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Sample records for barnacle megabalanus rosa

  1. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  2. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    PubMed Central

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fire coral-inhabiting barnacle Megabalanus ajax (Sessilia: Balanidae): gene rearrangements and atypical gene content.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Megabalanus ajax Darwin, 1854 (Sessilia: Balanidae) is reported. Compared to typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, duplication of one tRNA gene (trnL2) and absence of another tRNA gene (trnS1) are identified in M. ajax mitochondrial genome. There is a replacement of one tRNA (trnS1) by another tRNA (trnL2) in M. ajax mitochondrial genome compared to Megabalanus volcano mitochondrial genome. Inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) is found between M. ajax/M. volcano and Tetraclita japonica mitochondrial genomes. With reference to the pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, there is an inversion of a large gene block from the light strand to heavy strand in the two Megabalanus mitochondrial genomes, including three PCGs and two tRNAs (nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF). Furthermore, four tRNAs (trnA, trnE, trnQ and trnC) exhibit translocation, while translocation and inversion occur in three tRNAs (trnP, trnY and trnK). PMID:25050875

  4. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  5. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, & Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was taken on Sol 3. Barnacle Bill, the small rock at left, and Yogi, the large rock at upper right, have been examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument and the rover's cameras. Barnacle Bill has the chemical composition of an andesitic volcanic rock, but may have been produced by sedimentation processes or meteorite impact. The lander's rear ramp which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface is at lower left, and a portion of deflated airbag is at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  7. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

  8. Barnacle removal process and product

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, T.L.

    1984-07-24

    Barnacles from marine vessels are removed by spraying the surfaces thereof with a mixture the active ingredients of which are a hydrocarbon liquid oil; a surfactant; alcohol; a metal hypochlorite; and an alkyl, dialkyl benzyl ammonium salt. After the solution has been applied to the surfaces for about 20 minutes, the barnacles are removed by power spraying the surfaces with water.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of common fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Sessilia: Balanidae) reveals gene rearrangements compared to pancrustacean ground pattern.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Sessilia: Balanidae). Refer to pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, seven conserved genes blocks are found in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnA, trnE/trnS2, trnP/trnT, trnK, trnQ and trnC) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnY). Comparison among the acorn barnacle mitogenomes reveals inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) between A. amphitrite and Megabalanus. Volcano (Balanidae), suggesting non-conserved gene order even at intrafamilial level. The three species share three conserved genes blocks, of which the two are derived from the pancrustacean ground pattern and represent synapomorphies of acorn barnacles. In sum, large-scale gene rearrangements are observed in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern and other barnacle species. PMID:24409892

  10. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  11. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro). PMID:24397766

  13. Metamorphosis in a Silurian barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E.G; Sutton, Mark D; Siveter, David J; Siveter, Derek J

    2005-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, provide unique evidence of metamorphosis from free-swimming cyprid larva to attached juvenile in a Palaeozoic barnacle. The larva had large brush-like anterior limbs. The juvenile shows the head transformed into a stalk and the development of the primordial condition of five mineralized plates within the carapace. The discovery of a cyprid larva indicates that crown group cirripedes had evolved by the Silurian. PMID:16243697

  14. APXS on Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The image was taken by a camera aboard the Sojourner rover on Sol 4. Portions of the rover's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are visible studying Barnacle Bill.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this color image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  16. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Sojourner's APXS studies Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner's first analysis of a rock on Mars began on Sol 3 with the study of Barnacle Bill, a nearby rock named for its rough surface. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be used to determine the elements that make up the rocks and soil on Mars. A full study using the APXS takes approximately ten hours, and can measure all elements except hydrogen at any time of the Martian day or night. The APXS will conduct its studies by bombarding rocks and soil samples with alpha particle radiation -- charged particles equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J.; Everett, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism. PMID:21208968

  19. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  20. Super Resolution Anaglyph of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image and [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  2. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  3. Barnacle-induced corrosion of high-alloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Koryakova, M.D.; Filonenko, N.Yu.; Kaplin, Yu.M.

    1995-03-01

    Local corrosion of two sorts of high-alloyed steels under the action of acorn barnacles (Balanuses) has been studied. It has been shown that in natural seawater at anaerobic conditions beneath living and dead barnacles, metabolic activity of bacteria may be considered as a primary cause for local surface depassivation.

  4. Flow over Barnacles-Characterization of Barnacle Geometry and Some Initial Flow Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Schultz, Michael; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Macrobiofouling is a serious concern for the marine industry, costing billions in preventive and control measures. Accurate modelling of flows over surfaces with such complex geometry and wide range of length scales is still a huge challenge. Such simulations are required in predicting the effects of fouling, like surface drag and also forces experienced by individual barnacles. DNS or wall resolved LES are impractical due to constraints imposed by the nature of the geometry. We aim to develop and test a computational tool for accurate simulation of such flows. The method being proposed incorporates generalized dynamic wall models along with sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Methods. The results from these simulations will help us understand the effects on surface drag caused by variations in parameters like roughness density, roughness heights, spatial heterogeneity etc. Along with this, detailed studies on a single barnacle will help us in understanding flow structures in the presence of boundary layers. In this talk we will give a brief overview of the problem and some results from our investigation on the characterization of Barnacle geometries and on the characteristics of flow over a single barnacle. This research is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At right, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill and the rear ramp is to the left of Sojourner.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  7. Nanoscale structures and mechanics of barnacle cement.

    PubMed

    Sullan, Ruby May A; Gunari, Nikhil; Tanur, Adrienne E; Chan, Yuri; Dickinson, Gary H; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Walker, Gilbert C

    2009-01-01

    Polymerized barnacle glue was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemical staining. Nanoscale structures exhibiting rod-shaped, globular and irregularly-shaped morphologies were observed in the bulk cement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (=Balanus amphitrite) by AFM. SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) provided chemical composition information, making evident the organic nature of the rod-shaped nanoscale structures. FTIR spectroscopy gave signatures of beta-sheet and random coil conformations. The mechanical properties of these nanoscale structures were also probed using force spectroscopy and indentation with AFM. Indentation data yielded higher elastic moduli for the rod-shaped structures when compared with the other structures in the bulk cement. Single molecule AFM force-extension curves on the matrix of the bulk cement often exhibited a periodic sawtooth-like profile, observed in both the extend and retract portions of the force curve. Rod-shaped structures stained with amyloid protein-selective dyes (Congo red and thioflavin-T) revealed that about 5% of the bulk cement were amyloids. A dominant 100 kDa cement protein was found to be mechanically agile, using repeating hydrophobic structures that apparently associate within the same protein or with neighbors, creating toughness on the 1-100 nm length scale. PMID:19180351

  8. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  9. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. PMID:25460064

  10. Localization of Phosphoproteins within the Barnacle Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Yang, Xu; Wu, Fanghui; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Beniash, Elia

    2016-06-01

    Barnacles permanently adhere to nearly any inert substrate using proteinaceous glue. The glue consists of at least ten major proteins, some of which have been isolated and sequenced. Questions still remain about the chemical mechanisms involved in adhesion and the potential of the glue to serve as a platform for mineralization of the calcified base plate. We tested the hypothesis that barnacle glue contains phosphoproteins, which have the potential to play a role in both adhesion and mineralization. Using a combination of phosphoprotein-specific gel staining and Western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibody, we identified multiple phosphorylated proteins in uncured glue secretions from the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite The protein composition of the glue and the quantity and abundance of phosphoproteins varied distinctly among individual barnacles, possibly due to cyclical changes in the glue secretion over time. We assessed the location of the phosphoproteins within the barnacle glue layer using decalcified barnacle base plates and residual glue deposited by reattached barnacles. Phosphoproteins were found throughout the organic matrix of the base plate and within the residual glue. Staining within the residual glue appeared most intensely in regions where capillary glue ducts, which are involved in cyclical release of glue, had been laid down. Lastly, mineralization studies of glue proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that proteins identified as phosphorylated possibly induce mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These results contribute to our understanding of the protein composition of barnacle glue, and provide new insights into the potential roles of phosphoproteins in underwater bioadhesives. PMID:27365418

  11. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  12. Characterization of two 20kDa-cement protein (cp20k) homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Gen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k) in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing. PMID:23717550

  13. The invasive barnacle species, Austrominius modestus: Its status and competition with indigenous barnacles on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mary Catherine; Davenport, John; Gregory, Susan; McAllen, Rob; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The invasive barnacle Austrominius (= Elminius) modestus has been present in Europe since the 1940s, and has recently been recorded to outnumber native barnacle species at some locations, including an Irish marine nature reserve. It has been suggested that these increases in abundance following a lag phase since establishment, represent the awakening of an 'ecological sleeper', due to changes in environmental conditions. Austrominius modestus was first recorded on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland in 1955, and was reported to be well established on the island by 2007. Since this location is close to the northern limit of the invaded range of A. modestus, it has been chosen as a site for the long term monitoring of this species. Quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys of the abundance of A. modestus, together with the native barnacle species Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides, have been made on the island on a biannual basis since 2009. This study examined changes in the abundances of these three species from 2009 to 2013, and reports on the present status of this invasive species on the island. Austrominius modestus was found at all sites surveyed, but did not outnumber native barnacle species at any site. Semibalanus balanoides, a cold water boreal species, was the most abundant barnacle species at most sites from 2009 to 2013. All three barnacle species underwent a decline in 2011, but had increased in abundance by 2013. Despite undergoing the smallest increase in abundance between 2011 and 2013, S. balanoides remains the dominant barnacle species on the Isle of Cumbrae. Nearly sixty years after its initial discovery on the island, A. modestus is widespread, however it has not outnumbered native species, which continue to recruit at high densities. This competitive pressure makes it unlikely that A. modestus will outnumber native barnacle species at this location, close to its northern limit, in the near future.

  14. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  15. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  16. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  17. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  18. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

  19. Pharmacological effects of rosa damascena.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-07-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

  20. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded. PMID:26276577

  1. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  2. Effects of barnacle epibionts on the periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, C.; Reise, K.

    1999-08-01

    In a sandy bay with mussel beds in the Wadden Sea (Island of Sylt, eastern North Sea), periwinkles Littorina littorea (L.) were often strongly overgrown with the barnacle Balanus crenatus Bruguière in the lower intertidal zone. Consequences of this epibiosis on mobility, reproduction and mortalityof the snail were examined. B. crenatus growing on L. littorea increased snail volume up to 4-fold and weight up to 3.5-fold and crawling speed of fouled L. littorea was significantly slowed down. The epibiotic structure also caused a decrease in reproductive output. In laboratory experiments, egg production of fouled L. littorea was significantly lower than in snails free of barnacles. Presumably, copulation of the periwinkles is hampered by the voluminous and prickly cover of barnacles. Field studies demonstrated an increased mortality of overgrown L. littorea. A decrease in reproductive output and a lower survival of snails with a cover of barnacles suggest that B. crenatus epibionts may have a significant impact on the population of L. littorea.

  3. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  4. Memristive Model of the Barnacle Giant Muscle Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Kim, Hyongsuk; Eroglu, Abdullah; Chua, Leon

    The generation of action potentials (oscillations) in biological systems is a complex, yet poorly understood nonlinear dynamical phenomenon involving ions. This paper reveals that the time-varying calcium ion and the time-varying potassium ion, which are essential for generating action potentials in Barnacle giant muscle fibers are in fact generic memristors in the perspective of electrical circuit theory. We will show that these two ions exhibit all the fingerprints of memristors from the equations of the Morris-Lecar model of the Barnacle giant muscle fibers. This paper also gives a textbook reference to understand the difference between memristor and nonlinear resistor via analysis of the potassium ion-channel memristor and calcium ion-channel nonlinear resistor. We will also present a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the generation of action potentials (oscillations) in memristive Morris-Lecar model using small-signal circuit model and the Hopf bifurcation theorem.

  5. Loggerhead turtle movements reconstructed from 18O and 13C profiles from commensal barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killingley, John S.; Lutcavage, Molly

    1983-03-01

    Commensal barnacles, Chelonibia testudinaria, from logger-head turtles have 18O and 13C variations in their calcitic shells that record the environments in which the turtles live. Isotopic profiles from the barnacle shells can thus be interpreted to reconstruct movements of the host turtle between open ocean and brackish-water regimes.

  6. Reduced oxide soldering activation (ROSA) PWB solderability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Reed, J.; Tench, D.M.; White, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of ROSA pretreatment on the solderability of environmentally stressed PWB test coupons was investigated. The PWB surface finish was an electroplated, reflowed solder. Test results demonstrated the ability to recover plated-through-hole fill of steam aged samples with solder after ROSA processing. ROSA offers an alternative method for restoring the solderability of aged PWB surfaces.

  7. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  8. Barnacle Bill and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a 'streamlined tail' composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a 'moat' around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered 'dead air zone' form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  9. Antifouling Block Copolymer Surfaces that Resist Settlement of Barnacle Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Weinman,C.; Krishnan, S.; Park, D.; Paik, M.; Wong, K.; Fischer, D.; Handlin, D.; Kowalke, G.; Wendt, D.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Marine biofouling is a serious problem caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, and microbial slimes on the hulls of seafaring vessels. Biofouling can significantly increase drag, leading to startling consequences with regards to fuel consumption. Environmentally compatible solutions to biofouling are being sought as traditional metal-based systems of fouling control are being phased out due to their inherent toxicity. Further exasperating the problem of biofouling is the vast range of fouling organisms and environmental conditions experienced throughout the world. This renders the development of a universal biofouling coating a significant challenge.

  10. Mitochondrial evolution across lineages of the vampire barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus.

    PubMed

    Wares, John P

    2015-02-01

    Eight whole mitochondrial genomes from the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus, with one from the northern lineage and seven from the divergent southern lineage, are presented. The annotated and aligned data were analyzed for signals of non-neutral evolution. Overall, these data are consistent with purifying selection operating on the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrion. However, a notable region of nonsynonymous substitution at the 3' end of the ND2 gene region, along with unusual site frequency spectra in two other gene regions, was identified. PMID:24047186

  11. Santa Rosa, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Santa Rosa, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil.

    PubMed

    Basim, E; Basim, H

    2003-06-01

    The essential oil of Rosa damascena petals was evaluated for its antibacterial effects against three strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis spp. vesicatoria. The essential oil may be a potential control agent in the management of the disease caused by X.a. vesicatoria in tomato and pepper plants. PMID:12781814

  13. Incorporation of silicone oil into elastomers enhances barnacle detachment by active surface strain.

    PubMed

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Cao, Changyong; Orihuela, Beatriz; Levering, Vrad; Zhao, Xuanhe; Rittschof, Daniel; López, Gabriel P

    2016-10-01

    Silicone-oil additives are often used in fouling-release silicone coatings to reduce the adhesion strength of barnacles and other biofouling organisms. This study follows on from a recently reported active approach to detach barnacles, which was based on the surface strain of elastomeric materials, by investigating a new, dual-action approach to barnacle detachment using Ecoflex®-based elastomers incorporated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based oil additives. The experimental results support the hypothesis that silicone-oil additives reduce the amount of substratum strain required to detach barnacles. The study also de-coupled the two effects of silicone oils (ie surface-activity and alteration of the bulk modulus) and examined their contributions in reducing barnacle adhesion strength. Further, a finite element model based on fracture mechanics was employed to qualitatively understand the effects of surface strain and substratum modulus on barnacle adhesion strength. The study demonstrates that dynamic substratum deformation of elastomers with silicone-oil additives provides a bifunctional approach towards management of biofouling by barnacles. PMID:27560712

  14. Effect of ultrasound on cyprid footprint and juvenile barnacle adhesion on a fouling release material.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Zhong, Shaoping; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    In our earlier studies, we have demonstrated that low and high intensity ultrasound can prevent barnacle cyprid settlement. In this study, we found that ultrasound treatment reduced the adhesion of newly metamorphosed barnacles up to 2 days' old. This was observed in the reduction of adhesion strength of the newly settled barnacles from ultrasound treated cyprids on silicone substrate compared to the adhesion strength of barnacles metamorphosed from cyprids not exposed to ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the effect of ultrasound on barnacle cyprid footprints (FPs), which are protein adhesives secreted when the larvae explore surfaces. The ultrasound treated cyprids were found to secrete less FPs, which appeared to spread a larger area than those generated by untreated cyprids. The evidence from this study suggests that ultrasound treatment results in a reduced cyprid settlement and footprint secretion, and may affect the subsequent recruitment of barnacles onto fouling release surfaces by reducing the ability of early settlement stage of barnacles (up to 2 days' old) from firmly adhering to the substrates. Ultrasound therefore can be used in combination with fouling release coatings to offer a more efficient antifouling strategy. PMID:24333559

  15. On the origin of a novel parasitic-feeding mode within suspension-feeding barnacles.

    PubMed

    Rees, David John; Noever, Christoph; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Ommundsen, Anders; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-06-16

    In his monograph on Cirripedia from 1851, Darwin pointed to a highly unusual, plateless, and most likely parasitic barnacle of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. Darwin's barnacle was Anelasma squalicola, found on deep-water sharks of the family Etmopteridae, or lantern sharks. The barnacle is uncommon and is therefore rarely studied. Recent observations by us have shown that they occur at an unusually high prevalence on the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax, in restricted fjord areas of western Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA data (16S, 18S, and 28S) from 99 selected barnacle species, including all available pedunculate barnacle sequences from GenBank, shows that A. squalicola is most closely related (sister taxon) to the pedunculate barnacle Capitulum mitella. Both C. mitella and species of Pollicipes, situated one node higher in the tree, are conventional suspension feeders from the rocky intertidal. Our phylogenetic analysis now makes it possible to establish morphological homologies between A. squalicola and its sister taxon and provides the evolutionary framework to explain the unprecedented transition from a filter-feeding barnacle to a parasitic mode of life. PMID:24909326

  16. How do coral barnacles start their life in their hosts?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennie Chien Wen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-06-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates are the most significant contributors to the diversity of reef ecosystems, but no studies have examined how larvae manage to settle and grow in their coral hosts. Video recordings were used to document this process in the coral barnacle Darwiniella angularis associated with the coral Cyphastrea chalcidicum Settlement and metamorphosis in feeding juveniles lasted 8-11 days and comprised six phases. The settling cyprid starts by poking its antennules into the tissue of the prospective host (I: probing stage). The coral releases digestive filaments for defence, but tolerating such attack the cyprid penetrates further (II: battling stage). Ecdysis is completed 2 days after settlement (III: carapace detachment). The barnacle becomes embedded deep in the coral tissue while completing metamorphosis between 4 and 6 days (IV: embedding stage), but reappears as a feeding juvenile 8-11 days after settlement (V: emerging stage; VI: feeding stage). Cyprids preferably settle in areas between the coral polyps, where they have a much higher survival rate than on the polyp surfaces. PMID:27330170

  17. Accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd by crabs and barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.

    1985-11-01

    The crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin were exposed to a range of dissolved concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd for 21 days in artificial seawater. Accumulation of Zn and Cu by crabs has been interpreted in terms of the presence of a regulation mechanism to maintain constant body concentrations (83·2 ± 19·4 μg Zn g -1 dry wt.; 39·8 ± 9·8 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.) under varying external dissolved metal levels, until a threshold dissolved metal concentration ( c. 400 μg Zn l -1; c. 170 μg Cu l -1) beyond which net accumulation of metal begins. Cadium appears to be accumulated by C. maenas at all exposures with no evidence for regulation of body cadmium concentrations. Exposure of E. modestus to Zn, Cu or Cd caused net accumulation of the respective metal in the bodies of the barnacles, with no evidence for regulation of body metal concentrations.

  18. Hydramacin-1 in Action: Scrutinizing the Barnacle Model

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Matthias; Vincent, Bruno; Podschun, Rainer; Grötzinger, Joachim; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Hydramacin-1 (HM1) from the metazoan Hydra exerts antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial strains. Notably, HM1 induces the aggregation of bacterial cells, accompanied by precipitation. To date, the proposed mechanism of peptide-lipid interaction, termed the barnacle model, has not been described on the molecular level. Here, we show by biochemical and biophysical techniques that the lipid-peptide interactions of HM1 are initiated by electrostatic and hydrophobic effects, in particular, by tryptophan and neighboring polar amino acid residues that cause an interfacial localization of the peptide between two self-contained lipid bilayers. The high binding constants of HM1 upon lipid interaction are in the range of other potent antimicrobial peptides, e.g., magainin, and can be reasonably explained by two distinct epitopes on the surface of the peptide's global structure, which both contain SWT(K/R) motifs. The residues of this motif favor localization of the peptide in the head group region of phospholipid bilayers up to a penetration depth of 4 Å and a minor participation of the lipids' hydrocarbon regions. Our results expand the knowledge about the molecular modes of action antimicrobial peptides use to tackle their target cells. Furthermore, the aggregation of living bacteria by HM1 was observed for a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, the detailed view of peptide-lipid interactions described by the barnacle model consolidates it among the established models. PMID:23587944

  19. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances. PMID:26715248

  20. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  1. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  2. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Michael A.; Pfaller, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai’i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  3. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa. PMID:18568668

  4. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  5. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Insurance Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the 'Insurance Pan' frames taken while the IMP camera was still in its stowed position on sol2. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The right eye composite consists of 5 frames, taken with different color filters, the left eye consists of only 1 frame. The resultant image from each eye was enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument.

  6. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  7. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  8. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  9. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture. PMID:23071672

  10. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids.

    PubMed

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  11. Worldwide genetic differentiation in the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Nien; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chong, Ving Ching; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-10-01

    Amphibalanus amphitrite is a common fouling barnacle distributed globally in tropical and subtropical waters. In the present study, the genetic (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and morphological differentiation in A. amphitrite from 25 localities around the world were investigated. The results revealed three clades within A. amphitrite with a genetic divergence of ~ 4% among clades, whereas there were no diagnostic morphological differences among clades. Clade 1 is widely distributed in both temperate and tropical waters, whereas Clade 3 is currently restricted to the tropical region. The deep divergence among clades suggests historical isolation within A. amphitrite; thus, the present geographical overlaps are possibly a result of the combined effects of rising sea level and human-mediated dispersals. This study highlights the genetic differentiation that exists in a common, widely distributed fouling organism with great dispersal potential; future antifouling research should take into account the choice of lineages. PMID:25343722

  12. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  13. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  14. Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC₅₀) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC₅₀: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC₅₀ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  15. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  16. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND MONITORING STUDY, 1997 - PRESENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in May 1997 water samples have been collected quarterly from 37 stations in Santa Rosa Sound, from the Pensacola Beach Bridge eastward to Ft. Walton Beach. Quarterly averages for Santa Rosa Sound showing quarterly and annual variations in concentrations of dissolved ni...

  17. OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

  18. Rosa damascena decreased mortality in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahtab; Zarban, Asghar; Pham, Steven; Wang, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The effects of a rose-flower extract, Rosa damascena, on the mortality rate of Drosophila melanogaster was evaluated in this study. R. damascena is a potent antioxidant that has many therapeutic uses in addition to its perfuming effects. Supplementing Drosophila with this rose extract resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mortality rate in male and female flies. Moreover, the observed anti-aging effects were not associated with common confounds of anti-aging properties, such as a decrease in fecundity or metabolic rate. PMID:18361732

  19. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under the McMurdo Ice Shelf using Antarctic barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential of barnacles for paleoceanographic reconstruction and, in particular, of the Antarctic species Bathylasma corolliforme to reconstruct past conditions under ice shelves. Like other barnacle species, this Antarctic barnacle secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth over a number of years (30-50 in samples studied here). The Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and became entrained at the grounding line of a coastal ice shelf in McMurdo Sound, offering potential as an archive of changing conditions in this difficult to access environment under the McMurdo ice shelf. Nine barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ 18O and δ 13C analysis. These samples were dated with 14C and U-Th techniques, although the later did not yield useful age information due to open-system behaviour of barnacle calcite. Measured δ 18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater. One older sample (≈ 200 ka) has similar δ 18O and δ 13C values as the eight Holocene samples, suggesting that barnacle calcite is not prone to significant diagenesis in this setting. Apparent isotope equilibrium and lack of diagenesis make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Cycles of δ 18O observed within each sample sometimes correlate with the external growth ridges, but not always, and have amplitudes of typically 0.6‰. This magnitude of variation suggests shell growth during a significant portion of the year, although it remains unclear whether growth continues throughout the year. However, the prominent growth bands suggest at least a signficant seasonal slowing in growth rate. Variations in barnacle δ 18O within each plate and between plates are too large to be caused by temperature, and instead reflect changes in δ 18O of the seawater, allowing some assessment of seawater

  20. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  1. The barnacle Balanus amphitrite as a bioindicator for Cd: Development and application of a simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Klumpp, David; Ridd, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The efficacy of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as a bioindicator for Cd in the environment was investigated through simulation exercises in an ecotoxicological simulation model based on field data. The study showed in general that B. amphitrite is a good bioindicator to record mean trends of the Cd bioavailability in the environment. The model correct reflected differences between high and low patterns of Cd concentrations in the barnacle in the field, but it did not accurately reflect short-term temporal variations. A model investigation pointed out three issues that must be taken into account when using B. amphitrite as bioindicator for Cd bioavailability in the environment: (1) variations in the mean weight of the sampled population may affect the barnacle's Cd concentration determination, specially if a size effect for the metal concentration in the organism is not detected; (2) a sampling effort approximately 5 times greater than that of usually applied in such studies would be required to detect an environmental change that caused a realistic increase in the main source of Cd to the barnacle; and (3) barnacle tissue better responds to long-term changes in the Cd level of its sources.

  2. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-01

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form. PMID:18252665

  3. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification. PMID:24636895

  4. Selective settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) facilitates its growth and reproduction on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2001-07-01

    On the unstable sedimentary tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a suitable attachment substrate for sessile organisms is generally lacking. Epibenthic mussel beds (Mytilus edulis L.) provide the only and strongly limited settlement sites available for the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (L.). Field investigations showed that barnacles were non-randomly distributed within a mussel bed. They preferentially occurred near the siphonal apertures of living mussels but rarely grew on dead mussels or shell fragments. Field experiments revealed that this was due to selective settlement of barnacle cyprid larvae. Growth of barnacles was significantly higher upon living mussels than on empty mussel shells. Moreover, a higher reproductive output was obtained by individuals on living mussels which produced twice as many nauplii larvae than barnacles attached to empty shells. This study shows that selective settlement of S. balanoides cyprid larvae on living mussels is adaptive with respect to individual fitness.

  5. A potassium contribution to the response of the barnacle photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, M; Shaw, C

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular recording from photoreceptors in the lateral eye of the barnacle show a brief negative-going 'dip' shortly after the onset of the late receptor potential. This phase can sometimes result in a hyperpolarization relative to the resting membrane potential. 2. The dip is prominent in light-adapted cells and is reduced by dark-adaptation. Low extracellular Ca2+ also reduces it. 3. The amplitude of the dip changes inversely with the K+ concentration in the saline. 4. The amplitude of the dip depends on the membrane potential, with a reversal potential near - 80 mV. 5. K+ blocking agents such as quinine and quinidine reduce or abolish the dip. 6. These observations indicate that the dip is due to a brief increase in K+ conductance which may be dependent on an influx of Ca ions. The fast decay of this phase may be brought about by a rapid uptake of Ca2+ by an intracellular mechanism. PMID:915767

  6. Genetic diversity of hydrothermal-vent barnacles in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Schultz, Thomas F.; McGinnis, Gwendolyn; Minshall, Halle; Rudder, Meghan; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genetic diversity of two barnacle species (Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis, Vulcanolepas cf. parensis) at three sites in Manus Basin (Solwara 1, South Su, Solwara 8). There was no evidence for within-site or between-site genetic differentiation for either species. While E. ohtai manusensis showed limited genetic variation, V. cf. parensis showed greater variation, with sequences distributed between two divergent groups. Assuming the cytochrome oxidase I gene is not under selection, significantly negative Tajima's D in E. ohtai manusensis is consistent with a recent population expansion due to a bottleneck or founder effect, whereas V. cf. parensis (combined groups) did not depart from a stable effective population size. Considering the groups separately, V. cf. parensis Group 1 (but not Group 2) showed a negative Tajima's D, indicating these groups may have encountered different historical demographic conditions. Data reported here are part of a baseline study against which recovery of genetic diversity following mineral extraction at Solwara 1 can be measured.

  7. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under ice in the Ross Sea and in the Southern Ocean using barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimate archives that capture annual and subannual resolution marine conditions outside the tropics are not common but would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates the potential of barnacles for such purposes and applies them to paleoceanographic reconstruction under the McMurdo ice shelf and in the Southern Ocean. Most of the Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and range in age between modern samples (used for calibration) and Holocene samples which were collected on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, having been entrained at the grounding line and moved through the ice by surface ablation and further basal freezing. Like other barnacles, this species secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth durations of several decades. Barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ18O and δ13C analysis and dated by 14C. Measured δ18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater and those of old (>200kyr) samples suggest little or no diagenesis. These features make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Variations in barnacle δ18O within each plate and between plates reflect changes in δ18O of the seawater, and allow some assessment of the salinity under the ice shelf. Salinities are lowered by addition of meltwaters, but the barnacle data suggest this lowering does not go below 33‰. Salinity near the grounding line shows both temporal and spatial variability. These data indicate that Bathylasma can provide valuable paleoclimate information at subannual resolution for shallow/intermediate water depths and regions such as Antarctica that play an important role in the climate system. We are now exploring this potential to investigate intermediate water conditions in the South Pacific during the last glacial using samples from seamounts on the Macquarie Ridge and south of

  8. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  9. Decremental conduction of the visual signal in barnacle lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephen R.

    1972-01-01

    1. There are problems associated with the notion that slow potentials alone are used to transmit information in the early stages of some visual systems. This idea and alternatives have been tested on the barnacle lateral ocellus, a simple eye with only three photoreceptors, each with its own axon about 1 cm long. 2. All of the receptors have very similar properties including spectral sensitivity, and are also electrically coupled together. Impulses cannot be recorded from any of the cell bodies, all of which have been impaled as shown by dye marking. 3. No impulses can be recorded externally from most of the ocellar nerve or intracellularly from the receptor axon terminals. Impulses driven by light, sometimes recorded in the final part of the nerve, are believed to originate in other axons. 4. During illumination of the eye, current enters the receptor soma and leaves via the rest of the axon. This is consistent with the idea that the axon acts as a purely passive cable. The passive behaviour was also demonstrated in a comparison of the relative attenuation down the axon, of hyperpolarizations and depolarizations. 5. Calculations based on the supposed electrical constants of the somas showed that the slow potential itself was unlikely to be the visual signal, since it would be enormously attenuated by passive spread down the long thin axons. To check this, the axon terminals in the supraoesophageal ganglion were penetrated and identified by electrical and dye-marking criteria. In fact, the slow potential was attenuated in the most favourable case only by a factor of about three, indicating an axon membrane resistance in the range of 105 Ω. cm2. 6. This resistance may be substantially higher than that of the soma surface membrane, corrected for increased surface area. The sheath around each axon probably does not influence the electrical properties, judged by its permeability to the small molecule of Procion Yellow. 7. The minimal loss of voltage in the axon and

  10. Analysis of the Behaviours Mediating Barnacle Cyprid Reversible Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T.; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic ‘walking’ behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as ‘footprints’ on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic ‘suction cup’. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous ‘temporary adhesive’, ‘dry’ adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface – presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond – seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion

  11. Properties of sodium pumps in internally perfused barnacle muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M T; Blaustein, M P

    1980-02-01

    To study the properties of the Na extrusion mechanism, giant muscle fibers from barnacle (Balanus nubilus) were internally perfused with solutions containing tracer 22Na. In fibers perfused with solutions containing adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and 30 mM Na, the Na efflux into 10 mM K seawater was approximately 25-30 pmol/cm2.s; 70% of this efflux was blocked by 50-100 microM ouabain, and approximately 30% was blocked by removal of external K. The ouabain-sensitive and K-dependent Na effluxes were abolished by depletion of internal ATP and were sigmoid-shaped functions of the internal Na concentration ([Na]i), with half-maxima at [Na]i approximately or equal to 20 mM. These sigmoid functions fit the Hill equation with Hill coefficients of approximately 3.5. Ouabain depolarized ATP-fueled fibers by 1.5-2 mV ([Na]i greater than or equal to 30 mM) but had very little effect on the membrane potential of ATP-depleted fibers; ATP depletion itself caused a 2-2.5-mV depolarization. When fueled fibers were treated with 3,4-diaminopyridine or Ba2+ (to reduce the K conductance and increase membrane resistance), application of ouabain produced a 4-5 mV depolarization. These results indicate that an electrogenic, ATP-dependent Na-K exchange pump is functional in internally perfused fibers; the internal perfusion technique provides a convenient method for performing transport studies that require good intracellular solute control. PMID:7373278

  12. Analysis of the behaviours mediating barnacle cyprid reversible adhesion.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic 'walking' behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as 'footprints' on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic 'suction cup'. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous 'temporary adhesive', 'dry' adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface - presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond - seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion, inherently sticky and

  13. Research Currents: Assessing Sub-Rosa Skills in Children's Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    1984-01-01

    Discusses examples of peer social interaction and language play among fourth through sixth graders. Suggests that these sub-rosa skills be taken into consideration during classroom assessment of language competence and development. (HTH)

  14. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway..., Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 545 John Knox Road, Suite 200, Tallahassee,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  16. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  17. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  18. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  20. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  1. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development. PMID:12781969

  2. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  3. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Robin M.; Raga, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  4. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:25602032

  5. Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

    2005-10-01

    Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment. PMID:16202091

  6. Effects of ATP and vanadate on calcium efflux from barnacle muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M T; Blaustein, M P

    1981-01-22

    Calcium ions carry the inward current during depolarization of barnacle muscle fibres and are involved in the contraction process. Intracellular ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i) in barnacle muscle, as in other cells, is kept at a very low concentration, against a large electrochemical gradient. This large gradient is maintained by Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms. When [Ca2+]i is below the contraction threshold, Ca2+ efflux from giant barnacle muscle fibres is, largely, both ATP dependent and external Na+ (Na+0) dependent (see also refs 5,6). When [Ca2+]i is raised to the level expected during muscle contraction (2-5 muM), most of the Ca2+ efflux from perfused fibres is Na0 dependent; as in squid axons, this Na+0-dependent Ca2+ efflux is ATP independent. Orthovanadate is an inhibitor of (Na+ + K+) ATPase and the red cell Ca2+-ATpase. We report here that vanadate inhibits ATP-promoted, Na+0-dependent Ca2+ efflux from barnacle muscle fibres perfused with low [Ca2+]i (0.2-0.5 microM), but has little effect on the Na+0-dependent, ATP-independent Ca2+ efflux from fibres with a high [Ca]i (2-5 microM). Nevertheless, ATP depletion or vanadate treatment of high [Ca2+]i fibres causes an approximately 50-fold increase of Ca2+ efflux into Ca2+-containing lithium seawater. These results demonstrate that both vanadate and ATP affect Ca2+ extrusion, including the Na+0-dependent Ca2+ efflux (Na-Ca exchange), in barnacle muscle. PMID:6256662

  7. [Identification and analysis of genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cai, Fang; Sun, Su-qin; Yan, Wen-rong; Niu, Shi-jie; Li, Xian-en

    2009-09-01

    The genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora) were examined in terms of their differences by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy. The three species were shown very similar in FTIR spectra. The peak of 1318 cm(-1) of genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae is not obvious but this peak could be found sharp in Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora. Generally, the second derivative IR spectrum can clearly enhance the spectral resolution. Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos rosae Chinensis have aromatic compounds distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 617 and 1 618 cm(-1), respectively. Nevertheless, FlosRosa multiflora has the peak at 1612 cm(-1). There is a discrepancy of 5 to 6 cm(-1). FlosRosa multiflora has glucide's distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 044 cm(-1), but Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos Rosae Chinensis don't. The second derivative infrared spectra indicated different fingerprint characteristics. Three of them showed aromatic compounds with autopeaks at 1620, 1560 and 1460 cm(-1). Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora have the shoulder peak at 1660 cm(-1). In the range of 850-1250 cm(-1), three of them are distinct different, Flos Rosae Rugosae has the strongest autopeak, Flos Rosae Chinensis has the feeble autopeak and Flos Rosa multiflora has no autopeak at 1050 cm(-1). In third-step identification, the different contents of aromatic compounds and glucide in Flos Rosae Rugosae, Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora were revealed. It is proved that the method is fast and effective for distinguishing and analyzing genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora). PMID:19950645

  8. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  9. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  10. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner. PMID:25979758

  11. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  12. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations. PMID:25237772

  13. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  14. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma−Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Baek, Ye-Seul; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic barnacle Lepas australis (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae). The genome sequence is 15,502 bp in size. Except for CO1, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with an ATN initiation codon (ATA, ATG, ATC and ATT). Twelve PCGs were terminated with TAA or TAG stop codon, whereas ND1 possessed an incomplete termination codon (T- -). We compared the mitogenome structure of L. australis to those of other cirripeds and a typical arthropod Homarus americanus. The PCGs in the L. australis mtgenome showed a typical gene arrangement, identical to the arthropod pattern in other cirriped genomes. However, at least 8 tRNA genes were translocated and 2 tRNA genes were inverted in the coding polarity. Unique differences in L. australis mtgenome included translocation of trnS2, trnD and trnI. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among cirripedians, and additional mtgenome information of barnacles including the polar species would allow exploration of the thoracican relationships and mtgenome modifications in the barnacle evolution. PMID:25228375

  16. Bivalve and barnacle larvae distribution driven by water temperature in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ziadi, Boutheina; Dhib, Amel; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the distribution of some meroplanktonic species and water temperature. Meroplankton larvae abundance of bivalves, and barnacles and water temperature fluctuations were studied from February 2011 to January 2012 at five stations in Ghar El Melh lagoon (GML) Mediterranean Sea, northern Tunisia). According to redundancy analysis (RDA), a significant difference was found in the distribution of larvae among the seasons (F = 10.28, p < 0.001); summer and autumn appear to be the period of bivalve larvae development, whereas the arrival of barnacle larvae coincided with winter and spring. The generalized additive models (GAMs) show strong correlation of bivalve larvae with high temperature (F = 23.2; p < 0.001) and the affinity of barnacle larvae to low temperature values (F = 8.41; p = 0.004). This environmental parameter accounted for 26 % of the deviance in variability in larvae abundance. The development process of many generations of larvae may therefore have been predetermined by temperature. PMID:25483975

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative. PMID:25263422

  19. The Rosa Parks "Myth": A Third Grade Historical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Lowenstein, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how, by comparing multiple perspectives of the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, students can experience first-hand how different published accounts of the same event may contain different information. The author relates the lesson plan of Jennifer Morrow, a third-grade teacher at Coral Ridge Elementary…

  20. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Daniel K.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Everett, Richard K.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery. PMID:25115515

  1. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal. PMID:21392330

  2. Chemical Analysis of Dietary Constituents in Rosa roxburghii and Rosa sterilis Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-He; Lu, Xian-Yuan; Fu, Wei-Ming; He, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Both Rosa roxburghii and R. sterilis, belonging to the Rosaceae, are endemic species in Guizhou Province, China. The fruits of these two species are mixed-used as functional food in the region. Aiming to elucidate the phytochemical characteristics of R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits, the essential oils and constituents in a methanol extract have been analyzed and compared by GC-MS and UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. As a result, a total of 135 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and 91 components were different between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits; a total of 59 compounds in methanol extracts were identified by UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, including 13 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 11 triterpenes, nine amino acids, five phenylpropanoid derivatives, four condensed tannins, two stilbenes, two benzaldehyde derivatives and one benzoic acid derivative; and nine characteristic compounds were found between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits. This systematic study plays an important role for R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits in the product development. PMID:27618004

  3. Still the same after all these years: Santa Rosa`s curbside recycling model

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, K.

    1997-10-01

    When Santa Rosa, located north of San Francisco, first began its recycling program in 1977, it was no different from the other fledgling curbside recycling programs in the state. Back then, residents collected recyclables in their homes and put them out on the curb each week next to the garbage cans in whatever container they could find, whether it was a paper grocery bag or a cardboard box. The city`s pre-bin recycling program had a participation rate of about 25%. Then in 1978, with the firm`s help, Empire officials came up with the idea of providing recycling bins to residents. The program planners asked residents to source-separate their recyclables and then put the metals (including steel, tin, and aluminum); all three glass colors (brown, green, and clear); and newspaper in three individual bins. A few weeks after city officials distributed the bins to residents, the program showed a participation rate of 77%, indicating to Clark that the bins were necessary to significantly increase public awareness of the program.

  4. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Granhag, Lena M; Jonsson, Per R

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9-2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  5. Amyloid-like conformation and interaction for the self-assembly in barnacle underwater cement.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Kamino, Kei

    2015-01-27

    Barnacles are unique marine sessile crustaceans and permanently attach to various foreign surfaces during most of their lifespan. The protein complex secreted from their body and used to attach their calcareous shell to almost all surfaces in water has long fascinated us because we have limited technology with which to attach materials in water. Unraveling the mechanism of underwater attachment by barnacles is thus important for interface science, for the understanding of the biology and physiology of barnacles, and for the development of technology to prevent fouling. Previous studies have indicated that the intermolecular interactions optimized by conformations of the adhesive proteins are crucial in the self-assembly and/or curing of the adhesive. This study aimed to identify the possible structural determinants responsible for the self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding screening of peptides designed on the basis of the primary structure of a bulk 52 kDa cement protein indicated the presence of some amyloidogenic motifs in the protein. The conformation of the peptide was transformed to a β-sheet by an increase in either pH or ionic strength, resulting in its self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding was inhibited by small polyphenolic molecules, suggesting the contribution of aromatic interactions during self-assembly. The occurrence of amyloid-like units in the protein implies that the protein conformation is an important factor contributing to the self-assembly of the cement, the first event of the curing, as the adhesive material is secreted into the seawater out of the animal's body. PMID:25537316

  6. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle

    PubMed Central

    Granhag, Lena M.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9–2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  7. Photoreception in a barnacle: electrophysiology of the shadow reflex pathway in Balanus cariosus.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, R; Gwilliam, G F

    1972-08-01

    The photoreceptors in the median ocellus of the rock barnacle depolarize when illuminated. This depolarization spreads passively to the axon terminals in the supraesophageal ganglion. A small number of cells in the supraesophageal ganglion hyperpolarize when the median ocellus is illuminated and depolarize when it is shadowed. Nerve impulses are superimposed on the slow depolarization of the ganglion cells. Impulse activity in response to shadowing the median ocellus is recorded in a few fibers of the circumesophageal connectives. Picrotoxin blocks this shadow-induced activity. A model of the shadow reflex pathway is presented. PMID:4339616

  8. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  9. Hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishnu; Singh, Pradyumn; Chander, Ramesh; Mahdi, Farzana; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Ranjana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2009-12-01

    The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (family Malvaceae) root extract was studied on triton and cholesterol-rich high fat diet (HFD) induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. In triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia, feeding with root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.) exerted lipid-lowering effect, as assessed by reversal of plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG) and reactivation of post-heparin lipolytic activity (PHLA) of plasma. The other model was fed with cholesterol-rich HFD and root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/ day p.o.) simultaneously for 30 days. This also caused lowering of lipid levels in plasma and liver homogenate and reactivation of plasma PHLA and hepatic total lipoprotein lipase activity. The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root was compared with a standard drug guggulipid (200 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.), a known lipid- lowering agent in both models. Histopathological findings in rat liver supported the protective role of H. rosa sinensis root extract in preventing cholesterol-rich HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:20361715

  10. 75 FR 71787 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvator Rosa: Bandits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... and Magic'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``Salvator Rosa: Bandits, Wilderness and Magic'', imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  11. Identification and authentication of Rosa species through development of species-specific SCAR marker(s).

    PubMed

    Bashir, K M I; Awan, F S; Khan, I A; Khan, A I; Usman, M

    2014-01-01

    Roses (Rosa indica) belong to one of the most crucial groups of plants in the floriculture industry. Rosa species have special fragrances of interest to the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The genetic diversity of plants based on morphological characteristics is difficult to measure under natural conditions due to the influence of environmental factors, which is why a reliable fingerprinting method was developed to overcome this problem. The development of molecular markers will enable the identification of Rosa species. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on four Rosa species, Rosa gruss-an-teplitz (Surkha), Rosa bourboniana, Rosa centifolia, and Rosa damascena. A polymorphic RAPD fragment of 391 bp was detected in R. bourboniana, which was cloned, purified, sequenced, and used to design a pair of species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (forward and reverse). These SCAR primers were used to amplify the specific regions of the rose genome. These PCR amplifications with specific primers are less sensitive to reaction conditions, and due to their high reproducibility, these species-specific SCAR primers can be used for marker-assisted selection and identification of Rosa species. PMID:24938705

  12. Rosa26 Locus Supports Tissue-Specific Promoter Driving Transgene Expression Specifically in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Huang, Tianqing; Jiang, Dandan; Xie, Bingteng; Wu, Meiling; Wang, Jiaqiang; Song, Yuran; Wang, Ying; He, Yilong; Sun, Jialu; Hu, Kui; Guo, Runfa; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi; Mu, Yanshuang; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs have become a popular model system in fundamental research, agricultural and biomedical applications. However, random integration often result in unstable expression of transgene and unpredictable phenotypes. The Rosa26 locus has been widely used to produce genetic modified animals with high and consistent expressing of transgene in mouse, human and rat, as it can be targeted efficiently and is not subject to gene-silencing effects. Recently, the first case of reporter gene targeting pigs in porcine Rosa26 (pRosa26) locus was reported. In the study, full sequence of pRosa26 locus was further characterized, and the pRosa26 promoter (pR26) was cloned and we evidenced that the new porcine endogenous promoter is suitable for driving transgene expression in a high and stable manner by avoiding DNA methylation. Furthermore, elongation factor 1a promoter (EF1a) -driven GFP reporter and Myostatin promoter (MyoP)-driven Follistatin (Fst) were successfully targeted into the pRosa26 locusby traditional homologous recombination (HR) strategy. EF1a showed high activity and hypomethylation at the locus. And, muscle-specific promoter MyoP was activated strictly in muscle of the pRosa26 targeted pigs, indicating Rosa26 locus supports tissue-specific promoter driving transgene expression in its own manner. The study provided further demonstration on biomedical and agricultural applications of porcine Rosa26 promoter and locus. PMID:25232950

  13. Plastic Sexual Expression in the Androdioecious Barnacle Octolasmis warwickii (Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Hendry; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Most barnacles are simultaneous hermaphrodites, but dwarf males are also found attached to hermaphrodites in several species. This biologically rare phenomenon of the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites is termed androdioecy. To test whether the hermaphrodite and male sexes are fixed or plastic in the androdioecious pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis warwickii, we conducted a series of 22-day-long transplanting experiments to evaluate the effects of a) the original site (attached to the conspecific vs. attached directly to the substrate) and b) the transplanting site (conspecific-attached vs. substrate-attached). Penis length (as an index of male function), the presence or absence of egg mass (female function), and growth rate were investigated. As with natural dwarf males, individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer penises than did those that were transplanted onto the substrate. The original site of attachment also affected penis length. However, no significant effects of the original site or the transplanting were detected in egg-laying activities, as only one experimental individual laid eggs. Individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics grew less than those that were attached to the substrate. These results indicate that individual sexual expression is affected by the environment in O. warwickii. PMID:26896177

  14. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S

    2015-02-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  15. Characterization of Arginine Kinase in the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite and Its Role in the Larval Settlement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Yan, Guo-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Wong, Yue-Him; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Energy metabolism is a key process in larval settlement of barnacles, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ambiguous. Arginine kinase (AK) mainly participates in energy metabolism in invertebrates. So far, its roles in barnacles have not been studied. In the present study, we raised an antibody against AK from Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin to characterize the roles of AK in the larval settlement process. Among the developmental stages, AK was highly expressed during the cypris stage. Along with the aging process in cyprids, the level of AK decreased. The immunostaining results showed that AK was localized to muscular tissues in cyprids, including antennules, antennular muscles, and thoracic limbs. The larval settlement rate decreased and larval movement was inhibited in response to treatments with high concentrations of AK inhibitors (rutin and quercetin). These results demonstrated that AK was involved in the larval settlement of A. amphitrite through mediating energy supply in muscle tissues. Moreover, further analysis indicated that both the p38 MAPK and NO/cGMP pathways positively mediated the expression of AK in cyprids. PMID:27245369

  16. Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis.

    PubMed

    Jonker, R M; Kraus, R H S; Zhang, Q; van Hooft, P; Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, H P; Kurvers, R H J M; van Wieren, S E; Loonen, M J J E; Crooijmans, R P M A; Ydenberg, R C; Groenen, M A M; Prins, H H T

    2013-12-01

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST , linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using migrate-n to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity. PMID:24118391

  17. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  18. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise. PMID:22691197

  19. 78 FR 8949 - 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Parks's story did not end with the boycott she inspired. A lifelong champion of civil rights, she... we mark the 100th anniversary of Rosa Parks's birth, we celebrate the life of a genuine American hero... appropriate service, community, and education programs to honor Rosa Parks's enduring legacy. ] IN...

  20. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; California AGENCIES: Bureau of Land... the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains...

  1. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of... Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...

  2. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  3. Rosa's Law and the Language of Disability: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Terciano, Jacylou

    2011-01-01

    National campaigns promoting the use of the term intellectual disability (ID) have culminated in the recent U.S. congressional passing of Rosa's Law. Rosa's Law changes how ID is referred to in federal disability programs by removing all references to the term, "mental retardation" (U.S Government Printing Office, October, 2010). Little is known…

  4. Identification and characterization of rabbit ROSA26 for gene knock-in and stable reporter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Jifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Wang, Zhong; Lai, Liangxue; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory rabbit has been a valuable model system for human disease studies. To make the rabbit model more amendable to targeted gene knockin and stable gene over-expression, we identified a rabbit orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus through genomic sequence homology analysis. Real-time PCR and 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE experiments revealed that this locus encodes two transcript variants of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) (rbRosaV1 and rbRosaV2). Both variants are expressed ubiquitously and stably in different tissues. We next targeted the rabbit Rosa26 (rbRosa26) locus using CRISPR/Cas9 and produced two lines of knock-in rabbits (rbRosa26-EGFP, and rbRosa26-Cre-reporter). In both lines, all the founders and their offspring appear healthy and reproduce normally. In F1 generation animals, the rbRosa26-EGFP rabbits express EGFP, and the rbRosa26-Cre-reporter rabbits express tdTomato ubiquitously in all the tissues examined. Furthermore, disruption of rbRosa26 locus does not adversely impact the animal health and reproduction. Therefore, our work establishes rbRosa26 as a safe harbor suitable for nuclease mediated gene targeting. The addition of rbRosa26 to the tool box of transgenic research is expected to allow diverse genetic manipulations, including gain-of function, conditional knock out and lineage-tracing studies in rabbits. PMID:27117226

  5. 75 FR 34481 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...) have reestablished the charter of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...). Certification Statement I hereby certify that the reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto...

  6. Barnacles, limpets and periwinkles: the effects of direct and indirect interactions on cyprid settlement and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Sebastian P.; Walker, Graham; van der Meer, Jaap

    2005-02-01

    Conventionally, direct interactions between species are considered to be the most important biological factors determining community composition, structure and stability. However, it has been suggested that the indirect interactions occurring between species may be as important. One area of ecology where the direct effects of one species on another have been well studied is in the rocky intertidal. Examination of the effect of the presence of P. vulgata (limpets) and L. littorea (periwinkles) on the settlement and development of S. balanoides (cyprids/barnacles), over a cyprid settlement season and some six months later, in four different treatments (limpets only, limpets and periwinkles combined, periwinkles only and control (no animals)) revealed the following: (1) that the presence of limpets increased cyprid settlement and recruitment success above treatments containing no limpets; (2) that cyprid settlement and success were greatest on the limpets-only treatment, followed by the limpets-and-periwinkles treatment, then by the control treatment and then by the periwinkles-only treatment; (3) that the initial effects observed in the treatments were reflected in the long-term community structure; (4) that the effects of the treatments were independent of variations in algal biomass between treatments, i.e. the effects were not indirectly mediated through a second species (host); (5) that cyprid mortality was greatest on the periwinkles-only treatment; (6) that the source of the effect of limpets on cyprid settlement appeared to originate indirectly through the action of their residual pedal mucus trails. It is concluded that periwinkles can affect the settlement and success of barnacles directly through biological disturbance (i.e. surface ablation). However, although limpets may have a direct negative effect on barnacle settlement and success, at low to medium densities, limpets can positively indirectly influence the cyprid settlement and success. This effect

  7. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of Rosa damascena extract on selected endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Emaneini, Mohammad; Aligholi, Marziyeh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of a plant-derived extract (2 percent Rosa damascena extract) with 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2 percent chlorhexidine (CHX) on selected endodontic pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2 percent rose extract and 2 percent CHX for test microorganisms, except F. nucleatum, were lower than that of 5.25 percent NaOCl. All solutions were able to kill all test microorganisms after one minute. PMID:20232691

  9. Basin structure beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for damage caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Aagaard, B.T.; Jachens, R.C.; McCabe, C.

    2007-01-01

    Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2- km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Ground-motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, using the gravity- defined basin surface, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner, suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in this area in the past and may also contribute to strong shaking during future earthquakes.

  10. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  11. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  12. Degradation of ferric chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by bacterium isolated from deep-sea stalked barnacle.

    PubMed

    Imada, Chiaki; Harada, Yohei; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hamada-Sato, Naoko; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2005-01-01

    Twenty strains of marine bacteria that degrade ferric chelate of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA) were isolated from among 117 strains collected from a marine environment. Among them strain 02-N-2, which was isolated from stalked barnacle collected from the deep sea in the Indian Ocean, had the highest Fe-EDTA degradation ability and was selected for further study. The strain showed high Fe-EDTA degradation ability at different seawater concentrations. In addition, the intact cells of this strain had the ability to degrade such metal-EDTAs as Ca, Cu, and Mg. The strain was an aerobic, gram-variable, rod-shaped organism. The results of various taxonomic studies revealed that the strain had significant similarity to Bacillus jeotgali JCM 10885(T), which was isolated from a Korean traditional fermented seafood, Jeotgal. PMID:15747087

  13. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  14. Construction and nanomechanical properties of the exoskeleton of the barnacle, Amphibalanus reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-12-01

    Barnacles are some of the major inhabitants of intertidal zones and have calcite-based exoskeleton to anchor and armor their tissues. Structural characterization studies of the specie Ambhibalanus reticulatus were performed to understand the construction of the exoskeleton which forms a light-weight yet stiff structure. The parietal shell is constructed of six compartments to yield a truncated cone geometry, which is neatly fixed onto the basal shell that attaches the organism to the substrate surface. The connections among the different compartments happen through sutured edges and also have chemical interlocking to make the junctions impermeable. Also, the shell parts are furnished with hollow channels reducing the overall mass of the construction. The structure and functions of different parts of the exoskeleton are identified and outlined. Finally, the mechanical properties such as modulus, hardness and fracture toughness of the exoskeleton obtained by indentation techniques are discussed. PMID:21911065

  15. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  16. Imaging SPR combined with stereoscopic 3D tracking to study barnacle cyprid-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleshlijski, S.; Sendra, G. H.; Aldred, N.; Clare, A. S.; Liedberg, B.; Grunze, M.; Ederth, T.; Rosenhahn, A.

    2016-01-01

    Barnacle larvae (cyprids) explore surfaces to identify suitable settlement sites. This process is selective, and cyprids respond to numerous surface cues. To better understand the settlement process, it is desirable to simultaneously monitor both the surface exploration behavior and any close interactions with the surface. Stereoscopic 3D tracking of the cyprids provides quantitative access to surface exploration and pre-settlement rituals. Imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reveals any interactions with the surfaces, such as surface inspection during bipedal walking and deposition of temporary adhesives. We report on a combination of both techniques to bring together information on swimming behavior in the vicinity of the interface and physical interactions of the cyprid with the surface. The technical requirements are described, and we applied the setup to cyprids of Balanus amphitrite. Initial data shows the applicability of the combined instrument to correlate exploration and touchdown events on surfaces with different chemical termination.

  17. Passive signal propagation and membrane properties in median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Poo, Mu Ming; Stuart, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The light-induced electrical responses of barnacle photoreceptors spread decrementally along the cells' axons. The decay of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal was studied by recording intracellularly from single receptor axons of the median ocellus of the giant barnacle. 2. The resistance of the photoreceptor neurone decreases markedly when the cell is depolarized with respect to its dark resting potential of -60 mV. This rectification results in differential attenuation of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread down the axon. Consequently, the visual signal entering the synaptic region is conspicuously distorted. 3. Bathing the photoreceptor axons in sodium-free or calcium-free saline or in isotonic sucrose does not significantly affect the spread of the visual signal to the terminals. Thus the signal is not amplified by an ionic mechanism along the axon. 4. Membrane characteristics of the photoreceptor for hyperpolarizing voltage changes were estimated from (a) the ratio of the amplitudes of the visual signals recorded simultaneously in the axon and in the soma, (b) the time constant, and (c) the input resistance of the cell. All three independent measurements are consistent with a length constant 1 to 2 times the total length of the cell (λ = 10-18 mm) and an unusually high membrane resistivity of about 300 kΩ cm2. This resistivity enables the receptor potential to spread passively to the terminal region. 5. Electron microscopic examination of receptor axons reveals an investment of glial lamellae, but demonstrates neither unusual structures which would lead to a high apparent membrane resistivity, nor junctions between cells which would seal off the extracellular space. Thus the observed high resistivity appears to be an intrinsic property of the receptor membrane. ImagesABCD PMID:592129

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance. PMID:26988415

  19. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  20. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  1. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers. PMID:16042335

  2. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. PMID:21529772

  3. Relationship between metal and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burden and health risks in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W; Zhang, Xiaohua; Pan, Ke; Guo, Cui; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Wenxiong; Liu, Hongbin; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, we employed the widespread and gregarious barnacle species Balanus amphitrite in a biomonitoring program to evaluate coastal pollution around three piers (i.e., Tso Wo Hang, Sai Kung and Hebe Haven) in Hong Kong. An integrated approach was used herein, combining both the chemical determination of contaminant concentrations, including metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and a suite of biological responses across the entire barnacle lifecycle (i.e., adult, nauplius, cyprid and juvenile). The analytical results revealed a distinct geographical distribution of metals and PBDEs. Adult physiological processes and larval behaviors varied significantly among the three piers. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated a specific suite of biological responses towards metal and PBDE exposure, likely resulting from their distinct modes of action. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the combination of chemical and biological tests provided an integrated measure for the comprehensive assessment of marine pollution. PMID:26320980

  4. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  5. Multidecadal signals within co-occurring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieszkowska, N.; Burrows, M. T.; Pannacciulli, F. G.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    Few links have been established between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and long-term dynamics of marine systems due to the scarcity of sustained biological time-series with sufficient multi-decadal coverage. The abundances of co-occurring boreal and Lusitanian species of barnacle have been recorded annually at a rocky shore in Devon, southwest England since 1953. Multidecadal cycles in relative abundances of the cold-water Semibalanus balanoides and warm-water Chthamalus spp. are strongly correlated with both local sea surface temperatures, and a ‘Warm Index' of barnacle abundance shows strong links to the basin-scale Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In contrast there are weak or no observed relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation for either species. The shorter lifecycle of S. balanoides compared to the chthamalids and the increase in spring and summer temperatures to which newly settled S. balanoides recruits have been exposed during the last decade are likely mechanisms by which barnacle densities are responding to low-frequency temperature variability expressed in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  6. Barnacles as biomonitors of trace metal availabilities in Hong Kong coastal waters: changes in space and time.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, P S; Blackmore, G

    2001-06-01

    The use of selected organisms as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities allows comparisons to be made over space and time. The concentrations of 11 trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, zinc) were measured in the bodies of two barnacle species, Balanus amphitrite and Tetraclita squamosa, from up to 18 littoral sites from Hong Kong coastal waters in April 1998. These data provide evidence on the geographical variation in metal bioavailabilities at this time, and are compared selectively against historical data sets for 1986 and 1989. Geographical variation in bioavailabilities is clear for several metals, with hotspots for arsenic, copper, nickel and silver at Chai Wan Kok, and for lead in Junk Bay. Victoria Harbour sites head the rankings for silver and arsenic, and Tolo Harbour sites exhibit relatively elevated cobalt, manganese and zinc. Many bioavailabilities of trace metals to barnacles are lower in Hong Kong coastal waters in 1998 than in 1986. The two barnacle species are widespread and the extensive data set presented is a benchmark which can be compared to the results of similar biomonitoring programmes elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and beyond. PMID:11488511

  7. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-03-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the Central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  8. Effects of Toxic Leachate from Commercial Plastics on Larval Survival and Settlement of the Barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Plastic pollution represents a major and growing global problem. It is well-known that plastics are a source of chemical contaminants to the aquatic environment and provide novel habitats for marine organisms. The present study quantified the impacts of plastic leachates from the seven categories of recyclable plastics on larval survival and settlement of barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Leachates from plastics significantly increased barnacle nauplii mortality at the highest tested concentrations (0.10 and 0.50 m(2)/L). Hydrophobicity (measured as surface energy) was positively correlated with mortality indicating that plastic surface chemistry may be an important factor in the effects of plastics on sessile organisms. Plastic leachates significantly inhibited barnacle cyprids settlement on glass at all tested concentrations. Settlement on plastic surfaces was significantly inhibited after 24 and 48 h, but settlement was not significantly inhibited compared to the controls for some plastics after 72-96 h. In 24 h exposure to seawater, we found larval toxicity and inhibition of settlement with all seven categories of recyclable commercial plastics. Chemical analysis revealed a complex mixture of substances released in plastic leachates. Leaching of toxic compounds from all plastics should be considered when assessing the risks of plastic pollution. PMID:26667586

  9. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  10. Potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis by Rosa damascena in mice.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandah, H; Hosseini, M

    2006-11-01

    Rosa damascena has been found to act on central nervous system including brain. It inhibits the reactivity of the hypothalamous and pituitary systems in rat. In traditional medicine hypnotic effect of Rose is also suggested. In the present study hypnotic effect of ethanolic, aqueous and chloroformic extracts of R. damascena was investigated in mice. Hypnotic method was based on potentiation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time by extracts. Three doses of extracts (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) were injected i.p. in comparison with diazepam (3mg/kg) as positive control and saline as negative control. After 30 min of injection of extracts, pentobarbital (30mg/kg) was injected and increase in sleeping time by extracts was recorded. The results showed that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts in 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses significantly increased pentobarbital induced sleeping time which was comparable to diazepam. The chloroformic extract had no hypnotic effect. PMID:17205713

  11. New triterpene glucosides from the roots of Rosa laevigata Michx.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing-Quan; Yang, Xin-Zhou; Miao, Jian-Hua; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Zhang, Ji-Bao; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Two new ursane-type triterpene glucosides, 2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 2alpha,3alpha,23-trihydroxyurs-12,19(29)-dien-28-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), were isolated from the roots of Rosa laevigata, together with three known compounds: 2alpha,3beta,19alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid beta-Dglucopyranosyl ester (3), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4) and 2alpha,3beta,19alpha,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5). The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of detailed 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited modest in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans and C. krusei. PMID:18830152

  12. The Dmp1-SOST Transgene Interacts With and Downregulates the Dmp1-Cre Transgene and the Rosa(Notch) Allele.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26. PMID:26456319

  13. Patterns of distribution and abundance of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) in the central and southwest coast of continental Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alina; Jacinto, David; Penteado, Nélia; Martins, Pedro; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J.; Cruz, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is a cirriped crustacean that lives on very exposed rocky shores. This barnacle is the most important economical resource on intertidal rocky shores of continental Portugal. It is highly prized as food and heavily exploited (professional and recreational fishery), but fishery data are scarce and do not estimate the real pressure upon this resource. Despite its socio-economic interest, specific regulations on this fishery are recent and different along the Portuguese coast. Four regions with different regulation can be identified: the marine reserve “Reserva Natural das Berlengas” (RNB) and the marine park “Parque Marinho Prof. Luiz Saldanha” (PMLS) (both in central Portugal); the natural park located in SW Portugal (“Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina”, PNSACV); and the rest of the coast. The main objective of the present study was to study the spatial patterns of percentage cover, biomass, density and size structure of P. pollicipes in areas with different exploitation regimes, including harvested areas and no-take areas. Additionally, variability between mid shore and low shore barnacles was also analysed. Seven areas were sampled with a variable number of sites (a total of 24) randomly sampled in each area during 2011. Photographs and image analysis (percentage cover) and destructive sampling (density, biomass and size) were used. In general, percentage cover, biomass and density were higher in mid shore when compared to low shore, namely in harvested areas. Low shore barnacles had a higher proportion of adults with moderate and high commercial value, while juveniles were relatively more abundant at mid shore. There were no consistent differences in the patterns of distribution and abundance of P. pollicipes among areas subject to different exploitation regimes. The most different area was the harvested area by professional fishers in RNB, where the highest biomass within the study was

  14. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    PubMed

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details. PMID:27395555

  15. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted. PMID:25261121

  16. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  17. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  18. siRNA transfection in larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides an efficient and specific technique for functional genomic studies. Yet, no successful application of RNAi has been reported in barnacles. In this study, siRNA against p38 MAPK was synthesized and then transfected into A. amphitrite larvae at either the nauplius or cyprid stage, or at both stages. Effects of siRNA transfection on the p38 MAPK level were hardly detectable in the cyprids when they were transfected at the nauplius stage. In contrast, larvae that were transfected at the cyprid stage showed lower levels of p38 MAPK than the blank and reagent controls. However, significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) and reduced settlement rates were observed only in 'double transfections', in which larvae were exposed to siRNA solution at both the nauplius and cyprid stages. A relatively longer transfection time and more larval cells directly exposed to siRNA might explain the higher efficiency of double transfection experiments. PMID:26113139

  19. The permeation of non-electrolytes through the single barnacle muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    Bunch, Wilton; Edwards, Charles

    1969-01-01

    The rate of movement of non-electrolytes and tritiated water (THO) across the muscle cell membrane of the giant barnacle Balanus nubilus has been studied and permeability coefficient calculated. The rate of permeation is more closely related to the oil—water partition coefficient than to size of the molecule or degree of hydrogen bonding. Calculations based on efflux from an ideal cylinder suggest that the membrane acts as a significant barrier to movement of these molecules. The cell was unable to concentrate dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO); the steady state was reached at about 60% of the extracellular concentration. The energies of activation for water, urea and DMSO are 7·5, 20·3 and 26·1 kcal/mol. At 4° C the apparent pore size measured with urea, glycerol and DMSO was 3·5 Å. At 25° C the apparent pore size for urea and glycerol is unchanged but that for DMSO is 14 Å. PMID:5789944

  20. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  1. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  2. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of intracellular pH in giant barnacle muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, J.R.; Yue, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) measurements by /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was examined in single muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilis. The pH/sub i/ was derived from the chemical shifts of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. In fibers superfused with sea water at pH 7.7, pH/sub i/ = 7.30 +/- 0.02 at 20/sup 0/C. Experimentally induced pH/sub i/ changes were followed with a time resolution of 3 min. Intracellular alkalinization was induced by exposure to NH/sub 3/Cl and intracellular acidification followed when NH/sub 3/ was removed. Then acid extrusion was stimulated by exposure to bicarbonate containing sea water. In single muscle fibers /sup 31/P NMR results were in excellent agreement with microelectrode studies over the pH range of 6.5 to 8.0. The initial acid extrusion rate was 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol x 1/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ at pH/sub i/ 6.75. The authors results showed that /sup 31/P NMR is a reliable in vivo pH probe.

  3. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of intracellular pH in giant barnacle muscle.

    PubMed

    Hamm, J R; Yue, G M

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of intracellular pH (pHi) measurements by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was examined in single muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilis. The pHi was derived from the chemical shifts of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. In fibers superfused with sea water at pH 7.7, pHi = 7.30 +/- 0.02 at 20 degrees C. Experimentally induced pHi changes were followed with a time resolution of 3 min. Intracellular alkalinization was induced by exposure to NH4Cl and intracellular acidification followed when NH3 was removed. Then acid extrusion was stimulated by exposure to bicarbonate containing sea water. In single muscle fibers 31P NMR results were in excellent agreement with microelectrode studies over the pH range of 6.5 to 8.0. The initial acid extrusion rate was 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol X l-1 X min-1 at pHi 6.75. Our results showed that 31P NMR is a reliable in vivo pH probe. PMID:3812665

  4. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species. PMID:20538307

  5. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic. PMID:26249902

  6. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  7. Role of Upwelling on Larval Dispersal and Productivity of Gooseneck Barnacle Populations in the Cantabrian Sea: Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Antonella; Weidberg, Nicolás; Pardiñas, Antonio F.; González-Gil, Ricardo; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the recruitment and connectivity of coastal marine populations has rarely been characterized to a level of detail to be included into sound fishery management strategies. The gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) fishery at the Cantabrian Coast (Northern Spain) is located at the fringes of the NW Spanish Upwelling system. This fishery is being co-managed through a fine-scale, interspersed set of protected rocks where each rock receives a distinct level of protection. Such interspersion is potentially beneficial, but the extent to which such spacing is consistent with mean larval dispersal distances is as yet unknown. We have simulated the spread of gooseneck barnacle larvae in the Central Cantabrian Coast using a high-resolution time-series of current profiles measured at a nearshore location. During a year of high upwelling activity (2009), theoretical recruitment success was 94% with peak recruitment predicted 56 km west of the emission point. However, for a year of low upwelling activity (2011) theoretical recruitment success dropped to 15.4% and peak recruitment was expected 13 km east of the emission point. This is consistent with a positive correlation between catch rates and the Integrated Upwelling Index, using a 4-year lag to allow recruits to reach commercial size. Furthermore, a net long-term westward larval transport was estimated by means of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for five populations in the Cantabrian Sea. Our results call into question the role of long distance dispersal, driven by the mesoscale processes in the area, in gooseneck barnacle populations and point to the prevalent role of small-scale, asymmetric connectivity more consistent with the typical scale of the co-management process in this fishery. PMID:24236020

  8. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  9. Effects of Rosa rugosa petals on intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Manjiro; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Funaki, Minoru; Nishizawa, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    The effects of pulverized petal of Rosa rugosa on the growth of 10 species of intestinal and pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was not affected by the addition of the petal in plate cultivation. However, the growth of Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus was completely inhibited by the addition of 0.1, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05% (w/v) of the petal respectively. In liquid cultivation, the addition of the petal (0.5%) stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium breve and slightly inhibited the growth of Lactobacillus salivarius. But the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp. was inhibited by nearly 50%. Hydrolyzable tannins isolated from R. rugosa, rugosin D, and tellimagradin II showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, and Salmonella sp., but little or no effect against Bif. breve and L. salivarius. R. rugosa petal showed selective antibacterial activities against intestinal and pathogenic bacteria, and the selectivity resembled that of prebiotics such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber. Hydrolyzable tannins in R. rugosa, such as rugosin D and tellimagradin II, must be active constituents. PMID:18323655

  10. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2016-01-01

    Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as "Gole Mohammadi" in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet "Mohammad". R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26870673

  11. In vivo antiarthritic activity of Rosa centifolia L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Nair, Vinod; Singh, Surender; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rosa centifolia L. (Rosaceae) have been used for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the traditional system of medicine. Aim: In this study, the antiarthritic activity of the alcoholic extract from the floral parts of R. centifolia was investigated. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia alcoholic extract (RCAE: 32, 64, and 128 mg/kg) was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model. Serum from arthritic rats was collected for the estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Further, the safety of RCAE was evaluated in an acute and sub-acute (28-day) oral toxicity study. Results: RCAE (64 and 128 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1, 3, and 6 h post carrageenan challenge and demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) antiarthritic activity on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 day following CFA immunization. Further, RCAE (128 mg/kg) treatment also produced a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as compared with control. Further, no toxicologically significant treatment-related effects were observed in the oral sub-acute toxicity study conducted with the extract. Conclusion: The result of study demonstrates the antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia and validates its traditional use for the treatment of RA. PMID:27313424

  12. Holocene Paleoecology of an Estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Liu, Geng-Wu

    1994-05-01

    The middle to late Holocene history and early Anglo-European settlement impacts on Santa Rosa Island, California, were studied through the analysis of sediments in a small estuarine marsh. A 5.4-m-long sediment core produced a stratigraphic and pollen record spanning the last 5200 yr. Three major zones are distinguishable in the core. The lowermost zone (5200 to 3250 yr B.P.) represents a time of arid climate with predominantly marine sediment input and high Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia pollen values. The intermediate zone (3250 yr B.P. to 1800 A.D.) is characterized by greater fresh water input and high values for Asteraceae and Cyperaceae pollen and charcoal particles. The uppermost zone (1800 A.D. to present) documents the unprecedented erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation change that resulted from the introduction of large exotic herbivores and exotic plants to the island during Anglo-European settlement. The identification of pollen grains of Torrey Pine ( Pinus torreyana) documents the persistence of this endemic species on the island throughout the middle to late Holocene.

  13. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as “Gole Mohammadi” in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”. R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26870673

  14. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  15. Holocene paleoecology of an estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Liu, Gaisheng

    1994-01-01

    The middle to late Holocene history and early Anglo-European settlement impacts on Santa Rosa Island, California, were studied through the analysis of sediments in a small estuarine marsh. A 5.4-m-long sediment core produced a stratigraphic and pollen record spanning the last 5200 yr. Three major zones are distinguishable in the core. The lowermost zone (5200 to 3250 yr B.P.) represents a time of arid climate with predominantly marine sediment input and high Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia pollen values. The intermediate zone (3250 yr B.P. to 1800 A.D.) is characterized by greater fresh water input and high values for Asteraceae and Cyperaceae pollen and charcoal particles. The uppermost zone (1800 A.D. to present) documents the unprecedented erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation change that resulted from the introduction of large exotic herbivores and exotic plants to the island during Anglo-European settlement. The identification of pollen grains of Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana) documents the persistence of this endemic species on the island throughout the middle to late Holocene.

  16. Calcium channels in the high resistivity axonal membrane of photoreceptors of the giant barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Edgington, D R; Stuart, A E

    1979-01-01

    1. The distribution of calcium channels in the cell membrane of the photoreceptor neurone of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, was studied by recording intracellularly in or near the soma, in the axon, and near the presynaptic terminals. The membrane properties of these different regions of the cell could be studied by separately superfusing each region with test salines or by cutting the axon between two regions. 2. In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 3-aminopyridine (3-AP), but not in their absence, Ca dependent action potentials could be evoked with depolarizing current pulses in the somatic, axonal, and terminal regions. Consequently, voltage-sensitive Ca channels and TEA-sensitive channels are present in all three regions of the cell. 3. The action potentials recorded from the three regions were similar in their slow times-to-peak (30-300 msec), long durations (0.2-2 sec in 100 mM-TEA), and long-lasting (0.2-10 sec) undershoots. The action potentials were inhibited by extracellular Co. 4. Clear differences were consistently observed between terminal action potentials and axonal or somatic action potentials in TEA. Terminal action potentials displayed a lower voltage threshold, faster rate of rise, and were less sensitive to inhibition by extracellular cobalt, suggesting that the Ca current is greater in the terminal region. 5. Bathing the receptor axon in low Ca or Co solutions led to a greater attenuation of large depolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread to the presynaptic terminals. PMID:512951

  17. Kinetics of Oxygen Consumption after a Flash of Light in the Lateral Ocellus of the Barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Poitry, S.; Widmer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, polarographic methods for measuring the time course of transient changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (ΔQO2) have been applied only to tissue preparations containing thousands of cells. Here, we describe ΔQO2 measurements on the lateral ocellus of the barnacle (Balanus eburneus) which contains only three photoreceptor cells. The decrement of partial pressure of oxygen (ΔPO2) elicited by an 80 ms flash of light was measured near the cells with a microelectrode and the ΔQO2 was calculated from the ΔPO2 using a model of diffusion with spherical symmetry. As shown by mathematical simulation, the exact shape of the preparation is not crucial for our measurements of the time course of the ΔQO2. For a given ΔQO2, the model describes correctly the attenuation of the ΔPO2 measured at increased distances from the preparation. To know more about the mechanisms controlling the ΔQO2, we compared it with the electrical response of the photoreceptor cells: both responses have a similar spectral dependence, but only the ΔQO2 was abolished by a 10-min exposure to 50 μM dinitrophenol or to 3 mM amytal. We conclude that the ΔQO2 reflects an increase in mitochondrial respiration and that it is initiated by the phototransformation of rhodopsin, as was already found in the honeybee drone retina (Dimitracos and Tsacopoulos, 1985; Jones and Tsacopoulos, 1987). ImagesFIGURE 1 PMID:19431731

  18. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  19. Genetic and Morphological Differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific Intertidal Barnacle Chthamalus malayensis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A.; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  20. 3 CFR 8932 - Proclamation 8932 of February 1, 2013. 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks 8932 Proclamation 8932 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8932 of February 1, 2013 Proc. 8932 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa ParksBy the President... birth, we celebrate the life of a genuine American hero and remind ourselves that although the...

  1. Metabolic effects of parasitization by the barnacle Polyascus plana (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) on a grapsid host, Metopograpsus thukuhar.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Jen; Wu, Yen-I; Tung, Tzu-An; Wang, Guan-Yi; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Liu, Shih-Ting; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2016-05-26

    Pathophysiological studies of rhizocephalan infections are rare. We describe differences in the levels of tissue and hemolymph metabolites between Polyascus plana-parasitized and unparasitized individuals of Metopograpsus thukuhar. Crabs were assigned to either a parasitized (carrying at least 1 externa, i.e. a protruding reproductive body) or an unparasitized (not carrying externae and determined to be rootlet-free by a barnacle 18S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction) group. Quantification of metabolites showed that muscle glycogen levels were significantly lower and hepatopancreas levels were significantly higher in parasitized crabs compared to unparasitized crabs; hepatopancreas triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher and hemolymph levels significantly lower in parasitized hosts, and there was no significant difference in muscle triacylglycerol levels between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose levels in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and hemolymph were all significantly higher in parasitized hosts. Significant levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and glycogen were present in the barnacle externae. In addition, levels of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the sinus glands were not significantly different between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose mobilized from the muscle is likely converted to glycogen and triacylglycerol in the rootlet-infiltrated hepatopancreas of parasitized hosts, and the eyestalk neuroendocrine system appears not to be significantly impaired, in terms of hormone production and storage, by parasitization. PMID:27225203

  2. Comparative Study of Station Blackout Counterpart Tests in APEX and ROSA/AP600

    SciTech Connect

    Lafi, Abd Y.; Reyes, Jose N. Jr.

    2000-05-15

    A comparison is presented between station blackout tests conducted in both the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility and in the modified Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA/AP600) Large-Scale Test Facility. The comparison includes the depressurization and liquid-level behavior during secondary-side blowdown, natural circulation, automatic depressurization system operation, and in-containment refueling water storage tank injection. Reasonable agreement between the test results from APEX NRC-2 and ROSA/AP600 AP-BO-01 has been observed with respect to the timing of depressurization and liquid draining rates. This indicates that the reduced height and pressure scaling of APEX preserves the sequence of events relative to the full-height and pressure ROSA/AP600.

  3. EFFECT OF SANTA ROSA LAKE ON GROUND WATER FLOW TO THE PECOS RIVER, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980, Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles (11 kilometers) north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the ground water flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow-gaging stations, which are used to administer water rights along the Pecos River. The effect of the lake on streamflow was investigated using a three-dimensional ground water flow model. These simulations indicated that the net change in ground water flow to the river would be almost zero if the lake were maintained at its flood control pool for 90 days.

  4. A nurse-statistician reanalyzes data from the Rosa therapeutic touch study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of data used to support the work of Emily Rosa's Therapeutic Touch (TT) science fair project published as an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1998. The purpose of this article is to take a closer look at the assumptions, data, statistical procedures, and conclusions of the JAMA article. This is accomplished by focusing on (1) the conclusion that there was no overall effect of TT, (2) the conclusion that TT practitioners did not perform better depending on which hand was used, and (3) the assumptions about the capability of Rosa's experiment to validate an existing skill. Reanalysis of the Rosa data suggests contradictions to the authors' conclusions. Based on this reanalysis, the authors' recommendations against the use of TT can and should be challenged because of inappropriate design and analysis as well as incorrect statistical assumptions and conclusions. PMID:12564352

  5. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  6. Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bari, Shamsher S

    2009-02-01

    Roses are one of the most important groups of ornamental plants and their fruits and flowers are used in a wide variety of food, nutritional products and different traditional medicines. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from fresh flowers of three rose species (Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii) was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The methanolic extract from R. brunonii exhibited maximum free-radical-scavenging activity (64.5+/-0.38%) followed by R. bourboniana (51.8+/-0.46%) and R. damascena (43.6+/-0.25%) at 100 microg/ml. Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study phenolic composition in the methanolic extracts from the fresh flowers of rose species. The phenolic constituents were further investigated by direct infusion-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS in negative ion mode. Characteristic Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) spectra with other diagnostic fragment ions generated by retro Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation pathways were recorded for the flavonoids. Distinct similarities were observed in the relative distribution of polyphenolic compounds among the three species. The dominance of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides was observed in all the three species. PMID:19100811

  7. Effect of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extract on rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Emami, S

    2013-10-01

    Rosa damascena flower is widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, its pharmacological action on isolated ileum has not been studied. In this research, the effect of extract of flower petals of R. damascena Mill. growing in Kashan, Iran, on ileum motility was investigated. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). The tissue was kept under 1g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. Effect of the R. damascena extract was studied on ileum contractions induced by EFS, KCl and ACh and compared with that of atropine. R. damascena extract (10-100 mg/ml) induced a contraction in rat isolated ileum while at 1mg bath concentration it had relaxant effect on rat ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena (1-8 mg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=3.3 ± 0.9 mg/ml), ACh (IC50=1.4 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and EFS (IC50=1.5 ± 0.3 mg/ml). The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions. From this experiment it was concluded that R. damascena extract at microgram concentrations had stimulatory effect on ileum smooth muscle. However, at milligram concentrations, it shows an inhibitory effect. This is most likely due to presence of different components in the extract. The stimulatory effect of the extract confirms its benefits for the treatment of constipation. Therefore, separation and identification of active components is recommended. PMID:24082897

  8. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil. PMID:27451748

  9. Adaptation in the input-output relation of the synapse made by the barnacle's photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, J H; Moore, J W; Stuart, A E

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of synaptic transmission between the four median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilus) and their post-synaptic cells (I-cells). Simultaneous intracellular recordings were made from the presynaptic terminal region of a photoreceptor and from the soma of an I-cell. The photoreceptor's membrane potential provided feed-back to bath electrodes that passed current into the receptors' axons, permitting the voltage to be controlled at the point of arborization of their presynaptic terminals. Simultaneous recordings from a second photoreceptor showed that its voltage tracked the first. Step depolarizations of the receptors from their dark resting potential (about -60 mV) caused hyperpolarizations of the I-cell that reached a peak, then decayed to a plateau value. The amplitude of the I-cell's response grew with presynaptic depolarizations, saturating at presynaptic values 10-20 mV depolarized from dark rest. Step hyperpolarizations of the receptors from dark rest evoked depolarizations of the I-cell consisting of an initial peak, which varied greatly in amplitude and wave form from preparation to preparation, followed by a plateau. The presence of this post-synaptic response indicates that transmitter is released continuously from the receptors at their dark resting potential. An input-output relation of the synapse was obtained by presenting step depolarizations from a holding potential of -80 mV, where steady-state transmitter release is shut off. The relation is sigmoidal; in the exponentially rising phase of the curve, a 5-11 mV presynaptic change produces a 10-fold change in post-synaptic response. When the presynaptic holding potential was set at values ranging from -80 to -40 mV, the relation between the I-cell's response and the absolute potential to which the receptor was stepped shifted along the presynaptic voltage axis. The slopes of the input-output relations were roughly parallel or increased as the photoreceptors were held

  10. Spectral correlates of a quasi-stable depolarization in barnacle photoreceptor following red light.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Cornwall, M C

    1975-07-01

    1. Illumination of B. eburneus photoreceptors with intense red light produces a membrane depolarization that persists in darkness. This quasistable depolarization (latch-up) can be terminated with green light. The phenomenon was investigated with electrophysiological, spectrochemical, and microspectrophotometric techniques. 2. Latch-up was associated with a stable inward current in cells with the membrane potential voltage-clamped at the resting potential in darkness. The stable current could only be elicited at wave-lengths greater than 580 nm. 3. Light-induced current (LIC) was measured at various wave-lengths in dark-adapted photoreceptors with the membrane voltage-clamped to the resting potential. The minimum number of photons required to elicit a fixed amount of LIC occurred at 540 nm, indicating that the photoreceptor is maximally sensitive to this wave-length of light. The photoreceptor was also sensitive to wave-lengths in the near-U.V. region of the spectrum (380-420 nm). 4. Steady red adapting light reduced the magnitude of the LIC uniformly at all wave-lengths except in the near-U.V. region of the spectrum; sensitivity was reduced less in this region. 5. The spectrum for termination of the stable inward current following or during red light was shifted to the blue (peak about 510 nm) compared to the peak for LIC (peak about 540 nm). 6. Absorbance of single cells prepared under bright, red light decreased maximally at 480 nm following exposure to wave-lengths of light longer than 540 nm. 7. A pigment extract of 1000 barnacle ocelli prepared under dim, red light had a maximum absorbance change at 480 nm when bleached with blue-gree light. 8. There was no evidence in the latter two experiments of photointerconversion of pigments with absorbance maxima at 480 and 540 nm. Rather, the maximum absorption of the bleaching products seemed to occur at wave-lengths shorter than 420 nm. 9. Since latch-up induction occurs at wave-lengths longer than 580 nm, it may

  11. Ionic mechanism of a quasi-stable depolarization in barnacle photoreceptor following red light.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Cornwall, M C

    1975-07-01

    1. The membrane mechanism of a quasi-stable membrane depolarization (latch-up) that persists in darkness following red light was examined in barnacle photoreceptor with micro-electrode techniques including voltage-clamp and Na+-sensitive micro-electrodes. 2. Current-voltage (I-V) relations of the membrane in darkness following red light (latch-up) and in darkness following termination of latch-up with green light, indicate that latch-up is associated with an increase of membrane conductance. 3. The latch-current (membrane current in darkness following red light minus membrane current in darkness following a gree flash that terminates latch-up) was inward at the resting potential, reversed sign at about +26mV (mean of six cells), and became outward at more positive membrance potentials. 4. Current-voltage relations of the membrane during green light (no latch-up) closely resembled those during latch-up. The light-induced current (LIC) elicited by green ligh (membrane current during the light flash minus membrane current in darkness following the light flash) was inward from the resting potential to +26mV (mean of six cells), then reversed sign and became outward. 5. The latch-current and LIC were both augmented in reduced Ca2+ solutions and decreased as Na-+ was reduced at a fixed Ca2+ concentration. 6. Both LIC and latch-current reversed sign at a more negative membrane potential (increment V equals 14mV) in solutions containing one quarter the normal amount of Na+. 7. The internal Na-+ activity (a-iNa) of a photoreceptor increased from about 10-18 mM upon illumination with long steps of intense red or white illumination. Five minutes in darkness after white light, a-iNa had recovered significantly, whereas a-iNa remained elecated following red illumination. 8. Latch-up seems to be a persistence in darkness of the same membrane mechanism that normally occurs during illumination; i.e. a conductance increase to Na+ ions. Ca2+ ions act primarily to suppress this

  12. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  13. Activation of Na-H exchange by intracellular lithium in barnacle muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Davis, B A; Hogan, E M; Boron, W F

    1992-07-01

    We internally dialyzed single barnacle muscle fibers (BMF) for 90 min with a dialysis fluid (DF) containing no Na+ and either 0 or 100 mM Li+ and measured intracellular pH (pHi) with a microelectrode. During dialysis, the pH 8.0 artificial seawater (ASW) contained neither Na+ nor HCO3-. After we halted dialysis with a Li(+)-free/low-pH DF and allowed pHi to stabilize at approximately 6.8, adding 440 mM Na(+)-10 mM HCO3- to the ASW caused pHi to recover rapidly and stabilize at 7.32. In contrast, when the DF contained 100 mM Li+, pHi stabilized at 7.49. In fibers dialyzed to a pHi of approximately 7.2, Li+ stimulated a component of acid extrusion that was dependent on Na+ but not affected by SITS. Thus Li+ activates a Na(+)-dependent acid-extrusion mechanism other than the well characterized Na(+)-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchanger. To study the Li(+)-activated mechanism, we minimized Na(+)-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchange by raising pHDF to 7.35 and pretreated BMFs with SITS. We found that dialysis with Li+ elicits a Na(+)-dependent pHi increase that is largely blocked by amiloride, consistent with the hypothesis that Li+ activates a latent Na-H exchanger even at a normal pHi. In the absence of Li+, the Na-H exchanger is relatively inactive at pHi 7.35 (net acid-extrusion rate, Jnet = 9.5 microM/min) but modestly stimulated by reducing pHi to 6.8 (Jnet = 64 microM/min). In the presence of Li+, the Na-H exchanger is very active at pHi values of both 7.35 (Jnet = 141 microM/min) and 6.8 (Jnet = 168 microM/min). Thus Li+ alters the pHi sensitivity of the Na-H exchanger. Because the Na-H exchanger is only approximately 6% as active as the Na(+)-dependent Cl-HCO3 exchanger in the absence of Li+ at a pHi of approximately 6.8, we suggest that the major role of the Na-H exchanger may not be in pHi regulation but in another function such as cell-volume regulation. PMID:1322042

  14. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Chrysantus M; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15-35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20-30 °C (87-95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61-76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  15. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A.; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15–35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20–30 °C (87–95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61–76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  16. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. PMID:26304428

  17. Immunomodulation by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: effect on the humoral and cellular immune response of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Tandon, Vijay Lakshmi; Gupta, Rekha

    2012-03-15

    In West India, the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is traditionally used as tea as a natural diuretic. Extract of this plant contains Vitamin C and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. In spite of a long history of traditional medicinal value of H. rosa-sinensis still no data are available for immunomodulatory activity. In present investigation, aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis (AEHrs) (500 mg kg(-1) BW) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to the male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate the immunomodulatory property of extract. In addition for evaluation of phytochemical constituents of flowers of H. rosa-sinensis HPTLC was performed. The crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis has immunomodulatory activity. After the 15 days treatment, the number of plaque forming cells increased by 0.6%, antibody titre was increased 38.15% and significant increase of 52% was observed in DTH response. At the same concentration of dose the level of serum IL-1alpha enhanced significantly (14.27%) whereas a considerable decrease (32.70%) in the concentration of IL-2 was observed among AEHrs treated mice in comparison to the control mice. HPTLC chromatogram revealed that H. rosa-sinensis posses alkaloid (Rf 0.93) and flavonoids (Rf 0.02, 0.06, 0.14) on the basis of Rf values. Results of investigation supports for the immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa-sinensis aqueous extract. PMID:24175424

  18. The effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on the amygdala electrical kindling seizures in rat.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Roohollah; Moghimi, Ali; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Ejtehadi, Hamid; Kheirabadi, Masoumeh

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effect of Rosa damascena Mill, essential oil on the development of induced amygdala kindling seizures. Male Wistar rats were implanted with one tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in right basolateral amygdala and dura surface, respectively. The control group was injected solvent of essential oil and two experimental groups were injected 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of essential oil (ip), 30 min before a daily kindling stimulation. The number of stimulations required for the first appearance of seizure stages was significantly larger in two experimental groups than in control group. Mean after discharge duration was significantly different and essential oil reduced the increase of after discharge duration. Mean after discharge amplitude was also shorter in the groups treated with essential oil than in control group. Duration time for 5th stage of seizure at fully-kindled rats was significantly shorter in two experimental groups than control group. These results suggest that Rosa damascena essential oil significantly retarded the development of seizure stages and possesses the ability to counteract kindling acquisition. The flavonoids of Rosa damascena may act via GABAA receptors as previous studies have proposed for flavonoids of other medicinal plants. More detailed studies are recommended to define the effective component(s) of Rosa on different types of epilepsy. PMID:18819571

  19. Suppressive effects of rosa damascena essential oil on naloxone- precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in male mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism. PMID:24250642

  20. Uptake and turn-over of glucosinolates sequestered in the sawfly Athalia rosae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; Wittstock, Ute

    2005-10-01

    Larvae of the sawfly Athalia rosae sequester glucosinolates from their various host plants of the Brassicaceae into their hemolymph for defensive purposes. We found that the glucosinolate concentration in the insect varies in a fluctuating manner during larval development. Analyses of larvae which had been offered diets with different glucosinolate profiles showed that there is an equilibrium between a rapid uptake of glucosinolates into the hemolymph and a continuous turn-over. Injection of glucotropaeolin into the hemolymph and ingestion of the same amount resulted in similar levels of intact glucosinolates recovered from larvae after different periods of time. This indicates that hemolymph glucosinolates are the principal source for glucosinolate degradation. Feeding experiments with [14C]-labeled glucotropaeolin revealed that the majority of the ingested glucosinolate is excreted as one or more unidentified metabolite(s) within 14 h. We found no indication for the presence of an insect myrosinase, or sulfatase in A. rosae, which have been shown to be involved in glucosinolate metabolism in other specialists feeding on Brassicaceae. Furthermore, the metabolism of sinalbin in A. rosae seems to result in different products than its metabolism in the caterpillar Pieris rapae. Obviously, A. rosae has yet another way of coping with the glucosinolates. PMID:16102424

  1. REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF THE TIDEWATER SILVERSIDE, 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE) FROM SANTA ROSA ISLAND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reproductive ecology of the tidewater silverside, Menidia peninsulae, was studied during February 1982 through February 1983 along the shoreline of Santa Rosa Island, Florida. Adult Menidia were observed at low tide spawning on a red alga, Ceramium byssoideum, which was growi...

  2. ROSA: A High-cadence, Synchronized Multi-camera Solar Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Damian Joseph; Jess, D. B.; Mahtioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.

    2011-05-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument is a synchronized, six-camera high-cadence solar imaging instrument developed by Queen's University Belfast and recently commissioned at the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico, USA, as a common-user instrument. Consisting of six 1k x 1k Peltier-cooled frame-transfer CCD cameras with very low noise (0.02 - 15 e/pixel/s), each ROSA camera is capable of full-chip readout speeds in excess of 30 Hz, and up to 200 Hz when the CCD is windowed. ROSA will allow for multi-wavelength studies of the solar atmosphere at a high temporal resolution. We will present the current instrument set-up and parameters, observing modes, and future plans, including a new high QE camera allowing 15 Hz for Halpha. Interested parties should see https://habu.pst.qub.ac.uk/groups/arcresearch/wiki/de502/ROSA.html

  3. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA).

    PubMed

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. PMID:26360224

  4. The Santa Rosa Case: Women-Only Forums on the Internet and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of a case at Santa Rosa Junior College in which the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights found that single sex Internet bulletin boards operated by educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance violate federal sex equity law. Discusses free speech, sexual harassment and women only forums, and…

  5. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Aim In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Background Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. Patients and methods The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. Results This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. Conclusion The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation. PMID:24834241

  6. "Ishica, de quien sos tu?": Nostalgia for a Mother Tongue in Rosa Nissan's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhard, Tabea Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Judeo-Spanish in the Rosa Nissan's novels "Novia que te vea" (1992) and "Hisho que te nazca" (1996) and reveals the ways in which the presence of this language interrupts the otherwise linear coming-of-age narrative. An analysis of the main character's relationship with Judeo-Spanish establishes a critical dialogue…

  7. SEDIMENT AND PLANT PHOSPHORUS IN TWO THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BEDS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND, NW FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated phosphorus concentrations in the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, and the supporting quartz sediments of two meadows in Santa Rosa Sound. One meadow was sampled during 2002, and the other during 2003. Triplicate sediment and biomass cores were obtained from beneath...

  8. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  9. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  10. Seismic Reflection Profiles Image the Rodgers Creek Fault and Cotati Basin Beneath Urban Santa Rosa, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. A.; Langenheim, V. E.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Stephenson, W. J.; Odum, J. K.

    2008-12-01

    The USGS in collaboration with the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) group at the University of Texas, Austin, the Sonoma County Water Agency, the city of Santa Rosa, and with support from NSF, collected 13-km of high-resolution seismic-reflection data in two profiles on the Santa Rosa Plain. The purpose of this survey was to image basin structure and stratigraphy in this seismically-active area and to provide constraints for earthquake hazard assessment. We acquired the data using a 9,990 kg minivib I truck in P-wave mode, which swept from 15 to 120 Hz, along city streets and creek-side roads. The common- midpoint spacing of these data is 2.5 m while nominal fold is 36 traces. The Rodgers Creek fault, a northward extension of the Hayward fault which passes through the city of Santa Rosa, has not been imaged previously by seismic reflection data. The east-west trending Santa Rosa Creek profile images several faults including the steeply dipping Rodgers Creek fault as it passes near Doyle Elementary School. In this vicinity the fault zone appears to consist of at least two strands with a set of arched reflectors between them. West of the Rodgers Creek fault, and in general agreement with preexisting gravity data and geologic mapping, we interpret a sedimentary basin more than 1 km deep that underlies downtown Santa Rosa, which was heavily damaged in the 1906 earthquake. This basin shallows to the west as the profile crosses the southeastern side of Trenton Ridge, a concealed basement high. Reflectors within the basin show a thickening sequence of layered strata and apparent dips of about 10 degrees east in the 400 to 800 m depth range that decrease to about 1 degree at 50 m depth. These new data will help to constrain existing seismic velocity models for this area which currently show only flat-lying basin fill.

  11. Geologic and Geophysical Framework of the Santa Rosa 7.5' Quadrangle, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.; McPhee, D.K.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; Wan, Elmira

    2008-01-01

    The geologic and geophysical maps of Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and accompanying structure sections portray the sedimentary and volcanic stratigraphy and crustal structure of the Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and provide a context for interpreting the evolution of volcanism and active faulting in this region. The quadrangle is located in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay and is traversed by the active Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Maacama Fault Zones. The geologic and geophysical data presented in this report, are substantial improvements over previous geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Rosa area, allowing us to address important geologic issues. First, the geologic mapping is integrated with gravity and magnetic data, allowing us to depict the thicknesses of Cenozoic deposits, the depth and configuration of the Mesozoic basement surface, and the geometry of fault structures beneath this region to depths of several kilometers. This information has important implications for constraining the geometries of major active faults and for understanding and predicting the distribution and intensity of damage from ground shaking during earthquakes. Secondly, the geologic map and the accompanying description of the area describe in detail the distribution, geometry and complexity of faulting associated with the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Bennett Valley Fault Zones and associated faults in the Santa Rosa quadrangle. The timing of fault movements is constrained by new 40Ar/39Ar ages and tephrochronologic correlations. These new data provide a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the extensive sedimentary and volcanic cover in the area and, in particular, clarify the formational affinities of Pliocene and Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary units in the map area. Thirdly, the geophysics, particularly gravity data, indicate the locations of thick sections of sedimentary and volcanic fill within ground water basins of the Santa Rosa plain and

  12. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity. PMID:26204856

  14. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  15. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854.

    PubMed

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Jonsson, Per R; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  16. Barnacle settlement and the adhesion of protein and diatom microfouling to xerogel films with varying surface energy and water wettability.

    PubMed

    Finlay, John A; Bennett, Stephanie M; Brewer, Lenora H; Sokolova, Anastasiya; Clay, Gemma; Gunari, Nikhil; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Detty, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Previous work has shown that organosilica-based xerogels have the potential to control biofouling. In this study, modifications of chemistry were investigated with respect to their resistance to marine slimes and to settlement of barnacle cyprids. Adhesion force measurements of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to xerogel surfaces prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl-containing precursors, indicated that adhesion was significantly less on the xerogel surfaces in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. The strength of adhesion of BSA on the xerogels was highest on surfaces with the highest and the lowest critical surface tensions, gamma(C) and surface energies, gamma(S), and duplicated the 'Baier curve'. The attachment to and removal of cells of the diatom Navicula perminuta from a similar series of xerogel surfaces were examined. Initial attachment of cells was comparable on all of the xerogel surfaces, but the percentage removal of attached cells by hydrodynamic shear stress increased with gamma(C) and increased wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), of the xerogel surfaces. The percentage removal of cells of Navicula was linearly correlated with both properties (R(2) = 0.74 for percentage removal as a function of theta(Ws) and R(2) = 0.69 for percentage removal as a function of gamma(C)). Several of the aminopropylsilyl-containing xerogels showed significantly greater removal of Navicula compared to a PDMSE standard. Cypris larvae of the barnacle B. amphitrite showed preferred settlement on hydrophilic/higher energy surfaces. Settlement was linearly correlated with theta(Ws) (R(2) = 0.84) and gamma(C) (R(2) = 0.84). Hydrophilic xerogels should prove useful as coatings for boats in regions where fouling is dominated by microfouling (protein and diatom slimes). PMID:20645195

  17. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854

    PubMed Central

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  18. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Oncogene Expression Using Cre-Inducible ROSA26 Knock-In Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Carofino, Brandi L; Justice, Monica J

    2015-01-01

    Cre-inducible mouse models are often utilized for the spatial and temporal expression of oncogenes. With the wide number of Cre recombinase lines available, inducible transgenesis represents a tractable approach to achieve discrete oncogene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for targeting Cre-inducible genes to the ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 locus. Gene targeting provides several advantages over standard transgenic techniques, including a known site of integration and previously characterized pattern of expression. Historically, an inherent instability of ROSA26 targeting vectors has hampered the efficiency of developing ROSA26 knock-in lines. In this protocol, we provide individual steps for utilizing Gateway recombination for cloning as well as detailed instructions for screening targeted ES cell clones. By following this protocol, one can achieve germline transmission of a ROSA26 knock-in line within several months. PMID:26069083

  19. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic

  20. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  1. Self-Assembly of Protein Nanofibrils Orchestrates Calcite Step Movement through Selective Nonchiral Interactions.

    PubMed

    So, Christopher R; Liu, Jinny; Fears, Kenan P; Leary, Dagmar H; Golden, Joel P; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2015-06-23

    The recognition of atomically distinct surface features by adsorbed biomolecules is central to the formation of surface-templated peptide or protein nanostructures. On mineral surfaces such as calcite, biomolecular recognition of, and self-assembly on, distinct atomic kinks and steps could additionally orchestrate changes to the overall shape and symmetry of a bulk crystal. In this work, we show through in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments that an acidic 20 kDa cement protein from the barnacle Megabalanus rosa (MRCP20) binds specifically to step edge atoms on {101̅4} calcite surfaces, remains bound and further assembles over time to form one-dimensional nanofibrils. Protein nanofibrils are continuous and organized at the nanoscale, exhibiting striations with a period of ca. 45 nm. These fibrils, templated by surface steps of a preferred geometry, in turn selectively dissolve underlying calcite features displaying the same atomic arrangement. To demonstrate this, we expose the protein solution to bare and fibril-associated rhombohedral etch pits to reveal that nanofibrils accelerate only the movement of fibril-forming steps when compared to undecorated steps exposed to the same solution conditions. Calcite mineralized in the presence of MRCP20 results in asymmetric crystals defined by frustrated faces with shared mirror symmetry, suggesting a similar step-selective behavior by MRCP20 in crystal growth. As shown here, selective surface interactions with step edge atoms lead to a cooperative regime of calcite modification, where templated long-range protein nanostructures shape crystals. PMID:25970003

  2. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  3. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  4. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  5. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. PMID:25028258

  6. MKK3 was involved in larval settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite through activating the kinase activity of p38MAPK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) plays a key role in larval settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. To study the signaling pathway associated with p38MAPK during larval settlement, we sought to identify the upstream kinase of p38MAPK. Three MKKs (MKK3, MKK4 and MKK7) and three MAPKs (p38MAPK, ERK and JNK) in A. amphitrite were cloned and recombinantly expressed in E. coli. Through kinase assays, we found that MKK3, but not MKK4 or MKK7, phosphorylated p38MAPK. Furthermore, MKK3 activity was specific to p38MAPK, as it did not phosphorylate ERK or JNK. To further investigate the functional relationship between MKK3 and p38MAPK in vivo, we studied the localization of phospho-MKK3 (pMKK3) and MKK3 by immunostaining. Consistent with the patterns of p38MAPK and phospho-p38MAPK (pp38MAPK), pMKK3 and MKK3 mainly localized to the antennules of the cyprids. Western blot analysis revealed that pMKK3 levels, like pp38MAPK levels, were elevated at cyprid stage, compared to nauplii and juvenile stages. Moreover, pMKK3 levels increased after treatment with adult barnacle crude extracts, suggesting that MKK3 might mediate the stimulatory effects of adult barnacle extracts on the p38MAPK pathway. PMID:23922727

  7. Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project: GEO-98-001. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, Edwin Jr.; Carlson, Daniel C.

    2002-10-01

    The Geysers steamfields in northern Sonoma County have produced reliable ''green'' power for many years. An impediment to long-term continued production has been the ability to provide a reliable source of injection water to replace water extracted and lost in the form of steam. The steamfield operators have historcially used cooling towers to recycle a small portion of the steam and have collected water during the winter months using stream extraction. These two sources, however, could not by themselves sustain the steamfield in the long term. The Lake County Reclaimed Water Project (SEGEP) was inititated in 1997 and provides another source of steamfield replenishment water. The Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project provides another significant step in replenishing the steamfield. In addition, the Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project has been built with capacity to potentially meet virtually all injection water requirements, when combined with these other sources. Figure 2.1 graphically depicts the combination of injection sources.

  8. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. PMID:25952871

  9. Botanical origin of mei-gui hua (petal of a Rosa species).

    PubMed

    Ochir, Sarangowa; Ishii, Kouta; Park, ByoungJae; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Nishizawa, Makoto; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Funaki, Minoru; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Mei-gui hua has been used as a crude drug in traditional medicine and as herbal tea in China. The scientific name of Mei-gui is Rosa rugosa thunb. However, the morphological characteristics and botanical ecology of Mei-gui were different from those of R. rugosa. Since the botanical origins of Mei-gui cultivated in China have not yet been clarified, we compared Mei-gui and R. rugosa in terms of their morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and phytochemical studies. Our research suggested that Mei-gui cultivated around Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Province showed homology to Rosa gallica, while those cultivated in the northeastern parts of China are considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa. PMID:20467822

  10. Antidyslipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Root Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishnu; Mahdi, Farzana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ranjana; Chander, Ramesh; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The antidyslipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Malvaceae) root extract has been studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this model, oral administration of root extract (500 mg/kg bw. p.o.) for 15 days resulted in significant decreased in the levels of blood glucose, plasma lipids and reactivated post heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50-500 μg) when tested for its antioxidant activity, inhibited the generation of super oxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non enzymic systems in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities in root extract of H. rosa sinensis which could be used in prevention of diabetic-dyslipidemia and related complications. PMID:24381420