceleration time, and mean acceleration. SVM-based classification method with the use of kernel functions showed an outstanding (AUC of 0.9269) discrimination performance for either healthy or dysphagic hyoid movement during swallowing. We expect that this classification method will be useful as an adjunct diagnostic tool by providing automatic detection of swallowing dysfunction as well as a research tool providing deeper understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27480734

  1. THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. (The barn’s gambrel roof is supported by seven bents made-up of diagonal stilts, collar beams, and cross-bracing that tie into the support columns on the ground floor and the sill plates. Also visible are the cables installed across each bent in 2000-02 to reinforce the construction, the hay door at the gable end, and the ladder and opening accessing the barn’s ground floor.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  2. BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph was taken from the east side of the hedgerow along Fort Casey Road. Also shown are the mechanic’s shop, to the west of the barn; the tractor shed, directly south of the shop; and the monitor-roofed hay and lambing barn to the east. The Hugh Crockett house sat between the tractor shed and the hay and lambing barn. Only its chimney remains. - Boyer Farm, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. 14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking south - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  4. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  5. Swallowing dysfunction following endotracheal intubation: Age matters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Ku, Shih-Chi; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate postextubation swallowing dysfunction (PSD) 21 days after endotracheal extubation and to examine whether PSD is time-limited and whether age matters.For this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 151 adult critical care patients (≥20 years) who were intubated for at least 48 hours and had no pre-existing neuromuscular disease or swallowing dysfunction. Participants were assessed for time (days) to pass bedside swallow evaluations (swallow 50 mL of water without difficulty) and to resume total oral intake. Outcomes were compared between younger (20-64 years) and older participants (≥65 years).PSD, defined as inability to swallow 50 mL of water within 48 hours after extubation, affected 92 participants (61.7% of our sample). At 21 days postextubation, 17 participants (15.5%) still failed to resume total oral intake and were feeding-tube dependent. We found that older participants had higher PSD rates at 7, 14, and 21 days postextubation, and took significantly longer to pass the bedside swallow evaluations (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.006) and to resume total oral intake (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.003) than their younger counterparts. Older participants also had significantly higher rates of subsequent feeding-tube dependence than younger patients (24.1 vs 5.8%; P = 0.008).Excluding patients with pre-existing neuromuscular dysfunction, PSD is common and prolonged. Age matters in the time needed to recover. Swallowing and oral intake should be monitored and interventions made, if needed, in the first 7 to 14 days postextubation, particularly for older patients. PMID:27310972

  6. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  7. 2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west and north sides of barn, northwest side of light tower, and west northwest and north northeast sides of keeper's house - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  8. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that entire south side has been covered by briar bushes. Bushes also obscure west side of creamery to the right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is constructed of hand-hewn, 10" square post and beams with mortise and tenon, pegged joints. The photograph also shows the hayfork and track, double doors on the north façade, and window opening. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. 2. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH RELATIONSHIP TO LITTLE WOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF LANE BARN WITH RELATIONSHIP TO LITTLE WOOD RIVER. THE MAIN INTERSECTION OF RICHFIELD IS LOCATED THROUGH THE TREES IN THE RIGHT CENTER OF IMAGE. CAMERA IS POINTING NORTH/NORTHWEST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

  12. CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge once spanned Crockett Lake. The pylons are all that remain. The Crockett barn’s hipped roof can be seen just under the tree line left of center. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  13. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  14. A Second Look at Douglas Barnes's "From Communication to Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits Douglas Barnes's book-length exploration of the implications for teachers of a constructivist epistemology, notably in relation to the importance of small-group talk in classrooms. Empirically based consideration of small-group exploratory pupil-pupil talk enabled Barnes to reveal the learning strategies such a context…

  15. INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions can be seen on the left. The space that originally served as the milking parlor has now been converted into animal pens for goats, chickens, and pigs.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW. RED BARN WITH HEX SIGNS. DATE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. RED BARN WITH HEX SIGNS. DATE AND NAME PAINTED IN CENTER OF FRONT WALL. SIGNS ARE LIGHT GREEN AND YELLOW IN WHITE CIRCLES. LOWER ONES WERE PAINED OVER OLD TEAR DROP SWASTIKA. DOORS AND WINDOWS HAVE PEDIMENT HEADS - H. & S. Hoffman Barn (1853), Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA

  17. Chemical Sensing Regulates Mastication/Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kensuke; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Mastication and swallowing are the first stage of digestion involving several motor processes such as food intake, intra-oral food transport, bolus formation and chewing and swallowing reflex. These complicated motor functions are accomplished by the well-coordinated activities in the jaw, hyoid, tongue, facial and pharyngeal muscles. Although the basic activity patterns of these movements are controlled by the brainstem pattern generators, these movements generate various peripheral sensory inputs. Among the sensory inputs, it is well-known that somatic sensory inputs play important roles in reflexively modulating the movements so that the final motor outputs fit the environmental demand. However, little is known about the effects of chemical sensory inputs such as taste and olfaction originating from the ingested foods by these movements. A possible reason could be raised that cognition of the chemical sensory inputs at the higher brain also influences the movements, so it is difficult to discuss the neural mechanisms underlying the observed effect. In this review, we focus on the effects of chemical sensory inputs on the masticatory movements and initiation of swallowing. We first summarize chemical sensory inputs occurring during mastication and swallowing, and their receptive mechanisms. In addition, we will introduce the effect of application of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution as an umami taste to the oropharynx on the swallow initiation which is involuntary controlled and the possible neural mechanisms underlying this effect is discussed. PMID:26881439

  18. The GEMPAK Barnes objective analysis scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Desjardins, M.; Kocin, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    GEMPAK, an interactive computer software system developed for the purpose of assimilating, analyzing, and displaying various conventional and satellite meteorological data types is discussed. The objective map analysis scheme possesses certain characteristics that allowed it to be adapted to meet the analysis needs GEMPAK. Those characteristics and the specific adaptation of the scheme to GEMPAK are described. A step-by-step guide for using the GEMPAK Barnes scheme on an interactive computer (in real time) to analyze various types of meteorological datasets is also presented.

  19. Effects of pollution on swallowing: how little we know

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.B.; Silver, K.H. )

    1992-06-01

    Swallowing is an essential function of the upper alimentary tract. It is highly complex, requiring precise coordination of numerous nerves and muscles of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Swallowing is integrated with other physiologic functions, including mastication and respiration. Impairments of swallowing may result from many different structural or physiologic disorders. Little is currently known about the direct effects of pollution on swallowing. Structures critical to swallowing, however, are vulnerable to damage by environmental hazards such as exposure to ionizing radiation or intake of toxins by ingestion or inhalation. The relationship of swallowing to environmental lung disease is an area of particular interest because impaired swallowing may result in aspiration of food particles into the lung, and because pollutants may hamper airway defense mechanisms. In this article, we discuss the possible impact of selected environmental agents on swallowing and suggest future directions for research.26 references.

  20. Esophageal perforation in a sword swallower.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, S A; Wells, P R

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old man who sustained an esophageal perforation as a result of sword swallowing. An esophagogram established the diagnosis, and surgical repair was attempted. However, 19 days later, a persistent leak and deterioration of the patient's condition necessitated a transhiatal esophagectomy with a left cervical esophagogastrostomy. The patient recovered and has resumed his daily activities at the circus, with the exception of sword swallowing. This case report presents an unusual mechanism for a potentially lethal injury. Our search of the English-language medical literature revealed no other report of esophageal perforation resulting from sword swallowing. Management of such an injury is often difficult, and a favorable outcome is dependent on prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:11330747

  1. Transdermal clonidine in patients with swallowing dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Gregory; Bharathan, Thayyullathil; Shifrin, Inna

    2014-09-01

    Patients with swallowing dysfunction are usually very ill and have a constellation of challenging issues requiring palliation. Accumulation of oropharyngeal secretions leads to a substantial effort of medical teams including doctors, nurses, respiratory therapists, and ancillary staff. We present 10 patients successfully treated with application of transdermal clonidine film. It was well tolerated, provided quick control of secretions, and reduced staff labor. We suggest that transdermal clonidine can be used as antisialogogue in patients with swallowing dysfunction. Clonidine pharmacology is physiologic grounds for this clinical application. PMID:24813023

  2. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  3. View of the cinder block milking barn (UT126D) and attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the cinder block milking barn (UT-126-D) and attached livestock barn (UT-126-B) with large barn (UT-126-A) in the foreground, looking east-northeast - Thomas Powers Ranch, Milking Barn, 4137 North Highway 224, Snyderville, Summit County, UT

  4. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  5. [Preventing swallowing disorders in neurological patients].

    PubMed

    Poindessous, Jean-Luc; Basta, Martial; Da Silva, José; Tillard, Audrey; Rasquier, Stéphanie; Héron, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Swallowing disorders in neurological rehabilitation are common and important as they can have harmful consequences. A multi-disciplinary hospital team was created to study ways of preventing their occurrence. This article presents the areas to focus on and the main orientations of patient management. PMID:26654505

  6. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis. PMID:21392404

  7. Effect of swallowing exercises in independent elderly.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Mai; Honda, Yasutoshi; Tasaka, Akinori; Nagasawa, Keiko; Ishida, Ryo; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swallowing exercises on oral function in independent elderly patients visiting the Department of Prosthodontics at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. Twenty-nine patients aged over 65 years (15 men and 14 women; mean age, 75.0 years) in whom treatment was completed at this college were enrolled in the study. The patients were instructed on how to perform swallowing exercises monthly (including at baseline) for the first 2 months from the start of the study and asked to perform those exercises at least once daily. At the beginning and end of the study (a 3-month study period), the Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test was conducted and occlusal force, oral diadochokinesis, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, stimulated whole saliva flow rate, salivary pH at rest, and salivary buffering capacity measured to determine the effects of the exercises on oral function. Analyses demonstrated significant increases in diadochokinesis rate (/ta/ and /ka/) and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (p<0.05), suggesting that the swallowing exercises promote the maintenance and improvement of oral function in the independent elderly. PMID:23903582

  8. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  9. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  10. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    PubMed

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness. PMID:27090424

  11. Effects of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date on growth and survival of Common Tern Sterna hirundo chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, J.M.; Hatch, J.J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date to growth and survival of second-hatched chicks (those chicks making the greatest contribution to differences in productivity among pairs) by exchanging clutches among nests of Common Terns Sterna hirundo matched for lay-date (range 13 May to 9 June). The mass of a second-laid egg in an exchanged clutch ranged from 17.70 to 23.80 g. Growth and survival were studied during three periods: early (days 0-3), middle (days 3-12) and late (days 12-25). Both egg mass and hatch-date were important predictors of hatchling mass (positive relationships), although there was no seasonal trend in egg mass. During the middle period, hatch-date was a significant predictor of mass gain and survival (inverse relationships). After controlling for hatch-date, other indices of parental quality made only small contributions to chick mass gain and survival. Our results suggest that although breeding early generally leads to greater overall survival of chicks, several important interactions among egg 'quality', parental quality and early laying may affect breeding success under specific conditions. ?? 2006 British Ornithologists' Union.

  12. RESPIRATORY–SWALLOW PHASE PATTERNS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO SWALLOWING IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Martin B.; McFarland, David H.; Dozier, Thomas S.; Blair, Julie; Ayers, Christopher; Michel, Yvonne; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Day, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Unstable respiratory–swallowing coordination has been associated with disorders and disease. The goals of this study were (1) to describe respiratory–swallow patterns in patients with dysphagia consequent to treatments for cancers of the oropharynx and (2) to determine the association between respiratory–swallow patterns, airway invasion, and overall severity of swallowing impairment. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional design compared respiratory–swallow patterns in 20 patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer and 20 healthy, age-matched control participants. Nasal airflow direction was synchronously recorded with videofluoroscopic imaging in participants who swallowed 5-mL thin liquid barium boluses. Results Respiratory–swallow patterns differed between groups. Most control participants initiated and completed swallowing bracketed by expiratory airflow. Swallowing in patients often interrupted inspiratory flow and was associated with penetration or aspiration of the bolus. Conclusions We suggest nonexpiratory bracketed respiratory–swallowing phase patterns in patients with oropharyngeal cancer may place patients at greater risk of airway penetration or aspiration during swallowing. PMID:19780056

  13. 13. PORT PROFILE VIEW OF BARN DOOR RUDDER, SCOW SCHOONER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PORT PROFILE VIEW OF BARN DOOR RUDDER, SCOW SCHOONER ALMA. NOTE RIGGING THAT ALLOWS STEERING WHEEL TO BE RAISED FOR VIEWING OVER HAY STACKS - Scow Schooner ALMA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, WINDMILL, AND POTATO CELLAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Hjelm Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  15. 19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. 15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  18. 6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. RElationship of residence, claim house, east tool shed, barn, garage, and pole building to overall farmstead site, looking northwest - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  19. 11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Relationship of barn, east tool shed, west tool shed, and residence to overall farmstead site, looking southeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  20. View southeast, general view, barn at left Woods Homestead, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, general view, barn at left - Woods Homestead, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  1. View west, interior, detail of joinery Woods Homestead, Barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, interior, detail of joinery - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  2. 4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, SHOWING DETAIL OF TRACK WORK AND OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. 9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM WAREHOUSE, SHOWING TRACK MATERIAL STORED IN YARD - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. BARN, TOWER HOUSE, AND GRANARY FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN, TOWER HOUSE, AND GRANARY FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. (Image illustrates the granary’s skewed orientation in relationship to the other buildings on the site.) - Engle Farm, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; SOUTH ELEVATION; EAST ELEVATION; NORTH ELEVATION; WEST ELEVATION. - Stirling's Quarters, 555 Yellow Springs Road, Tredyffrin Township, Valley Forge, Chester County, PA

  6. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  7. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486138

  10. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology. PMID:26607160

  11. Particulate matter dynamics in naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) concentrations and ventilation rates, in two naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns, were continuously monitored for two years. The first barn (B1) housed 400 fresh lactating cows, while the second barn (B2) housed 835 non-fresh lactating cows and 15 bulls. The relationships between PM concentrations and accepted governing parameters (environmental conditions and cattle activity) were examined. In comparison with other seasons, PM concentrations were lowest in winter. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations in spring and autumn were relatively higher than those in summer. Overall: the concentrations in the barns and ambient air, for all the PM categories (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP), exhibited non-normal positively skewed distributions, which tended to overestimate mean or average concentrations. Only concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 increased with ambient air temperature (R2 = 0.60-0.82), whereas only concentrations of TSP increased with cattle activity. The mean respective emission rates of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP for the two barns ranged between 1.6-4.0, 11.9-15.0, and 48.7-52.5 g d-1 cow-1, indicating similar emissions from the two barns.

  12. Swallowing during ongoing fluid ingestion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Grill, H J

    1989-10-01

    In order to identify fixed versus flexible aspects of swallowing and oromotor control, we developed a method for the concurrent analysis of swallow frequency, swallow volume, and the temporal correlation between swallowing and rhythmic orolingual movements during prolonged bouts of fluid ingestion in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats. Rats actively ingested 0.1 M sucrose solutions infused intraorally: (a) at a constant rate within sessions; and (b) during separate sessions across which the rate of intraoral infusion (= ingestion rate) was varied. Salient characteristics of 'intraoral intake' included: (1) covariation of swallow frequency and swallow volume to mediate adjustments in the rate of ingestion; (2) emission of rhythmic coupled movements (5-7 Hz) of the jaw and tongue that serve to transport fluid through the mouth; (3) a 20-40 ms increase in the duration of the rhythmic movement cycle associated with swallow onset; and (4) emergence of pauses between bursts of rhythmic oromotor behavior with increases in cumulative intake. That intraoral intake and fluid ingestion via spout-licking (Weijnen et al., Brain Behav. Evol., 25, 1985) share all of these features suggests strongly that common neural processes, relatively uninfluenced by sources of sensory feedback attending contact with an environmental fluid source, underlie these aspects of normal fluid ingestion. The dynamic adjustment of swallow frequency and swallow volume presents a challenge to traditional models of reflexive swallow initiation derived primarily from the neurophysiological study of acute, non-behaving preparations. PMID:2804670

  13. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload. PMID:26650792

  14. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual ...

  15. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 嚥下障害 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Barium Swallow 바륨 조영검사 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  16. Vegetative expansion and seed output of swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallow-wort, and V. nigrum, black swallow-wort) are herbaceous, perennial, twining vines related to milkweeds (Apocynaceae). Pale swallow-wort is native to Ukraine and southeastern European Russia; black swallow-wort is native to southwestern Europe. Bot...

  17. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES OF THE BARN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. The sliding door on the barns east façade leads into the animal pens and milking stalls. The barn’s hip-on-gable roof is covered in corrugated metal. The gable end is clad in board and battens, matching the rest of the barns exterior. The pump house can be seen to the north; the garage to the west. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  19. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  20. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  1. Self-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Theresa A.; Mann, Eric A.; Stoklosa, Joseph B.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Hyolaryngeal elevation is essential for airway protection during swallowing and is mainly a reflexive response to oropharyngeal sensory stimulation. Targeted intramuscular electrical stimulation can elevate the resting larynx and, if applied during swallowing, may improve airway protection in dysphagic patients with inadequate hyolaryngeal motion. To be beneficial, patients must synchronize functional electrical stimulation (FES) with their reflexive swallowing and not adapt to FES by reducing the amplitude or duration of their own muscle activity. We evaluated the ability of nine healthy adults to manually synchronize FES with hyolaryngeal muscle activity during discrete swallows, and tested for motor adaptation. Hooked-wire electrodes were placed into the mylo- and thyrohyoid muscles to record electromyographic activity from one side of the neck and deliver monopolar FES for hyolaryngeal elevation to the other side. After performing baseline swallows, volunteers were instructed to trigger FES with a thumb switch in synchrony with their swallows for a series of trials. An experimenter surreptitiously disabled the thumb switch during the final attempt, creating a foil. From the outset, volunteers synchronized FES with the onset of swallow-related thyrohyoid activity (~225 ms after mylohyoid activity onset), preserving the normal sequence of muscle activation. A comparison between average baseline and foil swallows failed to show significant adaptive changes in the amplitude, duration, or relative timing of activity for either muscle, indicating that the central pattern generator for hyolaryngeal elevation is immutable with short term stimulation that augments laryngeal elevation during the reflexive, pharyngeal phase of swallowing. PMID:16107520

  2. Variability of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallow in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Daniel G.; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J.; Bolser, Donald C.; Pitts, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design. Methods We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal. Results Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter); a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath) activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator), thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor) and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow. Conclusions The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior. PMID:25171095

  3. Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Loret, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E.

    2015-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two naturally-ventilated dairy freestall barns measured for a total of 21 d, one week each in May, July, and September 2009, are presented in this article. The holding capacity of Barn 1 (B1) was 400 Holstein cows, while that for Barn 2 (B2) was 850 cows. Air samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the barns via a custom made multiplexer gas sampling system for measurement of gas concentrations using a photoacoustic infrared multigas analyzer. Barn ventilation rates were based on air velocity measured with arrays of 3-D ultrasonic anemometers at inlets and outlets. Gas concentrations (10 min means) in the barns ranged from: 443-789 ppm for CO2, 0.0-39.4 ppm for CH4, and 0.25-0.39 ppm for N2O; with mean concentrations ranging from 6 to 20%, 0 to 4%, and 26 to 180% above the average background concentrations for CO2, N2O, and CH4, respectively. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 enhanced concentrations were relatively stronger (R of 0.67-0.74) than between CO2 and N2O enhanced concentrations (R of 0.10-0.20). Environmental conditions did not significantly (p = 0.46) impact the enhanced concentrations of N2O in the barns. All three parameters (T, RH, and v) had significant (p < 0.01) influences on CO2 enhanced concentrations; while only T (p < 0.01) and v (p < 0.01) had significant influences on CH4 enhanced concentrations. Enhanced concentrations of CO2 and CH4 correlated negatively with all three parameters. The influence of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on CO2 enhanced concentrations was higher than that of v; while the effect v had on CH4 enhanced concentrations was slightly higher than that of the temperature-humidity index. The average emissions, based on hourly means, ranged from 5.3 to 10.7 kg d-1 AU-1 for CO2; 0.3 to 2.5 g d-1 AU-1 for N2O; and between 67 and 252 g d-1 AU-1 for CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions from the smaller barn, B1 (0.4-2.5 g d-1 AU-1), were significantly higher than from the larger barn, B2

  5. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Fontijn-Tekamp, Anneke; van der Bilt, Andries

    2005-08-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subjects (age 42 +/- 12 years) by counting the number of chewing cycles needed to prepare food for swallowing. The influence of oral physiology on the swallowing threshold was determined by measuring salivary flow rate, maximum bite force and masticatory performance. We used about 10 cm(3) of bread, toast, melba toast, breakfast cake, peanuts and cheese to determine the influence on the swallowing threshold of various food characteristics, e.g. hardness, moisture and fat. Furthermore, we tested the effect of buttering the bread, toast, melba toast and breakfast cake on the swallowing threshold. Salivary flow rates were significantly and negatively correlated with the number of chewing cycles of melba toast and breakfast cake. Hence, subjects with more saliva needed less chewing cycles for these dry products. Maximum bite force and masticatory performance had an influence on the swallowing threshold for the hard products only (carrot and peanut). Although significant, the correlation coefficients were less than 0.28. Thus, the oral physiology parameters explained less than 10% of the variance in the swallowing threshold. We found significantly different numbers of chewing cycles for the various foods, ranging from 17 for cake to 63 for carrot. Hard and dry products needed more chewing cycles until swallowing. Buttering the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles needed before swallowing. This was especially true for the dry products cake, melba toast and toast. Hard and dry products require more chewing cycles and longer time in mouth until swallowing for sufficient breakdown to take place and for enough saliva to be added to form a coherent bolus safe for

  6. Swallowing/ventilation interactions during oral swallow in normal children and children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Casas, M J; Kenny, D J; McPherson, K A

    1994-01-01

    Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer from feeding disorders. Twenty children with spastic CP and 20 neurologically normal children (age range 6.2-12.9 years) were monitored with ultrasound imaging of the oral cavity synchronized with surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings of masseter and infrahyoid muscles and respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) recordings during feeding tasks. A lip-cup contact detector signaled contact of the drinking cup on the lip during liquid tasks. Children with CP required more time than normals for collection and organization of 5 ml and 75 ml liquid boluses for swallowing. The ventilatory preparation phase, recovery to baseline resting ventilatory pattern after swallowing, and total time for task completion were longer in children with CP for 5-ml and 75-ml tasks. The interval from lip-cup contact until alteration of ventilation from baseline resting ventilatory pattern was longer for children with CP during 75-ml tasks but not for 5-ml tasks. The interval from completion of the task-related cookie swallow until initiation of the next swallow was longer in children with CP than in normal children. These data provide evidence that children with CP manage solid boluses more easily than liquid boluses and small liquid boluses more easily than large liquid boluses. This investigation statistically confirms empirically based recommendations that children with CP be allowed more time to complete feeding tasks and consume small volume drinks rather than large volume drinks. PMID:8131424

  7. CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett barn was constructed into the sloping landscape. The Pennsylvania Bank Barn construction style allows for access at ground level on both the upper and lower floors. The Crockett granary is visible on the right hand side of the photograph. Currently a property line runs between the two buildings. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. Multimodal swallowing evaluation with high-resolution manometry reveals subtle swallowing changes in early and mid-stage Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Corinne A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) has detrimental effects on swallowing function. Treatment options are largely behavioral; thus, patients would benefit from an earlier start to therapy. Early swallowing changes in PD are not well-known, so patients do not typically receive swallowing treatment until later in the progression of PD. Objective We used predictive modeling to determine what quantitative swallowing variables best differentiate individuals with early to mid-stage PD from healthy controls. Methods Participants included twenty-six individuals with early to mid-stage PD and 26 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Swallowing was evaluated by simultaneous high-resolution manometry and videofluoroscopy as well as the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ). Binomial logistic regression was performed on 4 sets of data: 1) high-resolution manometry only; 2) videofluoroscopy only; 3) SSQ only; and 4) all data combined. Results A model from a combined data set had the highest accuracy in differentiating individuals with PD from controls. The model included maximum pressure in the velopharynx (soft palate), pressure variability in the velopharynx, and the SSQ item concerning difficulty with saliva swallowing. No significant models could be generated using the videofluoroscopy data. Conclusions Individuals with PD show quantitative changes in pressure generation and are able to self-assess aspects of swallowing function in the early and mid-stages of PD, even in the absence of swallowing changes seen on videofluoroscopy. A multimodal approach for the assessment of swallowing may be more accurate for determining subtle swallowing changes that occur in the early stages of PD. PMID:26891176

  9. Integrating Academic and Clinical Learning Using a Clinical Swallowing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to integrate classroom knowledge and a clinical swallowing assessment. Twenty master's-level graduate students in a dysphagia course conducted a clinical swallowing assessment with a resident of an independent retirement community. The exercise was designed to allow students an…

  10. Assessment of Infant Oral Sensorimotor and Swallowing Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Brian; Arvedson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing is the result of a complex interface between the developing nervous system, various physiological systems, and the environment. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology, development, and assessment of feeding and swallowing during early infancy. In recent years, there have been exciting…

  11. Use of Electromagnetic Midsagittal Articulography in the Study of Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal H.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The tongue functions as the primary articulator during the oropharyngeal stages of swallowing. However, detailed descriptions of the kinematics and spatiotemporal variability of tongue behaviors during swallowing are limited to a handful of analyses of data from the X-ray microbeam database. In this article, a new technique, electromagnetic…

  12. Mechanisms of Airway Protection during Chin-Down Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Phoebe; Anderson, Cheryl; Humbert, Ianessa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of chin-down swallowing on laryngeal vestibule closure. It also investigated the technique's rehabilitative impact, by assessing the stability of effects across multiple trials and aftereffects in neutral swallows on cessation of the technique. Method: Duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (dLVC) was…

  13. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  14. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  15. Temporal and durational patterns associating respiration and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Klahn, M S; Perlman, A L

    1999-01-01

    This study obtained initial normative data on the temporal coordination of respiration and swallowing events in 12 young adults using a first-generation Respirodeglutometer. In addition, direction of airflow before and after deglutive apnea was obtained. Three swallows of two viscosities of bolus material were performed by each subject, yielding a total of 72 swallows. Qualitative and quanitative analyses were performed. Time of onset of submental surface electromyography and time of laryngeal movement were found to differ between males and females. Males began submental muscle contraction before females and laryngeal movement after females. Duration of deglutition apnea for all swallows was 0.75 +/- 0.14 sec. Expiration occurred before the deglutition apnea 93% of the time and after the deglutition apnea 100% of the time. A modal pattern of events obtained with the Respirodeglutometer was present in 42% of the swallows, and an additional 47% had only one event differ from that order. PMID:10341108

  16. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret Hess

    2012-01-01

    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  17. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  19. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from dairy barn floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have compound positive impacts on reducing NH3 emissions from dairy barns. Mixtures of feces-urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed four levels (g kg-1) of dietary tannin extract: 0 (0T), 4.5 (low tannin, LT), 9.0 (...

  20. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  1. Saving a Progressive Vision: Moving the Barnes Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the progressive understanding of art advanced by Albert Barnes, and asks how the educational vision for his large collection of art might be preserved as it has now moves from its location in the idyllic suburban setting in Merion, PA to the hustle and bustle of central Philadelphia. I submit that the vision will be endangered…

  2. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Fernandez-Caldas, E.; Reed, C.E.; May, J.J.; Pratt, D.S. )

    1989-08-01

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns.

  3. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  4. Oral medication delivery in impaired swallowing: thickening liquid medications for safe swallowing alters dissolution characteristics.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Yady J; Sparkes, Arron M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Nissen, Lisa M; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is available in a wide range of oral formulations designed to meet the needs of the population across the age-spectrum, but for people with impaired swallowing, i.e. dysphagia, both solid and liquid medications can be difficult to swallow without modification. The effect of a commercial polysaccharide thickener, designed to be added to fluids to promote safe swallowing by dysphagic patients, on rheology and acetaminophen dissolution was tested using crushed immediate-release tablets in water, effervescent tablets in water, elixir and suspension. The inclusion of the thickener, comprised of xanthan gum and maltodextrin, had a considerable impact on dissolution; acetaminophen release from modified medications reached 12-50% in 30 min, which did not reflect the pharmacopeia specification for immediate release preparations. Flow curves reflect the high zero-shear viscosity and the apparent yield stress of the thickened products. The weak gel nature, in combination with high G' values compared to G'' (viscoelasticity) and high apparent yield stress, impact drug release. The restriction on drug release from these formulations is not influenced by the theoretical state of the drug (dissolved or dispersed), and the approach typically used in clinical practice (mixing crushed tablets into pre-prepared thickened fluid) cannot be improved by altering the order of incorporation or mixing method. PMID:26857812

  5. Interactive image processing in swallowing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, Gail A.; Robbins, JoAnne; Rosenbek, John C.

    1991-06-01

    Dynamic radiographic imaging of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus during swallowing is used commonly in clinical diagnosis, treatment and research. Images are recorded on videotape and interpreted conventionally by visual perceptual methods, limited to specific measures in the time domain and binary decisions about the presence or absence of events. An image processing system using personal computer hardware and original software has been developed to facilitate measurement of temporal, spatial and temporospatial parameters. Digitized image sequences derived from videotape are manipulated and analyzed interactively. Animation is used to preserve context and increase efficiency of measurement. Filtering and enhancement functions heighten image clarity and contrast, improving visibility of details which are not apparent on videotape. Distortion effects and extraneous head and body motions are removed prior to analysis, and spatial scales are controlled to permit comparison among subjects. Effects of image processing on intra- and interjudge reliability and research applications are discussed.

  6. Swallowed dentures: Two cases and a review

    PubMed Central

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Isaev, Mubariz; Orujova, Lala; Isaev, Emin; Yaskin, Evgeniy; Neronov, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, anesthesiologists etc. in terms of prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscus necrosis, perforation, penetration to neighbor organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Presentation of cases First case is a 54-year-old female who accidentally swallowed retractable one-tooth denture during fall about 22 h before admission and clinical manifestation of acute small bowel obstruction developed. The patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with retrieval of the foreign body. The second case is a 31-year-old male who accidentally ingested fixed one-tooth prosthesis while eating which impacted in the ileocaecal valve. During the preparation to colonoscopy the denture spontaneously passed out with stools. Discussion Denture ingestion is more common among patients with psychoneurologic deficit, alcohol and drug abusers. Among healthy and younger population denture ingestion is rare. Both reported patients are not elder. Thus dislodgement of removable or fixed dentures is another risk factor of denture ingestion. Most common site of denture impaction is esophagus; small bowel impaction is rare. Moreover, in most reported cases, small bowel impaction of ingested dentures leads to small bowel perforation. In our first case the complication of denture ingestion appeared to be bowel obstruction what is even rarer. Conclusion Fixed dentures can be accidentally ingested as well as removable dentures. Denture loosening leads to accidental denture ingestion. Patients with denture loosening should be recommended to visit dentist as soon as possible. PMID:26635957

  7. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds. Figure 1 Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler. PMID:22408729

  8. Acoustic technique for determining timing of velopharyngeal closure in swallowing.

    PubMed

    Smith, D; Hamlet, S; Jones, L

    1990-01-01

    A pure tone sound source was introduced at a nostril and monitored by a miniature accelerometer on the throat. During velopharyngeal closure in a swallow, the pure tone component in the accelerometer signal was attenuated. Throat accelerometer recordings were made simultaneously with videofluoroscopy of a modified barium swallow in adults with normal velopharyngeal mechanisms. It was verified that the period of sound attenuation corresponded to the period of velar closure. This noninvasive method of monitoring otherwise silent velopharyngeal closure holds promise for normative studies on swallowing function, as an adjunct method in longitudinal assessment, and as a training aid. PMID:2249490

  9. Sensory Input Pathways and Mechanisms in Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on the physiology of swallowing has confirmed that the oropharyngeal swallowing process can be modulated, both volitionally and in response to different sensory stimuli. In this review we identify what is known regarding the sensory pathways and mechanisms that are now thought to influence swallowing motor control and evoke its response. By synthesizing the current state of research evidence and knowledge, we identify continuing gaps in our knowledge of these mechanisms and pose questions for future research. PMID:20814803

  10. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components. PMID:24236910

  11. Neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and detection of motor imagery of swallow for dysphagia rehabilitation-A review.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Ang, K K; Wang, C; Phua, K S; Guan, C

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing is an essential function in our daily life; nevertheless, stroke or other neurodegenerative diseases can cause the malfunction of swallowing function, ie, dysphagia. The objectives of this review are to understand the neural and cortical basis of swallowing and tongue, and review the latest techniques on the detection of motor imagery of swallow (MI-SW) and motor imagery of tongue movements (MI-TM), so that a practical system can be developed for the rehabilitation of poststroke dysphagia patients. Specifically, we firstly describe the swallowing process and how the swallowing function is assessed clinically. Secondly, we review the techniques that performed the neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and tongue based on different modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and magnetoencephalography. Thirdly, we review the techniques that performed detection and analysis of MI-SW and MI-TM for dysphagia stroke rehabilitation based on electroencephalography (EEG) and NIRS. Finally, discussions on the advantages and limitations of the studies are presented; an example system and future research directions for the rehabilitation of stroke dysphagia patients are suggested. PMID:27590970

  12. March-June 2009 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-09-08

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fifth and sixth quarterly monitoring events, conducted in March and June

  13. Coordination of cough and swallow in vivo and in silico

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Teresa; Morris, Kendall; Lindsey, Bruce; Davenport, Paul; Poliacek, Ivan; Bolser, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Cough and swallow are airway protective behaviors. The pharyngeal phase of swallow prevents aspiration of oral material (saliva, food and liquid), by epiglottal movement, laryngeal adduction, and clearing of the mouth and pharynx. Cough is an aspiration-response behavior which removes material from the airway. Coordination of these behaviors is vital to protect the airway from further aspiration-promoting events, such as a swallow occurring during the inspiratory phase of cough. The operational characteristics, primary strategies, and peripheral inputs which coordinate cough and swallow are unknown. This lack of knowledge impedes understanding and treatment of deficits in airway protection, such as the co-occurrence of dystussia and dysphagia common in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as stroke. PMID:22198014

  14. Swallowing and speech therapy after definitive treatment for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Samlan, Robin A; Webster, Kimberly T

    2002-10-01

    As the trend in laryngeal cancer treatment shifts towards organ-conservation surgeries and organ-preservation protocols, patients will more often retain anatomy vital to communication and swallowing. Despite a conservative approach, results of treatment may have debilitating effects. Rehabilitation efforts are directed towards a return to functional, if not normal, status. Although there are predictable trends in voice and swallowing disorders of patients with laryngeal cancer, posttreatment dysphonia and dysphagia are diverse in presentation. Considering the significant diversity of this population, speech pathologists should work closely with otolaryngologists to determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient. As this article demonstrates, voice and swallowing therapy are necessary components of the rehabilitation process following treatment for head and neck cancers. As always, treatment is tailored to the specific individual and based on information obtained during a thorough evaluation by a speech pathologist. Fortunately, with the help of voice and swallowing therapy, many patients return to functional communication and oral feeding. PMID:12587251

  15. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  16. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (p<0.05). Among 10 subjects, one scored 1-3 using the four evaluation criteria. Overall, no aspiration occurred and a significant improvement in the swallowing function score was observed (p<0.05) after taking the ginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function. PMID:27374286

  17. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES. PMID:26987971

  18. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature. PMID:26463293

  19. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. A direct method of measuring gaseous emissions from naturally ventilated dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Bogan, B. W.; Ni, J.-Q.; Cortus, E. L.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.

    2014-04-01

    Air pollutant emission rates from mechanically ventilated (MV) dairy barns are determined from the product of the differences in concentrations of pollutants in air at the inlet and exhaust points and the corresponding ventilation rates. In contrast to well defined entry and exit points in MV barns, large area air inlets or outlets characterize naturally ventilated (NV) freestall dairy barns. Complicating this scenario even more, pertinent airflow characteristics (velocity and direction) necessary for determining ventilation rates vary continuously, both temporally and spatially. This paper describes implementation of a direct method, generally equivalent to the approach used for MV barns, for determining air emission rates of NV barns. Ultrasonic anemometers (sonics) located at salient points in the barn openings mapped air inflow and outflow velocities necessary to calculate ventilation rates. Pollutant concentrations in the air entering or leaving the barn during a given period were measured at sampling points located next to the anemometers. The air inflow rates were, in general, higher than the air outflow rates from the barns, but diurnal profiles were similar. The observed ventilation characteristics were consistent with prevailing wind directions. Air inflows were observed predominantly at windward openings of the barn, while the outflows were mainly at the barn's leeward openings. Results indicated that either: (i) the average of the air inflow and outflow rates (averaging approach), or (ii) the air inflow rates (inflow-only approach) were credible representations of ventilation rates. Results also revealed use of an on-site weather station and one sonic mounted in the middle of each wall of the barn as a possible approach for determining barn ventilation rates. The suggested use of ventilation rates for interpolating missing concentrations from intermittent gas measurements could potentially increase the integrity of emission rates at significantly lower

  1. Dual tube, counter-flow heat exchange for turkey barns. First quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A prototype of the dual tube, counter-flow heat exchanger for turkey barns is presently built and installed in a turkey barn at Molly Creek Turkey Farm, Swanville, Minnesota. Phase 1 of the project selecting cooperator barn, and taking survey information, is now complete. Drawing existing barn for the design, is now complete; building test model is now complete; and building of prorotype is almost completed. The prototype is now ready for final items, testing and monitoring equipment installed, and to actually run under working conditions.

  2. Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory of laboratory rodents is often assessed via navigational ability in mazes, most popular of which are the water and dry-land (Barnes) mazes. Improved performance over sessions or trials is thought to reflect learning and memory of the escape cage/platform location. Considered less stressful than water mazes, the Barnes maze is a relatively simple design of a circular platform top with several holes equally spaced around the perimeter edge. All but one of the holes are false-bottomed or blind-ending, while one leads to an escape cage. Mildly aversive stimuli (e.g. bright overhead lights) provide motivation to locate the escape cage. Latency to locate the escape cage can be measured during the session; however, additional endpoints typically require video recording. From those video recordings, use of automated tracking software can generate a variety of endpoints that are similar to those produced in water mazes (e.g. distance traveled, velocity/speed, time spent in the correct quadrant, time spent moving/resting, and confirmation of latency). Type of search strategy (i.e. random, serial, or direct) can be categorized as well. Barnes maze construction and testing methodologies can differ for small rodents, such as mice, and large rodents, such as rats. For example, while extra-maze cues are effective for rats, smaller wild rodents may require intra-maze cues with a visual barrier around the maze. Appropriate stimuli must be identified which motivate the rodent to locate the escape cage. Both Barnes and water mazes can be time consuming as 4-7 test trials are typically required to detect improved learning and memory performance (e.g. shorter latencies or path lengths to locate the escape platform or cage) and/or differences between experimental groups. Even so, the Barnes maze is a widely employed behavioral assessment measuring spatial navigational abilities and their potential disruption by genetic, neurobehavioral manipulations, or

  3. Mechanisms of recovery of swallow after supraglottic laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Logemann, J A; Gibbons, P; Rademaker, A W; Pauloski, B R; Kahrilas, P J; Bacon, M; Bowman, J; McCracken, E

    1994-10-01

    This study examines oropharyngeal swallow disorders and measures of pharyngeal and laryngeal movement during deglutition from videofluorographic studies of oropharyngeal swallow in 9 patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy and 9 age-matched normal subjects. The swallows of surgical patients were examined at 2 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Two critical factors in recovery of swallowing were identified: (a) airway closure at the laryngeal entrance, that is, the space between the arytenoid cartilage and the base of the tongue, and (b) the movement of the tongue base to make complete contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall. When patients achieved these two functions, they returned to normal swallowing. The duration of tongue base contact to the posterior pharyngeal wall and extent of anterior movement of the arytenoid increased significantly from 2 weeks to 3 months in the surgical patients. At 2 weeks postsurgery, patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy exhibited significantly shorter airway closure and tongue base to pharyngeal wall contact, reduced laryngeal elevation, increased width of cricopharyngeal (CP) opening, and later onset of airway closure and tongue base movement than normal subjects. These significant differences remained at 3 months postoperatively, although swallow measures were moving toward normal in the patients who had undergone supraglottic laryngectomy. Comparison of patients not eating at 2 weeks with patients at the time of first eating revealed significantly longer duration of tongue base contact to the pharyngeal wall, longer duration of airway closure, and greater movement of the arytenoid in patients who were eating. Results indicate that the focus of swallowing therapy after supraglottic laryngectomy should be on improvement of posterior movement of the tongue base and anterior tilting of the arytenoid to close the airway entrance and improve bolus propulsion (in the case of the tongue base). PMID

  4. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, S.; Brace, R.A.; Longo, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) serum albumin (RISA), /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and /sup 103/Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age.

  5. Compost bedded pack dairy barn management, performance, and producer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Bewley, J M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterize herd performance, producer satisfaction and recommendations, and management practices used by compost bedded pack (CBP) managers in Kentucky (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Farms were visited between October 2010 and March 2011. A random selection of cows housed solely in the CBP were scored for locomotion and hygiene. Changes in monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association performance records, including milk production, SCC, reproductive performance, and daily bulk-tank somatic cell count after moving into the CBP were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3) was used to develop models to describe CBP moisture, CBP temperature at 20.3 cm, and mean herd hygiene. Producers provided 9.0 ± 2.2 m2 of pack space per cow (n = 44). Barns constructed with an attached feed alley cost $1,051 ± 407 per cow (n = 40). Barns constructed without an attached feed alley cost $493 ± 196 per cow (n = 13). Kiln-dried shavings required 0.05 ± 0.04 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 15). Green shavings required 0.07 ± 0.06 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 12). The most-frequently cited benefits of the CBP included cow comfort (n = 28), cow cleanliness (n = 14), and the low-maintenance nature of the system (n = 10). Increased stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperature increased pack temperature, measured at 20.3 cm below the CBP surface. Increased stirring depth, pasture-adjusted space per cow, and drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Mean herd locomotion and hygiene scores were 1.5 ± 0.3 (n = 34) and 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 34), respectively. Increased 20.3-cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved mean herd hygiene. Bulk-tank somatic cell count decreased from the year before to the year after moving into the CBP barn (323,692 ± 7,301 vs. 252,859 ± 7,112 cells/mL, respectively) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary

  6. The relationship between masticatory and swallowing behaviors and body weight.

    PubMed

    Isabel, Carlos Alberto Camargo; Moysés, Marcos Ribeiro; van der Bilt, Andries; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Ribeiro, José Carlos Rabelo; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the main objective parameters of mastication among individuals with different body mass indexes. One hundred and sixty participants matched for gender and age were divided in the following groups according to their body mass index (BMI): Obese group (30 ≤ BMI < 35), Overweight group (25 ≤ BMI < 30), normal range group (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) and underweight group (17 ≤ BMI < 18.5). Each group was composed by forty subjects. The maximum bite force, the masticatory performance, chewing rate and three variables related to swallowing (number of chewing cycles, chewing time, and median particle size) were assessed in all groups. The oral conditions, including the number of teeth, number of occlusal units and salivary flow (unstimulated and stimulated) were also evaluated. Regardless of the BMI, males had a larger bite force and better masticatory and swallowing performances than females. They also chewed faster than females. Individuals of the obese group had the largest median particles sizes (both after 20 chewing cycles and at the moment of swallowing), which indicates a less good masticatory performance. The median particle sizes were negatively correlated with the number of teeth and number of occlusal units in the obese group. We did not observe large differences in masticatory performance and swallowing variables among the four weight groups, although there was a tendency that individuals of the obese group swallowed larger particles. The results of this study do not support the existence of an "obese chewing style". PMID:26253216

  7. A swallowed sewing needle migrating to the liver

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Ünal, Özkan; Özen, Özkan; Bora, Aydın; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2009-01-01

    Context: Swallowing foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Although most objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract with no untoward effect; long, sharppointed, or slender objects can perforate the gut. Migration of a swallowed object to the liver is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature up to now. The aim of this study is to draw attention to this subject once again by contributing a case report of a child with hepatic migration of a swallowed sewing needle. Case Report: A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency room of pediatrics department in our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed tenderness on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory examination revealed increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased white blood cell count. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed foreign body in the liver accompanied by surrounding abscess formation. The foreign body (sewing needle) was removed surgically after two operations. Conclusion: The children may not be able to remember the swallowing of the foreign body or they may try to hide such a condition. The radiological diagnosis in such cases which can be achieved by X-rays, ultrasonography or computed tomography is of critical importance, as well as getting detailed patient history for foreign body swallowing. PMID:22666694

  8. Central Nervous System Control of Voice and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review of the central nervous control systems for voice and swallowing has suggested that the traditional concepts of a separation between cortical and limbic and brain stem control should be refined and more integrative. For voice production, a separation of the non-human vocalization system from the human learned voice production system has been posited based primarily on studies of non-human primates. However, recent humans studies of emotionally based vocalizations and human volitional voice production has shown more integration between these two systems than previously proposed. Recent human studies have shown that reflexive vocalization as well as learned voice production not involving speech, involve a common integrative system. On the other hand, recent studies of non-human primates have provided evidence of some cortical activity during vocalization and cortical changes with training during vocal behavior. For swallowing, evidence from the macaque and functional brain imaging in humans indicates that the control for the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is not primarily under brain stem mechanisms as previously proposed. Studies suggest that the initiation and patterning of swallowing for the pharyngeal phase is also under active cortical control for both spontaneous as well as volitional swallowing in awake humans and non-human primates. PMID:26241238

  9. Automatic food intake detection based on swallowing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Schuckers, Stephanie; Besio, Walter; Sazonov, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fully automatic food intake detection methodology, an important step toward objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. The aim of such monitoring is to improve our understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity and eating disorders. The proposed methodology consists of two stages. First, acoustic detection of swallowing instances based on mel-scale Fourier spectrum features and classification using support vector machines is performed. Principal component analysis and a smoothing algorithm are used to improve swallowing detection accuracy. Second, the frequency of swallowing is used as a predictor for detection of food intake episodes. The proposed methodology was tested on data collected from 12 subjects with various degrees of adiposity. Average accuracies of >80% and >75% were obtained for intra-subject and inter-subject models correspondingly with a temporal resolution of 30s. Results obtained on 44.1 hours of data with a total of 7305 swallows show that detection accuracies are comparable for obese and lean subjects. They also suggest feasibility of food intake detection based on swallowing sounds and potential of the proposed methodology for automatic monitoring of ingestive behavior. Based on a wearable non-invasive acoustic sensor the proposed methodology may potentially be used in free-living conditions. PMID:23125873

  10. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. Methods: We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. Result: After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Conclusion: Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties. PMID:27495080

  11. Hard to swallow: Developmental biological insights into pediatric dysphagia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A; Maynard, Thomas M; Karpinski, Beverly A; Zohn, Irene E; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2016-01-15

    Pediatric dysphagia-feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity--is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties that approximate those seen in pediatric dysphagia. Altered hindbrain patterning, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may result from disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on peripheral and central neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  12. A procedure for denoising dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry is an emerging tool for the assessment of dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). These signals however can be very noisy as a result of physiological and motion artifacts. In this note, we propose a novel scheme for denoising those signals, i.e. a computationally efficient search for the optimal denoising threshold within a reduced wavelet subspace. To determine a viable subspace, the algorithm relies on the minimum value of the estimated upper bound for the reconstruction error. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme using synthetic test signals demonstrated that the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient than minimum noiseless description length (MNDL)-based denoising. It also yields smaller reconstruction errors than MNDL, SURE and Donoho denoising methods. When applied to dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, the proposed scheme exhibits improved performance for dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallows. These results are important for the further development of medical devices based on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals. PMID:19940343

  13. Suppression of Abdominal Motor Activity during Swallowing in Cats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Teresa; Gayagoy, Albright G.; Rose, Melanie J.; Poliacek, Ivan; Condrey, Jillian A.; Musslewhite, M. Nicholas; Shen, Tabitha Y.; Davenport, Paul W.; Bolser, Donald C

    2015-01-01

    Diseases affecting pulmonary mechanics often result in changes to the coordination of swallow and breathing. We hypothesize that during times of increased intrathoracic pressure, swallow suppresses ongoing expiratory drive to ensure bolus transport through the esophagus. To this end, we sought to determine the effects of swallow on abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during expiratory threshold loading in anesthetized cats and in awake-healthy adult humans. Expiratory threshold loads were applied to recruit abdominal motor activity during breathing, and swallow was triggered by infusion of water into the mouth. In both anesthetized cats and humans, expiratory cycles which contained swallows had a significant reduction in abdominal EMG activity, and a greater percentage of swallows were produced during inspiration and/or respiratory phase transitions. These results suggest that: a) spinal expiratory motor pathways play an important role in the execution of swallow, and b) a more complex mechanical relationship exists between breathing and swallow than has previously been envisioned. PMID:26020240

  14. Suppression of the swallowing reflex by stimulation of the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yoshihide; Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ishizuka, Ken'Ichi; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    We study whether the red nucleus is involved in control of swallowing. The swallowing reflex was induced in anesthetized rats by repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. The electromyographic activities of the mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles were recorded in order to identify the swallowing reflex. Repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the red nucleus reduced the number of swallows. The onset latency of the first swallow was increased during repetitive electrical stimulation applied to the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. Microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the red nucleus also reduced the number of swallows. The onset latency of the first swallow was increased after microinjection of monosodium glutamate into the magnocellular part of the red nucleus. These results imply that the red nucleus is involved in the control of swallowing. PMID:26012722

  15. Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Yuji; Hayashi, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan. PMID:22315534

  16. Swallow Syncope: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Criteria, and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Glasser, Stephen; Dutta, Sudhir K.

    2014-01-01

    We recently encountered three patients with episodes of syncope associated with food ingestion. A 31-year-old woman had an episode of syncope in the hospital while drinking soda. Transient asystole was noted on the telemonitor, confirming the diagnosis of swallow syncope. The other two patients were 78- and 80 year old gentlemen, respectively, who presented with recurrent and transient episodes of dizziness during deglutition. Extensive work-up of syncope was negative in both cases and a diagnosis of swallow syncope was made by clinical criteria. These cases illustrate the challenging problem of swallow syncope. The diagnosis can be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation and confirmed with the demonstration of transient brady-arrhythmia during deglutition. Medical management includes avoiding trigger foods, use of anticholinergics, and/or placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:25038205

  17. Spatial and nonspatial escape strategies in the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Fiona E; Reiserer, Randall S; Tomarken, Andrew J; McDonald, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either with or without a discrete visible cue marking the location of the escape hole, which was either in a fixed or variable location across trials. In Experiment 2, all mice were trained with the discrete visible cue marking the target hole location. Two groups were identical to the cued-target groups from Experiment 1, with either fixed or variable escape locations. For these mice, the discrete cue either was the sole predictor of the target location or was perfectly confounded with the spatial extra-maze cues. The third group also used a cued variable target, but a curtain was drawn around the maze to prevent the use of spatial cues to guide navigation. Probe trials with all escape holes blocked were conducted to dissociate the use of spatial and discrete proximal cues. We conclude that the Barnes maze can be solved efficiently using spatial, visual cue, or serial-search strategies. However, mice showed a strong preference for using the distal room cues, even when a discrete visible cue clearly marked the escape location. Importantly, these data show that the cued-target control version of the Barnes maze as typically conducted does not dissociate spatial from nonspatial abilities. PMID:17101874

  18. Respiratory phase resetting and airflow changes induced by swallowing in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Paydarfar, D; Gilbert, R J; Poppel, C S; Nassab, P F

    1995-01-01

    1. Relationships between the timing of respiration and deglutition were studied in thirty awake healthy subjects at rest. Deglutition was monitored by submental electromyography, pharyngeal manometry and videofluoroscopy. Respiration was recorded by measurement of oronasal airflow and chest wall movement. Three types of deglutition were studied: injected bolus swallows, spontaneous swallows, and visually cued swallows of boluses previously placed in the mouth. 2. The effect of each swallow on respiratory rhythm was characterized by measurement of cophase, defined as the interval between the onset of deglutitive submental EMG activity to the onset of subsequent rescheduled inspirations. Cophase was determined for swallows initiated at different phases of the respiratory cycle. In all subjects deglutition caused phase resetting of respiratory rhythm. Cophase was largest for swallows initiated near the the inspiratory-expiratory (E-I) transition and smallest for swallows initiated near the expiratory-inspiratory (E-I) transition. The pattern of respiratory resetting by deglutition was topologically classified as type 0. This pattern was shown for swallows induced by bolus injection or visual cue, and for spontaneous swallows. 3. The incidence of spontaneous deglutition was influenced by the position of the swallow in the respiratory cycle. Few spontaneous swallows were initiated near the E-I transition whereas most occurred from late inspiration to mid-expiration. 4. Deglutition caused an abrupt decrease in airflow leading to an interval of apnoea, followed by a period of expiration. The duration of deglutition apnoea for spontaneous swallows was shorter than that for 5 ml bolus swallows, and was unaffected by the respiratory phase of swallow initiation. The period of expiration after swallowing was longest for swallows initiated at the I-E transition, and shortest for E-I swallows. 5. The intervals between bolus injection and the onset of deglutition apnoea, and the

  19. 4. View northnorthwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north-northwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn and milk house, south and east sides - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. 3. Overview of HiattStricklin property showing the house and barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Overview of Hiatt-Stricklin property showing the house and barn relationship. West side and south gable of barn in the foreground, facing northeast - Hiatt Property, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  1. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and wood shed roof, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  2. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing front and side. Note the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing front and side. Note the open door, the gate post, and log frame, facing northeast - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  3. Unheralded Historian: Mary Sheldon Barnes and Primary Source Material in History Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, James A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Mary Sheldon Barnes emerged as a leading historical methods professor and history textbook author. Although men dominated the field, she wrote several articles and books alone or with her husband Earl Barnes about primary source materials and teaching. She lived during an era in United States history…

  4. Design and Calibration of Chambers for Measuring Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia, which can have detrimental effects on human health and natural ecosystems. In the U.S., relatively little is known about the processes that affect the rate and magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy barns. The end of a conventional tie-sta...

  5. View of HiattStricklin barn showing north gable side and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hiatt-Stricklin barn showing north gable side and west back, facing southeast - Hiatt Property, Barn, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  6. View of HiattStricklin barn showing south gable side and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hiatt-Stricklin barn showing south gable side and east front. Note the double doors and high walls, facing northwest - Hiatt Property, Barn, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  7. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  8. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  9. Temporal Map Formation in the Barn Owl's Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibold, Christian; Kempter, Richard; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2001-12-01

    Barn owls provide an experimentally well-specified example of a temporal map, a neuronal representation of the outside world in the brain by means of time. Their laminar nucleus exhibits a place code of interaural time differences, a cue which is used to determine the azimuthal location of a sound stimulus, e.g., prey. We analyze a model of synaptic plasticity that explains the formation of such a representation in the young bird and show how in a large parameter regime a combination of local and nonlocal synaptic plasticity yields the temporal map as found experimentally. Our analysis includes the effect of nonlinearities as well as the influence of neuronal noise.

  10. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-07-26

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area's topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes of the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. The findings of the monitoring events at Barnes in 2011 continued to support the following previous conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders have consistently indicated that the flow direction is strongly influenced by pumping of the public water supply wells. The results have demonstrated an apparent groundwater flow direction to the northeast when the public wells are not pumping and a northwesterly groundwater flow trend when the public wells are pumping. (2) Evaluation of manual water level measurements and carbon tetrachloride concentrations continues to suggest that three vertically distinguishable aquifer zones are present at Barnes: shallow, intermediate, and deep (Table 4.1). The highest concentration of carbon tetrachloride occurs in the intermediate zone, in wells near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Lower concentrations have been detected in the deep aquifer zone (where the public water supply wells are screened), and no carbon tetrachloride has been detected in the shallow zone. (3) The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system at Barnes, as postulated on the basis of the accumulated results, suggests that the observed vertical hydraulic gradients and

  11. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  12. Protocol for the use of videofluoroscopy in pediatric swallowing dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zerilli, K S; Stefans, V A; DiPietro, M A

    1990-05-01

    A clinical and research protocol was developed to compare the sensitivity and clinical value of videofluoroscopy with the traditional bedside clinical evaluation in the evaluation of children's swallowing dysfunction. The bedside and videofluoroscopic evaluations of 33 children were reviewed retrospectively. Our findings indicated that recommendations for feeding changed for 14 of the children as a result of the information gained from videofluoroscopic evaluation. The results suggest that videofluoroscopy provides therapists with more objective evidence than a bedside evaluation for determining the etiology of swallowing dysfunction and directing the management or treatment of this dysfunction. PMID:2353715

  13. Bird flight characteristics near wind turbines in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

  14. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  15. Does soil pH influence swallow-wort distribution in its current range?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The perennial non-native vines, pale swallow-wort (Cynanchum rossicum [Kleopow] Borhidi) and black swallow-wort (Cynanchum louiseae [L.] Kartesz & Gandhi), are established invaders in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and are spreading westward. The swallow-worts typically colo...

  16. Auditory spatial discrimination by barn owls in simulated echoic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Matthew W.; Bala, Avinash D. S.; Takahashi, Terry T.

    2003-03-01

    In humans, directional hearing in reverberant conditions is characterized by a ``precedence effect,'' whereby directional information conveyed by leading sounds dominates perceived location, and listeners are relatively insensitive to directional information conveyed by lagging sounds. Behavioral studies provide evidence of precedence phenomena in a wide range of species. The present study employs a discrimination paradigm, based on habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response, to provide quantitative measures of precedence phenomena in the barn owl. As in humans, the owl's ability to discriminate changes in the location of lagging sources is impaired relative to that for single sources. Spatial discrimination of lead sources is also impaired, but to a lesser extent than discrimination of lagging sources. Results of a control experiment indicate that sensitivity to monaural cues cannot account for discrimination of lag source location. Thus, impairment of discrimination ability in the two-source conditions most likely reflects a reduction in sensitivity to binaural directional information. These results demonstrate a similarity of precedence effect phenomena in barn owls and humans, and provide a basis for quantitative comparison with neuronal data from the same species.

  17. Moving Objects in the Barn Owl's Auditory World.

    PubMed

    Langemann, Ulrike; Krumm, Bianca; Liebner, Katharina; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-01-01

    Barn owls are keen hunters of moving prey. They have evolved an auditory system with impressive anatomical and physiological specializations for localizing their prey. Here we present behavioural data on the owl's sensitivity for discriminating acoustic motion direction in azimuth that, for the first time, allow a direct comparison of neuronal and perceptual sensitivity for acoustic motion in the same model species. We trained two birds to report a change in motion direction within a series of repeating wideband noise stimuli. For any trial the starting point, motion direction, velocity (53-2400°/s), duration (30-225 ms) and angular range (12-72°) of the noise sweeps were randomized. Each test stimulus had a motion direction being opposite to that of the reference stimuli. Stimuli were presented in the frontal or the lateral auditory space. The angular extent of the motion had a large effect on the owl's discrimination sensitivity allowing a better discrimination for a larger angular range of the motion. In contrast, stimulus velocity or stimulus duration had a smaller, although significant effect. Overall there was no difference in the owls' behavioural performance between "inward" noise sweeps (moving from lateral to frontal) compared to "outward" noise sweeps (moving from frontal to lateral). The owls did, however, respond more often to stimuli with changing motion direction in the frontal compared to the lateral space. The results of the behavioural experiments are discussed in relation to the neuronal representation of motion cues in the barn owl auditory midbrain. PMID:27080662

  18. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  19. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  20. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav; Dixen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker. PMID:26508117

  1. Coordination of oral cavity and laryngeal movements during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Gay, T; Rendell, J K; Spiro, J; Mosier, K; Lurie, A G

    1994-07-01

    In this study, dynamic imaging was used to track the movements of oral cavity and laryngeal structures during swallowing in 10 normal adults subjects. The movements of tiny lead pellet markers attached to the lips, tongue, mandible, and soft palate, as well as anatomic landmarks on the hyoid bone, were measured in relation to a reference pellet affixed to the upper central incisors. Sagittal views of the oral cavity were obtained using standard videofluorography. Each subject produced 10 swallows of 12 ml of tap water followed by 5 swallows with a bite block placed between the molars. The recorded video images were input to a microcomputer where the x- and y-coordinates of the pellets were measured. Results of the analyses revealed considerable temporal overlap in the timing of oral cavity and laryngeal movements, widespread individual variability in coordination patterns and movement trajectories, and selective effects of the bite block. These data suggest the existence of individual adaptive strategies in the programming and control of swallowing movements. PMID:7961257

  2. Persistence of Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination after Laryngectomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Isabelle; Lund, James P.; McFarland, David H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide additional insights into the neural mechanisms underlying respiratory-swallowing coupling by studying potential alterations in movement coordination when upper airway protection is no longer necessary. Twelve laryngectomized participants, all at least 3 years postsurgery, were compared to age- and…

  3. Screening technologies for detection of swallowed packages of narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Kumar, Sankaran

    1997-01-01

    An increasingly popular method of transporting modest quantities of narcotics across international borders is to employ 'swallowers'. These are people who typically enter the country as international airline passengers after swallowing small, water-tight packages of heroin and/or cocaine. Rapid and accurate identification of swallowers in the airport environment poses difficult technical changes. Commonly used medical inspection technologies fall into one of two categories. Either they are unsuitable for widespread use, or they do not provide adequate information. An example of the former is x-ray scanning, while an example of the latter is ultrasonic imaging. Quantum Magnetics has developed a system to screen selected airline passengers for the presence of swallowed narcotics. The system utilizes magnetic resonance, which provides the physical basis for the magnetic resonance imaging systems widely used in the medical community as an alternative to x-rays. The system is currently operational, and laboratory performance testing is complete. Both the design of the system and its performance will be discussed. This work was sponsored in part by the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Customs Service.

  4. Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911): Ecological Foremother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Most educated women (in the sciences and other fields) still have a hard time discarding the patriarchal socialization and pressures in their own fields which prevent them from seeing this extraordinary woman as an environmental pioneer and ecological foremother. Ellen Swallow Richards merits attention and respect as a foremother of what would…

  5. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing. PMID:25957912

  6. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  7. Electrical Stimulation and Swallowing: How Much Do We Know?

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Michou, Emilia; MacRae, Phoebe R.; Crujido, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of dysphagia substantially reduce quality of life, increase the risk of medical complications and mortality, and pose a substantial cost to healthcare systems. As a result, it is of no wonder that the clinical and scientific communities are showing interest in new avenues for dysphagia rehabilitation. Electrical stimulation (e-stim) for the treatment of swallowing impairments is among the most studied swallowing interventions in the published literature, yet many unanswered questions about its efficacy remain. In the meantime, many speech-language pathologists who treat dysphagia are attending educational and training sessions to obtain certifications to use this technique. Here, we review the values and limitations of the published literature on the topic of e-stim for swallowing to assist clinicians in decision making in their clinical practice. The discussion provides a review of swallowing anatomy and physiology, the fundamentals of e-stim, and information essential for the readers’ independent critique of these studies—all of which are crucial for evaluating the possible effects of e-stim. PMID:22851342

  8. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  9. Analysis of vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy.

    PubMed

    Topaloğlu, İlhan; Bal, Muhlis; Salturk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy. Our study population was made up of 22 men aged 45 to 72 years (mean: 58.3) who underwent horizontal glottectomy and completed at least 1 year of follow-up. To compare postoperative results, 20 similarly aged men were included as a control group; all glottectomy patients and all controls were smokers. We used three methods-acoustic and aerodynamic voice analyses, the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity, and strain) scale, and the voice handicap index-30 (VHI-30)-to assess vocal function objectively, perceptually, and subjectively, respectively. We also assessed swallowing function objectively by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and subjectively with the M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory (MDADI). The 22 patients were also subcategorized into three groups according to the extent of their arytenoid cartilage resection, and their outcomes were compared. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses showed that the mean maximum phonation time was significantly shorter and the fundamental frequency was significantly lower in the glottectomy group than in the controls (p = 0.001 for both), and that the mean jitter and shimmer values and the mean harmonics-to-noise ratio were all significantly higher (p = 0.001 for all); there were no significant differences among the three arytenoid subgroups. Self-assessments revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in GRBAS scale scores except for the breathiness score (p = 0.045), which was lower in the arytenoid preservation subgroup than in the total resection subgroup; there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in VHI-30 scores. Finally, swallow testing found no statistically significant differences in FEES scores or MDADI scores. We conclude that horizontal glottectomy caused a deterioration in vocal function, but

  10. Neural network pattern recognition of lingual-palatal pressure for automated detection of swallow.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Aaron J; Krival, Kate R; Ridgel, Angela L; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel device and method for real-time measurement of lingual-palatal pressure and automatic identification of the oral transfer phase of deglutition. Clinical measurement of the oral transport phase of swallowing is a complicated process requiring either placement of obstructive sensors or sitting within a fluoroscope or articulograph for recording. Existing detection algorithms distinguish oral events with EMG, sound, and pressure signals from the head and neck, but are imprecise and frequently result in false detection. We placed seven pressure sensors on a molded mouthpiece fitting over the upper teeth and hard palate and recorded pressure during a variety of swallow and non-swallow activities. Pressure measures and swallow times from 12 healthy and 7 Parkinson's subjects provided training data for a time-delay artificial neural network to categorize the recordings as swallow or non-swallow events. User-specific neural networks properly categorized 96 % of swallow and non-swallow events, while a generalized population-trained network was able to properly categorize 93 % of swallow and non-swallow events across all recordings. Lingual-palatal pressure signals are sufficient to selectively and specifically recognize the initiation of swallowing in healthy and dysphagic patients. PMID:25618539

  11. Submental sEMG and Hyoid Movement during Mendelsohn Maneuver, Effortful Swallow, and Expiratory Muscle Strength Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen M.; Rosenbek, John C.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the concurrent biomechanical and electromyographic properties of 2 swallow-specific tasks (effortful swallow and Mendelsohn maneuver) and 1 swallow-nonspecific (expiratory muscle strength training [EMST]) swallow therapy task in order to examine the differential effects of each on hyoid motion and associated…

  12. Human swallowing simulation based on videofluorography images using Hamiltonian MPS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Michiwaki, Yukihiro; Kamiya, Tetsu; Toyama, Yoshio; Tamai, Tasuku; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    In developed nations, swallowing disorders and aspiration pneumonia have become serious problems. We developed a method to simulate the behavior of the organs involved in swallowing to clarify the mechanisms of swallowing and aspiration. The shape model is based on anatomically realistic geometry, and the motion model utilizes forced displacements based on realistic dynamic images to reflect the mechanisms of human swallowing. The soft tissue organs are modeled as nonlinear elastic material using the Hamiltonian MPS method. This method allows for stable simulation of the complex swallowing movement. A penalty method using metaballs is employed to simulate contact between organ walls and smooth sliding along the walls. We performed four numerical simulations under different analysis conditions to represent four cases of swallowing, including a healthy volunteer and a patient with a swallowing disorder. The simulation results were compared to examine the epiglottic downfolding mechanism, which strongly influences the risk of aspiration.

  13. Clinical Characteristics and Lesions Responsible for Swallowing Hesitation After Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Hajime; Ota, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Some stroke patients with a unilateral lesion demonstrate acute dysphagia characterized by a markedly prolonged swallowing time, making us think they are reluctant to swallow. In order to clarify the clinical characteristics and causative lesions of delayed swallowing, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 right-handed patients without a history of swallowing dysfunction who underwent videofluorography on suspicion of dysphagia after a first ischemic stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow jelly for patients classified as having delayed swallowing was over 10 s. The time required for swallowing jelly was significantly longer than that without the hesitation (median value, 24.1 vs. 8.9 s, P < 0.001). The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required for patients with delayed swallowing to swallow thickened water was largely over 5 s and significantly longer than that of patients without swallowing hesitation (median value, 10.2 vs. 3.3 s, P < 0.001). Swallowing hesitation caused by acute unilateral infarction could be separated into two different patterns. Because four of the five patients with a rippling tongue movement in the swallowing hesitation pattern had a lesion in the left primary motor cortex, which induces some kinds of apraxia, swallowing hesitation with a rippling tongue movement seems to be a representative characteristic of apraxia. The patients with swallowing hesitation with a temporary stasis of the tongue in this study tended to have broad lesions in the frontal lobe, especially in the middle frontal gyrus, which is thought to be involved in higher cognition. PMID:27277890

  14. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity.

    PubMed

    MacAvoy, S K; Jack, H C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause-effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27-32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs. PMID:27027864

  15. Are Morphometrics Sufficient for Estimating Age of Pre-Fledging Birds in the Field? A Test Using Common Terns (Sterna hirundo)

    PubMed Central

    Wails, Christy N.; Oswald, Stephen A.; Arnold, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Age is a key component of fitness, affecting survival and reproductive capacities. Where it is not possible to study known individuals from birth, morphometrics (predominantly patterns of plumage development for birds) are most often used to estimate age. Although criteria for age estimations exist for many species, the degree to which these criteria improve the precision of estimates remains to be tested, restricting their widespread acceptance. We develop a photographic tool for estimating ages of Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks and test it using 100 human observers of varying prior experience across four breeding colonies (three North American sites and one European site) and under controlled laboratory conditions. We followed the design approach of other morphometric tools, expanding it to create a user-friendly guide (divided into six age groupings). The majority (86%) of observers improved in chick-aging accuracy when using the tool by an average of 20.1% (±1.4 SE) and correctly estimated 60.3% (±1.4) of chick ages. This was similar to the intrinsic aging ability of our best field observer (63.3%). Observers with limited experience showed the greatest increases in chick-aging accuracy over experienced observers who likely had established a method for estimating chick ages prior to using the tool. Even the best observers only correctly estimated ages of chicks 62.9% (±2.8) of the time in the field and 84.0% (±2.9) of the time in the lab when using the tool and typically underestimated ages. This indicates that developmental variation between individual chicks can prevent completely reliable age estimates and corroborates the few existing data that suggest that morphometric criteria fail to achieve robust levels of accuracy and may introduce error into studies that rely on them. We conclude that novel approaches for estimating age, not only morphometric criteria, must be pursued. PMID:25375105

  16. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren

    2015-06-01

    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance. PMID:26047195

  17. Early deficits in cortical control of swallowing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; McLaren, Donald G.; Kosmatka, Kris; Fitzgerald, Michelle; Johnson, Sterling; Porcaro, Eva; Kays, Stephanie; Umoh, Eno-Obong; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether functional changes in cortical control of swallowing are evident in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), before dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is evident. Cortical function was compared between an early AD group and a group of age-matched controls during swallowing. Swallowing oropharyngeal biomechanics examined from videofluoroscopic recordings were also obtained to more comprehensively characterize changes in swallowing associated with early AD. Our neuroimaging results show that the AD group had significantly lower BOLD response in many cortical areas that are traditionally involved in normal swallowing (i.e. pre and postcentral gyri, Rolandic and frontal opercula). There were no regions where the AD group recruited more brain activity than the healthy controls during swallowing and only 13% of all active voxels were unique to the AD group, even at this early stage. This suggests that the AD group is not recruiting new regions, nor are they compensating within regions that are active during swallowing. In videofluoroscopic measures, the AD group had significantly reduced hyo-laryngeal elevation than the controls. Although, swallowing impairment is usually noted in the late stages of AD, changes in cortical control of swallowing may begin long before dysphagia becomes apparent. PMID:20308785

  18. View of the front of the JaudonBraggSnelling Barn/Corn Crib, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the front of the Jaudon-Bragg-Snelling Barn/Corn Crib, from the southwest, facing northeast. - Jaudon-Bragg-Snelling Farm, Corn Crib, North side of GA State Route 21, Springfield, Effingham County, GA

  19. Environment, respiratory disease, and performance of pigs in three Saskatchewan grower-finisher barns

    PubMed Central

    Bauck, Stewart W.; Rhodes, Charles S.; Barber, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer-based environmental monitoring system was used to monitor temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate continuously in three commercial grower-finisher swine barns in Saskatchewan. During the monitoring period, a group of pigs in each barn was examined for growth rate, amount of lung affected with pneumonia, and degree of atrophic rhinitis. In addition, the total bacterial colony forming particle count within the airspace of each barn was measured once each week. Significant differences existed among barns for daily maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, ventilation rate, and average bacterial colony forming particle counts. There was no difference among farms in the average percentage of lung affected with pneumonia, average snout atrophy score, or growth rate of the test animals. On one farm, there was a significant positive correlation between snout score and percentage of lung affected with pneumonia. On another farm, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage of lung affected with pneumonia and growth rate. PMID:17423628

  20. Chicken barn climate and hazardous volatile compounds control using simple linear regression and PID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Bakar, M. A. A.; Shukor, S. A. A.; Saad, F. S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Mustafa, M. H.; Khalid, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    The hazardous volatile compounds from chicken manure in chicken barn are potentially to be a health threat to the farm animals and workers. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced in chicken barn are influenced by climate changes. The Electronic Nose (e-nose) is used for the barn's air, temperature and humidity data sampling. Simple Linear Regression is used to identify the correlation between temperature-humidity, humidity-ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen sulphide. MATLAB Simulink software was used for the sample data analysis using PID controller. Results shows that the performance of PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols technique can improve the system controller to control climate in chicken barn.

  1. Pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Gao; Lingling, Sun; Chaobo, Cai; Haiting, Zhan

    2012-11-01

    A pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure is presented. One of the DFFs in the divided by 2/3 prescaler is controlled by the modulus control signal, and automatically powered off when it has no contribution to the operation of the prescaler. The DFFs in the program counter and the swallow counter are shared to compose a compact structure, which reduces the power consumption further. The proposed multi-modulus frequency divider was implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process with an area of 28 × 22 μm2. The power consumption of the divider is 0.6 mW under 1.2 V supply voltage when operating at 988 MHz.

  2. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  3. Construction of Nationhood through Education in Malaya: Revisiting the Barnes and Fenn-Wu Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Moses; Khan, Mahmud Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of two colonial reports, the Barnes and the Fenn-Wu Reports on education in the British colony of Malaya. The popular stance on the Barnes and the Fenn-Wu Reports is that one is an effect or reply to the other. We argue on the contrary that the two reports construct a common argument on nation-building which…

  4. Swallowing disorders: proposal of a method for forensic medicine assessment.

    PubMed

    Fattori, B; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Nacci, A

    2007-06-01

    For a correct classification of dysphagia, morphologic instrumental investigations capable of analysing the anatomical structures of the digestive tract, are undoubtedly essential, but the most important investigations are the functional investigations, such as videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy, manometry and pH-metry. Results of these examinations enable us to identify, in patients with dysphagia, the extent of permanent damage, as a consequence of injury to the structures designated to swallowing, must be such that it at least minimally impairs and decreases the relative function, but to a degree that can be detected and, in some manner, measured. From a legal point of view, alterations in swallowing, caused by damage to structures belonging to the respiratory-digestive tract, can be found in crimes against persons and particularly in those involving body injury. In the case of civil, but also in private or social insurance proceedings, it is necessary to distinguish which parameters are to be used as reference for evaluating and quantifying the injury in terms of reimbursement. With the introduction of complete biological well-being, injury is considered as an impairment of the worth and right to enjoy psychological-physical integrity as a quality of life. The criteria currently used internationally take into account the conception of psychological-physical efficiency; nevertheless, in Italian forensic medicine, there is no table that offers a thorough quantification of swallowing modifications, if one excludes oesophageal disorders. Herewith, an evaluation table, dividing oro-pharyngo-oesophageal dysphagia into five, progressively serious classes, is proposed. PMID:17883190

  5. Optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, M; Higaki, T; Nishikawa, K; Otonari-Yamamoto, M; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R; Wakoh, M

    2016-09-01

    Several dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to observe swallowing and their parameters have been reported. Although these studies used several contrast enhancement liquids, no studies were conducted to investigate the most suitable liquids. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing. MRI was performed using a new sequence consisting of true fast imaging with steady-state precession, generalised auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition and a keyhole imaging technique. Seven liquids were studied, including pure distilled water, distilled water with thickener at 10, 20 and 30 mg mL(-1) concentrations and oral MRI contrast medium at 1, 2 or 3 mg mL(-1) . Distilled water showed the highest signal intensity. There were statistically significant differences among the following contrast media: distilled water with thickener at 20 mg mL(-1) and the oral MRI contrast medium at 2 mg mL(-1) and 1 mg mL(-1) . It can be concluded that the optimal liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing is a water-based substance that allows variations in viscosity. PMID:27328011

  6. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. PMID:27255865

  7. Pharyngeal swallowing disorders: selection for and outcome after myotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R J; Bremner, C G; DeMeester, T R; Crookes, P F; Peters, J H; Hagen, J A; DeMeester, S R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop selection criteria based on the mechanical properties of pharyngoesophageal swallowing that indicate when patients with pharyngeal dysphagia will benefit from a myotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The pathophysiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders is complex. The disorder is of interest to several medical specialists (gastroenterologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general and thoracic surgeons), which contributes to confusion about the entity. The management is compounded because it is most frequently seen in the elderly, is often associated with generalized neuromuscular disease, and occurs with a high prevalence of concomitant disease. The selection of patients for myotomy is difficult and of major importance to the quality of life of the affected patients. METHOD: One hundred seven patients without a Zenker diverticulum but with pharyngeal dysphagia underwent a detailed manometric assessment of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Cricopharyngeal opening was identified by the presence of a subatmospheric pressure drop before bolus arrival. Impaired pharyngoesophageal segment compliance resulting in a resistance to pharyngoesophageal flow was determined by measuring the intrabolus pressure generated by a 5-ml liquid bolus. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 107 patients underwent a myotomy (29%). Both impaired sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure predicted a good outcome. CONCLUSION: Myotomy is beneficial in patients with pharyngeal swallowing disorders and manometric evidence of defective sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9790349

  8. Relative Efficacy of Swallowing versus Non-swallowing Tasks in Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Current Evidence and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Drulia, Teresa C.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials published in 2012 and the first six months of 2013 were reviewed. These involved either traditional dysphagia therapy, indirect methods not involving dysphagia therapy or a combination of direct and indirect methods. Of 27 studies, 7 were RCTs, 5 were controlled clinical trials and the remainder were uncontrolled case series. Sixteen studies combined an indirect treatment with traditional dysphagia therapy; only one study examined one technique for direct swallowing therapy. Effect sizes were computed and contrasted for each trial. Traditional dysphagia therapy had small to moderate effect sizes (between 0.3 and 0.6) while spontaneous recovery in acute stroke had effect sizes of 1.2. Placebo effects on patient ratings of degree of improvement on swallowing were estimated as small to moderate. To improve effect sizes, adaptive research designs are needed to develop the optimal methods and dosages of therapy before future clinical trials. PMID:24470988

  9. Swallowing in Parkinson Patients versus Healthy Controls: Reliability of Measurements in Videofluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baijens, Laura W. J.; Speyer, Renée; Passos, Valéria Lima; Pilz, Walmari; Roodenburg, Nel; Clave, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine and describe the pathophysiological aspects of oropharyngeal swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease more accurately, a pilot study of qualitative as well as quantitative parameters of swallowing was performed using videofluoroscopy (VFS). Methods. Ten patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease having dysphagic complaints and ten healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallowing protocol. Information on the swallowing function was derived from temporal, spatial, and descriptive visuoperceptual parameters. Intra- and interrater reliability was calculated. Results. No significant differences were found between Parkinson patients and healthy control subjects for the majority of the reliable variables. Conclusions. It was concluded that swallowing function seemed to be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, the reliability of many quantitative as well as qualitative swallowing parameters proved insufficient, raising questions about the interpretation of study outcomes in videofluoroscopy. PMID:21977026

  10. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  11. Late onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula following a swallowed dental plate.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P B; Goiti, J J

    1993-01-01

    Swallowing dentures and dental plates has been a cause of distress among elderly patients. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula caused by a foreign body is rare and of the cases reported in the literature only one was due to a swallowed denture which resulted in a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy [4]. We describe a delayed onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula due to a swallowed dental plate in a young patient. PMID:8129961

  12. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    PubMed

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  13. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p < 0.001) and central neurologic insult. In general, dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology. PMID:27106909

  14. Brain and behavioral effects of swallowing carbonated water on the human pharyngeal motor system.

    PubMed

    Elshukri, Omsaad; Michou, Emilia; Mentz, Hannah; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-02-15

    Chemical stimulation of the swallowing network with carbonation and citric acid has been investigated, showing potential benefits on swallowing of dysphagic patients. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. Here we investigated the effects of 5 ml liquid bolus swallows of carbonated, citric acid, and still water on a swallowing reaction-time tasks paradigm in 16 healthy adults (8 male, mean age 33 ± 3.7 yr, protocol 1). We then investigated the net effects of "sensory bolus interventions" (40 repeated swallows every 15 s) of the three different liquid boluses on corticobulbar excitability, as examined with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 16 participants (8 female, mean age 33 ± 3.7 yr, protocol 2). The findings showed that a larger number of correctly timed swallows (within a predetermined time window) was accomplished mainly with carbonated liquids (z = -2.04, P = 0.04 vs. still water, protocol 1). Both carbonated and citric acid liquid interventions with 40 swallows increased corticobulbar excitability of the stronger pharyngeal projection, suggesting a similar modulatory pathway for the effects on swallowing. However, carbonation showed superiority (P = 0.04, F = 4.75, 2-way ANOVA), with the changes lasting up to 60 min following the intervention. These results hold significance for future further and in-depth physiological investigations of the differences between different stimuli on swallowing neural network. PMID:26607248

  15. A Comparative Analysis of DBSCAN, K-Means, and Quadratic Variation Algorithms for Automatic Identification of Swallows from Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. Methods In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Results Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differen-tiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. Conclusions In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. PMID:25658505

  16. Barnes maze performance of Octodon degus is gender dependent.

    PubMed

    Popović, Natalija; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, María Angeles; Caballero-Bleda, María; Popović, Miroljub

    2010-10-15

    Gender differences in spatial navigation have been widely reported in nocturnal rodent species. Here, for the first time we report gender differences in spatial learning and memory of Octodon degus, a long-lived diurnal hystricomorph rodent. In the present study, 16 months old male and female O. degus were tested in the 18-holes Barnes circular maze. The acquisition session consisted of four daily 4 min trials, during 10 days. Seven days later, the retention test was performed. To avoid the effect of hormonal fluctuation on spatial navigation, both the acquisition and the retention tests, were performed in 21-day regular cycling females in a period that corresponds to the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle. At the beginning of the acquisition, female degus were significantly slower than males to find the escape hole, but the situation reversed afterwards. Moreover, during the course of acquisition, females made significantly less reference memory errors, working memory errors as well as omission errors, than males. In both sexes, motivation and learning ceiling effects were reached at days 5-6 of the training. During the acquisition, females used more frequently a spatial strategy, while males preferably applied either serial, random or opposite strategies. The observed cognitive differences between male and female O. degus existed only during the acquisition period but not during the retention, indicating that acquisition and consolidation are differently influenced by gender. PMID:20385170

  17. Sleep and vigilance linked to melanism in wild barn owls.

    PubMed

    Scriba, M F; Rattenborg, N C; Dreiss, A N; Vyssotski, A L; Roulin, A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts. In male nestlings, the same sleep traits also correlated with their own level of spotting. Because heavily spotted male nestlings and the offspring of heavily spotted biological mothers switched sleep-wakefulness states more frequently, we propose the hypothesis that they could be also behaviourally more vigilant. Accordingly, nestlings from mothers displaying many black spots looked more often towards the nest entrance where their parents bring food and towards their sibling against whom they compete. Owlets from heavily spotted mothers might invest more in vigilance, thereby possibly increasing associated costs due to sleep fragmentation. We conclude that different strategies of the regulation of brain activity have evolved and are correlated with melanin-based coloration. PMID:25056556

  18. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  19. Effects of pharyngeal water stimulation on swallowing behaviors in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Hatakeyama, Aya; Kitada, Yasuyuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether the interval between swallows and the electromyographic (EMG) burst patterns of the suprahyoid muscles is affected by peripheral inputs during swallowing. Eighteen normal adults were asked to perform repetitive voluntary swallowing as quickly as possible, and three variables of swallowing were measured and evaluated, i.e., the swallowing intervals and the time interval between the onset and peak (rising time) and between the peak and offset (falling time) of the suprahyoid EMG burst. During recording, pharyngeal fluid infusion was applied with distilled water or 0.3 M NaCl solution at a very slow infusion rate (0.2 mL/min). The former and latter were used to activate and inhibit the excitation of water-sensitive receptors in the pharynx, respectively. The swallowing interval was significantly shorter during infusion of water than during infusion of NaCl solution. The rising time was also significantly shorter during infusion of water than during infusion of NaCl solution. There was a linear positive correlation between these values and facilitatory effects: the longer either the swallowing interval or rising time with infusion of 0.3 M NaCl solution, the stronger the facilitation of swallowing by the activation of water receptors. Facilitatory effects on the swallowing interval and rising time showed a linear correlation. It is suggested that weak liquid stimulation changed sensory inputs into the swallowing center and synchronously modulated the swallowing interval and time interval between the onset and peak of the EMG burst. PMID:23857168

  20. Development of suck and swallow mechanisms in infants

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants’ hospital discharge is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. No evidence-based supported guidelines are currently available for health professionals caring for these infants. Available interventions advocating benefits are not readily acknowledged for lack of rigorous documentation inasmuch as any improvements may ensue from infants’ normal maturation. Through research, a growing understanding of the development of nutritive sucking skills has emerged shedding light on how and why infants may encounter oral feeding difficulties due to the immaturity of specific physiologic functions. Unfortunately, this knowledge has yet to be translated to the clinical practice to improve the diagnoses of oral feeding problems through the development of relevant assessment tools and to enhance infants’ oral feeding skills through the development of efficacious preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the maturation of the various physiologic functions implicated in the transport of a bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach. Although infant’s readiness to oral feeding is deemed attained when suck, swallow, and respiration are coordinated, we do not have a clear definition of what coordination implies. We have learned that each of these functions encompasses a number of elements that mature at different times and rates. Consequently, it would appear that the proper functioning of sucking, the swallow processing, and respiration need to occur at two levels: first, the elements within each function must reach an appropriate functional maturation that can work in synchrony with each other to generate an appropriate suck, swallow process, and respiration; and second the elements of all these distinct functions, in turn, must be able to do the same at an integrative level to ensure the safe and efficient transport of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. PMID:26226992

  1. Swallowing accelerometry signal feature variations with sensor displacement.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Khondaker A; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Dual-axis accelerometry has recently shown promise as a non-invasive method for detecting swallowing impairment using signal processing and pattern classification algorithms. However, it is unknown whether variations in sensor placement alter signal characteristics, threatening the accuracy of signal processing classifiers for aspiration detection. To address this question, water swallows were recorded in 14 healthy adults using a dual-axis accelerometer in 13 different positions (baseline, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm above, below and to the right of baseline). The baseline position was midline, immediately below the thyroid cartilage during quiet breathing. After segmentation and pre-processing, signal features were extracted in multiple domains (time, frequency, time-frequency). The effect of sensor position on signal feature distributions was examined with non-parametric statistical analysis. The analysis showed that the sensor could be displaced by as much as 4 mm inferior and lateral to the baseline position and by up to 6 mm above the baseline location without significantly altering time-frequency features. In other words, when considering the baseline position as the origin, the admissible region for sensor placement spans 10 mm in the superior-inferior axis and 8 mm in the medial-lateral direction. Results of this study suggest that time-frequency representations of accelerometry signals are most robust to sensor placement variations around the baseline position. The implication of this finding is that a swallowing accelerometry classifier based on time-frequency features can likely tolerate small variations in sensor location without degradation in classification performance. PMID:26003287

  2. Real time swallowing measurement system by using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Masahiro; Kato, Kunihito; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement system to evaluate the swallowing by estimating the movement of the thyroid cartilage. We developed a measurement system based on the vision sensor in order to achieve the noncontact and non-invasive sensor. The movement of the subject's thyroid cartilage is tracked by the three dimensional information of the surface of the skin measured by the photometric stereo. We constructed a camera system that uses near-IR light sources and three camera sensors. We conformed the effectiveness of the proposed system by experiments.

  3. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted. PMID:23233019

  4. Analysis of thermal characteristics of electrical wiring for load groups in cattle barns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Ok; Kim, Sung Chul; Hwang, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of electrical wirings depending on the number of operating load by connecting four types of electrical wirings that are selected by surveying the conditions for the electric fans, automatic waterers and halogen warm lamps that were installed in cattle barns in different years. The conditions of 64 cattle barns were surveyed and an experimental test was conducted at a cattle barn. The condition-survey covered inappropriate design, construction and misuse of electrical facility, including electrical wiring mostly used, and the mode of load current was evaluated. The survey showed that the mode of load current increased as the installation year of the fans, waterers and halogen lamps became older. Accordingly, the cattle barn manager needed to increase the capacity of the circuit breaker, which promoted the degradation of insulation of the electrical wires' sheath and increased possibility for electrical fires in the long-run. The test showed that the saturation temperature of the wire insulated sheath increased depending on the installation year of the load groups, in case of VCTFK and VFF electric wires, therefore, requiring their careful usage in the cattle barns. PMID:26118855

  5. Analysis of thermal characteristics of electrical wiring for load groups in cattle barns

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Doo Hyun; YOO, Sang-Ok; KIM, Sung Chul; HWANG, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of electrical wirings depending on the number of operating load by connecting four types of electrical wirings that are selected by surveying the conditions for the electric fans, automatic waterers and halogen warm lamps that were installed in cattle barns in different years. The conditions of 64 cattle barns were surveyed and an experimental test was conducted at a cattle barn. The condition-survey covered inappropriate design, construction and misuse of electrical facility, including electrical wiring mostly used, and the mode of load current was evaluated. The survey showed that the mode of load current increased as the installation year of the fans, waterers and halogen lamps became older. Accordingly, the cattle barn manager needed to increase the capacity of the circuit breaker, which promoted the degradation of insulation of the electrical wires’ sheath and increased possibility for electrical fires in the long-run. The test showed that the saturation temperature of the wire insulated sheath increased depending on the installation year of the load groups, in case of VCTFK and VFF electric wires, therefore, requiring their careful usage in the cattle barns. PMID:26118855

  6. POLYCHLORINATED BYPHENOLS AND P,P'-DDE IN TREE SWALLOW EGGS AND NESTLINGS FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed biologically available contaminant concentrations in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from a marine Superfund site. Tree swallows are used widely to assess and monitor aquatic contamination due to their preference for nesting near water an...

  7. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  8. Phytophagous arthropods of invasive swallow-wort vines (Vincetoxicum spp.) in New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum [Kleopow] Barbar.) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum [L.] Moench), European species of herbaceous, perennial viny milkweeds, have become increasingly invasive in various natural and managed habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, i...

  9. Tongue Pressure and Submental Surface Electromyography Measures during Noneffortful and Effortful Saliva Swallows in Healthy Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Erin M.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The effortful swallow, a compensatory technique frequently employed by speech-language pathologists for their patients with dysphagia, is still not fully understood in terms of how it modifies the swallow. In particular, although age-related changes are known to reduce maximum isometric tongue pressure, it is not known whether age affects…

  10. Development of Swallowing and Feeding: Prenatal through First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Amy L.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide…

  11. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  12. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  13. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  14. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  15. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  16. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  17. Utility of Clinical Swallowing Examination Measures for Detecting Aspiration Post-Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, G. H.; Rosenbek, J. C.; Wertz, R. T.; McCoy, S.; Mann, G.; McCullough, K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the utility of clinical swallowing examination (CSE) measures for detecting aspiration as defined by videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE). This study, involving 165 participants, is a follow-up to a previously published investigation of 60 participants. Findings are compared with that…

  18. Comparison of Clinician Judgments and Measurements of Swallow Response Time: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnell, Michael P.; Rogus, Nicole M.

    2005-01-01

    Practicing clinicians frequently offer judgments about aspects of swallowing physiology rather than performing actual measurements. Little is known about the accuracy of those judgments. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore agreement of clinicians' judgments of pharyngeal swallow response time (PSRT) with temporal measurements of…

  19. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  20. Optimizing the swallow protocol of clinical high resolution esophageal manometry studies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yinglian; Nicodème, Frédéric; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Roman, Sabine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders (CC) is based on 10 water swallows performed in the supine position. The aim of the study was to assess whether upright and provocative swallows provided important information beyond that obtained from the standard supine manometric protocol. Methods Two independent investigators reviewed high resolution manometry (HRM) studies of 148 patients with both supine and upright liquid swallows and additional studies from patients with provocative swallows (increased volume, viscosity, and a marshmallow) for a resultant change in CC diagnoses. Significant diagnostic changes were defined as a change from normal or borderline motor function to abnormal motor function, EGJ outflow obstruction or achalasia. Discordant diagnoses were reviewed and the Kappa test was used to evaluate the agreement between diagnoses in the different protocols. Key Results The overall agreement in diagnosis between the 5 supine swallows and the 5 upright swallows was good (k=0.583). Changing to the upright position elicited a significant diagnostic change in 10.1% (15/148) of cases. The provocative swallows suggested an alternative diagnosis from the supine position in 14 of 75 studies (18.7%); 11 of these changed to EGJ obstruction during viscous or solid bolus challenges. Conclusion Changing position in HRM elicited a significant change in diagnosis in about 10% of studies while provocative bolus challenges with viscous liquid and marshmallows increased the detection of EGJ outflow obstruction. Performing manometric evaluations in both positions with provocative swallows may increase the yield of standard HRM technique. PMID:22863083

  1. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  2. The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…

  3. ACCUMULATION OF PCB CONGENERS IN NESTLING TREE SWALLOWS (TACHYCINETA BICOLOR) ON THE HUDSON RIVER, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Together, these two papers establish a quantitative linkage between PCB concentrations in nestling tree swallows and in the insects that they consume. As such, these papers provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment ...

  4. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  5. Vocal Variability Post Swallowing in Individuals with and without Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Scheeren, Betina; Maciel, Antonio Carlos; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voice modification after swallowing may indicate changes in the transit of the bolus. Objective The aim of this study is to verify the use of perceptual voice analysis to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Study Design Case series. Methods Twenty-seven patients with dysphagia as diagnosed by videofluoroscopy and 25 without were evaluated. The sustained vowel /a/ was recorded before this exam and after swallowing different consistencies (pasty, liquid and solid). For the voice evaluation, the GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain) and the parameter “wet voice” were used. Three judges blinded to study group and time of emission performed voice analysis. Results Individuals with dysphagia showed significant decrease in grade of voice and asthenia and increase in strain after swallowing pasty substances, differing from individuals without dysphagia who showed no modification of the parameters after swallowing. The wet voice parameter showed no difference after swallowing in both study groups. Conclusion The decrease in grade and asthenia and increased strain are indicative of a swallowing disorder, indicating increased vocal strain to clean the vocal tract of food. The modification of vocal production after swallowing proved to be a trusted resource for detection of swallowing disorders. PMID:25992153

  6. Understanding the statistical persistence of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a biomechanical approach for the assessment of difficulties during deglutition. However, the effects of various swallowing tasks and different anthropometric/demographic variables on the statistical behavior of these accelerometric signals are unknown. In particular, to understand the statistical persistence of these signals, we used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze accelerometric data collected from 408 healthy participants during dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallowing tasks. The results of DFA were then examined for potential influences of age, gender or body mass index. Several important conclusions were reached. First, the strongest persistence was observed for the wet chin tuck swallows. Second, the vibrations in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction generally have stronger temporal dependencies than those in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction. Both of these phenomena can be attributed to the dominating influence of head movements on the amplitude of vibrations in the S-I direction. Third, gender, age and body mass index of the participants did not impact the observed persistence for dry and wet chin tuck swallows, while a gender effect was identified for wet swallows. In particular, male participants experienced more Brownian-like statistical dependencies in their swallowing signals. Future developments in the field should attempt to remove signal components associated with strong statistical persistence, as they tend to be associated with non-swallowing phenomena. PMID:21035113

  7. Response of invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) to repeated artificial defoliation or clipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Eurasian vines pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) (PSW) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) (BSW) are invasive perennials that have infested natural areas in the northeastern United States and southern Canada. A biological control program is being developed, though it is unclear how thes...

  8. Cloacal Microbiome Structure in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird Assessed Using Deep 16sRNA Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Čížková, Dagmar; Kropáčková, Lucie; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Effects of vertebrate-associated microbiota on physiology and health are of significant interest in current biological research. Most previous studies have focused on host-microbiota interactions in captive-bred mammalian models. These interactions and their outcomes are still relatively understudied, however, in wild populations and non-mammalian taxa. Using deep pyrosequencing, we described the cloacal microbiome (CM) composition in free living barn swallows Hirundo rustica, a long-distance migratory passerine bird. Barn swallow CM was dominated by bacteria of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Bacteroidetes, which represent an important proportion of the digestive tract microbiome in many vertebrate species, was relatively rare in barn swallow CM (< 5%). CM composition did not differ between males and females. A significant correlation of CM within breeding pair members is consistent with the hypothesis that cloacal contact during within-pair copulation may promote transfer of bacterial assemblages. This effect on CM composition had a relatively low effect size, however, possibly due to the species’ high level of sexual promiscuity. PMID:26360776

  9. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  10. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  11. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations.

    PubMed

    Pavluvčík, Petr; Poprach, Karel; Machar, Ivo; Losík, Jan; Gouveia, Ana; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young) both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity) and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts' level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient) and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient) in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls' annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls' reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor's exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations. PMID:26709518

  12. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pavluvčík, Petr; Poprach, Karel; Machar, Ivo; Losík, Jan; Gouveia, Ana; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young) both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity) and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts’ level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient) and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient) in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls’ annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls’ reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor’s exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations. PMID:26709518

  13. The effects of compressive sensing on extracted features from tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Movahedi, Faezeh; Zhang, Zhenwei; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.

    2016-05-01

    Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total). From acquired signals, we extracted typically considered signal features from time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Next, we compared these features from the original signals (sampled using traditional sampling schemes) and compressively sampled signals. Our results have shown we can obtain accurate estimates of signal features even by using only a third of original samples.

  14. New Directions for Understanding Neural Control in Swallowing: The Potential and Promise of Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.

    2013-01-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex sensorimotor phenomenon that has had decades of research dedicated to understanding it more thoroughly. However, the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for normal and disordered swallowing remain very vague. We consider this gap in knowledge the result of swallowing research that has been broad (identifying phenomena) but not deep (identifying what controls the phenomena). The goals of this review are to address the complexity of motor control of oropharyngeal swallowing and to review the principles of motor learning based on limb movements as a model system. We compare this literature on limb motor learning to what is known about oropharyngeal function as a first step toward suggesting the use of motor learning principles in swallowing research. PMID:23192633

  15. New directions for understanding neural control in swallowing: the potential and promise of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ianessa A; German, Rebecca Z

    2013-03-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex sensorimotor phenomenon that has had decades of research dedicated to understanding it more thoroughly. However, the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for normal and disordered swallowing remain very vague. We consider this gap in knowledge the result of swallowing research that has been broad (identifying phenomena) but not deep (identifying what controls the phenomena). The goals of this review are to address the complexity of motor control of oropharyngeal swallowing and to review the principles of motor learning based on limb movements as a model system. We compare this literature on limb motor learning to what is known about oropharyngeal function as a first step toward suggesting the use of motor learning principles in swallowing research. PMID:23192633

  16. Fast Fourier transform analysis of sounds made while swallowing various foods.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Mitsuru; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2012-10-01

    The cervical auscultation method was applied to investigate sounds generated while swallowing various foods with unique physical properties, including liquid (water), semiliquid (yogurt), and solid (konjac jelly). To study the differences among swallowing sounds for various foods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to signals that were attributed to the flow of a food bolus, which is a swallowable soft mass of chewed food. An FFT program was developed that enabled the calculation of a spectrum for a specified region of time domain swallowing sound signals. The intensity of spectra in the frequency range between 400 and 1000 Hz significantly differed: liquid > semiliquid > solid. The FFT spectrum in this range was suggested to represent the frequency characteristics of the swallowing sounds of various foods. PMID:23039442

  17. Energy intake estimation from counts of chews and swallows

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Higgins, Janine A.; Schuckers, Stephanie C.; Bellisle, France; Pan, Zhaoxing; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Current, validated methods for dietary assessment rely on self-report, which tends to be inaccurate, time-consuming, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of estimating energy intake using individually-calibrated models based on Counts of Chews and Swallows (CCS models). In a laboratory setting, subjects consumed three identical meals (training meals) and a fourth meal with different content (validation meal). Energy intake was estimated by four different methods: weighed food records (gold standard), diet diaries, photographic food records, and CCS models. Counts of chews and swallows were measured using wearable sensors and video analysis. Results for the training meals demonstrated that CCS models presented the lowest reporting bias and a lower error as compared to diet diaries. For the validation meal, CCS models showed reporting errors that were not different from the diary or the photographic method. The increase in error for the validation meal may be attributed to differences in the physical properties of foods consumed during training and validation meals. However, this may be potentially compensated for by including correction factors into the models. This study suggests that estimation of energy intake from CCS may offer a promising alternative to overcome limitations of self-report. PMID:25447016

  18. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  19. The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…

  20. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  1. Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vitousek, Maren N.; Stewart, Rosemary A.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Across diverse taxa, morphological traits mediate social interactions and mate selection. Physiological constraints on signal elaboration have been widely documented, but the potential for trait display to influence physiological state remains poorly understood. We tested for the presence of causal links between ventral plumage colour—a trait known to covary with reproductive performance—and physiological measures in female North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Naturally darker swallows have lower levels of plasma oxidative damage. Females manipulated to display darker ventral plumage during reproduction rapidly decreased oxidative damage, adopting the physiological state of naturally darker individuals. These results support the presence of a social mechanism that links static plumage traits with the physiological state of their bearer during trait advertisement, long after the completion of signal development. PMID:23966597

  2. Evaluation of an EMG bioimpedance measurement system for recording and analysing the pharyngeal phase of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Corinna; Schauer, Thomas; Nahrstaedt, Holger; Seidl, Rainer O

    2013-07-01

    A neuroprosthetic device for treating swallowing disorders requires an implantable measurement system capable to analysing the timing and quality of the swallowing process in real time. A combined EMG bioimpedance (EMBI) measurement system was developed and is evaluated here. The study was planned and performed as a case-control study. The studies were approved by the Charité Berlin ethics committee in votes EA1/160/09 and EA1/161/09. Investigations were carried out on healthy volunteers in order to examine the usefulness and reproducibility of measurements, the ability to distinguish between swallowing and head movements and the effect of different food consistencies. The correlation between bioimpedance and anatomical and functional changes occurring during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in non-healthy patients was examined using videofluoroscopy (VFSS). 31 healthy subjects (15♂, 16♀) were tested over the course of 1350 swallows and 19 (17♂, 2♀) non-healthy patients over the course of 54 swallows. The signal curves obtained from both transcutaneous and subcutaneous measurement were similar, characteristic and reproducible (r > 0.5) and correlated with anatomical and functional changes during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing observed using VFSS. Statistically significant differences between head movements and swallowing movements, food volumes and consistencies were found. Neither the conductivity of the food, the sex of the test subject nor the position of the measurement electrodes exerted a statistically significant effect on the measured signal. EMBI is able to reproducibly map the pharyngeal phase of swallowing and changes associated with it both transcutaneously and subcutaneously. The procedure therefore appears to be suitable for use in performing automated evaluation of the swallowing process and for use as a component of an implant. PMID:23440435

  3. Respiratory-Swallow Training in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McFarland, David; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Strange, Charlton B.; Focht, Kendrea L.; Wan, Zhuang; Blair, Julie; McGrattan, Katlyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test a novel intervention to train swallowing to occur in the mid-to-low expiratory phase of quiet breathing to improve swallowing safety and efficiency. Design Safety and efficacy non-randomized clinical trial with one-month follow-up. Setting Head and neck cancer (HNC) ambulatory clinics. Participants Thirty patients with HNC and chronic dysphagia completed the intervention. Fifteen of these patients participated in a one-month follow-up visit. Interventions Training protocol based on hierarchy of motor skill acquisition to encourage autonomous and optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Visual feedback of respiratory phase and volume for swallowing initiation was provided by nasal airflow and rib cage/abdomen signals. Main Outcome Measures Respiratory-swallow phase pattern, Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile™© (MBSImP) scores, Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory scores Results Using visual feedback, patients were trained to initiate swallows during the mid-expiratory phase of quiet breathing and to continue to expire after swallowing. This optimal phase patterning increased significantly after treatment (p <0.0001). Changes in respiratory-swallowing coordination were associated with improvements in three MBSImP component scores: laryngeal vestibular closure (p = 0.0004), tongue base retraction (p <0.0001), and pharyngeal residue (p = 0.01). Significant improvements were also seen in PAS scores (p <0.0001). Relative to pre-treatment values, patients participating in one-month follow-up had increased optimal phase patterning (p <0.0001), improved laryngeal vestibular closure (p = 0.01), tongue base retraction (p = 0.003), and pharyngeal residue (p = 0.006) MBSImP scores, and improved PAS scores (p <0.0001). Conclusions Improvements in respiratory-swallowing coordination can be trained using a systematic protocol and respiratory phase-lung volume related biofeedback in patients with HNC and

  4. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals. PMID:26657360

  5. Layouts for small freestall dairy barns: effect on milk yield for cows in different parities.

    PubMed

    Næss, G; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows has many different layouts and the space allocated for cows differs considerably. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible associations between barn layout and milk yield for different parities in small dairy freestall barns. Layouts of 204 Norwegian freestall barns constructed during the period from 1995 to 2005, and with a mean herd size of 42.7±15.5 cows, were obtained and merged with milk yield data and calving interval, for each parity, from the Norwegian Milk Recording System (NDHRS). The milk yield data set contained 20,221 different lactations from these 204 herds. Both simple mixed models, including the different explanatory variables one by one together with parity, calving interval, and herd as random effect, and a final mixed model, including all significant explanatory variables, were created. According to variables tested in this study, the final mixed model estimates show that only primiparous cows benefit significantly from increased free space allocation. Milk yield was generally higher in automatic milking system barns compared with that in barns with milking parlors, but not for primiparous cows. Milk yield was higher for all parities for barns using separation pens in accordance with the recommendations. Barns with 2 or more dead-end alleys had lower milk yield compared with that from layouts without dead-end alleys. Primiparous cows benefited from water troughs located for easy access and responded with increased milk yield. In 10% of the barns, the water trough capacity was less than 47% of the recommendations, and all parities benefited from a water trough capacity higher than this level. Higher parities had increased milk yield when water trough capacity was more than 80%. Feed bunk space, number of freestall rows, and the location of freestalls had no significant effect on the milk yield. The present study showed that increased space and improved access to water is beneficial to

  6. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  7. Oropharyngeal swallowing after stroke in the left basal ganglion/internal capsule.

    PubMed

    Logemann, J A; Shanahan, T; Rademaker, A W; Kahrilas, P J; Lazar, R; Halper, A

    1993-01-01

    One of the foci of Martin Donner's work was the neural control of swallowing. This present investigation continues that work by examining oropharyngeal swallowing in 8 patients identified with a single, small, left-basal ganglion/internal capsule infarction and 8 age-matched normal subjects. Stroke patients were assessed with a bedside clinical and radiographic swallowing assessment, and normal subjects received only the radiographic study. Results revealed disagreement between the bedside and radiographic assessments in one of the 8 stroke patients. Stroke and normal subjects differed significantly on some swallow measures on various bolus viscosities, but behaved the same as normal subjects on a number of measures. Differences in swallowing in the stroke subjects were not enough to prevent them from eating orally. The significant differences seen in the basal ganglia/internal capsule stroke subjects may result from damage to the sensorimotor pathways between the cortex and brainstem. These differences emphasize the importance of cortical input to the brainstem swallowing center in maintaining the systematic modulations characteristic of normal swallowing physiology. PMID:8359043

  8. Acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Yokoyama, K; Takei, Y; Furuya, N; Nakamichi, Y; Ihara, Y; Takahashi, K; Groher, M E

    2014-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia. Forty-nine patients with complaints of swallow difficulty received a videofluorographic (VF) examination. They were divided into three groups: nine who did not have any apparent disease (Group N), 22 patients with head and neck cancer (Group H&N) and 18 patients with other diseases including cerebrovascular disease (Group OD). After liquid barium swallows, they exhaled voluntarily without voicing. Videofluorographic findings were classified into four groups: normal (Normal), acceptable swallow (Acceptable), swallow with residue (Resid) and swallows with penetration or aspiration (Pen/Asp). The duration of expiratory sounds was measured on the time waveform. Frequency characteristics of expiratory sounds were obtained using one-third octave band analysis ranging from 62·5 to 2000·0 Hz of central frequency. The averaged level of the 1000·0-Hz band was chosen as the reference band level (RB level). The revised averaged level of each band was obtained by subtracting the RB level from the averaged level of each band. Zero decibel of the revised magnitude of the 125·0-Hz band was set as the critical value to differentiate dysphagia (Resid or Pen/Asp) from no dysphagia (Normal or Acceptable). Comparison of this assessment with VF findings showed a significant percentage agreement (85·4%). These results suggest that frequency characteristics of post-swallow expiratory sounds can differentiate dysphagia from no dysphagia among multiple dysphagic patient groups. PMID:24841831

  9. Effect of laparotomy on the swallow-breathing relationship in the cat.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Poliacek, Ivan; Condrey, Jillian; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2015-02-01

    Swallow occurs predominantly in the expiratory phase (E) of breathing. This phase preference is thought to contribute to airway protection by limiting the passage of material through the pharyngeal airway with little or no inspiratory (I) airflow. This phase preference is attributed to central interactions between the swallow and breathing pattern generators. We speculated that changes in peripheral mechanical factors would influence the respiratory phase preference for swallow initiation. We induced swallowing in anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats by injection of water into the oropharynx. In animals with intact abdomens, 83 % of swallows were initiated during E, 7 % during I, 7 % during E-I phase transition, and 3 % during I-E transition. In animals with open anterior midline laparotomy, only 38 % of swallows were initiated during E, 33 % during I, 17 % during the E-I transition, and 12 % during I-E. The results support an important role for feedback from somatic and/or visceral thoraco-abdominal mechanoreceptors for swallow-breathing coordination after laparotomy. PMID:25331536

  10. Effects of Topical Nasal Anesthetic on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Examination of Swallowing with Sensory Testing (FEESST)

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Gary H.; Guidry, Tiffany J.; Mennemeier, Mark; Schluterman, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Objections to the use of topical nasal anesthesia (TNA) during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with sensory testing (FEESST) have been raised, primarily because of the possibility of desensitizing the pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa and affecting both the sensory and motor aspects of the swallow. Furthermore, it has been suggested that TNA is not necessary during FEES as it does not improve patient comfort or make the procedure easier for the endoscopist. The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial was to determine how gel TNA during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing affects sensation, swallowing, and comfort rating scores in healthy nondysphagic participants. Laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds and swallowing durations were compared between two conditions: TNA and sham. Transition duration decreased statistically significantly during the TNA condition compared to the sham for 10 ml only (p < 0.05). All other swallowing measures did not change between the conditions. Laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds and perceptions did not change between conditions. No change was observed for subject comfort scores, ease of exam, or quality of view. Future studies should evaluate TNA administration variables, including concentration, dosage amount, and method of application, to determine the optimal strategy for providing comfort while avoiding altered swallowing. PMID:23828313

  11. A Swallow Preservation Protocol Improves Function for Veterans Receiving Chemoradiation for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kevin A.; Kuan, Edward C.; Unger, Lindsey; Lorentz, William C.; Wang, Marilene B.; Long, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Determine the efficacy of a swallow preservation protocol (SPP) on maintaining swallow function in patients undergoing chemoradiation (CRT) or radiation therapy alone (RT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Study design Retrospective case series. Setting Veterans Affairs medical center. Subjects and Methods Patients treated with CRT or RT for HNSCC between February 2006 and November 2013 were studied. Those enrolled in the SPP participated in swallowing, jaw, and tongue exercises during cancer therapy. The comparator group received no swallowing intervention during CRT. A previously described functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS; 0 = no symptoms and 5 = nonoral feeding for all nutrition) was used to quantify dysphagia prior to and at the completion of cancer therapy, and an analysis was performed to compare swallowing function. Results Forty-one (all male; mean age, 66 years) and 66 patients (all male; mean age, 61 years) were included in the SPP and comparator groups, respectively. In the SPP group, mean pre- and posttreatment FOSS scores were 2.2 and 2.2, respectively, while the corresponding scores in the comparator group were 1.8 and 2.7, respectively, with posttreatment FOSS scores being significantly worse than pre-treatment FOSS scores in the comparator group only. Conclusion Patients enrolled in the SPP demonstrated preserved swallowing function over the course of cancer treatment compared with a comparator group. This confirms the importance of early evaluation and intervention for dysphagia prior to and during CRT or RT alone. PMID:25829388

  12. Differentiation of cerebral representation of occlusion and swallowing with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Paul G; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Lotze, Martin

    2013-05-15

    Early work on representational specificity and recent findings on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) movement representation raise doubts that a specific swallow representation does exist. Additionally, during cortical stimulation TMJ movements and swallowing show a high overlap of representational areas in the primary motor cortex. It has thus been hypothesized that they overall might share the same neural structures. To differentiate these two movements, we performed a functional MRI (fMRI) study that enabled a direct comparison of functional representation of both actions in the same subject group. Effort during these tasks was controlled by skin conductance response. When balancing effort, we found a comparable neural representation pattern for both tasks but increased resources necessary to perform swallowing in direct comparison between tasks. For the first time, with the usage of fMRI, we demonstrated a representation in the brainstem for swallowing and occlusion. Increased activation for swallowing was observed in bilateral sensorimotor cortex, bilateral premotor and supplementary motor cortex, motor cingulate, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, left pallidum, bilateral pons, and midbrain. Peaks of activation in primary motor cortex between both conditions were about 5 mm adjacent. Brainstem activation was found corresponding to the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the solitary nucleus for swallowing, and the trigeminal nucleus for occlusion. Our data suggest that cerebral representation of occlusion and swallowing are spatially widely overlapping, differing predominantly with respect to the quantity of neural resources involved. Both brainstem and primary motor representation differ in location with respect to somatotopy and contribution of cranial nerve nuclei. PMID:23494122

  13. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Troche, Michelle S; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. "on" vs. "off", pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23726461

  14. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Simon; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Keech, John C.; Bashir, Mohammad; Gruber, Peter J.; Parekh, Kalpaj R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition) during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years). The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320), high-grade dysplasia (n=14), perforation (n=27), benign stricture (n=7), achalasia (n=16), and other (n=11). A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351), McKeown (n=35), and Ivor Lewis (n=9) esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11). Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93%) underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%). Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy. PMID:27066433

  15. Swallowing transit times and valleculae residue in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breathing and swallowing are physiologically linked to ensure effortless gas exchange during oronasal breathing and to prevent aspiration during swallowing. Studies have indicated consistent aspiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mainly related to delayed swallowing reflex and problems with lingual propulsion and pharyngeal peristalsis as a result of bilateral weakness and incoordination of the related muscles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate swallowing transit times and valleculae residue characteristics of stable COPD patients who have no swallowing complaints. Methods Our study population included 20 stable patients with COPD and no swallowing complaints and 20 healthy controls. Swallowing was assessed through videofluoroscopic examination and involved the analysis of the following parameters: (1) pharyngeal stages of deglutition; (2) the duration of bolus movement through the oral cavity and pharynx (i.e. transit times); (3) valleculae residue ratio; (4) penetration/aspiration. Results Participants of the study did not present any signs of penetration-aspiration for any of the tested consistencies. Patients with COPD presented longer pharyngeal transit times during the ingestion of the liquid consistency and during the ingestion of the paste consistency. Regarding the duration of tongue base contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall, COPD patients also presented longer durations for the liquid and paste consistencies. No significant difference was observed for the distribution of individuals among the different valleculae residue severity levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that stable COPD patients may present physiological adaptations as a protective swallowing maneuver to avoid aspiration/penetration of pharyngeal contents. Moreover, valleculae residue cannot be seen as an isolated factor when trying to explain swallowing alterations in this population. PMID:24739506

  16. 'Pharyngocise': Randomized Controlled Trial of Preventative Exercises to Maintain Muscle Structure and Swallowing Function During Head-and-Neck Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Crary, Michael A.; Schmalfuss, Ilona

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the 'usual care.' Methods and Materials: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. Results: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. Conclusion: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

  17. Patient and operator dose during fluoroscopic examination of swallow mechanism.

    PubMed

    Crawley, M T; Savage, P; Oakley, F

    2004-08-01

    Dose-area product (DAP) measurements were made for 21 patients undergoing a modified barium swallow. The procedures were performed by a radiologist and speech and language therapist, to characterize swallowing disorders in patients with head or spinal injury, stroke, other neurological conditions or simple globus symptoms, in order to inform feeding strategies. The DAP values were used to estimate effective dose to the patient, in order to provide a measure of the radiation risk associated with the procedure. Whole body doses to operators, together with equivalent doses to extremities and eyes were also measured to inform the employer's risk assessment. Median DAP for the series was 3.5 (3.1-5.2) Gycm(2) with a corresponding effective dose to the patient of 0.85 (0.76-1.3) mSv, and a low associated risk, mainly of cancer induction, of about 1 in 16 000. The organ receiving the greatest dose was the thyroid, with a calculated median equivalent dose of 13.9 (12.3-20.7) mSv. Median screening time was 3.7 (2.5-4.3) min. Mean operator doses were 0.5 mSv equivalent dose (eyes), 0.9 mSv (extremities), and less than 0.3 mSv whole body dose. Extrapolating for an annual workload of 50 patients per year, this work will lead to annual operator doses of less than 0.6 mSv whole body dose, and approximately 1 mSv equivalent dose (eyes) and 1.8 mSv (extremities), against corresponding legal dose limits of 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv, respectively. PMID:15326042

  18. Aging effects on oropharyngeal swallow and the role of dental care in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Logemann, J A; Curro, F A; Pauloski, B; Gensler, G

    2013-11-01

    Difficulty with oropharyngeal swallow requires careful diagnosis and treatment from a team of professionals including the patients' physicians and the speech-language pathologist specializing in dysphagia. The dentist can be a critical team member in prevention, early identification, and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia. This manuscript reviews the physiology of normal oropharyngeal swallow and the effects of normal aging on this physiology. Typical etiologies for oropharyngeal dysphagia are defined as is the most commonly used physiologic diagnostic procedure, the modified barium swallow (MBS). The critical role of the dentist in identifying risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia, making appropriate referrals, and improving oral hygiene to prevent aspiration pneumonia in the elderly is discussed. PMID:23574512

  19. Swallowing dynamics status post caustic ingestion in a pediatric patient: A multidisciplinary case report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claire Kane; Rutter, Michael J; von Allmen, Daniel; Stoops, Marilyn; Putnam, Philip; Stevens, Luann; Willging, J Paul

    2016-07-01

    A case report of a 10 year old male illustrates the effect of damage to the tongue base, hypopharynx, cricopharyngeus, and esophagus on the sensory and motor components of the swallowing mechanism. The characteristics of the dysphagia were manifested clinically, radiographically, and endoscopically. A myectomy was required to restore functional swallowing as scar tissue formation in the cricopharyngeus severely interfered with the dynamic components of swallowing. A collaborative approach facilitated communication and effective treatment planning; the multidisciplinary components in the management of this case are discussed. PMID:27260570

  20. 3. View of McKenzieRichey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of McKenzie-Richey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden walkway and stairs, with west side of house in the foreground, facing northeast. - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  1. Adolescents, Health Education, and Computers: The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…

  2. The barn owl wing: an inspiration for silent flight in the aviation industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Barn owls are specialists in prey detection using acoustic information. The flight apparatus of this bird of prey is most efficiently adapted to the hunting behavior by reducing flight noise. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms owls make use of could help minimize the noise disturbances in airport or wind power plant neighborhood. Here, we characterize wings of barn owls in terms of an airfoil as a role model for studying silent flight. This characterization includes surface and edge specialization (serrations, fringes) evolved by the owl. Furthermore, we point towards possible adaptations of either noise suppression or air flow control that might be an inspiration for the construction of modern aircraft. Three-dimensional imaging techniques such as surface digitizing, computed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wings and feathers in high spatial resolution. We show that wings of barn owls are huge in relation to their body mass resulting in a very low wing loading which in turn enables a slow flight and an increased maneuverability. Profiles of the wing are highly cambered and anteriorly thickened, especially at the proximal wing, leading to high lift production during flight. However, wind tunnel experiments showed that the air flow tends to separate at such wing configurations, especially at low-speed flight. Barn owls compensated this problem by evolving surface and edge modifications that stabilize the air flow. A quantitative three-dimensionally characterization of some of these structures is presented.

  3. Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein. PMID:26624114

  4. Effectiveness of a manure scraper system for odor control in tunnel-ventilated swine finisher barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Options for odor control from tunnel-ventilated swine barns are limited. Automated scrapers have been successful for reducing odor emissions in free-stall dairies, and for reducing H2S emissions in research-scale swine finisher rooms, but their effectiveness for reducing odor in commercial tunnel-v...

  5. 2. View of McKenzieRichey property from north fence line. Barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of McKenzie-Richey property from north fence line. Barn with wood shed on left edge, root cellar behind trees, house in center, and garage in foreground, facing south - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  6. Performance of gestating sows in bedded hoop barns and confinement stalls.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Honeyman, M S; Mabry, J W; Harmon, J D

    2007-05-01

    The effects of gestation housing systems on sow and litter performance were evaluated for 2.5 yr in southwest Iowa. Gestation housing system treatments were as follows: 1) individual gestation stalls in a mechanically ventilated confinement building with a partially slatted floor and a manure flush system and 2) group pens with individual feed stalls in deep-bedded, naturally ventilated hoop barns. In all, 957 litters from 353 sows were evaluated. Number of pigs born alive per litter differed for the 2 housing treatments (P = 0.002). Sows gestated in hoop barns gave birth to more live pigs per litter (10.0 +/- 0.2 pigs) than sows gestated in stalls (9.3 +/- 0.2 pigs). Preweaning mortality was not different for the 2 housing treatments (P = 0.70). Cross-fostering was done to equalize litter size within 24 h of birth, which resulted in an equal number of weaned pigs per sow (P = 0.50) regardless of gestation housing treatment. The weaning-to-breeding interval was different (P = 0.01), with sows kept in stalls (4.3 +/- 0.6 d) returning to estrus sooner than sows gestated in hoop barns (6.0 +/- 0.6 d). These results indicate that gestating sows can be housed as groups in deep-bedded hoop barns equipped with individual feeding stalls and will perform comparably to gestating sows housed in confinement systems with individual gestation stalls. PMID:17224459

  7. Neural Coding of Relational Invariance in Speech: Human Language Analogs to the Barn Owl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Harvey M.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal model shown to code sound-source azimuth in the barn owl by H. Wagner et al. in 1987 is used as the basis for a speculative brain-based human model, which can establish contrastive phonetic categories to solve the problem of perception "non-invariance." (SLD)

  8. Contextual view to southeast from near barn, showing DrewSherwood Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to southeast from near barn, showing Drew-Sherwood Tank House (HABS No. CA-2610-B) through east-west line of locust trees, with line of eucalyptus trees along north-south fence line at extreme right. Drew-Sherwood House (HABS No. CA-2610-A) - Drew-Sherwood Farm, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  9. Advance Organizers as a Teaching Strategy: A Reply to Barnes and Clawson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Wanska, Susan K.

    1977-01-01

    Barnes and Clawson's presentation of Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning (Review of Educational Research, 45, 1975, pp. 637-59) is misleading, according to the author. He states that Ausubel's crucial point is not that organizers relate new knowledge to an existing cognitive structure, but that new learning materials can only be considered…

  10. 140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, corrals, and planted cottonwood tree. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-72 and AZ-2-74. See AZ-2-82 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  11. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the…

  12. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765

  13. The relationship of the 'inferior constrictor swallow' and 'globus hystericus' or the hypopharyngeal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gray, L P

    1983-07-01

    The term 'Globus Hystericus' is considered to be a very bad term for such a common condition and it is recommended that it be replaced by the 'Hypopharyngeal Syndrome'. The normal modified swallow initiated from the lingual tonsil--epiglottis area, called the Inferior Constrictor Swallow, can cause all the symptoms. The epiglottis does not bend. There are two groups of symptoms: the first due to sensation from local irritation of the lingual tonsil; and the second due to vicious circles causing increased muscle tension and strain swallowing. If there is pain or dysphagia or impairment in swallowing, then it is not the Hypopharyngeal Syndrome. The key-note of treatment is the logical explanation of these symptoms and that the vicious circles must be broken. PMID:6875362

  14. Swallows as a sentinel species for contaminant exposure and effect studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Tree swallows are an important model species to study the effects of contaminants in wild bird populations and have been used extensively in studies across North America. The advantages of swallows compared to other avian species are detailed. Three case histories are provided where swallows have been successfully used in Natural Resource Damage and Ecological Risk Assessments. The final two sections of this chapter are for individuals who want more in-depth information and include a summary of the chemical classes for which there are swallow data, including effect levels when known. Information provided in this section can be used to put exposure to most classes of contaminants into context with other sites across North America. Finally, commonly used endpoints, ranging from population-level down to cellular and genetic endpoints, are discussed including considerations and pitfalls, and when further work is needed to more fully understand the role of environmental and biological variation in interpreting these endpoints.

  15. DDE not implicated in cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, mortality during severe spring weather in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Stafford, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Large numbers ofCliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) died in late May near Burns, Oregon, during cold, wet weather. The brains of five dead birds did not contain lethal concentrations of DDE, and no PCBs were detected.

  16. Role of Physical Bolus Properties as Sensory Inputs in the Trigger of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Methods Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Findings Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Conclusions Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they

  17. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hiramatsu, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background/purpose Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs). Methods Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs) and 23 OA volunteers. Results There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow) was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption. Conclusion Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their efforts in mastication and swallowing. PMID:25624755

  18. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Warburton, D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Extremely high concentrations of cadmium (3.5 ug/g dry wgt.) and elevated concentrations of chromium (>10 ug/g dry wgt.) and mercury (1.6 ug/g dry wgt.) were reported in waterbird tissues at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota in 1994. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied during 1998-2001 at three drainages into the Refuge, two pools on the Refuge, and at a nearby reference location to document whether high levels of contaminants were still present, and if so to quantify the source and severity of the contamination. Trace elements were measured in tree swallow eggs, livers, and diet. Reproductive success and bioindicator responses were monitored. In 2000, water was drawn down on Agassiz Pool, one of the main pools on the Refuge. This presented an opportunity to evaluate the response of trace element concentrations in the diet and tissues of tree swallows after reflooding. High concentrations of trace elements were not detected in swallow tissues, nor were there differences among locations. Less than 20% of swallow samples had detectable concentrations of cadmium or chromium. Mercury concentrations were low and averaged <0.25 ug/g dry wgt. in swallow tissues. Trace elements, including mercury, did not increase in tree swallows following the 2000 drawdown at Agassiz Pool. Hatching success and survival of nestlings to 12 days-of-age for tree swallows on the Refuge were similar to the national average and consistent with background trace element concentrations. Bioindicator measurements were within the normal ranges as well.

  19. Sucking and swallowing rates after palatal anesthesia: an electromyographic study in infant pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waranch, Danielle R.; Campbell-Malone, Regina; Ding, Peng; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    Infant mammalian feeding consists of rhythmic suck cycles and reflexive pharyngeal swallows. Although we know how oropharyngeal sensation influences the initiation and frequency of suck and swallow cycles, the role of palatal sensation is unknown. We implanted EMG electrodes into the mylohyoid muscle, a muscle active during suckling, and the thyrohyoid muscle, a muscle active during swallowing, in eight infant pigs. Pigs were then bottle-fed while lateral videofluoroscopy was simultaneously recorded from the electrodes. Two treatments were administered prior to feeding and compared with control feedings: 1) palatal anesthesia (0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride), and 2) palatal saline. Using the timing of mylohyoid muscle and thyrohyoid muscle activity, we tested for differences between treatment and control feedings for swallowing frequency and suck cycle duration. Following palatal anesthesia, four pigs could not suck and exhibited excessive jaw movement. We categorized the four pigs that could suck after palatal anesthesia as group A, and those who could not as group B. Group A had no significant change in suck cycle duration and a higher swallowing frequency after palatal saline (P = 0.021). Group B had significantly longer suck cycles after palatal anesthesia (P < 0.001) and a slower swallowing frequency (P < 0.001). Swallowing frequency may be a way to predict group membership, since it was different in control feedings between groups (P < 0.001). The qualitative and bimodal group response to palatal anesthesia may reflect a developmental difference. This study demonstrates that palatal sensation is involved in the initiation and frequency of suck and swallow cycles in infant feeding. PMID:23636723

  20. Effects of age and stimulus on submental mechanomyography signals during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon; Chau, Tom; Steele, Catriona M

    2009-09-01

    Mechanomyography (MMG) is the measurement of the vibrations associated with muscle contraction. As an indicator of muscle activity in swallowing, MMG has several potential advantages over conventional electromyography (EMG), including robustness to variations in sensor placement, perspiration, and food spillage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of participant age and stimulus on submental muscle activity as measured by MMG. Nasal airflow was utilized as a reference signal. Four liquid stimuli were investigated: water, nectar-thick and honey-thick apple juices, and a thin-liquid barium suspension. Each of 15 healthy adults completed nine swallowing sequences, each consisting of four discrete swallows via a self-administered cup-drinking task, with an MMG sensor at a midline submental location and a nasal cannula at the nares. Muscle activity and swallowing apneas in the signals were identified with pseudo-automatic segmentation algorithms. Various timing and amplitude features were extracted from each segmented swallow. Muscle activity onset preceded the onset of swallow apnea. Significant main effects of stimulus were found for the duration of muscle activity and for the time difference between the offsets of muscle activity and swallow apnea. No other main or interaction effects were significant. In general, the timing and amplitude variations of submental muscle activity revealed by MMG seem to agree with previously reported findings using EMG. The minor discrepancies between the results of this study and those of previous EMG studies are likely due to differences in experimental tasks. MMG may serve as an alternative measure of muscle activity during swallowing and further investigation is warranted. PMID:19142682

  1. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Baum, Ulrich; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-04-01

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) may be misdiagnosed on conventional ultrasound as a thyroid nodule or other lesion. A barium esophagram is usually used to confirm the diagnosis; however, this procedure exposes the patient to radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound (swallow-CEUS) to diagnose ZD. Ten consecutive patients with ZD (7 men and 3 women, aged 67 ± 11 y) were included in the study. In 4 patients, ZD was incidentally found on head and neck ultrasound, and in 6 patients, ZD was suspected because of dysphagia. All lesions could be detected on conventional ultrasound before swallow-CEUS. Ten healthy volunteers (8 men and 2 women, aged 60 ± 12 y) were chosen as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained. With the patient in the sitting or upright position, conventional ultrasound was performed first to image the lesion, then the patient was asked to swallow ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) (2-4 drops of SonoVue diluted with about 200 mL of tap water). Transity of the contrast agent in the esophagus was imaged with CEUS. Retention of the UCA in the diverticulum was monitored for at least 3 min. All patients underwent a barium esophagram as the gold standard. Swallow-CEUS revealed that in all patients (100%), the UCA was transported from the pharynx to the esophagus while the patient swallowed. ZD appeared as a pouch-shaped structure at the posterior pharyngo-esophageal junction that retained UCA longer than 3 min. The barium esophagram confirmed the diagnosis of ZD in all patients. For the 10 volunteers, no abnormal structure (retaining UCA) was detected during or after swallowing of UCA. With the advantages of no radiation and bedside availability, swallow-CEUS may become a method of choice in confirmation of the diagnosis of ZD, especially when ZD is suspected on conventional ultrasound. PMID:25701519

  2. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Nichols, J.W.; Secord, A.L.; McCarty, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  3. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Warburton, David; Hoffman, David J; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W

    2006-07-01

    Extremely high concentrations of cadmium (3.5 microg/g dry wgt.) and elevated concentrations of chromium (>10 microg/g dry wgt.) and mercury (1.6 microg/g dry wgt.) were reported in waterbird tissues at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota in 1994. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied during 1998-2001 at three drainages into the Refuge, two pools on the Refuge, and at a nearby reference location to document whether high levels of contaminants were still present, and if so to quantify the source and severity of the contamination. Trace elements were measured in tree swallow eggs, livers, and diet. Reproductive success and bioindicator responses were monitored. In 2000, water was drawn down on Agassiz Pool, one of the main pools on the Refuge. This presented an opportunity to evaluate the response of trace element concentrations in the diet and tissues of tree swallows after reflooding. High concentrations of trace elements were not detected in swallow tissues, nor were there differences among locations. Less than 20% of swallow samples had detectable concentrations of cadmium or chromium. Mercury concentrations were low and averaged <0.25 microg/g dry wgt. in swallow tissues. Trace elements, including mercury, did not increase in tree swallows following the 2000 drawdown at Agassiz Pool. Hatching success and survival of nestlings to 12 days-of-age for tree swallows on the Refuge were similar to the national average and consistent with background trace element concentrations. Bioindicator measurements were within the normal ranges as well. PMID:16897545

  4. Detection of Food Intake from Swallowing Sequences by Supervised and Unsupervised Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Schuckers, Stephanie; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Sazonov, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Studies of food intake and ingestive behavior in free-living conditions most often rely on self-reporting-based methods that can be highly inaccurate. Methods of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) rely on objective measures derived from chewing and swallowing sequences and thus can be used for unbiased study of food intake with free-living conditions. Our previous study demonstrated accurate detection of food intake in simple models relying on observation of both chewing and swallowing. This article investigates methods that achieve comparable accuracy of food intake detection using only the time series of swallows and thus eliminating the need for the chewing sensor. The classification is performed for each individual swallow rather than for previously used time slices and thus will lead to higher accuracy in mass prediction models relying on counts of swallows. Performance of a group model based on a supervised method (SVM) is compared to performance of individual models based on an unsupervised method (K-means) with results indicating better performance of the unsupervised, self-adapting method. Overall, the results demonstrate that highly accurate detection of intake of foods with substantially different physical properties is possible by an unsupervised system that relies on the information provided by the swallowing alone. PMID:20352335

  5. Voice and swallowing disorders: functional results and quality of life following supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.

    PubMed

    Portas, Juliana Godoy; Queija, Débora dos Santos; Arine, Leonora Pereira; Ferreira, Alessandra Sampaio; Dedivitis, Rogério A; Lehn, Carlos Neutzling; Barros, Ana Paula Brandão

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a prospective study of 11 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Our goal was to evaluate their postoperative voice and swallowing function and to ascertain the impact that surgery had on patient-perceived quality of life. Postoperative assessments were made by auditory perception analyses, objective voice analyses, the Voice Handicap Index questionnaire, the Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders questionnaire, and videofluoroscopy. Following surgery, 8 patients experienced severe dysphonia and 3 experienced moderate dysphonia. Also, 5 patients experienced mild to severe dysphagia whereas 6 patients experienced normal or near-normal swallowing function. Postoperative acoustic measurements were higher than expected, and spectrographic evaluation revealed the presence of high-grade noise without predominant concentration over the spectrum. Some association with the grade of dysphonia and self-perception of voice handicap was observed. With regard to swallowing, 5 patients (45.5%) showed a decrease in laryngeal remnant elevation and a slight or moderate degree of stasis in the oropharynx. Overall, patients reported good quality of life regarding both voice and swallowing. No relationship between the functional swallowing and the number of preserved arytenoid cartilages was observed. PMID:19826987

  6. Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  7. Multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry data for unrestricted swallowing: establishing normal values.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J A; Mainie, I; Tutuian, R; Agrawal, A; Castell, D O

    2008-01-01

    Standard esophageal manometric testing evaluates swallowing in the supine position using small boluses, with a recovery period imposed between swallows. Manometric tests of more physiologic unrestricted swallowing have had limited practical application due to highly variable results. The purpose of this study is to apply multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) to test esophageal function during unrestricted upright meal consumption, and to assess results in a normal healthy population. Ten healthy volunteers with normal esophageal impedance and manometry by published criteria underwent MII-EM testing using a combined 5-channel catheter. After transnasal placement of the catheter, each subject sat upright and consumed a meal that consisted of two pieces of toasted bread and two ounces of Gatorade. There were no restrictions placed on chewing, swallowing, or eating time. All data assessed by the MII-EM meal test were normally distributed. Impedance results with limited variability included the meal duration, number of swallows, postprandial emptying time and the percent of bolus presence times at 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Manometric results with limited variability included the number of peristaltic sequences, mean time between these sequences and their distal esophageal amplitudes. MII-EM can be used to collect data with minimal variability in healthy subjects during unrestricted upright meal consumption. This technique may be used to identify abnormal motility patterns during physiologic swallowing. PMID:18197939

  8. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device †

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  9. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abysique, Anne; Tardivel, Catherine; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Félix, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. PMID:26192767

  10. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Abysique, Anne; Tardivel, Catherine; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Félix, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. PMID:26192767

  11. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  12. Mass depopulation of laying hens in whole barns with liquid carbon dioxide: evaluation of welfare impact.

    PubMed

    Turner, P V; Kloeze, H; Dam, A; Ward, D; Leung, N; Brown, E E L; Whiteman, A; Chiappetta, M E; Hunter, D B

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate emergency disaster preparedness is a key priority for agricultural agencies to allow effective response to serious avian disease outbreaks. There is a need to develop rapid, humane, and safe depopulation techniques for poultry that are widely applicable across a range of farm settings. Whole barn depopulation with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has been investigated as a humane and efficient means of killing large numbers of birds in the event of a reportable disease outbreak. It has also been considered as a method for depopulating barns containing end-of-lay hens, particularly when there is limited local slaughter and rendering capacity. Determining the best method of humanely killing large flocks of birds remains problematic and is being investigated by a coordinated international effort. While whole barn depopulation using CO(2) inhalation has been explored, physiologic responses of chickens have not been characterized in field settings and assessment of animal welfare is hampered without this information. In this study, 12 cull laying hens were surgically instrumented with telemetry transmitters to record electroencephalographs, electrocardiographs, body temperature, and activity during 2 large-scale field CO(2) euthanasia trials of end-of-lay hens. The day following surgery, instrumented hens were placed in barns with other birds, barns were sealed, and animals were killed by CO(2) inhalation delivered via a specially designed liquid CO(2) manifold. Instrumented birds were monitored by infrared thermography, and ambient temperature, CO(2), and O(2) concentrations were recorded. Results from these studies indicate that instrumented hens lost consciousness within 2 min of CO(2) levels reaching 18 to 20%. Mild to moderate head shaking, gasping, and 1 to 2 clonic muscle contractions were noted in hens before unconsciousness; however, brain death followed rapidly (<5 min). Evaluation of welfare costs and benefits suggest clear advantages over catching and

  13. Semi-annual monitoring report for Barnes, Kansas, for July-December 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-27

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the seventh quarterly monitoring event, conducted in September-October, and

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird. PMID:24855672

  16. Swallowing performance after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, I.C.; Tiver, K.; Bull, C.; Gebski, V.; Langlands, A.O.

    1988-05-15

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to tabulate the incidence and etiologic factors of importance in the development of strictures after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus and to analyze the outcome of patients who develop such strictures. Eighty patients were treated with radiotherapy, 50 having radical and 30 having palliative treatment. Sixty-nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had adenocarcinoma, one had sarcoma, one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and five had undifferentiated tumors. Forty percent developed no stricture, 30% had benign fibrotic stricture, and 28% developed malignant stricture. The etiologic factors analysed included age, pretreatment swallowing score, histology and length (size) of tumor; stage of disease, dose of radiotherapy, and use of chemotherapy. None of these factors were shown to be of etiologic importance. The survival of patients who developed benign strictures was found to be significantly longer (1-year survival 88%) than those who developed no stricture (50%) or malignant stricture (19%). Using a success score for palliation of dysphagia, it was found that the majority of patients (71%) who developed a benign stricture had a moderately successful outcome--they were able to tolerate a full or soft diet and required dilatation with a median duration between dilatations of 5 months. Patients who developed a malignant stricture were palliated poorly by dilatation alone, and most required esophageal intubation.

  17. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-01

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients. PMID:26490455

  18. Radial and longitudinal asymmetry of human pharyngeal pressures during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Sears, V W; Castell, J A; Castell, D O

    1991-12-01

    Radial asymmetry of upper esophageal sphincter resting pressure has been previously described; however, neither radial nor longitudinal asymmetry of pharyngeal pressures has been demonstrated. The authors used a specially designed intraluminal transducer catheter (Konigsberg; Konigsberg Instruments, Pasadena, CA) with four solid-state transducers separated by 3 cm and oriented circumferentially at 90 degrees intervals to measure pharyngeal pressures. Two wet swallows at each 1-cm interval along the length of the pharynx were measured in 12 normal volunteers (10 male, 2 female; mean age, 38 years). Pressure data were collected on-line by an Apple IIe microcomputer (Apple Computer Inc., Cupertino, CA) at 100 Hz and analyzed for both radial and longitudinal asymmetry. Significant (P less than 0.05) longitudinal asymmetry was shown in all positions except right lateral. Radial asymmetry was present for the first 4 cm only, with anterior and posterior pressures significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than lateral pressures. It was concluded that pharyngeal pressure responses show both axial and longitudinal asymmetry in the distal pharynx. Awareness of transducer position and orientation is essential in the evaluation of pharyngeal pressures. PMID:1955121

  19. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  20. Variability reduction in interaural time difference tuning in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Brian J; Konishi, Masakazu

    2008-08-01

    The interaural time difference (ITD) is the primary auditory cue used by the barn owl for localization in the horizontal direction. ITD is initially computed by circuits consisting of axonal delay lines from one of the cochlear nuclei and coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL). NL projects directly to the anterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLDa), and this area projects to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICcc) in the midbrain. To show the selectivity of an NL neuron for ITD requires averaging of responses over several stimulus presentations for each ITD. In contrast, ICcc neurons detect their preferred ITD in a single burst of stimulus. We recorded extracellularly the responses of LLDa neurons to ITD in anesthetized barn owls and show that this ability is already present in LLDa, raising the possibility that ICcc inherits its noise reduction property from LLDa. PMID:18509071

  1. Scalable Parallel Formulations of the Barnes-Hut Method for n-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grama, Ananth Y.; Kumar, Vipin; Sameh, Ahmed

    In this paper, we present two new parallel formulations of the Barnes-Hut method. These parallel formulations are especially suited for simulations with irregular particle densities. We first present a parallel formulation that uses a static partioning of the domain and assignment of subdomains to processors. We demonstrate that this scheme delivers acceptable load balance, and coupled with two collective communication operations, it yields good performance. We present a second parallel formulation which combines static decomposition of the domain with an assignment of subdomains to processors based on Morton ordering. This alleviates the load imbalance inherent in the first scheme. The second parallel formulation is inspired by two currently best known parallel algorithms for the Barnes-Hut method. We present an experimental evaluation of these schemes on a 256 processor nCUBE2 parallel computer for an astrophysical simulation.

  2. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  3. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes. PMID:26552377

  4. Voluntary Modulation of Hemodynamic Responses in Swallowing Related Motor Areas: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Neurofeedback Study

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Gressenberger, Bettina; Kurzmann, Jürgen; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we show for the first time that motor imagery of swallowing, which is defined as the mental imagination of a specific motor act without overt movements by muscular activity, can be successfully used as mental strategy in a neurofeedback training paradigm. Furthermore, we demonstrate its effects on cortical correlates of swallowing function. Therefore, N = 20 healthy young adults were trained to voluntarily increase their hemodynamic response in swallowing related brain areas as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). During seven training sessions, participants received either feedback of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb group, N = 10) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb group, N = 10) over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during motor imagery of swallowing. Before and after the training, we assessed cortical activation patterns during motor execution and imagery of swallowing. The deoxy-Hb group was able to voluntarily increase deoxy-Hb over the IFG during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, swallowing related cortical activation patterns were more pronounced during motor execution and imagery after the training compared to the pre-test, indicating cortical reorganization due to neurofeedback training. The oxy-Hb group could neither control oxy-Hb during neurofeedback training nor showed any cortical changes. Hence, successful modulation of deoxy-Hb over swallowing related brain areas led to cortical reorganization and might be useful for future treatments of swallowing dysfunction. PMID:26575032

  5. The evaluation of swallowing in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia and oropharyngeal dysphagia: A comparison study of videofluoroscopic and sonar doppler

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmassih, Edna Márcia da Silva; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Sumarry Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a degenerative disease that can cause loss of coordination of voluntary muscle movement such as that required for swallowing. Aims: The purposes of this cross-sectional and comparative case study were: (1) to assess the severity of dysphagia through a videofluoroscopic swallow study, and (2) to compare differences in frequency, intensity, and duration of sound waves produced during swallowing in normal and SCA patients by using sonar Doppler. Method: During swallow evaluation using videofluoroscopy, a sonar Doppler transducer was placed on the right side of the neck, at the lateral edge of the trachea, just below the cricoid cartilage to capture the sounds of swallowing in 30 SCA patients and 30 controls. Result: The prevalence in the dynamic evaluation of swallowing videofluoroscopy was by changes in the oral phase of swallowing. The analysis of variance of the averages found in each variable - frequency, intensity and duration of swallowing - shows there was a significant correlation when compared to the healthy individual curve. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the prevalence of oral dysphagia observed in dynamic videofluoroscopic swallow evaluation. In patients with SCA, the mean initial frequency (IF), initial intensity (II), and final intensity (FI) were higher and the time (T) and peak frequency (PF) were lower, demonstrating a pattern of cricopharyngeal opening very close to that found in normal populations. PMID:26038680

  6. Effects of coal fly ash on tree swallow reproduction in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Meyer, Carolyn B; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Schlekat, Tamar H

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fly ash was released in unprecedented amounts (4.1 × 10(6) m(3) ) into the Emory River from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. Tree swallows were exposed to ash-related constituents at the ash release via their diet of emergent aquatic insects, whose larval forms can accumulate constituents from submerged river sediments. Reproduction of tree swallow colonies was assessed over a 2-year period by evaluating whether 1) ash constituent concentrations were elevated in egg, eggshell, and nestling tissues at colonies near ash-impacted river reaches compared to reference colonies, 2) production of fledglings per nesting female was significantly lower in ash-impacted colonies versus reference colonies, and 3) ash constituent concentrations or diet concentrations were correlated with nest productivity measures (clutch size, hatching success, and nestling survival, and fledglings produced per nest). Of the 26 ash constituents evaluated, 4 (Se, Sr, Cu, and Hg) were significantly elevated in tissues potentially from the ash, and 3 (Se, Sr, and Cu) in tissues or in swallow diet items were weakly correlated to at least one nest-productivity measure or egg weight. Tree swallow hatching success was significantly reduced by 12%, but fledgling production per nest was unaffected due to larger clutch sizes in the impacted than reference colonies. Bioconcentration from the ash to insects in the diet to tree swallow eggs appears to be low. Overall, adverse impacts of the ash on tree swallow reproduction were not observed, but monitoring is continuing to further ensure Se from the residual ash does not adversely affect tree swallow reproduction over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:56-66. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25345977

  7. Effects of early intervention of swallowing therapy on recovery from dysphagia following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Sarraf, Payam; Nakhostin-Ansari, Noureddin; Tafakhori, Abbas; Logemann, Jeri; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia is common after stroke. The onset time of swallowing rehabilitation following stroke has an important role in the recovery of dysphagia and preventing of its complications, but it was either highly variable or was not stated in previous trials. The aim of this study was investigation effects of onset time of swallowing therapy on recovery from dysphagia following stroke. Methods: Sixty dysphagia patients due to stroke range of age 60-74 (67.1 ± 3.8), participated in this randomized clinical trial study. The patients allocated in Early, Medium and Late groups, on the base of initiation of swallowing therapy after the stroke. After basic clinical and video fluoroscopic swallowing study assessments, traditional swallowing therapy was initiated 3 times per week for 3 months. The outcome measures were North-Western dysphagia patient check sheet, functional oral intake scale, video fluoroscopy, and frequency of pneumonia. Statistical analysis was done by repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and χ2 tests. Results: Three groups of patients in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the pre-treatment P > 0.050. Onset time of swallowing therapy after stroke was effective on swallowing recovery on the main outcome variables. So that in first group patients, recovery was rather than other groups P < 0.050. Furthermore, the frequency of pneumonia in the early group was less than other groups and in the early group no patients experienced pneumonia P = 0.002. Conclusion: Our data suggested that early interventions for dysphagia in stroke have an important role in recovery from dysphagia and prevention of complications like aspiration pneumonia. PMID:26622975

  8. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms. PMID:23615168

  9. Disruption of auditory spatial working memory by inactivation of the forebrain archistriatum in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Knudsen, P F

    1996-10-01

    Barn owls not only localize auditory stimuli with great accuracy, they also remember the locations of auditory stimuli and can use this remembered spatial information to guide their flight and strike. Although the mechanisms of sound localization have been studied extensively, the neurobiological basis of auditory spatial memory has not. Here we show that the ability of barn owls to orient their gaze towards and fly to the remembered location of auditory targets is lost during pharmacological inactivation of a small region in the forebrain, the anterior archistriatum. In contrast, archistriatal inactivation has no effect on stimulus-guided responses to auditory targets. The memory-dependent deficit is evident only for acoustic events that occur in the hemifield contralateral to the side that is inactivated. The data demonstrate that in the avian archistriatum, as in the mammalian frontal cortex, there exists a region that is essential for the expression of spatial working memory and that, in the barn owl, this region encodes auditory spatial memory. PMID:8837773

  10. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  11. Is a new version of philosophical pragmatism necessary? A reply to Barnes-Holmes

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409

  12. Representation of frequency in the primary auditory field of the barn owl forebrain.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y E; Knudsen, E I

    1996-12-01

    1. The primary auditory field (PAF) constitutes the first telencephalic stage of auditory information processing in the classical auditory pathway. In this study we investigated the frequency representation in the PAF of the barn owl, a species with a broad frequency range of hearing and a highly advanced auditory system. 2. Single- and multiunit sites were recorded extracellularly in ketamine-anesthetized owls. The frequency response properties of PAF sites were assessed with the use of digitally synthesized dichotic stimuli. PAF sites (n = 442) either were unresponsive to tonal stimulation (but responsive to noise stimuli), were tuned for frequency, or had multipeaked frequency response profiles. Tuned sites responded best to frequencies between 0.2 and 8.8 kHz, a range that encompasses nearly the entire hearing range of the barn owl. Most sites responding best to frequencies < 4 kHz had relatively broad frequency tuning, whereas sites responding best to higher frequencies had either broad or narrow frequency tuning. Sites with multipeaked frequency response profiles typically had two response peaks. The first peak was usually between 1 and 3 kHz and the second was usually between 5 and 8 kHz; there was no systematic relationship between the two peak frequencies. 3. In dorsoventral electrode penetrations that contained sites with tuned and/or multipeaked response profiles, a "common frequency" was identified that elicited a maximal response from all of the sites in the penetration. 4. The PAF contains a single tonotopic field. Units tuned to low frequencies are located caudomedially, whereas units tuned to high frequencies are located rostrolaterally. Compared with the frequency representation along the basilar papilla and in other auditory structures, the PAF overrepresents low frequencies (< 4 kHz) that are important for barn owl vocalizations. Conversely, high frequencies (> or = 4 kHz), which are necessary for precise sound localization, are underrepresented

  13. Visual-auditory integration for visual search: a behavioral study in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Yael; Kra, Yonatan; Yarin, Inna; Wagner, Hermann; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Barn owls are nocturnal predators that rely on both vision and hearing for survival. The optic tectum of barn owls, a midbrain structure involved in selective attention, has been used as a model for studying visual-auditory integration at the neuronal level. However, behavioral data on visual-auditory integration in barn owls are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine if the integration of visual and auditory signals contributes to the process of guiding attention toward salient stimuli. We attached miniature wireless video cameras on barn owls' heads (OwlCam) to track their target of gaze. We first provide evidence that the area centralis (a retinal area with a maximal density of photoreceptors) is used as a functional fovea in barn owls. Thus, by mapping the projection of the area centralis on the OwlCam's video frame, it is possible to extract the target of gaze. For the experiment, owls were positioned on a high perch and four food items were scattered in a large arena on the floor. In addition, a hidden loudspeaker was positioned in the arena. The positions of the food items and speaker were changed every session. Video sequences from the OwlCam were saved for offline analysis while the owls spontaneously scanned the room and the food items with abrupt gaze shifts (head saccades). From time to time during the experiment, a brief sound was emitted from the speaker. The fixation points immediately following the sounds were extracted and the distances between the gaze position and the nearest items and loudspeaker were measured. The head saccades were rarely toward the location of the sound source but to salient visual features in the room, such as the door knob or the food items. However, among the food items, the one closest to the loudspeaker had the highest probability of attracting a gaze shift. This result supports the notion that auditory signals are integrated with visual information for the selection of the next visual search target. PMID

  14. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  15. Altered swallowing function in elderly patients without dysphagia: radiologic findings in 56 cases.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, O; Feinberg, M J

    1991-06-01

    Swallowing disorder is an increasing problem in our aging population. A majority of these patients have a functional abnormality of the oral, pharyngeal, and/or esophageal stage of swallowing. However, what constitutes normalcy is not well understood, and baseline swallowing in elderly persons without dysphagia has not been adequately described. We therefore evaluated 56 persons with a mean age of 83 years who had no symptoms of dysphagia or eating difficulty. Videofluoroscopy and radiographs with the subject erect and recumbent were obtained. Normal deglutition, as defined in young persons, was present in only 16%. Oral abnormalities (difficulty ingesting, controlling, and delivering bolus relative to swallowing initiation) were seen in 63%. Pharyngeal dysfunction (bolus retention and lingual propulsion or pharyngeal constrictor paresis) was seen in 25%. Pharyngoesophageal segment abnormalities were observed in 39% (mostly cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction). Esophageal abnormalities (mostly motor in nature) were observed in 36%. What has been described as swallowing dysfunction in young persons may not be abnormal in very elderly persons. It is difficult to distinguish the effect of normal aging from the effects of specific diseases or gradual degenerative changes. PMID:2028863

  16. Analysis of Video Fluoroscopic Swallowing Study in Patients with Vocal Cord Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yoon Young; Lee, Sang Jun; Jeon, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the findings of a video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) of 28 patients with vocal cord paralysis (VCP) who complained of swallowing difficulties. VFSSs were performed with thick and thin liquid using modified Logemann methods. The patients were grouped according to whether their VCP was of central or peripheral origin, and the VFSS findings of the groups were compared. The patients showed oral phase dysfunction and pharyngeal dysfunction, especially when the cause was of central origin. Oral phase abnormalities were found in 13 patients and pharyngeal phase abnormalities were found in all patients, including penetration in 20 patients and aspiration in 14 patients. Improper lip closure (LC) and bolus formation (BF) and a delay in triggering pharyngeal swallow (TPS) and upper esophageal sphincter release (UESR) were significantly more frequent in patients with central VCP. With thin-liquid swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT) and pharyngeal delay time (PDT) were significantly more prolonged in central VCP. The results suggest that the delay in triggering and poor coordination of swallowing were profound in patients with central VCP, but dysfunction in peripheral VCP may originate from poor pharyngeal movement. PMID:21773847

  17. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Automatic Detection of Swallowing Events by Acoustical Means for Applications of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward S.; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of etiology of obesity and overweight is incomplete due to lack of objective and accurate methods for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) in the free living population. Our research has shown that frequency of swallowing may serve as a predictor for detecting food intake, differentiating liquids and solids, and estimating ingested mass. This paper proposes and compares two methods of acoustical swallowing detection from sounds contaminated by motion artifacts, speech and external noise. Methods based on mel-scale Fourier spectrum, wavelet packets, and support vector machines are studied considering the effects of epoch size, level of decomposition and lagging on classification accuracy. The methodology was tested on a large dataset (64.5 hours with a total of 9,966 swallows) collected from 20 human subjects with various degrees of adiposity. Average weighted epoch recognition accuracy for intra-visit individual models was 96.8% which resulted in 84.7% average weighted accuracy in detection of swallowing events. These results suggest high efficiency of the proposed methodology in separation of swallowing sounds from artifacts that originate from respiration, intrinsic speech, head movements, food ingestion, and ambient noise. The recognition accuracy was not related to body mass index, suggesting that the methodology is suitable for obese individuals. PMID:19789095

  19. Swallowing kinematics and airway protection after palatal local anesthesia in infant pigs

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Shaina Devi; Campbell-Malone, Regina; Ding, Peng; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Waranch, Danielle R.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Abnormal kinematics during swallowing can result in aspiration which may become life threatening. We tested the role of palatal sensation in the motor control of pharyngeal swallow in infants. Study Design In eight infant pigs, we reduced palatal sensation using local anesthesia (PLA) and measured the impact on swallowing kinematics and airway protection. Methods The pigs drank milk containing barium while we simultaneously recorded videofluoroscopy and electromyography from fine wire bipolar electrodes in several hyolaryngeal muscles. We compared these results to control feedings and feedings following palatal saline injections (PSA). Results After PLA, four pigs had extreme jaw movements and abnormal tongue movement uncharacteristic of sucking. For this reason, we evaluated differences between these “Group B” pigs and the others that could suck normally after PLA, “Group A”. In the four Group A pigs, after PLA there was less hyoid elevation (p<0.001) but normal jaw and tongue movements. In Group B, in addition to greater jaw movement (p<0.001) there was more anterior and superior tongue movement (p<0.001) and a larger range of hyoid movement (p<0.001) Conclusion The airway was protected in all of the pigs, indicating that these changes allowed successful adaptation to the reduction in palatal sensation. However, the oral and pharyngeal phases of the swallow were functionally linked and trigeminal sensation influenced the motor control of the pharyngeal swallow. PMID:23686446

  20. Reproductive success and contaminants in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dods, Patti L; Birmingham, Erinn M; Williams, Tony D; Ikonomou, Michael G; Bennie, Donald T; Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    The uptake and effects of contaminants were measured in the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) at a wastewater treatment site. The study examined reproductive, immunological, and growth endpoints in tree swallows exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and to 4-nonylphenol in wastewater lagoons at the Iona Wastewater Treatment Plant, Vancouver (BC, Canada). Clutch size was significantly lower in tree swallows breeding at Iona Island in 2000 and 2001 compared to the reference site. In 2000, fledging success was significantly lower and mean mass of nestling livers was significantly higher in the tree swallows breeding at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. Additional factors that may influence reproductive success, such as parental provisioning and diet composition, did not differ significantly between sites. Levels of 4-nonylphenol detected in sediment and insects were elevated at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (2000: lagoon sediment 82,000 ng/g dry wt, insects 310 ng/g wet wt; 2001: lagoon sediment 383,900 ng/g dry wt, insects 156 ng/g wet wt) compared to the reference site (2000: pond sediment 1,100 ng/g dry wt, insects not sampled; 2001: pond sediment 642 ng/g dry wt, insects 98 ng/g wet wt). These results indicate that tree swallows might be a useful indicator species for exposure to 4-nonylphenol at wastewater treatment sites: however, further work is necessary to determine the extent of uptake and effects of 4-nonylphenol in riparian insectivorous birds. PMID:16445092

  1. Reliability for Identification of a Select Set of Temporal and Physiologic Features of Infant Swallows.

    PubMed

    Gosa, Memorie M; Suiter, Debra M; Kahane, Joel C

    2015-06-01

    There is little reported evidence regarding the reliability of temporal and physiologic features of infant swallowing from videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine a reliable set of temporal and physiologic features from infant swallowing that can be measured from analysis of VFSS. Temporal and physiologic features for testing were determined from review of previously reported features of infant VFSS in the literature. Two novel analysts underwent three training sessions to learn and practice visual recognition of the proposed features. The two analysts then assessed 25 swallows from 10 total subjects' VFSS. To establish inter- and intra-rater reliability, calculation of Pearson's r was used for features that met criteria for parametric analysis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the non-continuous features. Percent agreement was used to report on the reliability of the dichotomous features due to insufficient variability for Spearman's rho analyses. Fifteen of the 16 tested features were found to have acceptable inter- and intra-rater reliability measures, with each analyst achieving a correlation of 0.75 or higher. This project identifies 15 variables that can be reliably measured from infant VFSS. This information can be used to assist with determination of normal versus abnormal swallow features and in developing and testing therapeutic strategies for infants with dysphagia. PMID:25840787

  2. ORAL AND NONORAL SENSORIMOTOR INTERVENTIONS FACILITATE SUCK-SWALLOW-RESPIRATION FUNCTIONS AND THEIR COORDINATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Fucile, Sandra; McFarland, David H; Gisel, Erika G; Lau, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background Preterm infants are at high risk of encountering oral feeding difficulties. Early sensorimotor interventions may improve oral feeding skills in preterm infants. Aim To further explore the effects of an oral (O), tactile/kinesthetic (T/K), and combined (O+T/K) sensorimotor intervention on preterm infants’ nutritive sucking, swallowing and their coordination with respiration. Study design Seventy-five infants (29 [0.3, standard error of mean, SEM] weeks gestation, 49 males/26 females) were randomly assigned to an O group involving sensorimotor input to the oral structures; a T/K group involving sensorimotor input to the trunk and limbs; a combined (O+T/K) group; and a control group. Outcome measures Stage of sucking, suction and expression amplitudes (mmHg), suck-swallow ratio, stability of suck-swallow interval, and swallow-respiration patterns. Results The O group had significantly more advanced sucking stages, and greater suction and expression amplitudes than controls [p≤0.035, effect size (ES) >0.6]. The suck-swallow ratio and stability of suck-swallow intervals did not significantly differ among groups (p≥0.181, ES≤0.3). The three interventions led to fewer swallows bracketed by prolonged respiratory pauses compared to controls (pause-swallow-pause, p≤0.044, ES≥0.7). The T/K and combined (O+T/K) groups had greater occurrence of swallows bracketed by expiration than the control and O groups (expiration-swallow-expiration, p≤0.039, ES ≥0.3) Conclusion The O intervention enhanced specific components of nutritive sucking. All three interventions resulted in improved swallow-respiration coordination. Sensorimotor interventions have distributed beneficial effects that go beyond the specific target of input. PMID:21962771

  3. Forward acoustic performance of a shock-swallowing high-tip-speed fan (QF-13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. G.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Forward noise and overall aerodynamic performance data are presented for a high-tip-speed fan having rotor blade airfoils designed to alter the conventional leading-edge bow shocks to weak, oblique shocks which are swallowed within the interblade channels. It was anticipated that the swallowed shocks would minimize the generation of multiple-pure-tone noise. In the speed range where the shocks presumably were swallowed, the multiple-tone noise was lowered only about 3 decibels. Comparison with several high-speed fans on a thrust-corrected basis indicates that the present fan was the quietest in total forward noise at low speeds but offered no advantage at high speeds.

  4. Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.

  5. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  6. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  7. Swallowing disorders in tracheostomised patients: a multidisciplinary/multiprofessional approach in decannulation protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Safe removal of tracheal cannula is a major goal in the rehabilitation of tracheostomised patients to achieve progressive independence from mechanical support and reduce the risk of respiratory complications. A tracheal cannula may also cause significant discomfort to the patient, making verbal communication difficult. Particularly when cuffed, tracheal cannula reduces the normal movement of the larynx which can further compromise the basic swallowing defect. A close connection between respiratory, phonating, swallowing and feeding abilities to be recovered, implies a strict integration among different professionals of the rehabilitation team. An appropriate management of tracheostomy cannula is closely connected with assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders in order to limit the development of severe pulmonary and nutritional complications, but at present there are no uniform protocols in the scientific literature. Furthermore, several studies report as an essential criterion for decannulation the presence of good patient consciousness, which is often altered in patients with tracheostomy, but a general agreement is lacking. PMID:25006457

  8. Vocalization removal for improved automatic segmentation of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Falk, Tiago H; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2010-07-01

    Automatic segmentation of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals can be severely affected by strong vocalizations. In this paper, a method based on periodicity detection is proposed to detect and remove such vocalizations. Periodic signal components are detected using conventional speech processing techniques and information from both axes are combined to improve vocalization detection accuracy. Experiments with 408 healthy subjects performing dry, wet, and wet chin tuck swallows show that the proposed method attains an average 95.3% sensitivity and 96.3% specificity. When applied in conjunction with an automatic segmentation algorithm, it is observed that segmentation accuracy improves by approximately 55%. These results encourage further development of medical devices for the detection of swallowing difficulties. PMID:20483652

  9. Emergence and Performance of Two Swallow-wort Species on Soils of Varying pH and Origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two alien vines, pale swallow-wort, (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum), are increasingly problematic invaders in the Northeastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada. These herbaceous perennial species aggressively colonize and rapidly dominate forest understories, old fields, rare...

  10. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  11. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = −0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals. PMID:26837611

  12. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective videofluoroscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Pearson Jr, William G; Davidoff, Alisa A; Smith, Zachary M; Adams, Dorothy E; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine swallowing outcomes and hyolaryngeal mechanics associated with post radiation therapy head and neck cancer (rtHNC) patients using videofluoroscopic swallow studies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, videofluoroscopic images of rtHNC patients (n = 21) were compared with age and gender matched controls (n = 21). Penetration-aspiration of the bolus and bolus residue were measured as swallowing outcome variables. Timing and displacement measurements of the anterior and posterior muscular slings elevating the hyolaryngeal complex were acquired. Coordinate data of anatomical landmarks mapping the action of the anterior muscles (suprahyoid muscles) and posterior muscles (long pharyngeal muscles) were used to calculate the distance measurements, and slice numbers were used to calculate time intervals. Canonical variate analysis with post-hoc discriminant function analysis was performed on coordinate data to determine multivariate mechanics of swallowing associated with treatment. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) was also measured to determine if weak pharyngeal constriction is associated with post radiation therapy. RESULTS: The rtHNC group was characterized by poor swallowing outcomes compared to the control group in regards to: Penetration-aspiration scale (P < 0.0001), normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS) for the valleculae (P = 0.002) and NRRS for the piriform sinuses (P = 0.003). Timing and distance measurements of the anterior muscular sling were not significantly different in the two groups, whereas for the PMS time of displacement was abbreviated (P = 0.002) and distance of excursion was reduced (P = 0.02) in the rtHNC group. A canonical variate analysis shows a significant reduction in pharyngeal mechanics in the rtHNC group (P < 0.0001). The PCR was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (P = 0.0001) indicating reduced efficiency in pharyngeal clearance. CONCLUSION: Using videofluoroscopy, this study shows

  13. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprised of sensors, related hardware and software for multimodal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in twenty one volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of 5 subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews, and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines, and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior. PMID:18427161

  14. Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Teresa E.; Braun, Sabrina M.; Brooks, Ryan T.; Harris, Rebecca A.; Littrell, Loren L.; Neff, Ryan M.; Hinkel, Cameron J.; Allen, Mitchell J.; Ulsas, Mollie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research. Successful outcomes are dependent upon three critical components: test chambers that permit self-feeding while standing unrestrained in a confined space, recipes that mask the aversive taste/odor of commercially-available oral contrast agents, and a step-by-step test protocol that permits quantification of swallow physiology. Elimination of one or more of these components will have a detrimental impact on the study results. Moreover, the energy level capability of the fluoroscopy system will determine which swallow parameters can be investigated. Most research centers have high energy fluoroscopes designed for use with people and larger animals, which results in exceptionally poor image quality when testing mice and other small rodents. Despite this limitation, we have identified seven VFSS parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice when using a high energy fluoroscope in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol. We recently obtained a low energy fluoroscopy system with exceptionally high imaging resolution and magnification capabilities that was designed for use with mice and other small rodents. Preliminary work using this new system, in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol, has identified 13 swallow parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice, which is nearly double the number obtained using conventional (i.e., high energy) fluoroscopes. Identification of additional swallow parameters is expected as we optimize the capabilities of this new system. Results thus far demonstrate the utility of using a low energy fluoroscopy system to detect and quantify subtle changes in swallow physiology that may otherwise be overlooked when using high energy fluoroscopes to investigate murine disease models. PMID:25866882

  15. A Pulse-type Hardware Level Difference Detection Model Based on Sound Source Localization Mechanism in Barn Owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Tsubasa; Sekine, Yoshifumi

    Auditory information processing is very important in the darkness where vision information is extremely limited. Barn owls have excellent hearing information processing function. Barn owls can detect a sound source in the high accuracy of less than two degrees in both of the vertical and horizontal directions. When they perform the sound source localization, the barn owls use the interaural time difference for localization in the horizontal plane, and the interaural level difference for localization in the vertical plane. We are constructing the two-dimensional sound source localization model using pulse-type hardware neuron models based on sound source localization mechanism of barn owl for the purpose of the engineering application. In this paper, we propose a pulse-type hardware model for level difference detection based on sound source localization mechanism of barn owl. Firstly, we discuss the response characteristics of the mathematical model for level difference detection. Next we discuss the response characteristics of the hardware mode. As a result, we show clearly that this proposal model can be used as a sound source localization model of vertical direction.

  16. Metal accumulation and metallothionein concentrations in tree swallow nestlings near acidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.; Breebaart, L. . Dept. of Zoology); Barlow, J.C. . Dept. of Zoology Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario . Dept. of Ornithology); Klaverkamp, J.F. . Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans)

    1993-07-01

    The authors studied metal accumulation in hepatic and renal tissues of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at acidified and nonacid reference lakes in northwestern Ontario. Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein (metal-binding proteins, MT) in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Combined concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Although no overt signs of metal toxicity were observed in nestlings near acid lakes, the results clearly provided evidence that metals are transferred from acid lakes to birds and that these metals are correlated with increases in hepatic MT production.

  17. Aortoesophageal Fistula and Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Induced by Swallowed Fish Bone: A Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Aiping Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng Liu Shiyuan

    2011-02-15

    Esophageal perforation caused by accidental swallowing of fish bones can lead to rare complications, such as aortoesophageal fistula accompanied by aortic pseudoaneurysm, which can be fatal if not properly handled. We report two rare cases of aortoesophageal fistula and aortic pseudoaneurysm caused by esophagus perforation after accidental swallow of fish bone; the patients also had purulent mediastinitis and esophagitis. The treatment of aortic pseudoaneurysm was successful in both cases, with one patient undergoing surgical resection and aortic neoplasty and the other patient undergoing endovascular stent graft placement. Long-term antibiotic treatment was administered to both patients after surgery. There were no postsurgical complications, and the patients recovered without incident.

  18. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to focus on the influence of sarcopenia. The swallowing ability, ADL, and nutrition levels were compared between the 2 groups. [Results] Swallowing function as well as ADL and nutrition levels were significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group. [Conclusion] It is important to include dimensions of swallowing, nutrition, and ADL in the assessment and treatment of swallowing problems in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. PMID:25729176

  19. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  20. A combined approach of bedside clinical examination and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in poststroke dysphagia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Sureshkumar; Menon, Unnikrishnan K; Anandakuttan, Anandkumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: As with most neurologic conditions, stroke involves impairment of the swallowing mechanism. This could be a spectrum of issues, the worst of which is aspiration. At the same time, the prolonged presence of a naso-gastric tube (NGT) has its own morbidity. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is one reliable method to assess the structural and functional status of the oropharynx and larynx, during the swallowing process. Objective: To study the utility of FEES in decision-making with respect to resumption of oral intake in stroke patients. To document the findings of FEES in stroke patients, and to look for correlations between these and the site of stroke. Materials and Methods: Protocol insertion of naso-gastric tube in all stroke patients, at presentation. Initial assessment by a neurologist and swallowing therapist, depending on cognitive status of the patient. All patients underwent MRI Brain with diffusion weighted sequences. After detailed clinical examination, they underwent swallow exercises under the supervision of a trained swallowing therapist. The decision to remove NGT was taken clinically by the combined decision of neurologist and swallowing therapist. Then all patients underwent FEES by the ENT surgeon. The final decision for NGT removal was taken as per the FEES findings. Result: Sixteen stroke patients underwent the FEES procedure during a period of six months. The oropharyngeal and laryngeal findings varied depending on the area of stroke involvement. Of these, change in decision regarding swallowing rehabilitation or NGT removal was needed in four patients, following the FEES findings. Conclusions: FEES is an easy, efficient and reliable method to evaluate the swallowing status in stroke patients. In combination with good bedside clinical examination and swallow exercises, it can be a good tool in assessing patients with post- stroke dysphagia. Post-stroke rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia can be

  1. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    PubMed

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs. PMID:25381096

  2. Representation of interaural time difference in the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Takahashi, T; Konishi, M

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates the role of the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus in determination of the sound-source azimuth. The central nucleus contains many neurons that are sensitive to interaural time difference (ITD), the cue for azimuth in the barn owl. The response of these neurons varies in a cyclic manner with the ITD of a tone or noise burst. Response maxima recur at integer multiples of the period of the stimulating tone, or, if the stimulus is noise, at integer multiples of the period corresponding to the neuron's best frequency. Such neurons can signal, by means of their relative spike rate, the phase difference between the sounds reaching the left and right ears. Since an interaural phase difference corresponds to more than one ITD, these neurons represent ITD ambiguously. We call this phenomenon phase ambiguity. The central nucleus is tonotopically organized and its neurons are narrowly tuned to frequency. Neurons in an array perpendicular to isofrequency laminae form a physiological and anatomical unit; only one ITD, the array-specific ITD, activates all neurons in an array at the same relative level. We, therefore, may say that, in the central nucleus, an ITD is conserved in an array of neurons. Array-specific ITDs are mapped and encompass the entire auditory space of the barn owl. Individual space-specific neurons of the external nucleus, which receive inputs from a wide range of frequency channels (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978), are selective for a unique ITD. Space-specific neurons do not show phase ambiguity when stimulated with noise (Takahashi and Konishi, 1986). Space-specific neurons receive inputs from arrays that are selective for the same ITD. The collective response of the neurons in an array may be the basis for the absence of phase ambiguity in space-specific neurons. PMID:3668618

  3. Energy metabolism and body temperature of barn owls fasting in the cold.

    PubMed

    Thouzeau, C; Duchamp, C; Handrich, Y

    1999-01-01

    Energetic adaptation to fasting in the cold has been investigated in a nocturnal raptor, the barn owl (Tyto alba), during winter. Metabolic rate and body temperature (Tb) were monitored in captive birds, (1) after acute exposure to different ambient temperatures (Ta), and (2) during a prolonged fast in the cold (4 degrees C), to take into account the three characteristic phases of body fuel utilization that occur during a long-term but reversible fast. In postabsorptive birds, metabolic rate in the thermoneutral zone was 4. 1+/-0.1 W kg-1 and increased linearly below a lower critical temperature of 23 degrees C. Metabolic rate was 70% above basal at +4 degrees C Ta. Wet thermal conductance was 0.22 W kg-1 degrees C-1. During fasting in the cold, the mass-specific resting metabolic rate decreased by 16% during the first day (phase I) and remained constant thereafter. The amplitude of the daily rhythm in Tb was only moderately increased during phase II, with a slight lowering (0. 6 degrees C) in minimal diurnal Tb, but rose markedly in phase III with a larger drop (1.4 degrees C) in minimal diurnal Tb. Refeeding the birds ended phase III and reversed the observed changes. These results indicate that diurnal hypothermia may be used in long-term fasting barn owls and could be triggered by a threshold of body lipid depletion, according to the shift from lipid to protein fuel metabolism occurring at the phase II/phase III transition. The high cost of regulatory thermogenesis and the limited use of hypothermia during fasting may contribute to the high mortality of barn owls during winter. PMID:10068620

  4. The Adventure of the Round Barn: How a Teacher Changed His Practice and Learners' Study Spiraled into Student, Community Learning Adventure. Core Practices in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

    2000-01-01

    A Nebraska high school art teacher who wanted to change from dictator to facilitator suggested that his class study local barns. Students found an old round barn, involved other classes, and helped found a nonprofit organization that coordinated a successful community-wide restoration effort. (TD)

  5. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  6. Closely spaced SiGe barns as stressor structures for strain-enhancement in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hrauda, N.; Zhang, J. J.; Groiss, H.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Gerharz, J. C.; Holy, V.; Deiter, C.; Seeck, O. H.

    2013-01-21

    We present tensile and compressive strains realized within the same Si capping layer on an array of SiGe islands grown on pit-patterned (001) Si substrates. The strain distributions are obtained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies in combination with three-dimensional finite element calculations and simulations of the diffracted intensities. For barn-shaped islands grown at 720 Degree-Sign C with average Ge contents of 30%, the Si cap layer is misfit- and threading-dislocation free and exhibits compressive strains as high as 0.8% in positions between the islands and tensile strains of up to 1% on top of the islands.

  7. BOREAS RSS-3 Reflectance Measured from a Helicopter-Mounted Barnes MMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Walthall, Charles L.; Loechel, Sara; deColstoun, Eric Brown

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-3 team acquired helicopter-based radiometric measurements of forested sites with a Barnes MMR. The data were collected in 1994 during the three BOREAS IFCs at numerous tower and auxiliary sites in both the NSA and SSA. The 15-degree FOV of the MMR yielded approximately 79-m ground resolution from an altitude of 300 m. The MMR has seven spectral bands that are similar to the Landsat TM bands, ranging from the blue region to the thermal. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  8. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  9. Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Berzins, Lisha L; Bradley, David W; Laughlin, Andrew J; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Ambrosini, Roberto; Dawson, Russell D; Dunn, Peter O; Hobson, Keith A; Liechti, Felix; Marchant, Tracy A; Norris, D Ryan; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Taylor, Caz M; Whittingham, Linda A; Clark, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this 'Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis' in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe, using measurements of corticosterone from feathers (CORTf) grown after deployment of geolocators as a measure of physiology relevant to energetics. Contrary to predictions, neither among- (both species) nor within-individual (tree swallows only) levels of CORTf differed with respect to instrumentation. Thus, to the extent that CORTf reflects energetic expenditure, geolocators apparently were not a strong handicap for birds that returned post-deployment. While this physiological evidence suggests that information about migration obtained from returning geolocator-equipped swallows is unbiased with regard to levels of stress, we cannot discount the possibility that corticosterone played a role in reported effects of geolocators on survival in birds, and suggest that future studies relate corticosterone to antecedent factors, such as reproductive history, and to downstream fitness costs. PMID:26064659

  10. Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Berzins, Lisha L.; Bradley, David W.; Laughlin, Andrew J.; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Ambrosini, Roberto; Dawson, Russell D.; Dunn, Peter O.; Hobson, Keith A.; Liechti, Felix; Marchant, Tracy A.; Norris, D. Ryan; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Taylor, Caz M.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Clark, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this ‘Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis’ in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe, using measurements of corticosterone from feathers (CORTf) grown after deployment of geolocators as a measure of physiology relevant to energetics. Contrary to predictions, neither among- (both species) nor within-individual (tree swallows only) levels of CORTf differed with respect to instrumentation. Thus, to the extent that CORTf reflects energetic expenditure, geolocators apparently were not a strong handicap for birds that returned post-deployment. While this physiological evidence suggests that information about migration obtained from returning geolocator-equipped swallows is unbiased with regard to levels of stress, we cannot discount the possibility that corticosterone played a role in reported effects of geolocators on survival in birds, and suggest that future studies relate corticosterone to antecedent factors, such as reproductive history, and to downstream fitness costs. PMID:26064659

  11. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Prince, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department. PMID:23326718

  12. Movie MRI at five frames a second for evaluation of speech and swallowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Mori, Koichi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nozaki, Seiji

    2001-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging method that is widely used in the medical field. One of the limitations of MRI is its low time-resolution images of MRI are usually obtained as still images. Here we introduced a newly developed method of ``movie'' MRI with high time-resolution at five images a second. Its good application would include study and evaluation of speech and swallowing. Instrument: MRT-2001 XG with Software ver.5.5. (Toshiba). Coil: head QD coil for the tongue; CTL ARRY coil (3ch) for the neck, Imaging condition: sagital FFE2D; TR=2.8 ms TE=1.2 ms FA=10 deg Matrix=64×128 ST=10 mm NAQ=1 AV FOV=23×35 ; ROAFI; sequential acquisition. Maximum imaging length=51 s. A healthy Japanese male (Tokyo dialect speaker, 39 years). Task: Repetitive utterance of /tenten.../ and intentional swallowing of saliva. Results: In the task of /tenten..../, we could detect, in temporal order, velopharyngeal (VP) closure, opening of the tongue-palate (TP) closure, VP opening, TP closure, VP closure, and so on. In the swallowing task of saliva, we could detect movement of the tongue for conveying saliva to the pharynx, VP closure, backward movement of the tongue root, elevation and descent of the larynx in this temporal order. Our ``Movie MRI'' seemed promising for the noninvasive evaluation of speech and deglutition. Appropriate materials for swallowing evaluation will be presented.

  13. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  14. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

  15. Perception of Wet Vocal Quality in Identifying Penetration/Aspiration during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves-Wright, Kathy Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Kelchner, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated the association between wet vocal quality (WVQ) and prandial material in the larynx during phonation. The presence of such material is indicative of oropharyngeal dysphagia and results from entry of material into the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing. The primary aim of the study was to…

  16. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  17. Surface Electromyography for Speech and Swallowing Systems: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Cara E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Applying surface electromyography (sEMG) to the study of voice, speech, and swallowing is becoming increasingly popular. An improved understanding of sEMG and building a consensus as to appropriate methodology will improve future research and clinical applications. Method: An updated review of the theory behind recording sEMG for the…

  18. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  19. Chewing and food consistency: effects on bolus transport and swallow initiation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Eiichi; Shibata, Seiko; Matsuo, Koichiro; Baba, Mikoto; Fujii, Wataru; Palmer, Jeffrey B

    2007-04-01

    Preswallow bolus formation usually occurs in the mouth for liquids and in the oropharynx for solid foods. We examined the effect of chewing on the relationship between bolus transport and swallow initiation. Fifteen healthy subjects were imaged with lateral projection videofluorography while eating liquids, solid foods, and a mixture of liquid and solid foods in upright and facedown postures. Videotapes were reviewed to measure the location of the leading edge of the barium at swallow initiation. Chewing and initial consistency each altered the relationship between food transport and swallow initiation. In particular, when chewing liquid (or consuming foods with both liquid and solid phases), a portion of the food commonly reached the hypopharynx well before swallow onset. This transport to the hypopharynx was highly dependent on gravity, but transport to the valleculae for chewed solid food was active, depending primarily on tongue-palate contact. Chewing appeared to reduce the effectiveness of the posterior tongue-palate seal, allowing oral contents to spill into the pharynx. Consuming two-phase foods with both solid and liquid phases may increase the risk of aspiration in dysphagic individuals with impaired airway protective reflexes. PMID:17347905

  20. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  1. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  2. Management of pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) using mowing and herbicides in two contrasting habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort [PSW] (Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar.) is an invasive non-native vine that is increasing in prevalence in many natural and semi-natural areas of the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. This herbaceous perennial thrives in old fields and ecotones but can also establi...

  3. The Invasive Swallow-worts: What Do We Know About Their Biology and Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swallow-worts [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench] are nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are invading natural areas in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. The species form dense monospecific stands across a wide range of mo...

  4. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  5. Don't Swallow Benadryl Itch Stopping Gel: Use on Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowed. Read the “Drug Facts” box on the product’s label to identify active ingredients, directions for use, and ... the manufacturer, Johnson and Johnson, has changed the product label to add a new, prominent statement “For Skin ...

  6. The role of oral soft tissues in swallowing function: what can tongue pressure tell us?

    PubMed

    Kieser, J A; Farland, M G; Jack, H; Farella, M; Wang, Y; Rohrle, O

    2014-06-01

    Tongue pressure data taken from healthy subjects during normal oral activities such as mastication, speech and swallowing are providing us with new ways of understanding the role of the tongue in craniofacial growth and function. It has long been recognized that the sequential contact between the tongue and the palate plays a crucial role in the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing. However, because the focus of most research on intraoral pressure has been on the generation of positive pressure by the tongue on the hard palate and teeth, generation and coordination of absolute intraoral pressures and regional pressure gradients has remained unexplored. Ongoing research in our laboratory has uncovered highly variable individual pressure patterns during swallowing, which can nonetheless be divided into four stages: preparatory, primary propulsive, intermediate and terminal. These stages may further be sub-classified according to pressure patterns generated at the individual level as tipper or dipper patterns in the preparatory stage, roller or slapper in the primary propulsive and monophasic or biphasic during the intermediate stage. Interestingly, while an increase in bolus viscosity can result in significant changes to pressure patterns in some individuals, it has little effect in others. Highly individual responses to increased viscosity are also observed with swallowing duration. The above, together with other findings, have important implications for our understanding of the aetiology of widely differing conditions such as protrusive and retrusive malocclusions, dysphagia and sleep apnoea, as well as the development of novel food products. PMID:24152133

  7. An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Swallowable Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chengfeng; Wong, Kai Juan; Yan, Hao; Shen, Junwen; Phee, Soo Jay

    2014-01-01

    Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios. PMID:25330049

  8. Development and reproduction of the foxglove aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), was recently documented utilizing the invasive species pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench, respectively) as host plants. Because these are new host plant records for this polyphagous spec...

  9. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  10. Using Motor Learning Approaches for Treating Swallowing and Feeding Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Justine J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses children's development of mature swallowing and feeding as a process of skill acquisition and considers the applicability of motor learning concepts for advancing these capabilities in school-aged children. Method: The motor learning literature was reviewed, with concentration on (a) concepts that are relevant for…

  11. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  12. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shune, Samantha E.; Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.…

  13. Family and Cultural Issues in a School Swallowing and Feeding Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-McFarland, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a rationale for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to provide culturally competent evaluation, diagnostic, and intervention services for children with oral motor, swallowing, and feeding disorders in school settings. There is also a discussion of how changing American public school demographics necessitate the…

  14. Peer-Mediated Procedures to Induce Swallowing and Food Acceptance in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, R. Douglas; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A peer modeling procedure was shown to induce swallowing in a young child with dysphagia, and to increase food acceptance in a young child who consistently declined food. A peer-mediated procedure, consisting of rotated opportunities to consume food with a peer, increased consumption more than did modeling alone. (Author/JDD)

  15. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  16. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

    2013-11-01

    In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities. PMID:23666121

  17. Swallowing sounds in speech therapy practice: a critical analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Juliana Lopes; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Limongi, Suelly Cecilia Olivan; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate international scientific papers published on the subject of cervical auscultation and its use in speech therapy. The study involved a qualitative review of the literature spanning the last 10 years. Articles were selected from the PubMed database using the following keywords: cervical auscultation, swallowing and swallowing disorders. Research was included that was conducted on adult humans (over 18 years of age) and was written in English. Each citation retrieved from the database was analyzed independently by each of the study researchers to ascertain its relevance for inclusion in the study. The methodology involved formulating the research question, locating and selecting studies and critically evaluating the articles according to the precepts of the Cochrane Handbook. As a result, 35 studies were identified; 13 articles were analyzed because they allowed access to the full text and were related directly to the subject. We found that the studies were performed with groups of healthy subjects and subjects with different types of base pathology. Some studies compared the patterns found in the different groups. Some of the research sought to study the pattern of swallowing sounds with different factors - evaluator experience, the specificity and sensitivity of the method and how to improve the technique of cervical auscultation through the use of instruments other than the stethoscope. The conclusion of this critical analysis is that cervical auscultation is an important tool to be used in conjunction with other assessment methods in the routine clinical evaluation of swallowing. PMID:24488399

  18. An energy efficient MAC protocol for multi-hop swallowable body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chengfeng; Wong, Kai Juan; Yan, Hao; Shen, Junwen; Phee, Soo Jay

    2014-01-01

    Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios. PMID:25330049

  19. Swallowing and Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Clinically Oriented Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, JoAnne; Butler, Susan G.; Daniels, Stephanie K.; Gross, Roxann Diez; Langmore, Susan; Lazarus, Cathy L.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McCabe, Daniel; Musson, Nan; Rosenbek, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This review presents the state of swallowing rehabilitation science as it relates to evidence for neural plastic changes in the brain. The case is made for essential collaboration between clinical and basic scientists to expand the positive influences of dysphagia rehabilitation in synergy with growth in technology and knowledge. The…

  20. Stress response, gut microbial diversity and sexual signals correlate with social interactions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Iris I; Zonana, David M; Fosdick, Bailey K; Song, Se Jin; Knight, Rob; Safran, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that social interactions are dynamically linked to phenotype. Yet because social interactions are difficult to quantify, little is known about the precise details on how interactivity is linked to phenotype. Here, we deployed proximity loggers on North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to examine intercorrelations among social interactions, morphology and features of the phenotype that are sensitive to the social context: stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and gut microbial diversity. We analysed relationships at two spatial scales of interaction: (i) body contact and (ii) social interactions occurring between 0.1 and 5 m. Network analysis revealed that relationships between social interactions, morphology, CORT and gut microbial diversity varied depending on the sexes of the individuals interacting and the spatial scale of interaction proximity. We found evidence that body contact interactions were related to diversity of socially transmitted microbes and that looser social interactions were related to signalling traits and CORT. PMID:27354713

  1. Activity of bulbar respiratory neurons during fictive coughing and swallowing in the decerebrate cat.

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Y; Tanaka, I; Ezure, K

    1994-01-01

    1. The behaviour of medullary respiratory neurons was studied during fictive coughing and swallowing evoked by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in decerebrate, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. Fictive coughing, swallowing and respiration were monitored by recording activities of the phrenic, hypoglossal and abdominal nerves. 2. Extracellular recordings were made from respiratory neurons in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) and in the Bötzinger complex (BOT). The neuronal types analysed included decrementing inspiratory neurons (I-DEC), augmenting expiratory neurons (E-AUG) and decrementing expiratory neurons (E-DEC) from the BOT area, and augmenting inspiratory neurons (I-AUG) and augmenting expiratory neurons (E-AUG) from the VRG area. 3. During fictive coughing, all the inspiratory and expiratory neurons were active during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of coughing, respectively. The firing of both I-DEC and I-AUG neurons was increased and prolonged in association with the augmented inspiratory activity of the phrenic nerve. The activity of E-AUG neurons of the VRG did not parallel the abdominal nerve activity, suggesting the existence of additional neurons which participate in the generation of abdominal nerve activity during fictive coughing. 4. During fictive swallowing, half of I-DEC neurons fired transiently at the onset of hypoglossal bursts associated with swallowing; the firing was suppressed during the rest of the hypoglossal bursts. Other I-DEC neurons were silent during hypoglossal bursts. Some I-AUG neurons fired during the initial half of hypoglossal bursts, and others were silent. The brief phrenic activity accompanying the swallowing might have originated from this activity in I-AUG neurons. The discharges of all E-AUG neurons (BOT and VRG) and the majority of E-DEC BOT neurons were suppressed during swallowing. 5. We conclude that these five types of respiratory neurons of the BOT and VRG are

  2. The study on development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojeong

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTS When the functions involved in the ingestion of food occurs failure, not only loss of enjoyment of eating, it will be faced with protein-energy malnutrition. Dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing occurs in various diseases, but it may be a major cause of aging, and elderly people with authoring and dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing in the aging society is expected to increase rapidly. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this study, we carried out a survey targeting nutritionists who work in elderly care facilities, and examined characteristics of offering of foods for elderly and the degree of demand of development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for the elderly who can crush foods and take that by their own tongues, and sometimes have difficulty in drinking water and tea. RESULTS In elderly care facilities, it was found to provide a finely chopped food or ground food that was ground with water in a blender for elderly with dysmasesis. Elderly satisfaction of provided foods is appeared overall low. Results of investigating the applicability of foods for elderly and the reflection will of menus, were showed the highest response rate in a gelification method in molecular gastronomic science technics, and results of investigating the frequent food of the elderly; representative menu of beef, pork, white fish, anchovies and spinach, were showed Korean barbecue beef, hot pepper paste stir fried pork, pan fried white fish, stir fried anchovy, seasoned spinach were the highest offer frequency. CONCLUSIONS This study will provide the fundamentals of the development of easily chewable and swallowable foods, gelification, for the elderly. The study will also illustrate that, in the elderly, food undergone gelification will reduce the risk of swallowing down to the wrong pipe and improve overall food preference. PMID:26244082

  3. Effortful swallowing training combined with electrical stimulation in post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngsun; Oh, Jong-Chi; Lee, Ho-Jun

    2012-12-01

    We tested the effect of effortful swallow combined with surface electrical stimulation used as a form of resistance training in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. Twenty post-stroke dysphagic patients were randomly divided into two groups: those who underwent effortful swallow with infrahyoid motor electrical stimulation (experimental group, n = 10) and effortful swallow with infrahyoid sensory electrical stimulation (control group, n = 10). In the experimental group, electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the infrahyoid muscle with the current was adjusted until muscle contraction occurred and the hyoid bone was depressed. In the control group, the stimulation intensity was applied just above the sensory threshold. The patients in both groups were then asked to swallow effortfully in order to elevate their hyolaryngeal complex when the stimulation began. A total of 12 sessions of 20 min of training for 4 weeks were performed. Blinded biomechanical measurements of the extent of hyolaryngeal excursion, the maximal width of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, and the penetration-aspiration scale before and after training were performed. In the experimental group, the maximal vertical displacement of the larynx was increased significantly after the intervention (p < 0.05). The maximal vertical displacement of the hyoid bone and the maximal width of the UES opening increased but the increase was not found to be significant (p = 0.066). There was no increase in the control group. Effortful swallow training combined with electrical stimulation increased the extent of laryngeal excursion. This intervention can be used as a new treatment method in post-stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:22447240

  4. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Trejo, B.S.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  5. The effects of experimental lake acidification on the reproductive success of tree swallows

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of lake acidification on reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding near experimentally acidified and unmanipulated reference lakes at the Experimental Lake Area (ELA) were studied. Tree swallows are aerial insectivores that commonly breed near water and forage on emergent insects. Predictions suggest that avian food abundance and quality may be altered due to acidification. Breeding swallows foraged on chironomids emerging at their nest-site lakes before searching for food elsewhere. Among the calcium-rich items consumed by the swallows, fish bones were most numerous, followed by crayfish exoskeleton, clam shell, and bird eggshell. We found significantly fewer calcium-rich items in the stomachs of nestlings from acid lakes than in those from reference lakes. Chironomid species were significantly more abundant in acid lakes, while the Chironominae were less numerous. Biomass of emerging chironomids either increased significantly following acidification, or was not different from that of reference lakes. Concentrations of Al, Ca, Mn, and Zn were on average higher in chironomids from a number of the acid lakes than in chironomids from reference lakes. Calcium concentrations in chironomids from the most acid lake were significantly lower, suggesting that Ca may be difficult to sequester at low pH levels. Hepatic concentrations of metallothioneins in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Additive concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Near acidified lakes, eggs were smaller in certain dimensions, hatching success was lower, certain nestling body characters were smaller, nestling wing length was shorter, and growth functions were different than near unmanipulated reference lakes. Clearly even non-aquatic organisms are affected by acidification of freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Neuroethology of prey capture in the barn owl (Tyto alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann; Kettler, Lutz; Orlowski, Julius; Tellers, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Barn owls are a model system for studying prey capture. These animals can catch mice by hearing alone, but use vision whenever light conditions allow this. The silent flight, the frontally oriented eyes, and the facial ruffs are specializations that evolved to optimize prey capture. The auditory system is characterized by high absolute sensitivity, a use of interaural time difference for azimuthal sound-localization over almost the total hearing range up to at least 9 kHz, and the use of interaural level difference for elevational sound localization in the upper frequency range. Response latencies towards auditory targets were shortened by covert attention, while overt attention helped to orient towards salient visual objects. However, only 20% of the fixation movements could be explained by the saliency of the fixated objects, suggesting a top-down control of attention. In a visual-search experiment the birds turned earlier and more often towards and spent more time at salient objects. The visual system also exhibits high absolute sensitivity, while the spatial resolution is not particularly high. Last but not least, head movements may be classified as fixations, translations, and rotations combined with translations. These motion primitives may be combined to complex head-movement patterns. With the expected easy availability of genetic techniques for specialists in the near future and the possibility to apply the findings in biomimetic devices prey capture in barn owls will remain an exciting field in the future. PMID:22510644

  7. Nestling barn owls assess short-term variation in the amount of vocally competing siblings.

    PubMed

    Ruppli, Charlène A; Dreiss, Amélie N; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the amount of rivals is crucial to optimally adjust investment into a contest. If laboratory animals show numerical abilities, little is known about the ecological implications particularly in young animals. The two to nine barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally compete for priority of access to food resources before parents actually deliver them. In dyads, the individual that vocalizes at the highest rate in the absence of parents deters its siblings from competing for next delivered prey. We tested the novel hypothesis that to optimally adjust vocal investment, barn owl nestlings assess how many of their siblings are currently competing. To singleton owlets, we broadcasted a fixed global number of calls emitted by one, two or four pre-recorded unfamiliar nestlings. We could thus distinguish the independent effect on singletons' vocal behavior of the global number of calls produced by a brood from the number of competitors that produced these calls. Overall, nestlings retreated more from vocal contest when facing more competitors. However, in front of one highly motivated competitor, nestlings refrained from vocalizing to a larger extent than when competing against more but less motivated individuals. Therefore, young animals assess variation in the number of currently competing siblings based on individual-specific vocal cues. PMID:23604690

  8. Adaptive visual and auditory map alignment in barn owl superior colliculus and its neuromorphic implementation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Juan; Murray, Alan; Wei, Dongqing

    2012-09-01

    Adaptation is one of the most important phenomena in biology. A young barn owl can adapt to imposed environmental changes, such as artificial visual distortion caused by wearing a prism. This adjustment process has been modeled mathematically and the model replicates the sensory map realignment of barn owl superior colliculus (SC) through axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. This allows the biological mechanism to be transferred to an artificial computing system and thereby imbue it with a new form of adaptability to the environment. The model is demonstrated in a real-time robot environment. Results of the experiments are compared with and without prism distortion of vision, and show improved adaptability for the robot. However, the computation speed of the embedded system in the robot is slow. A digital and analog mixed signal very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuit has been fabricated to implement adaptive sensory pathway changes derived from the SC model at higher speed. VLSI experimental results are consistent with simulation results. PMID:24807931

  9. Acetylcholinesterase staining differentiates functionally distinct auditory pathways in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, R

    1993-03-15

    The aim of this study was to examine how the functional specialization of the barn owl's auditory brainstem might correlate with histochemical compartmentalization. The barn owl uses interaural intensity and time differences to encode, respectively, the vertical and azimuthal positions of sound sources in space. These two auditory cues are processed in parallel ascending pathways that separate from each other at the level of the cochlear nuclei. Sections through the auditory brainstem were stained for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to examine whether nuclei that process different auditory cues stain differentially for this enzyme. Of the two cochlear nuclei, angularis showed more intense staining than nucleus magnocellularis. Nucleus angularis projects to all of the nuclei and subdivisions of nuclei that belong to the intensity processing pathway. Acetylcholinesterase stained all regions that contain terminal fields of nucleus angularis and thus provided discrimination between the time and intensity pathways. Moreover, staining patterns with acetylcholinesterase were complementary to those previously reported with an anti-calbindin antibody, which stains terminal fields of nucleus laminaris, and thus stains all the nuclei and subdivisions of nuclei that belong to the time pathway. Some of the gross staining patterns observed with AChE were similar to those reported with antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase. However, AChE is a more convenient and definitive marker in discriminating between these pathways than is calbindin or glutamate decarboxylase. Acetylcholinesterase staining of the intensity pathway in the owl may be related to encoding of sound intensity by spike rate over large dynamic ranges. PMID:7681456

  10. Preservation of spectrotemporal tuning between the nucleus laminaris and the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2007-05-01

    Performing sound recognition is a task that requires an encoding of the time-varying spectral structure of the auditory stimulus. Similarly, computation of the interaural time difference (ITD) requires knowledge of the precise timing of the stimulus. Consistent with this, low-level nuclei of birds and mammals implicated in ITD processing encode the ongoing phase of a stimulus. However, the brain areas that follow the binaural convergence for the computation of ITD show a reduced capacity for phase locking. In addition, we have shown that in the barn owl there is a pooling of ITD-responsive neurons to improve the reliability of ITD coding. Here we demonstrate that despite two stages of convergence and an effective loss of phase information, the auditory system of the anesthetized barn owl displays a graceful transition to an envelope coding that preserves the spectrotemporal information throughout the ITD pathway to the neurons of the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:17314241

  11. Noise reduction of coincidence detector output by the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2006-05-31

    A recurring theme in theoretical work is that integration over populations of similarly tuned neurons can reduce neural noise. However, there are relatively few demonstrations of an explicit noise reduction mechanism in a neural network. Here we demonstrate that the brainstem of the barn owl includes a stage of processing apparently devoted to increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in the encoding of the interaural time difference (ITD), one of two primary binaural cues used to compute the position of a sound source in space. In the barn owl, the ITD is processed in a dedicated neural pathway that terminates at the core of the inferior colliculus (ICcc). The actual locus of the computation of the ITD is before ICcc in the nucleus laminaris (NL), and ICcc receives no inputs carrying information that did not originate in NL. Unlike in NL, the rate-ITD functions of ICcc neurons require as little as a single stimulus presentation per ITD to show coherent ITD tuning. ICcc neurons also displayed a greater dynamic range with a maximal difference in ITD response rates approximately double that seen in NL. These results indicate that ICcc neurons perform a computation functionally analogous to averaging across a population of similarly tuned NL neurons. PMID:16738236

  12. Sensitivity to spectral interaural intensity difference cues in space-specific neurons of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Arthur, B J

    2004-02-01

    Barn owls use interaural intensity differences to localize sounds in the vertical plane. At a given elevation the magnitude of the interaural intensity difference cue varies with frequency, creating an interaural intensity difference spectrum of cues which is characteristic of that direction. To test whether space-specific cells are sensitive to spectral interaural intensity difference cues, pure-tone interaural intensity difference tuning curves were taken at multiple different frequencies for single neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus. For a given neuron, the interaural intensity differences eliciting the maximum response (the best interaural intensity differences) changed with the frequency of the stimulus by an average maximal difference of 9.4+/-6.2 dB. The resulting spectral patterns of these neurally preferred interaural intensity differences exhibited a high degree of similarity to the acoustic interaural intensity difference spectra characteristic of restricted regions in space. Compared to stimuli whose interaural intensity difference spectra matched the preferred spectra, stimuli with inverted spectra elicited a smaller response, showing that space-specific neurons are sensitive to the shape of the spectrum. The underlying mechanism is an inhibition for frequency-specific interaural intensity differences which differ from the preferred spectral pattern. Collectively, these data show that space-specific neurons are sensitive to spectral interaural intensity difference cues and support the idea that behaving barn owls use such cues to precisely localize sounds. PMID:14669025

  13. Organochlorine residues, eggshell thickness, and nest success in barn owls from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Eggs of barn owls (Tyto alba) were collected from 18 nests in offshore duck blinds on the Maryland side of the lower Potomac River estuary in 1972 and 1973 and analyzed for organochlorine residues. DDE was found in 100% of the clutches, PCBs in 89%, and dieldrin in 78%. Eggshell thickness was inversely correlated with concentrations of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin residues. Six of the 18 clutches had mean DDE residues above 5 ppm, and eggshell thickness in these six clutches was significantly less (P < 0.001) than in the other 12 clutches. The owls produced 1.7 young per active nest in 1973. This rate is slightly below the reproductive rate needed to maintain a stable population. An estimated 15% of the population carried concentrations of organochlorine residues that may have been detrimental to their reproduction. Passerine birds, taken extensively as food by a small proportion of the population, are believed to have been the source of elevated concentrations of organochlorines in these barn owls.

  14. Compliance with NAGCAT work practices recommendations for youth cleaning service alleys in stall barns.

    PubMed

    Canan, B D; Asti, L; Heaney, C; Ashida, S; Renick, K; Xiang, H; Stallones, L; Jepsen, S D; Crawford, J M; Wilkins, J R

    2011-04-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in the U.S. among persons 1 to 44 years of age. Over one million children and adolescents in the U.S. live, work, and/or play on farms, where injury risk is relatively high compared to other settings. In an attempt to reduce the number of childhood agricultural injuries occurring on farms, the North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) was developed to assist parents or other caregivers in assigning developmentally appropriate chores to youth exposed to agricultural hazards. The results presented here are from a longitudinal study in which we obtained (self-reported) daily chore, injury, and safety behavior data from children and adolescents. We focused on one NAGCAT chore, cleaning a service alley in a stall barn, in order to estimate the extent of compliance with specific work practice recommendations contained in the NAGCAT. Our results indicated that among the four NAGCAT-recommended safety practices for cleaning service alleys in stall barns (wearing nonskid shoes, leather gloves, a respirator, and eye protection), wearing non-skid shoes was the only safety practice reported with any degree of regularity. Overall, boys were more likely to wear non-skid shoes compared to girls. In addition, older youth were generally more likely to report higher work practice compliance compared to younger youth. PMID:21675283

  15. Through a barn owl's eyes: interactions between scene content and visual attention.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Shay; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann; Rivlin, Ehud

    2008-02-01

    In this study we investigated visual attention properties of freely behaving barn owls, using a miniature wireless camera attached to their heads. The tubular eye structure of barn owls makes them ideal subjects for this research since it limits their eye movements. Video sequences recorded from the owl's point of view capture part of the visual scene as seen by the owl. Automated analysis of video sequences revealed that during an active search task, owls repeatedly and consistently direct their gaze in a way that brings objects of interest to a specific retinal location (retinal fixation area). Using a projective model that captures the geometry between the eye and the camera, we recovered the corresponding location in the recorded images (image fixation area). Recording in various types of environments (aviary, office, outdoors) revealed significant statistical differences of low level image properties at the image fixation area compared to values extracted at random image patches. These differences are in agreement with results obtained in primates in similar studies. To investigate the role of saliency and its contribution to drawing the owl's attention, we used a popular bottom-up computational model. Saliency values at the image fixation area were typically greater than at random patches, yet were only 20% out of the maximal saliency value, suggesting a top-down modulation of gaze control. PMID:18066583

  16. Characterizing spatial extinction in an abbreviated version of the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were trained to find an escape box in the Barnes maze in order to characterize the extinction process of a learned spatial preference. To do so, once they had fully acquired the spatial task, they were repeatedly exposed to the maze without the escape box. Multiple behavioral measurements (grouped into motor skill and spatial preference indicators) were followed up throughout the complete training process. Animals gained efficiency in finding the escape box during acquisition, as indicated by the reduction in the time spent escaping from the maze, the number of errors, the length of the traveled path, and by the increase in exploration accuracy and execution speed. When their retention and preference were tested 24h later, all the subjects retained their enhanced performance efficiency and accuracy and displayed a clear-cut preference for the escape hole and its adjacent holes. Almost all motor skill indicators followed an inverse, though not monotonic, pattern during the extinction training, returning to basal levels after three trials without escape box, displaying a transient relapse during the fifth extinction trial. Preference indicators also followed a reverse pattern; however, it took seven trials for them to return to basal levels, relapsing during the eighth extinction trial. The abbreviated Barnes maze acquisition, evaluation, and extinction procedures described herein are useful tools for evaluating the effects of behavioral and/or pharmacological treatment on different stages of spatial memory, and could also be used for studying the neurophysiological and neurobiological underpinnings of this kind of memory. PMID:20708660

  17. A pathway for predation in the brain of the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Wild, J. M.; Kubke, M. F.; Peña, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wulst of birds, which is generally considered homologous with the isocortex of mammals, comprises an elevation on the dorsum of the telencephalon that is particularly prominent in predatory species, especially those with large, frontally placed eyes, such as owls. The Wulst, therefore, is largely visual, but a relatively small rostral portion is somatosensory in nature. In barn owls this rostral somatosensory part of the Wulst forms a unique physical protuberance dedicated to the representation of the contralateral claw. Here we investigate whether the input to this ‘claw area’ arises from dorsal thalamic neurons that, in turn, receive their somatosensory input from the gracile nucleus. Following injections of biotinylated dextran amine into the gracile nucleus and cholera toxin B-chain into the claw area, terminations from the former and retrogradely labeled neurons from the latter overlapped substantially in the thalamic nucleus dorsalis intermedius ventralis anterior. These results indicate the existence in this species of a ‘classical’ trisynaptic somatosensory pathway from the body periphery to the telencephalic Wulst, via the dorsal thalamus, one that is likely involved in the barn owl’s predatory behavior. The results are discussed in the context of somatosensory projections, primarily in this and other avian species. PMID:18461603

  18. Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  19. Central orexin inhibits reflex swallowing elicited by the superior laryngeal nerve via caudal brainstem in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Motoi; Mizutani, Satoshi; Fujita, Masako; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Shimatani, Yuichi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-05-10

    We examined the effects of orexins on the reflex swallowing using anesthetized rats. Orexins were administered into the fourth ventricle. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated the mylohyoid muscle through bipolar electrodes. The frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN decreased after the administration of orexin-A in a dose-dependent manner. The latency of the first swallowing tended to be extended after the administration of orexin-A. The administration of orexin-B did not affect swallowing frequency. Pre-administration of SB334867, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the degree of inhibition of swallowing frequency induced by the administration of orexin-A. To identify the effective site of orexin-A, the effect of a microinjection of orexin-A into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) was evaluated. Orexin-A was injected into one of the lateral DVC, the intermediate DVC, or the medial DVC. Microinjection of orexin-A into the medial DVC but not the other two sites decreased swallowing frequency. Pre-injection of SB334867 into the medial DVC disrupted the inhibitory response induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. The electrical lesion of the commissural part of the NTS, but not ablation of the AP, abolished the inhibition of reflex swallowing induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. These results suggest that orexin-A inhibits reflex swallowing via orexin-1 receptors situated in the commissural part of the NTS and/or its vicinity. PMID:24637063

  20. Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Bronchial Epithelial Innate Immune Receptor Response to Organic Dust from Swine Confinement Barns

    PubMed Central

    Schneberger, D.; Cloonan, D.; DeVasure, J. M.; Bailey, K. L.; Romberger, D. J.; Wyatt, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia is known to have immunoregulatory effects within the lung. Cell culture systems demonstrate this in both macrophages and alveolar cell lines, suggesting that alveoli are affected by changes in CO2 levels. We hypothesized that hypercapnia would also modulate human bronchial epithelial cell immune responses. Innate immune responses to Pam3CSK4 (TLR2 ligand), LPS (TLR4 ligand) and a complex innate immune stimulus, an extract from the organic dust of swine confinement barns (barn dust extract or BDE), were tested in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Both TLR ligands showed a decrease in IL-6 and IL-8 production, and an increase in MCP-1 in response to elevated CO2 indicating an enhancement in cytokine production to hypercapnia. This change was not reflected in expression levels of TLR receptor RNA which remained unchanged in response to elevated CO2. Interestingly, barn dust showed an increase in IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 response at 9% CO2, suggesting that elevated CO2 exerts different effects on different stimuli. Our results show that airway epithelial cell immune responses to barn dust respond differently to hypercapnic conditions than individual TLR ligands. PMID:25921030