Science.gov

Sample records for barred galaxy ngc

  1. A High-Resolution Color Image of the Prototypical Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L. M.; Hamilton, F.; Mutchler, M.; Noll, K. S.; Royle, P.; Knezek, P. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Hubble Heritage Project presents an image of the prototypical barred spiral galaxy NGC 1300. This image is constructed from exposures in four filters made at two adjacent pointings by the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Fine detail in the arms, disk, bar, bulge and completely across the nucleus are clearly apparent. Numerous more distant galaxies may be seen beyond NGC 1300, even through the densest regions of the disk and bulge. Clusters of blue supergiant stars and HII regions are well resolved in the spiral arms, and dust lanes trace out structure in the disk and bar, highlighting asymmetry between the two halves of the galaxy. NGC 1300, like many barred spiral galaxies, has a small, well defined, "grand design" spiral disk visible around the nucleus. Only galaxies with large-scale bars appear to have these "grand design" inner spiral disks. Models indicate that gas in a bar can be funneled towards the center of the galaxy, where it can then spiral into the center through the "grand design" spiral disk, and potentially fuel a central black hole. NGC 1300 does not have an active nucleus, however, indicating either that there is no black hole present, or that the black hole is currently in a quiescent state. The data, obtained in B, V, I and H-alpha, are available to the science community and the public through the HST archive. Since its inception in 1998, the Heritage Project has produced more than 77 images of dazzling celestial objects released on the first Thursday of every month. The Heritage website can be found at: http://heritage.stsci.edu.

  2. Central Dark and Baryonic Mass Distribution in the Isolated Barred Galaxy NGC 3367

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, M.; Hernández, H.; Valenzuela, O.

    2008-12-01

    We have initiated a project that aims to revise the robustness of the suggestions of the dearth of dark matter in the central regions of barred galaxies through a detailed study of the galaxy NGC 3367. The internal kinematics of this galaxy has been measured in ionized and molecular gas and in the stellar component, making it a good benchmark for dynamical studies because it allows us to analyze the biases associated with each tracer. >From our observations we will directly measure the bar pattern speed, a property that has been considered as a free parameter in all previous studies.

  3. Gas Dynamics in the Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC4151 - II. High Resolution HI Study

    E-print Network

    C. G. Mundell; A. Pedlar; D. L. Shone; A. Robinson

    1998-12-09

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution (6" x 5") 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen in the nearby barred Seyfert galaxy, NGC4151. These HI observations, obtained using the VLA in B-configuration, are the highest resolution to date of this galaxy, and reveal hitherto unprecedented detail in the distribution and kinematics of the HI on sub-kiloparsec scales. A complete analysis and discussion of the HI data are presented and the global properties of the galaxy are related to the bar dynamics presented in Paper I.

  4. Modeling Non-Circular Motions in Disk Galaxies: A Bar in NGC 2976

    E-print Network

    K. Spekkens; J. A. Sellwood

    2007-08-21

    We give a brief description of a new model for non-circular motions in disk galaxy velocity fields, that does not invoke epicycles. We assume non-circular motions to stem from a bar-like or oval distortion to the potential, as could arise from a triaxial halo or a bar in the mass distribution of the baryons. We apply our model to the high-quality CO and Halpha kinematics of NGC 2976 presented by Simon et al. 2003; it fits the data as well as their model with unrealistic radial flows, but yields a steeper rotation curve. Our analysis and other evidence suggests that NGC 2976 hosts a bar, implying a large baryonic contribution to the potential and thus limiting the allowed dark matter halo density.

  5. The NIR structure of the barred galaxy NGC253 from VISTA

    E-print Network

    Iodice, E; Rejkuba, M; Neeser, M J; Greggio, L; Gonzalez, O A; Irwin, M; Emerson, J P

    2014-01-01

    [abridged] We used J and Ks band images acquired with the VISTA telescope as part of the science verification to quantify the structures in the stellar disk of the barred Sc galaxy NGC253. Moving outward from the galaxy center, we find a nuclear ring within the bright 1 kpc diameter nucleus, then a bar, a ring with 2.9 kpc radius. From the Ks image we obtain a new measure of the deprojected length of the bar of 2.5 kpc. The bar's strength, as derived from the curvature of the dust lanes in the J-Ks image, is typical of weak bars. From the deprojected length of the bar, we establish the corotation radius (R_CR=3 kpc) and bar pattern speed (Omega_b = 61.3 km /s kpc), which provides the connection between the high-frequency structures in the disk and the orbital resonances induced by the bar. The nuclear ring is located at the inner Lindblad resonance. The second ring does not have a resonant origin, but it could be a merger remnant or a transient structure formed during an intermediate stage of the bar formatio...

  6. The near-infrared structure of the barred galaxy NGC 253 from VISTA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iodice, E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Neeser, M. J.; Greggio, L.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Irwin, M.; Emerson, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    Context. The presence of a bar affects the distribution and dynamics of a stellar disk at all scales, from a fraction of a kpc in the inner central region to tens of kpc at the disk's edge. The quantitative study of the disk response to a bar can be hampered by the presence of dust, which is common in late type spirals. Aims: We want to quantify the structures in the stellar disk of the barred Sc galaxy NGC 253 located in the Sculptor group, at 3.47 Mpc distance. Methods: We use J and Ks band images acquired with the VISTA telescope as part of the Science Verification. The wide field of view and the high angular resolution of this survey facility allow the mapping of the large and small scale structure of the stellar disk in NGC 253. We use unsharp masking and two dimensional modelling of the smooth light distribution in the disk to identify and measure the sub-structures induced by the bar in the stellar disk of NGC 253. We build azimuthally-averaged profiles in the J and Ks bands to measure the radial surface brightness profile of the central bulge, bar and disk. Results: Moving outward from the galaxy center, we find a nuclear ring within the bright 1 kpc diameter nucleus, then a bar, a ring with 2.9 kpc radius, and spiral arms in the outer disk. From the Ks image we obtain a new measure of the de-projected length of the bar of 2.5 kpc. The bar's strength, as derived from the curvature of the dust lanes in the J-Ks image, is typical of weak bars with ?? = 25 degree/kpc. From the de-projected length of the bar, we establish the co-rotation radius (RCR = 3 kpc) and bar pattern speed (?b = 61.3 km s-1 kpc-1), which provides the connection between the high frequency structures in the disk and the orbital resonances induced by the bar. The nuclear ring is located at the Inner Lindblad resonance. The second ring (at 2.9 kpc) does not have a resonant origin, but it could be a merger remnant or a transient structure formed during an intermediate stage of the bar formation. The inferred bar pattern speed places the Outer Lindblad resonance within the optical disk at 4.9 kpc, in the same radial range as the peak in the HI surface density. The disk of NGC 253 has a down-bending profile with a break at R ~ 9.3 kpc, which corresponds to about 3 times the scale length of the inner disk. We discuss the evidence for a threshold in star formation efficiency as a possible explanation for the steep gradient in the surface brightness profile at large radii. Conclusions: The near-infrared photometry unveils the dynamical response of the NGC 253 stellar disk to its central bar. The formation of the bar may be related to the merger event that determined the truncation of stars and gas at large radii and the perturbation of the disk's outer edge. This work is based on observations taken at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory within the VISTA Science Verification Program ID 60.A-9285(A). The full set of OBs for the NGC 253 deep and shallow images are available on the ESO archive on the VISTA SV page, at the following link http://www.eso.org/sci/activities/vistasv/VISTA_SV.html

  7. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  8. THE BULGELESS SEYFERT/LINER GALAXY NGC 3367: DISK, BAR, LOPSIDEDNESS, AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Cano-Diaz, M.; Valenzuela, O.; Garcia-Barreto, J. A; Moreno-Diaz, E.; Puerari, I.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.

    2011-12-15

    NGC 3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar, and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and search for evidence of recent interaction. Our study is based on new UBVRI H{alpha} and JHK images and on archive H{alpha} Fabry-Perot and H I Very Large Array data. From a coupled one-dimensional/two-dimensional GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition a (B/D {approx} 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A near-infrared (NIR) estimate of the bar strength Q{sup max}{sub T}(R) = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) the optical and NIR concentration-asymmetry-clumpiness indices, (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (H{alpha}, H I) A{sub 1} Fourier mode amplitudes, and (3) the H I-integrated profile and H I mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the local universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A{sub 1} mode amplitudes suggesting that the gas has been recently perturbed and placing NGC 3367 in a global starburst phase. NGC 3367 is devoid of H I gas in the central regions where a significant amount of molecular CO gas exists instead. Our search for (1) faint stellar structures in the outer regions (up to {mu}{sub R} {approx} 26 mag arcsec{sup -2}), (2) (H{alpha}) star-forming satellite galaxies, and (3) regions with different colors (stellar populations) along the disk all failed. Such an absence is interpreted by using results from recent numerical simulations to constrain either a possible tidal event with an LMC like galaxy to some dynamical times in the past or a very low mass but perhaps gas rich recent encounter. We conclude that a cold flow accretion mode (gas and small/dark galaxies) may be responsible for the nuclear activity and peculiar (young stars and gas) morphology regardless of the highly isolated environment. Black hole growth in bulgeless galaxies may be triggered by smooth mass accretion.

  9. A Compton-thick AGN in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4785

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Yamada, S.; Ricci, C.; Asmus, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Terashima, Y.; La Parola, V.

    2015-05-01

    We present X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4785. The source is a local Seyfert 2 which has not been studied so far in much detail. It was recently detected with high significance in the 15-60 keV band in the 66-month Swift/BAT (Burst Array Telescope) all sky survey, but there have been no prior pointed X-ray observations of this object. With Suzaku, we clearly detect the source below 10 keV, and find it to have a flat continuum and prominent neutral iron fluorescence line with equivalent width ?1 keV. Fitting the broad-band spectra with physical reflection models shows the source to be a Compton-thick AGN with NH of at least 2 × 1024 cm-2 and absorption-corrected 2-10 keV X-ray power L2-10 ˜ few times 1042 erg s-1. Realistic uncertainties on L2-10 computed from the joint confidence interval on the intrinsic power-law continuum photon index and normalization are at least a factor of 10. The local bona fide Compton-thick AGN population is highly heterogeneous in terms of WISE mid-infrared source colours, and the nucleus of NGC 4785 appears especially sub-dominant in the mid-infrared when comparing to other Compton-thick AGN. Such sources would not be easily found using mid-infrared selection alone. The extent of host galaxy extinction to the nucleus is not clear, though NGC 4785 shows a complex core with a double bar and inner disc, adding to the list of known Compton-thick AGN in barred host galaxies.

  10. The ALMA and HST Views of the Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the Prototypical Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Regan, Michael W.; Kim, Taehyun; Kohno, Kotaro; Martin, Sergio; Villard, Eric; Onishi, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    We mapped the entire inner disk of NGC 1097 (the circumnuclear ring, bar ends, the bar and inner spiral arms) using ALMA in the CO J=1-0 line at resolution of 1" (~65 pc). We also mapped the northern half of the bar in every other common molecular gas tracer at 3mm (HCN, HCO+, C18O, 13CO, C34S). Together these data provide the most detailed and highest resolution map of the molecular gas distribution and kinematics in a nearby barred spiral, rivalling the incredible maps seen for galaxies like M51 in the northern hemisphere. The data show the impact of the different environments in the galaxy as well as evidence for a multi-phased molecular medium. The data also evidence how the shear induced by the bar shock completely inhibits the star formation activity in the inner ends of the bar (clearly showing an anti-correlation between the strength of the CO line emission and Halpha emission). We will also present multiwavelength HST observations of the galaxy which are used to identify and map star clusters across the inner disk of the galaxy. We use these data to understand how star formation proceeds from one environment to the next across the galaxy.

  11. HST Observations of the Seyfert Nucleus of the Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 5728

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, J. A.; Wilson, A. S.

    1993-05-01

    Both continuum and line emission were observed in the nucleus of the barred Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5728 using the WFPC of the Hubble Space Telescope. Integrations of 1200 seconds were taken through the F664N and F492M filters to observe the [NII]+H? and [OIII] emission, respectively, and 600 second exposures were taken through the F718M and F547M filters to get continuum reference images. The continuum images show interesting structure, including an elliptical ring (8({') '} times 10({') '}) which surrounds the nucleus and a bar-shaped feature which extends from the ring in towards the nucleus. The line images both reveal a bi-conical emission line region indicative of an anisotropic source of ionizing radiation. The apex of these cones is the most probable location of the central engine, and hence the ``true'' nucleus. This location of the nucleus is supported by the observation that the ring seen in the continuum images is centered on the apex of the cones, and not on the brightest peak of the optical emission. Only very weak-line and continuum emission is found at the apex, implying the nucleus is blocked from view. Recent observations of other Seyfert 2 nuclei suggest that the ionization cones may be produced by shadowing of the nuclear radiation source by an optically thick molecular torus. The torus blocks the Seyfert 2 nucleus from our view, but nuclear radiation which escapes through the holes of the torus can still be scattered into our line of sight by dust or free electrons. In fact, bright peaks which may result from this scattering appear in the continuum images. The orientation of the cones can be inferred by noting that the ionization cone to the SE of the nucleus has a greater extent and brightness than the NW cone. This difference is probably due to extinction by dust in the outskirts of the torus or in the disk of the galaxy, and in this case the brighter side is the near side. A similar difference in brightness is evident in the two peaks associated with the scattering zones on the continuum images.

  12. THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2012-05-20

    With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

  13. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lim, Jeremy; Matsushita, Satoki; Wong, Tony; Ryder, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  14. Morphology of Cold Bars in Early and Late Type Galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. C. Quillen

    1996-09-05

    We compare stellar orbits in an early (NGC 4314) and a late-type barred galaxy (NGC 1073). We find that these bars are cold in the sense that the majority of stars can be described as being nearby to periodic orbits. We place limits of (65km/s)^2 and (50km/s)^2 on the components of the diagonalized velocity dispersion ellipsoid matrix for stars in the bars of NGC 4314 and NGC 1073 respectively. Both bars end near the inner 4:1 Lindblad (ultraharmonic) resonance. We conjecture that a large class of bars end near this resonance. The morphology of the bars depends on the strength of the 4:1 resonance, which is strong in the early-type barred galaxy and weak in the other. This results in a flat bar major axis surface brightness profile for the early-type bar and an exponential profile for the late-type bar.

  15. KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A BAR IN NGC 2683

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Zagursky, Matthew J.; McGaugh, Stacy S. E-mail: mzagursk@umd.edu

    2009-10-15

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near-IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45'' of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  16. Kinematic and Photometric Evidence for a Bar in NGC 2683

    E-print Network

    de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; McGaugh, Stacy S

    2009-01-01

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45 arcsec of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  17. A two-arm gaseous spiral in the inner 200 pc of the early-type galaxy NGC 2974: signature of an inner bar

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem; Paul Goudfrooij; Pierre Ferruit

    2003-08-08

    TIGER integral-field spectrography and HST/WFPC2 imaging of the E3 galaxy NGC 2974 are used to derive the kinematics of the stellar and ionized gas components in its central 500 pc. We derive a numerical two-integral distribution function from a MGE mass model using the HQ formalism. The TIGER as well as published long-slit stellar kinematics are well fitted with this self-consistent model, requiring neither the addition of a significant mass contribution from a hidden disc structure, nor the presence of a central dark mass. The data reveal the presence of a striking, highly contrasted, two-arm gaseous spiral structure within a radius of ~200 pc, corresponding to a total mass of 6.8x10^4 Msun of ionized gas. We use a deconvolved TIGER datacube to probe its kinematics at a resolution of about 0.35 arcsec. Strong departures from circular motions are observed, as well as high velocity dispersion values on the inner side of the arms. We interpret the observed gas morphology and kinematics as the signature of streaming gas flows driven by a ~540 pc diameter bar with Ome=700+/-100 km/s/kpc. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the predictions of a density wave model. This model predicts that the bar should lie at about 35 degree from the line of nodes, and implies gas inflow towards the central ~50 pc. The quadrupole pertubation due to this bar is estimated to represent less than 2% of the underlying gravitational potential. Despite its weakness, the inner bar of NGC 2974 may be able to drive some gas within a 10 pc radius. We suggest that the presence of such inner bars might be more common among early-type disk galaxies than is generally thought, and that deep high-resolution emission-line imagery may be the best way to detect such structures.

  18. Molecular gas in NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA). XI. A complete gravity torque map of NGC 4579: new clues to bar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.; Fernández-García, S.; Combes, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Haan, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Boone, F.; Krips, M.; Márquez, I.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we create a complete gravity torque map of the disk of the LINER/Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 4579. We quantify the efficiency of angular momentum transport and search for signatures of secular evolution in the fueling process from r ~ 15 kpc down to the inner r ~ 50 pc around the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We use both the 1-0 and 2-1 line maps of 12CO obtained with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) as part of the NUclei of Galaxies-(NUGA)-project. The CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) PdBI maps at 2.0 arcsec × 1.3 arcsec and 1.0 arcsec × 0.6 arcsec resolution, respectively, include the short spacing correction provided by IRAM-30 m data. We derive the stellar potential from an NIR (K band) wide field image of the galaxy. The K-band image, which reveals a large-scale stellar bar and a weak nuclear oval, together with a high-resolution Hi map of NGC 4579 obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA), allow us to extend the gravity torque analysis to the outer r ? 2 kpc disk. The bulk of the gas response traced by the new CO PdBI+30 m maps of NGC 4579 presented here follows the expected gas flow pattern induced by the bar potential in the presence of two inner Lindblad resonances (ILR) at r ~ 500 pc and r ~ 1.3 kpc. The morphology of the outer disk traced by Hi suggests that the neutral gas is currently piling up in a pseudo-ring formed by two winding spiral arms that are morphologically decoupled from the bar structure. The pseudo-ring is located inside the bar corotation (r_CR ~ 6 kpc) and close to the predicted position of the ultra harmonic resonance (UHR) (r_UHR ~ 3.8 kpc). The derived gravity torque budget in NGC 4579 shows that inward gas flow is occurring on different spatial scales in the disk. In the outer disk, the decoupling of the spiral allows the gas to efficiently populate the UHR region, and thus produce net gas inflow on intermediate scales. The corotation barrier seems to be overcome by secular evolution processes. The gas in the inner disk (r ? 2 kpc) is efficiently funneled by gravity torques down to r ~ 300 pc. Closer to the AGN (r < 200 pc), gas feels negative torques due to the combined action of the large-scale bar and the inner oval. The two m=2 modes act in concert to produce net gas inflow down to r ~ 50 pc, providing clear smoking gun evidence of inward gas transport on short dynamical timescales (~1-3 rotation periods). Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  19. Galaxy NGC 1850

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/25 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old.

    A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas.

    Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light.

    NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu. More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for Hubble for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Resonances in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

    2007-08-01

    The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

  1. Galaxy NGC 3079

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A lumpy bubble of hot gas rises from a cauldron of glowing matter in a distant galaxy, as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The new images, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/28 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Galaxy NGC 3079, located 50 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major, has a huge bubble in the center of its disc, as seen in the image on the left. The smaller photo at right shows a close-up of the bubble. The two white dots are stars.

    Astronomers suspect the bubble is being blown by 'winds,' or high-speed streams of particles, released during a burst of star formation. The bubble's lumpy surface has four columns of gaseous filaments towering above the galaxy's disc. The filaments whirl around in a vortex and are expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down on the disc and may collide with gas clouds, compress them and form a new generation of stars.

    Theoretical models indicate the bubble formed when winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of hot gas from supernova explosions. Radio telescope observations indicate those processes are still active. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away.

    The images, taken in 1998, show glowing gas as red and starlight as blue/green. Results appear in the July 1, 2001 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is at http://www.stsci.edu. More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for Hubble for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Are bars essential for starbursts in non-interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Rieke, G. H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed here are the 1.6 and 2.2 micron images of a sample of galaxies that are classified as unbarred by the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. These galaxies have characteristic properties of nuclear starbursts and are examined through near infrared imaging in a search for hidden bars. Researchers selected a sample of 36 galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog that have far infrared luminosities greater than 10(exp 10) solar luminosity and hot Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) colors between 60 and 100 microns, indicative of nuclear starbursts, but are not classified as Seyfert 1 or 2. Their determination of the presence of a bar relies primarily on an analysis of the 2 micron image using the Galaxy Surface Photometry (GASP) package (Cawson, 1983). The GASP analysis programs determine the galaxy surface brightness and ellipticity profiles as well as the position angle and the center coordinates of the ellipses. To test the way that GASP will characterize the surface brightness of barred galaxies, two galaxies with known bars, NGC 1068 and NGC 2523, were imaged with the 2 micron camera and analyzed with GASP. Fifteen of the sample that are not clearly barred from optical data and are isolated were imaged at 1.6 and 2.2 microns; 9 of these do not appear to have bars. Strong bars therefore do not appear to be an absolute requirement for high infrared luminosity in isolated galaxies.

  3. Are bars essential for starbursts in non-interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Rieke, G. H.

    1990-07-01

    Analyzed here are the 1.6 and 2.2 micron images of a sample of galaxies that are classified as unbarred by the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. These galaxies have characteristic properties of nuclear starbursts and are examined through near infrared imaging in a search for hidden bars. Researchers selected a sample of 36 galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog that have far infrared luminosities greater than 1010 solar luminosity and hot Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) colors between 60 and 100 microns, indicative of nuclear starbursts, but are not classified as Seyfert 1 or 2. Their determination of the presence of a bar relies primarily on an analysis of the 2 micron image using the Galaxy Surface Photometry (GASP) package (Cawson, 1983). The GASP analysis programs determine the galaxy surface brightness and ellipticity profiles as well as the position angle and the center coordinates of the ellipses. To test the way that GASP will characterize the surface brightness of barred galaxies, two galaxies with known bars, NGC 1068 and NGC 2523, were imaged with the 2 micron camera and analyzed with GASP. Fifteen of the sample that are not clearly barred from optical data and are isolated were imaged at 1.6 and 2.2 microns; 9 of these do not appear to have bars. Strong bars therefore do not appear to be an absolute requirement for high infrared luminosity in isolated galaxies.

  4. Photometric Decomposition of Barred Galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. S. Reese; T. B. Williams; J. A. Sellwood; Eric I. Barnes; Brian A. Powell

    2007-02-27

    We present a non-parametric method for decomposition of the light of disk galaxies into disk, bulge and bar components. We have developed and tested the method on a sample of 68 disk galaxies for which we have acquired I-band photometry. The separation of disk and bar light relies on the single assumption that the bar is a straight feature with a different ellipticity and position angle from that of the projected disk. We here present the basic method, but recognise that it can be significantly refined. We identify bars in only 47% of the more nearly face-on galaxies in our sample. The fraction of light in the bar has a broad range from 1.3% to 40% of the total galaxy light. If low-luminosity galaxies have more dominant halos, and if halos contribute to bar stability, the luminosity functions of barred and unbarred galaxies should differ markedly; while our sample is small, we find only a slight difference of low significance.

  5. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybys—fast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halos—are surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ? 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ?5 Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  6. Kinematics and dynamics of barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kevin

    Methods of interpreting observations of velocity fields are investigated. If streamlines in a bar have the same symmetry as the bar, the velocity field can be recovered. This inversion is singular when the line of nodes of projection corresponds to one of the axes of symmetry of the bar. Near these viewing geometries, the velocity field cannot be inverted; it is important to select target galaxies far from these singular points. Fitting to circular motion alone can lead to large systematic errors (approximately 50 percent or more) in the rotation curve. Formulae for estimating forces from a noncircular velocity field are derived. These methods were tested on synthesized observations of a N-body bar. Williams' Fabry-Perot observations of the projected velocity field for NGC 1832 were analyzed. The bar is near a singular point of projection, yet there are large asymmetries in the projected field. The velocity field can more reasonably be explained by a combination of barlike streaming motion (approximately vc/2) and a slight (approximately 10-20 deg) warp. A method for computing analytical approximations to the potentials of nearly spherical galaxies is presented. The accuracy and the effect on orbital structure were tested. For the models tested, the approximations were accurate for axis ratios less than approx.= 1.4, and surfaces of section were not significantly altered. A computer program for automatic computation of these approximate formulae is presented. A self consistent field method for the calculation of equilibrium models of rotating bars is presented. The closed orbits in a potential are integrated and each response density is calculated. A new density model is computed. This model is then used to generate a new potential, and the process is iterated until convergence.

  7. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GALAXIES NGC 3377, NGC 3379 AND NGC 4486B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The three galaxies above are believed to contain central, supermassive black holes. The galaxy NGC 4486B (lower-left) shows a double nucleus (lower-right). The images of NGC 3377 and NGC 4486B are 2.7 arcseconds on a side, and for NGC 3379 the size is 5.4 arcseconds; the lower-right is a blow-up of the central 0.5 arcseconds of NGC 4486B. Credit: Karl Gebhardt (University of Michigan) and Tod Lauer (NOAO)

  8. Globular clusters of the dwarf elliptical galaxies NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205. I. Abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, G.S.; Mould, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    An analysis of spectra for 16 globular clusters associated with the M31 dE companion galaxies NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205 shows these clusters, with the exception of the cluster NGC 205 Hubble V, to be old and metal poor. The results suggest that the globular cluster systems of these galaxies represent a population that formed at an earlier epoch than the bulk of the field stars, and that the mean abundance of a globular cluster system increases (at a slow rate) with increasing parent galaxy luminosity. 58 references.

  9. Chemically distinct nuclei and circumnuclear rings in lenticular galaxies NGC 4429 and NGC 7013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'chenko, O. K.; Afanasiev, V. L.

    2002-04-01

    The central regions of the regular lenticular galaxies NGC 4429 and NGC 7013 have been studied with the Multi-Pupil Field (Fiber) Spectrograph (MPFS) of the 6 m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS (Nizhnij Arkhyz, Russia) in two spectral ranges, the blue one including the strong absorption lines Mg I and Fe I and the red one including the emission lines H? and [N II]lambda 6583. We confirm the presence of the chemically distinct nucleus in NGC 7013 reported earlier. Besides this unresolved (in the magnesium index) structure, we have found a ring of younger stellar populations than those in the nucleus and in the bulge; the radius of this ring is about 6\\arcsec (400 pc). A similar ring, distinguished by high magnesium- and iron-index values and bordered by H? emission at its inner edge, with a radius of 6\\arcsec (500 pc), is found in NGC 4429. We try to relate the ringed structure of the chemically decoupled cores in these galaxies with past, now dissolved, large-scale bars whose remnants are now seen in NGC 4429 and NGC 7013 as lenses between the bulges and global disks. An analysis of the gas and star kinematics in the centers of the galaxies has revealed the presence of an inclined circumnuclear disk in NGC 7013 and the existence of minibar in NGC 4429. Based on observations collected with the 6 m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) which is operated under the financial support of Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43) and on data from the HST and ING Archives.

  10. Gas-phase Oxygen Abundances and Radial Metallicity Gradients in the Two nearby Spiral Galaxies NGC 7793 and NGC 4945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Magrini, Laura; Casasola, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Gas-phase abundances in H ii regions of two spiral galaxies, NGC 7793 and NGC 4945, have been studied to determine their radial metallicity gradients. We used the strong-line method to derive oxygen abundances from spectra acquired with GMOS-S, the multi-object spectrograph on the 8 m Gemini South telescope. We found that NGC 7793 has a well-defined gas-phase radial oxygen gradient of -0.321 ± 0.112 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.054 ± 0.019 dex kpc-1) in the galactocentric range 0.17 < RG/R25 < 0.82, not dissimilar from gradients calculated with direct abundance methods in galaxies of similar mass and morphology. We also determined a shallow radial oxygen gradient in NGC 4945, -0.253 ± 0.149 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.019 ± 0.011 dex kpc-1) for 0.04 < RG/R25 < 0.51, where the larger relative uncertainty derives mostly from the larger inclination of this galaxy. NGC 7793 and NGC 4945 have been selected for this study because they are similar, in mass and morphology, to M33 and the Milky Way, respectively. Since at zeroth order we expect the radial metallicity gradients to depend on mass and galaxy type, we compared our galaxies in the framework of radial metallicity models best suited for M33 and the Galaxy. We found a good agreement between M33 and NGC 7793, pointing toward similar evolution for the two galaxies. We notice instead differences between NGC 4945 and the radial metallicity gradient model that best fits the Milky Way. We found that these differences are likely related to the presence of an active galactic nucleus combined with a bar in the central regions of NGC 4945, and to its interacting environment.

  11. NGC 2903 - the galaxy Messier missed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. L.; Holt, D.; Mobberley, M. P.; Privett, G.; Downing, P.

    2010-04-01

    Although Charles Messier and his colleagues recorded most of the bright northern deep sky objects when searching for comets, a few escaped their gaze and one of their brightest misses was galaxy NGC 2903 in Leo, discovered in November 1784 by William Herschel. Observing information and images of the galaxy are presented.

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  13. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ? z ? 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  14. The Star Clusters in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449

    E-print Network

    Andrea E. Gelatt; Deidre A. Hunter; J. S. Gallagher

    2000-10-25

    We examine the star clusters in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. We use a near-infrared spectrum and broad-band images taken with the HST to place a limit of 8--15 Myrs on the age of the bright central ojbect in NGC 4449. Its luminosity and size suggest that it is comparable to young super star clusters. However, there is a peculiar nucleated-bar structure at the center of this star cluster, and we suggest that this structure is debris from the interaction that has produced the counter-rotating gas systems and extended gas streamers in the galaxy. From the images we identify 60 other candidate compact star clusters in NGC 4449. Fourteen of these could be background elliptical galaxies or old globular star clusters. Of the star clusters, three, in addition to the central object, are potentially super star clusters, and many others are comparable to the populous clusters found in the LMC. The star clusters span a large range in ages with no obvious peak in cluster formation that might be attributed to the interaction that the galaxy has experienced.

  15. The Collisional Ring Galaxy NGC922

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Gerhardt

    2007-07-01

    We request WFPC2 images of the newly recognized collisional ring galaxy NGC922 which will become the nearest such system observed by HST. These will be used to get a clear understanding of the geometry of the interaction and the induced star formation in this system. Quantitive modeling of the colors of the star clusters and stellar populations will be used to constrain the star formation history of the system. They will also be used to test the "infant mortality" scenario for star cluster evolution. The derived population ages will test predictions of how star formation evolves in the various components {ring, core, spokes} of collisional rings, and will improve our own simulations of this system. These will be used to determine the final fate of the stars formed in the present burst - some will end up in a central bar or bulge while others will become part of a thickened disk. By analogy this will tell us how similar collisions enrich stellar populations in the early universe. This is especially relevant since the number density of collisional rings increases rapidly with redshift.

  16. CO in NGC 1530, aperture synthesis of a barred spiral

    E-print Network

    Hardcastle, Martin

    CO in NGC 1530, aperture synthesis of a barred spiral By D. R e yn a ud & D. D o wn e s e ! 0 line, with the IRAM Interferometer. After calibration of the data, we obtained mosaic images data over a total velocity range of 360 km s \\Gamma1 . The deconvolution of the images was done

  17. A gas-rich nuclear bar fuelling a powerful central starburst in NGC 2782

    E-print Network

    Shardha Jogee; Jeffrey D. P. Kenney; Beverly J. Smith

    1999-07-07

    We present evidence that the peculiar interacting starburst galaxy NGC 2782 (Arp 215) harbors a gas-rich nuclear stellar bar feeding an M82-class powerful central starburst, from a study based on OVRO CO (J=1->0) data, WIYN BVR & Halpha observations, along with available NIR images, a 5 GHz RC map and HST images. NGC 2782 harbors a clumpy, bar-like CO feature of radius ~ 7.5'' (1.3 kpc) which leads a nuclear stellar bar of similar size. The nuclear CO bar is massive: it contains ~2.5x10**9 M_sun of molecular gas, which makes up ~ 8 % of the dynamical'mass present within a 1.3 kpc radius. Within the CO bar, emission peaks in two extended clumpy lobes which lie on opposite sides of the nucleus, separated by ~ 6'' (1 kpc). Between the CO lobes, in the inner 200 pc radius, resides a powerful central starburst which is forming stars at a rate of 3 to 6 M_sun yr-1. While circular motions dominate the CO velocity field, the CO lobes show weak bar-like streaming motions on the leading side of the nuclear stellar bar, suggestive of gas inflow. We estimate semi-analytically the gravitational torque from the nuclear stellar bar on the gas, and suggest large gas inflow rates from the CO lobes into the central starburst. These observations, which are amongst the first ones showing a nuclear stellar bar fuelling molecular gas into an intense central starburst, are consistent with simulations and theory which suggest that nuclear bars provide an efficient way of transporting gas closer to the galactic center to fuel central activity. Furthermore, several massive clumps are present at low radii, and dynamical friction might produce further gas inflow. We suggest that the nuclear molecular gas bas and central activity will be very short-lived, likely disappearing within 5x10**8 years.

  18. Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7678

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Hong-Bae; Kim, Jeong-Mi

    1996-10-01

    We present VR CCD photometry and long-slit spectroscopy of a late type spiral galaxy NGC 7678. The grey scale images and isophotal maps illustrate the presence of a weak bar from which spiral arms emerge. There are many HII regions along the spiral arms, but bright giant HII regions are more concentrated in the massive southern arm. The bright compact nucleus of NGC 7678 is bluer than bulge and bar. The spectral features of the nucleus and HII regions are very similar but the nuclear spectra shows higher [NII]lambda 6583/H_alpha than those of the HII regions. The nucleus of NGC7678 seems to be intermediate type between HII region nulcei and LINERs by the ratio of [NII]lambda 6583/H_alpha, but it is more likely to be HII region-like nucleus if we consider the [SNII]lambda 6716, 6731/H_alpha together. The star formation rate is estimated to be about 0.2 Mo/yr based on the H_alpha flux.

  19. TWO PSEUDOBULGES IN THE 'BOXY BULGE' GALAXY NGC 5746

    SciTech Connect

    Barentine, John C.; Kormendy, John

    2012-08-01

    Galaxy formation and growth under the {Lambda}CDM paradigm is expected to proceed in a hierarchical, bottom-up fashion by which small galaxies grow into large galaxies; this mechanism leaves behind large 'classical bulges' kinematically distinct from 'pseudobulges' grown by internal, secular processes. We use archival data (Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 {mu}m wavelength, Hubble Space Telescope H-band, Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s} -band, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri-band) to measure composite minor- and major-axis surface brightness profiles of the almost-edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5746. These light profiles span a large range of radii and surface brightnesses to reveal an inner, high surface brightness stellar component that is distinct from the well-known boxy bulge. It is well fitted by Sersic functions with indices n = 0.99 {+-} 0.08 and 1.17 {+-} 0.24 along the minor and major axes, respectively. Since n < 2, we conclude that this innermost component is a secularly evolved pseudobulge that is distinct from the boxy pseudobulge. This inner pseudobulge makes up 0.136 {+-} 0.019 of the total light of the galaxy. It is therefore considerably less luminous than the boxy structure, which is now understood to be a bar seen nearly end-on. The infrared imagery shows further evidence for secular evolution in the form of a bright inner ring of inner radius 9.1 kpc and width 1.6 kpc. NGC 5746 is therefore a giant, pure-disk SB(r)bc galaxy with no sign of a merger-built bulge. We do not understand how such galaxies form in a {Lambda}CDM universe.

  20. M51 Whirlpool Galaxy M51-The Whirlpool Galaxy (also NGC 5194) is an interacting spiral galaxy located in

    E-print Network

    M51 ­ Whirlpool Galaxy M51- The Whirlpool Galaxy (also NGC 5194) is an interacting spiral galaxy located in the constellation Canes Venatici. It is one of the most famous spiral galaxies in the sky. The galaxy and its companion (NGC 5195) are easily observed, and the two galaxies may be seen with binoculars

  1. The Dynamical Relationship Between the Bar and Spiral Patterns of NGC 1365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speights, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Theories describing the dynamical relationship between bar and spiral patterns in galaxy disks make different predictions about the radial profile of the pattern speed. The purpose of this poster is to test these predictions for the bar and spiral patterns of NGC 1365. The pattern speed is measured by fitting different forms of the Tremaine-Weinberg equations to H-alpha intensity and velocity maps. The results are the most consistent with the currently observed bar and spiral patterns being dynamically distinct features. They show compelling evidence for the bar rotating faster than the spiral pattern, inconsistent with a global wave mode or a manifold. The evidence for mode coupling of the bar and spiral patterns is weak due to inconsistencies in the results for different solution methods. The bar pattern speed is approximately constant between the inner Lindblad and corotation resonances, demonstrating that the solutions can detect large-scale, rigid patterns. Beyond the bar, the results resemble what is expected for coupled spiral modes and tidal interactions.

  2. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS OF SPIRAL AND S0 GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM WIYN IMAGING OF NGC 1023, NGC 1055, NGC 7332, AND NGC 7339

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael D.; Dowell, Jessica L.; Rhode, Katherine L. E-mail: jlwind@astro.indiana.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present results from a study of the globular cluster (GC) systems of four spiral and S0 galaxies imaged as part of an ongoing wide-field survey of the GC systems of giant galaxies. The target galaxies-the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023, the SBb galaxy NGC 1055, and an isolated pair comprised of the Sbc galaxy NGC 7339 and the S0 galaxy NGC 7332-were observed in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and Minimosaic camera. For two of the galaxies, we combined the WIYN imaging with previously published data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck Observatory to help characterize the GC distribution in the central few kiloparsecs. We determine the radial distribution (surface density of GCs versus projected radius) of each galaxy's GC system and use it to calculate the total number of GCs (N{sub GC}). We find N{sub GC} = 490 {+-} 30, 210 {+-} 40, 175 {+-} 15, and 75 {+-} 10 for NGC 1023, NGC 1055, NGC 7332, and NGC 7339, respectively. We also calculate the GC specific frequency (N{sub GC} normalized by host galaxy luminosity or mass) and find values typical of those of the other spiral and E/S0 galaxies in the survey. The two lenticular galaxies have sufficient numbers of GC candidates for us to perform statistical tests for bimodality in the GC color distributions. We find evidence at a high confidence level (>95%) for two populations in the B - R distribution of the GC system of NGC 1023. We find weaker evidence for bimodality (>81% confidence) in the GC color distribution of NGC 7332. Finally, we identify eight GC candidates that may be associated with the Magellanic dwarf galaxy NGC 1023A, which is a satellite of NGC 1023.

  3. Molecular Gas and Star-formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of 13CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival 12CO (1–0), 12CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to 12CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  4. Complex statistics in Hamiltonian barred galaxy models

    E-print Network

    Tassos Bountis; Thanos Manos; Chris Antonopoulos

    2011-11-17

    We use probability density functions (pdfs) of sums of orbit coordinates, over time intervals of the order of one Hubble time, to distinguish weakly from strongly chaotic orbits in a barred galaxy model. We find that, in the weakly chaotic case, quasi-stationary states arise, whose pdfs are well approximated by $q$-Gaussian functions (with $1galaxy models has been investigated thoroughly in recent years due of their ability to support galaxy structures for relatively long time scales. In this paper, we demonstrate, on specific orbits of 2 and 3 degree of freedom barred galaxy models, that the proposed statistical approach can distinguish weakly from strongly chaotic motion accurately and efficiently, especially in cases where Lyapunov exponents and other local dynamic indicators appear to be inconclusive.

  5. Surface Photometry of Star Clusters in the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205

    E-print Network

    Sang Chul Kim; Myung Gyoon Lee; Doug Geisler; Ata Sarajedini; Taft E. Armandroff; Gary S. Da Costa

    2001-09-14

    We present the surface photometry of star clusters in the nearby dwarf elliptical galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205, obtained from deep HST WFPC2 F555W (V) and F814W (I) images. We have obtained surface brightness and color profiles of six star clusters in NGC 185, seven star clusters in NGC 205, and one recently discovered non-stellar object in NGC 205. The surface brightness profiles of ten star clusters are fitted well by the King model, and those of four star clusters are fitted well by the power-law. Three out of ten star clusters fitted well with King model show signs of tidal tails.

  6. ON THE GALACTIC SPIN OF BARRED DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Park, Changbom

    2013-09-20

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (?{sub d}) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest ?{sub d} values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate ?{sub d} values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high ?{sub d}. This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of ?{sub d}, within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  7. A counter-rotating tilted gas disc in the peanut galaxy NGC~128

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem; Robin Arsenault

    1997-01-15

    We have obtained $V$, $R_c$, $I_c$ HRCAM images and TIGER spectrography of the central region of the peanut galaxy NGC~128. The colour images reveal the presence of a red disc tilted by about 26 degres with respect to the major-axis of the galaxy. This tilted disc is made of dust and gas, as revealed by the 2D TIGER map of the ionized gas distribution. The TIGER stellar and gas velocity fields show that the angular momentum vectors of the stellar and gaseous components are reversed. We therefore suggest that the gas orbits belong to the so-called anomalous family, which is evidence for a tumbling triaxial potential (a bar) associated with the peanut morphology. The bar formation has very probably been triggered through the interaction with its nearby companion NGC~127, from which the dissipative component is being accreted along retrograde orbits.

  8. A Bayesian/MCMC approach to galaxy modelling: NGC 6503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglielli, David

    We use Bayesian statistics and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to construct dynamical models for the spiral galaxy NGC 6503. The constraints include surface brightness profiles which display a Freeman Type II structure; HI and ionized gas rotation curves; the stellar rotation, which is nearly coincident with the ionized gas curve; and the line of sight stellar dispersion, which displays a sigma-drop at the centre. The galaxy models consist of a Sersic bulge, an exponential disc with an optional inner truncation and a cosmologically motivated dark halo. The Bayesian/MCMC technique yields the joint posterior probability distribution function for the input parameters, allowing constraints on model parameters such as the halo cusp strength, structural parameters for the disc and bulge, and mass-to-light ratios. We examine several interpretations of the data: the Type II surface brightness profile may be due to dust extinction, to an inner truncated disc or to a ring of bright stars; and we test separate fits to the gas and stellar rotation curves to determine if the gas traces the gravitational potential. We test each of these scenarios for bar stability, ruling out dust extinction. We also find that the gas cannot trace the gravitational potential, as the asymmetric drift is then too large to reproduce the stellar rotation. The disc is well fit by an inner-truncated profile, but the possibility of ring formation by a bar to reproduce the Type II profile is also a realistic model. We further find that the halo must have a cuspy profile with gamma ? 1; the bulge has a lower M/L than the disc, suggesting a star forming component in the centre of the galaxy; and the bulge, as expected for this late type galaxy, has a low Sersic index with n b ˜ 1 -- 2, suggesting a formation history dominated by secular evolution.

  9. Is there Evidence for Flat Cores in the Halos of Dwarf Galaxies?: The Case of NGC 3109 and NGC 6822

    E-print Network

    Octavio Valenzuela; George Rhee; Anatoly Klypin; Fabio Governato; Gregory Stinson; Thomas Quinn; James Wadsley

    2006-08-23

    Two well studied dwarf galaxies -- NGC 3109 and NGC 6822 -- present some of the strongest observational support for a flat core at the center of galactic dark matter (DM) halos. We use detailed cosmologically motivated numerical models to investigate the systematics and the accuracy of recovering parameters of the galaxies. Some of our models match the observed structure of the two galaxies remarkably well. Our analysis shows that the rotation curves of these two galaxies are instead quite compatible with their DM halos having steep cuspy density profiles. The rotation curves in our models are measured using standard observational techniques. The models reproduce the rotation curves of both galaxies, the disk surface brightness profiles as well as the profile of isophotal ellipticity and position angle. The models are centrally dominated by baryons; however, the dark matter component is globally dominant. The simulated disk mass is marginally consistent with a stellar mass-to-light ratio in agreement with the observed colors. We show that non-circular motions combined with gas pressure support and projection effects results in a large underestimation of the circular velocity in the central $\\sim 1$ kpc region, creating the illusion of a constant density core. Although the systematic effects mentioned above are stronger in barred systems, they are also present in axisymetric disks. Our results strongly suggest that there is no contradiction between the observed rotation curves in dwarf galaxies and the cuspy central dark matter density profiles predicted by Cold Dark Matter models.

  10. Estimating non-circular motions in barred galaxies using numerical N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamampandry, T. H.; Combes, F.; Carignan, C.; Deg, N.

    2015-12-01

    The observed velocities of the gas in barred galaxies are a combination of the azimuthally averaged circular velocity and non-circular motions, primarily caused by gas streaming along the bar. These non-circular flows must be accounted for before the observed velocities can be used in mass modelling. In this work, we examine the performance of the tilted-ring method and the DISKFIT algorithm for transforming velocity maps of barred spiral galaxies into rotation curves (RCs) using simulated data. We find that the tilted-ring method, which does not account for streaming motions, under-/overestimates the circular motions when the bar is parallel/perpendicular to the projected major axis. DISKFIT, which does include streaming motions, is limited to orientations where the bar is not aligned with either the major or minor axis of the image. Therefore, we propose a method of correcting RCs based on numerical simulations of galaxies. We correct the RC derived from the tilted-ring method based on a numerical simulation of a galaxy with similar properties and projections as the observed galaxy. Using observations of NGC 3319, which has a bar aligned with the major axis, as a test case, we show that the inferred mass models from the uncorrected and corrected RCs are significantly different. These results show the importance of correcting for the non-circular motions and demonstrate that new methods of accounting for these motions are necessary as current methods fail for specific bar alignments.

  11. Corrugated velocity patterns in the spiral galaxies: NGC 278, NGC 1058, NGC 2500 & UGC 3574

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Gil, M. Carmen; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Pérez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    We address the study of the H ? vertical velocity field in a sample of four nearly face-on galaxies using long-slit spectroscopy taken with the Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS), attached to the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spain). The spatial structure of the velocity vertical component shows a radial corrugated pattern with spatial scales higher or within the order of 1 kpc. The gas is mainly ionized by high-energy photons: only in some locations of NGC 278 and NGC 1058 is there some evidence of ionization by low-velocity shocks, which, in the case of NGC 278, could be due to minor mergers. The behaviour of the gas in the neighbourhood of the spiral arms fits, in the majority of the observed cases, with that predicted by the so-called hydraulic bore mechanism, where a thick magnetized disc encounters a spiral density perturbation. The results obtained show that it is difficult to explain the H ? large-scale velocity field without the presence of a magnetized, thick galactic disc. Larger samples and spatial covering of the galaxy discs are needed to provide further insight into this problem.

  12. Electrographic observations of extended objects. II - The peculiar galaxies NGC 523 and NGC 1614

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chincarini, G.; Heckathorn, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic analysis of two highly irregular galaxies, NGC 523 and NGC 1614 using a two dimensional detector with linear response and large information storage, dynamic range, and number of resolution elements is presented. The observation procedure is described, and analysis of the two systems is carried out. Data are graphically represented. The validity of electrographic observation of irregular extragalactic objects is underscored.

  13. The interacting galaxy pair NGC 4485 and NGC 4490 - star formation and the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Hunter, D.A.; Casey, S.; Harper, D.A.; Latter, W.B.

    1989-04-01

    The 100- and 160-micron continuum emission from cool dust in the interacting gas-rich pair of galaxies, NGC 4490 and NGC 4485, was mapped. Visual continuum and H-alpha images of the pair were obtained. The state of the interstellar medium and the rate and efficiency of star formation are investigated. 49 refs.

  14. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    E-print Network

    Zastrow, Jordan

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby ...

  15. HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geha, M.; Weisz, D.; Grocholski, A.; Dolphin, A.; van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ˜1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ˜4-5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ˜ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  16. A Stellar Tidal Stream Around the Whale Galaxy, NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; D’Onghia, Elena; Chonis, Taylor S.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Teuwen, Karel; GaBany, R. Jay; Grebel, Eva K.; Morales, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40 cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extending between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (streamSE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (streamNW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc in projection. The orientation of streamSE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from an interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e = 0.6) around NGC 4631 over ?3.5 Gyr. Both modeling and inferences from the morphology of the streams indicate these are not associated with the complex HI tidal features observed between both spirals, which likely originate from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. The structure of streamNW suggests that it may contain the progenitor of the stream, in agreement with the N-body model. However, we cannot exclude other possibilities such as the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 4627 being the progenitor based on these data. In addition, streamNW is roughly aligned with two very faint dwarf spheroidal candidates. The system of dwarf galaxies and the tidal stream around NGC 4631 can provide an additional interesting case for exploring the anisotropy distribution of satellite galaxies recently reported around Local Group spiral galaxies by means of future follow-up observations.

  17. The Reddening law outside the local group galaxies: The case of NGC 7552 and NGC 5236

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Anne L.; Calzetti, Daniela; Bica, Eduardo; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    1994-01-01

    The dust reddening law from the UV to the near-IR for the extended regions of galaxies is here derived from the spectral distributions of the starburst spiral galaxies NGC 7552 and NGC 5236. The centers of these galaxies have similar absorption and emission line spectra, differing only if the strength of their interstellar lines and in the continuum distribution, with NGC 7552 appearing more reddened than NGC 5236. The disk of NGC 7552 is more inclined, and there is evidence that its center is observed through additional foreground dust and gas clouds, as compared to the center of NGC 5236. While the galaxies can be expected to have similar dust content, they are known to have different dust path lengths to our line of sight. Therefore, differences in the shape of the spectra can be attributed mainly to the effects of dust, allowing us to probe for the first time the properties of the reddening law outside the local group of galaxies. We derive the reddening law based on the optical depth of the emission line of H Alpha and H Beta and also based on the continuum distribtuion. We find that the optical depth from the emission line regions are about twice the optical depth of the continuum regions. Thus, dereddening a starburst galaxy by scaling the Milky Way reddening laws to optical depths obtained from the H Alpha/H Beta line ratio overcompensates for the effect of dust.

  18. A barred spiral at the centre of the giant elliptical radio galaxy Centaurus A

    E-print Network

    I. F. Mirabel; O. Laurent; D. B. Sanders; M. Sauvage; M. Tagger; V. Charmandaris; L. Vigroux; P. Gallais; C. Cesarsky; D. L. Block

    1998-10-26

    We report observations at mid-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths of Centaurus A (CenA, NGC 5128), the giant elliptical galaxy that harbors the closest radio loud Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) to Earth. The dust emission from the deep interior of CenA reveals a bisymmetric structure with a diameter of 5' (5 kpc), centred at the AGN. This structure is remarkably similar to that of a barred spiral galaxy, with the bar lying in a plane that is tilted ~18 degrees from the line of sight. The true nature of the distribution of dust in the inner regions of CenA is noticeably displaced from the more chaotic and widespread optical obscuration. The barred spiral is a quasi-stable structure formed at the center of the giant elliptical from the tidal debris of a gas-rich object(s) accreted in the past 10^9 years. The total size and mass of interstellar gas in the barred spiral at the center of CenA is comparable to the small Local Group spiral galaxy Messier 33. The observation of this remarkable structure opens the more general question on whether the dusty hosts of giant radio galaxies like CenA, are "symbiotic" galaxies composed of a barred spiral inside an elliptical, where the bar serves to funnel gas toward the AGN.

  19. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego G.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups and clusters selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the role of the high density environment. Methods: We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups and clusters by cross-correlating the total barred AGN sample with the SDSS-DR7 group catalog. With the goal of providing a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distributions was also constructed. Results: We found that the fraction of barred AGN galaxies in groups and clusters (?38%) is higher than those in the total barred AGN sample (?28%), indicating that AGN spiral galaxies in groups are more likely to be barred than those in the field. We also found that barred AGN galaxies are more concentrated towards the group centers than the other unbarred AGN group members. In addition, barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of population dominated by red colors, with respect to the control sample, suggesting that bars produce an important effect on galaxy colors of AGN hosts. The groups of AGN galaxies with and without bars show similar virial masses; however, the host groups of the barred AGN exhibit a larger fraction of red colors than the host groups of the corresponding unbarred active galaxies in the control sample. Color-magnitude relations of both host groups of AGN differ significantly: the host group colors of barred active galaxies display distributions spreading toward red populations, at the same (Mr)Group, with respect to the host groups of the unbarred AGN objects. This trend is more significant in less massive groups than in groups with MVirial> 1013.5M?. Barred active galaxies show an excess of nuclear activity compared to galaxies without bars in the control sample. We found that barred active galaxies located farther from the group-center have stronger Lum[OIII], while the nuclear activity in AGN galaxies without bars remain approximately constant with the group-centric distance. In addition, for both AGN samples, nuclear activity increases in bluer host groups however, barred active objects systematically show higher Lum[OIII] values, irrespective of the global group colors. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of bars to transport material towards the more central regions of the AGN galaxies in high density environments reveals an important dependence on the localization of objects within the group/cluster and on the host group colors.

  20. Surface Photometry of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205

    E-print Network

    Sang Chul Kim; Myung Gyoon Lee

    1998-06-02

    We present BVRI CCD surface photometry for the central (6'.35 X 6'.35) regions of the dwarf elliptical galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205 in the Local Group. Surface brightness profiles of NGC 185 (R = 25". The colors of NGC 205 get bluer inward at 1" photometry, supplemented by the photometry based on the far-ultraviolet and visual images of the HST archive data, shows that there is an inversion of color at the very nucleus region (at about 1"). The implications of the redder color of the core part of the nucleus compared with neighboring regions are discussed. The amount of the excess components in the central regions of these galaxies is estimated to be ~10^5 solar luminosity. Distributions of dust clouds in the central regions of the two galaxies are also investigated.

  1. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binney, J. J.; Davies, Roger L.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    1990-01-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure.

  2. Velocity mapping and models of the elliptical galaxies NGC 720, NGC 1052, and NGC 4697

    SciTech Connect

    Binney, J.J.; Davies, R.L.; Illingworth, G.D. Oxford Univ. National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ California Univ., Santa Cruz )

    1990-09-01

    CCD surface photometry and extensive long-slit spectroscopy are used to construct detailed models of the flattened ellipticals NGC 720, 1052, and 4697. The models are combined with the Jeans equations to yield predicted fields of line-of-sight velocity dispersion and streaming velocity. By comparing these fields with observed velocities, it is concluded that none of these systems can have isotropic velocity dispersion tensors, and diminishing the assumed inclination of any given galaxy tends to decrease the line-of-sight velocity dispersion and, counterintuitively, to increase the line-of-sight rotation speeds. The ratio of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion along the minor axis to that along the major axis is found to be a sensitive diagnostic of the importance of a third integral for the galaxy's structure. 48 refs.

  3. Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    E-print Network

    Pan, Hsi-An; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star formation tracers. High-resolution image (100 pc) of $^{13}$CO (1-0) is created by single dish NRO45 and interferometer CARMA for the inner 2 kpc disk, which includes the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. Physical properties of molecular gas are inferred by (1) the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) calculations using our observations and archival $^{12}$CO (1-0), $^{12}$CO(2-1) data, (2) dense gas fraction suggested by HCN to $^{12}$CO (1-0) luminosity ratio, and (3) infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. Dense gas fraction of the central region is similar with that of LIRGs/ULIRGs, while the offset ridges are close to the global average of...

  4. The flaring HI disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    E-print Network

    Vollmer, B; Ibata, R

    2015-01-01

    New deep VLA D array HI observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model HI data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80 degrees; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution of the gas disk; (iii) a slight warp in inclination; (iv) an exponential flare; and (v) a low surface-density gas ring. The slope of NGC 2683's flare is comparable, but somewhat steeper than those of other spiral galaxies. NGC 2683's maximum height of the flare is also comparable to those of other galaxies. On the other hand, a saturation of the flare is only observed in NGC 2683. Based on the comparison between the high resolution model and observations, we exclude the existence of an extended atomic gas halo around the ...

  5. The peculiar galaxy NGC 523. [electrographic and spectroscopic observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chincarini, G.; Heckathorn, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Electrographic and spectroscopic observations have been obtained of the peculiar galaxy NGC 523. The observations suggest that the pecularities of the system result from a close encounter by two dwarf galaxies, with tidal interaction responsible for the formation of the galactic bridge and tails.

  6. The effect of supernova rate on the magnetic field evolution in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa-Dybe?, K.; Nowak, N.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Hanasz, M.; Siejkowski, H.; Kulesza-?ydzik, B.

    2015-03-01

    Context. For the first time, our magnetohydrodynamical numerical calculations provide results for a three-dimensional model of barred galaxies involving a cosmic-ray driven dynamo process that depends on star formation rates. Furthermore, we argue that the cosmic-ray driven dynamo can account for a number of magnetic features in barred galaxies, such as magnetic arms observed along the gaseous arms, magnetic arms in the inter-arm regions, polarized emission that is at the strongest in the central part of the galaxy, where the bar is situated, polarized emission that forms ridges coinciding with the dust lanes along the leading edges of the bar, as well as their very strong total radio intensity. Aims: Our numerical model probes what kind of physical processes could be responsible for the magnetic field topology observed in barred galaxies (modes, etc.). We compare our modelled results directly with observations, constructing models of high-frequency (Faraday rotation-free) polarized radio emission maps out of the simulated magnetic field and cosmic ray pattern in our modeled galaxy. We also take the effects of projection into account as well as the limited resolution. Methods: We applied global 3D numerical calculations of a cosmic-ray driven dynamo in barred galaxies with different physical input parameters such as the supernova (SN) rate. Results: Our simulation results lead to the modelled magnetic field structure similar to the one observed on the radio maps of barred galaxies. Moreover, they cast new light on a number of properties in barred and spiral galaxies, such as fast exponential growth of the total magnetic energy to the present values. The quadrupole modes of magnetic field are often identified in barred galaxies, but the dipole modes (e.g., in NGC 4631) are found very seldom. In our simulations the quadrupole configuration dominates and the dipole configuration only appears once in the case of model S100, apparently as a consequence of the choice of the random number seed. Synthetic radio maps of our models display X-type structure similar to what is observed in real galaxies. Conclusions: We conclude that a cosmic-ray driven dynamo process in barred galaxies can amplify magnetic fields efficiently. The fastest rate of magnetic field increase is 195 yr for a SN frequency of 1/50 yr-1.The obtained strength of magnetic field corresponds to the observational values (a few in spiral arms). The polarization and rotation measure maps also agree with observations. We found the effect of shifting magnetic arms in 4 models (out of the sample of 5).

  7. HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185

    E-print Network

    Geha, M; Grocholski, A; Dolphin, A; van der Marel, R P; Guhathakurta, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope ACS observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The resulting F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located ~1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While our ACS pointings in both dEs show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age in NGC 147 is ~ 4 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyrs ago (z~5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 field more than12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr. Star formation ceased in both ACS fields at least 3 Gyr ago. Previous observations ...

  8. Stellar populations and Star Formation Rates in NGC 6872, the Condor galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, D. F.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Gadotti, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of 10 kpc regions across the giant spiral galaxy NGC 6872, the Condor galaxy. We made use of archival data from the FUV (GALEX) to 22 ?m (WISE). In order to find any signature of the recent interaction 130 Myr) with its companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970, we inspected the SED of Condor's bar. One possibility is that is would have been formed by passage of the companion. We find that it is a particularly long bar (9 kpc semi-major axis), with a size almost twice as large as the average found in other barred galaxies (4.5 kpc median in the local universe, Gadotti 2011). A bulge/bar/disk 2D decomposition using the Spitzer 3.6 ?m image and the budda package (de Souza et al. 2004; Gadotti 2008) reveals that the ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the disk scale-length is 1.4, which is a value typically found in other barred galaxies (see Fig. 1 in Gadotti 2011). The disk scale-length is ~ 7 kpc, which is extremely large (2.8 kpc median in local galaxies, Gadotti 2009). Our analysis also shows that there are no signs of recent star formation along the bar. We find no signs of a box-peanut structure near the central regions, which is also another signature of an evolved bar. Taken altogether, the evidence points to a bar formed at least a few billion years ago and the stars in the bar seem to be a fossil record of the stellar population in the galaxy before the interaction with its companion. Then, we modeled the SFH of each 10 kpc region as constant Star Formation Rate (SFR) for the past 100 Myr superposed on an exponentially decaying, longstanding SFR. We find a single exponential SFH to account for all the recent SFR of the galaxy, with no need for an additional SFR due to the interaction. Av is low all across the galaxy 0.25), but increases near 0.7) the point of collision. The SFH of the arms are asymmetric. The northeastern arm having older ages 5 Gyr) and SFH closer to constant, while the southwestern one has much younger age 1.5 Gyr) and SFR closer to a single burst. The derived total stellar mass of each region correlates linearly with the Spitzer 4.5 ?m fluxes and non-linearly with the derived bolometric luminosity.

  9. DETECTION OF INFALLING HYDROGEN IN TRANSFER BETWEEN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES NGC 5426 AND NGC 5427

    SciTech Connect

    Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Fathi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Leonel E-mail: jeb@iac.es E-mail: leonel@astrosen.unam.mx

    2011-10-10

    Using velocity tagging we have detected hydrogen from NGC 5426 falling onto its interacting partner NGC 5427. Our observations, with the GHaFaS Fabry-Perot spectrometer, produced maps of the two galaxies in H{alpha} surface brightness and radial velocity. We found emission with the range of velocities associated with NGC 5426 along lines of sight apparently emanating from NGC 5427, superposed on the velocity map of the latter. After excluding instrumental effects we assign the anomalous emission to gas pulled from NGC 5426 during its passage close to NGC 5427. Its distribution, more intense between the arms and just outside the disk of NGC 5427, and weak, or absent, in the arms, suggests that the infalling gas is behind the disk, ionized by Lyman continuum photons escaping from NGC 5427. Modeling this, we estimate the distances of these gas clouds behind the plane: a few hundred parsecs to a few kiloparsecs. We also estimate the mass of the infalling (ionized plus neutral) gas, finding an infall rate of 10 M{sub sun} per year, consistent with the high measured star formation rate across the disk of NGC 5427 and with the detected circumnuclear galactic wind.

  10. A tidally distorted dwarf galaxy near NGC 4449.

    PubMed

    Rich, R M; Collins, M L M; Black, C M; Longstaff, F A; Koch, A; Benson, A; Reitzel, D B

    2012-02-01

    NGC 4449 is a nearby Magellanic irregular starburst galaxy with a B-band absolute magnitude of -18 and a prominent, massive, intermediate-age nucleus at a distance from Earth of 3.8?megaparsecs (ref. 3). It is wreathed in an extraordinary neutral hydrogen (H?I) complex, which includes rings, shells and a counter-rotating core, spanning ?90?kiloparsecs (kpc; refs 1, 4). NGC 4449 is relatively isolated, although an interaction with its nearest known companion--the galaxy DDO 125, some 40?kpc to the south--has been proposed as being responsible for the complexity of its H?I structure. Here we report the presence of a dwarf galaxy companion to NGC 4449, namely NGC 4449B. This companion has a V-band absolute magnitude of -13.4 and a half-light radius of 2.7?kpc, with a full extent of around 8?kpc. It is in a transient stage of tidal disruption, similar to that of the Sagittarius dwarf near the Milky Way. NGC 4449B exhibits a striking S-shaped morphology that has been predicted for disrupting galaxies but has hitherto been seen only in a dissolving globular cluster. We also detect an additional arc or disk ripple embedded in a two-component stellar halo, including a component extending twice as far as previously known, to about 20?kpc from the galaxy's centre. PMID:22318602

  11. The elliptical galaxies NGC 1052 and NGC 7796: stellar populations and abundance alpha/Fe ratio

    E-print Network

    A. de C. Milone; M. G. Rickes; M. G. Pastoriza

    2007-03-16

    Context: The spatial distribution of the stellar populations inside a spheroidal system and their kinematical properties supply important informations about the formation process. Aims: We have performed a detailed stellar population analysis using long slit spectroscopic observations up to almost one effective radius of two different early-type galaxies of low density regions of the local Universe: NGC 1052, a E4 Liner prototype of a loose group that has a stellar rotating disc, and NGC 7796, a E1 of the field which shows a kinematically distinct core. The mean luminosity-weighted stellar age, metallicity, and alpha/Fe ratio along both photometric axes of them have been obtained in order to reconstruct the star formation history in their kinematically distinct subsystems. Methods: We have measured Lick indices and computed their radial gradients. They were compared with the predicted ones of simple stellar population models. We have also applied a stellar population synthesis. Results: The star characteristics are associated with their kinematics: they are older and alpha-enhanced in the bulge of NGC 1052 and core of NGC 7796, while they show a strong spread of alpha/Fe and age along the disc of NGC 1052 and an outwards radial decreasing of them outside the core of NGC 7796. The age variation is possibly connected to the alpha/Fe one. Conclusions: Both galaxies were formed by processes in which the star formation occurred firstly at the bulge (NGC 1052) and nucleus (NGC 7796) 12-15 Gyr ago on short timescales (0.1-1 Gyr) providing an efficient chemical enrichment by SN-II. In the disc of NGC 1052, there is some spread of age and formation timescales around its stars. In NGC 7796, the star formation timescale had some outwards radial increasing along both axes.

  12. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    SciTech Connect

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzy?ski, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (?4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low ?/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  13. HALOGAS: H I OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE NEARBY EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4565

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Rand, Richard J.; Heald, George H.; Jozsa, Gyula; Gentile, Gianfranco E-mail: rjr@phys.unm.edu E-mail: jozsa@astron.nl

    2012-11-20

    We present 21 cm observations and models of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4565, a nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy, as part of the Westerbork Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS survey. These models provide insight concerning both the morphology and kinematics of H I above, as well as within, the disk. NGC 4565 exhibits a distinctly warped and asymmetric disk with a flaring layer. Our modeling provides no evidence for a massive, extended H I halo. We see evidence for a bar and associated radial motions. Additionally, there are indications of radial motions within the disk, possibly associated with a ring of higher density. We see a substantial decrease in rotational velocity with height above the plane of the disk (a lag) of -40{sup +5} {sub -20} km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1} and -30{sup +5} {sub -30} km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1} in the approaching and receding halves, respectively. This lag is only seen within the inner {approx}4.'75 (14.9 kpc) on the approaching half and {approx}4.'25 (13.4 kpc) on the receding half, making this a radially shallowing lag, which is now seen in the H I layers of several galaxies. When comparing results for NGC 4565 and those for other galaxies, there are tentative indications of high star formation rate per unit area being associated with the presence of a halo. Finally, H I is found in two companion galaxies, one of which is clearly interacting with NGC 4565.

  14. Hydrogen fluoride toward luminous nearby galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Lord, S.; Falgarone, E.; Güsten, R.

    2014-04-10

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in two luminous nearby galaxies, NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H{sub 2}){sub out} ? 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?} and an outflow rate as large as M-dot ?6.4 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile are compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of ?1.2 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, inside an inner radius of ?200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central active galactic nucleus is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow may be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF J = 1-0 line is seen to provide an important probe of the kinematics of absorbing material along the sight-line to nearby galaxies with bright dust continuum and a promising new tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies.

  15. LENTICULAR GALAXIES AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE LEO II GROUP: NGC 3599 AND NGC 3626

    SciTech Connect

    Sil'chenko, O. K.; Shulga, A. P.; Moiseev, A. V. E-mail: alina.shulga@gmail.co

    2010-11-15

    We have studied unbarred S0 galaxies, NGC 3599 and NGC 3626, the members of the X-ray bright group Leo II, by means of three-dimensional spectroscopy, long-slit spectroscopy, and imaging, with the aim of identifying the epoch and mechanisms of their transformation from spirals. Both galaxies have appeared to bear complex features obviously resulting from minor merging: decoupled gas kinematics, nuclear star-forming rings, and multi-tiered oval large-scale stellar disks. The weak emission line nucleus of NGC 3599 bears all signs of Seyfert activity, according to the line-ratio diagnostics of the gas excitation mechanism. We conclude that the transformation of these lenticular galaxies took place about 1-2 Gyr ago, through gravitational mechanisms unrelated to the hot intragroup medium of Leo II.

  16. The Discovery of New Galaxy Members in the NGC 5044 and NGC 1052 Groups

    E-print Network

    N. P. F. McKay; C. G. Mundell; S. Brough; D. A. Forbes; D. G. Barnes; P. A. James; P. Goudfrooij; V. Kozhurina-Platais; R. Whitaker

    2004-05-12

    We present the results of neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the NGC 5044 and NGC 1052 groups, as part of a GEMS (Group Evolution Multiwavelength Study) investigation into the formation and evolution of galaxies in nearby groups. Two new group members have been discovered during a wide-field HI imaging survey conducted using the ATNF Parkes telescope. These results, as well as those from followup HI synthesis and optical imaging, are presented here. J1320-1427, a new member of the NGC 5044 Group, has an HI mass of M_HI=1.05e9Msun and M_HI/L_B=1.65 Msun/Lsun, with a radial velocity of v=2750km/s. The optical galaxy is characterised by two regions of star formation, surrounded by an extended, diffuse halo. J0249-0806, the new member of the NGC 1052 Group, has M_HI=5.4e8Msun, M_HI/L_R=1.13 Msun/Lsun and v=1450km/s. The optical image reveals a low surface brightness galaxy. We interpret both of these galaxies as irregular type, with J0249-0806 possibly undergoing first infall into the NGC 1052 group.

  17. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  18. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. I. The atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Shoutenkov, V.; Ehle, M.; Harnett, J. I.; Haynes, R. F.; Shukurov, A.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Thierbach, M.

    2002-08-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at lambda 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30\\arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, Lambda , related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with Lambda , I~Lambda 0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a long bar where the velocity field is distorted by the bar over a large fraction of the disc. In these galaxies, the pattern of the regular field is significantly different from that in non-barred galaxies. In particular, field enhancements occur upstream of the dust lanes where the field lines are oriented at large angles to the bar's major axis. Polarized radio emission seems to be a good indicator of large-scale non-axisymmetric motions. Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 8-10, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 22 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  19. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  20. Is a minor-merger driving the nuclear activity in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110?

    E-print Network

    Rosa M. Gonzalez Delgado; Santiago Arribas; Enrique Perez; Timothy Heckman

    2002-07-12

    We report on a detailed morphological and kinematic study of the isolated non-barred nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110. We combine Integral Field optical spectroscopy, with long-slit and WFPC2 imaging available in the HST archive to investigate the fueling mechanism in this galaxy. Previous work (Wilson & Baldwin 1985) concluded that the kinematic center of the galaxy is displaced \\~220 pc from the apparent mass center of the galaxy, and the ionized gas follows a remarkably normal rotation curve. Our analysis based on the stellar kinematics, 2D ionized gas velocity field and dispersion velocity, and high spatial resolution morphology at V, I and Halpha reveals that: 1) The kinematic center of NGC 2110 is at the nucleus of the galaxy. 2) The ionized gas is not in pure rotational motion. 3) The morphology of the 2D distribution of the emission line widths suggests the presence of a minor axis galactic outflow. 4) The nucleus is blue-shifted with respect to the stellar systemic velocity, suggesting the NLR gas is out-flowing due to the interaction with the radio jet. 5) The ionized gas is red-shifted ~100 km/s over the corresponding rotational motion south of the nucleus, and 240 km/s with respect to the nuclear stellar systemic velocity. This velocity is coincident with the HI red-shifted absorption velocity detected by Gallimore et al (1999). We discuss the possibility that the kinematics of the south ionized gas could be perturbed by the collision with a small satellite that impacted on NGC 2110 close to the center with a highly inclined orbit. Additional support for this interpretation are the radial dust lanes and tidal debris detected in the V un-sharp masked image. We suggest that a minor-merger may have driven the nuclear activity in NGC 2110.

  1. Barred S0 galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, George B.; Lucey, John R.; Smith, Russell J.

    2014-04-01

    This study uses r-band images from the Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8) to study bars in lenticular (S0) galaxies in one of the nearest rich cluster environments, the Coma cluster. We develop techniques for bar detection and assess their success when applied to SDSS image data. To detect and characterize bars, we perform 2D bulge+disc+bar light decompositions of galaxy images with GALFIT. Using a sample of artificial galaxy images, we determine the faintest magnitude at which bars can be successfully measured at the depth and resolution of SDSS. We perform detailed decompositions of 83 S0 galaxies in Coma, 64 from a central sample, and 19 from a cluster outskirt sample. For the central sample, the S0 bar fraction is 72^{+5}_{-6} per cent. This value is significantly higher than that obtained using an ellipse-fitting method for bar detection, 48^{+6}_{-6} per cent. At a fixed luminosity, barred S0s are redder in g - r colour than unbarred S0s by 0.02 mag. The frequency and strength of bars increase towards fainter luminosities. Neither central metallicity nor stellar age distributions differ significantly between barred and unbarred S0s. There is an increase in the bar fraction towards the cluster core, but this is at a low significance level. Bars have at most a weak correlation with cluster-centric radius.

  2. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  3. Nested Bars in Disk Galaxies: No Offset Dust Lanes in Secondary Nuclear Bars

    E-print Network

    Isaac Shlosman; Clayton Heller

    2001-09-28

    Under certain conditions, sub-kpc nuclear bars form inside large-scale stellar bars of disk galaxies. These secondary bars spend a fraction of their lifetime in a dynamically-decoupled state, tumbling in the gravitational field of the outer bars. We analyze the flow pattern in such nested bar systems and find that secondary bars differ fundamentally from their large-scale counterparts. In particular the gas flow across the bar-bar interface in these systems can be more chaotic or more regular in nature, and, contrary to predictions, has no difficulty in penetrating the secondary bars. The outer parts of both short and long nuclear bars (with respect to their corotation) appear to be depopulated of gas, while deep inside them the flow exhibits low Mach numbers and follows ovally-shaped orbits with little dissipation. We find that gas-dominated and star-dominated nuclear bars avoid the bar-bar interface, making both types of bars short relative to their corotation. Furthermore, our earlier work has shown that dynamically-coupled secondary bars exhibit a similarly relaxed low-dissipation flow as well. Therefore, no large-scale shocks form in the nuclear bars, and consequently, no offset dust lanes are expected there. We find that offset dust lanes cannot be used in the search for secondary (nuclear) bars.

  4. The infrared emission from the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-aperture IR photometry of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 shows that its IR excess is confined to a region smaller than 2 arc sec (300 pc) in diameter coincident with the visible nucleus. It is suggested that the emission in the 5-20 micron range arises from dust heated by the nonthermal source seen at other wavelengths.

  5. NGC 5523: An Isolated Product of a Soft Galaxy Merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Leah; Gallagher, John S.; Xia, Zishan

    2015-01-01

    Isolated galaxies are sometimes considered to be systems that have evolved with minimal influence from galaxy-galaxy interactions. The late-type isolated spiral galaxy NGC 5523 offers a counter example to this assumption. Our analysis of multi-band imaging of this system shows a number of unusual features consistent with NGC 5523 (D=20 Mpc) having experienced a significant merger: (1) Near infrared imaging from WHIRC on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope reveal a nucleated bulge-like structure that is offset from the center of the outer disk by approximately 1 kpc. (2) A feature with characteristics of a tidal stream extends from the bulge structure along the disk. (3) The outermost disk is somewhat asymmetric and appears to have a low density of older stars. We interpret these properties as the results of a past non-disruptive merger between NGC 5523 and a former companion galaxy, which raises the possibility that some galaxies are isolated because they have merged with former companions.

  6. Dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Earl

    2014-07-20

    We report the results of a survey of the region within 40 arcmin of NGC 891, a nearby nearly perfectly edge-on spiral galaxy. Candidate 'non-stars' with diameters greater than 15 arcsec were selected from the GSC 2.3.2 catalog and cross-comparison of observations in several bands using archived GALEX, DSS2, WISE, and Two Micron All Sky Survey images identified contaminating stars, artifacts, and background galaxies, all of which were excluded. The resulting 71 galaxies, many of which were previously uncataloged, comprise a size-limited survey of the region. A majority of the galaxies are in the background of NGC 891 and are for the most part members of the A347 cluster at a distance of about 75 Mpc. The new finds approximately double the known membership of A347, previously thought to be relatively sparse. We identify a total of seven dwarf galaxies, most of which are new discoveries. The newly discovered dwarf galaxies are dim and gas-poor and may be associated with the previously observed arcs of red giant branch halo stars in the halo and the prominent H I filament and the lopsided features in the disk of NGC 891. Several of the dwarfs show signs of disruption, consistent with being remnants of an ancient collision.

  7. H{\\alpha} Kinematics of S4G spiral galaxies I. NGC 864

    E-print Network

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Sánchez-Gallego, José Ramón; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Gadotti, Dimitri A; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Buta, Ronald J; Comerón, Sébastien; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Madore, Barry F; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 864, using H{\\alpha} Fabry-Perot data obtained with the GH{\\alpha}FaS instrument at the William Herschel Telescope in La Palma, complemented with images at 3.6 {\\mu}m, in the R band and in H{\\alpha} filter, and integral field spectroscopic data. The resulting data cubes and velocity maps allow the study of the kinematics of the galaxy, including in-depth investigations of the rotation curve, velocity moment maps, velocity residual maps, gradient maps and position-velocity diagrams. We find asymmetries in the velocity field in the bar zone, caused by non-circular motions, probably in response to the potential of the bar. We also find a flat-profile bar, in agreement with the strong bar, with the grand design spiral pattern, and with the gap between the ends of the bar and the start of the spiral arms. We quantify the rate of massive star formation, which is concentrated in the two spiral arms.

  8. THE ARECIBO GALAXY ENVIRONMENT SURVEY. III. OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE GALAXY PAIR NGC 7332/7339 AND THE ISOLATED GALAXY NGC 1156

    SciTech Connect

    Minchin, R. F.; Momjian, E.; Auld, R.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Taylor, R.; Valls-Gabaud, D.; Van Driel, W.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Henning, P. A.; O'Neil, K. L.

    2010-10-15

    Two 5 deg{sup 2} regions around the NGC 7332/9 galaxy pair and the isolated galaxy NGC 1156 have been mapped in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H I) with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array out to a redshift of {approx}0.065 ({approx}20,000 km s{sup -1}) as part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. One of the aims of this survey is to investigate the environment of galaxies by identifying dwarf companions and interaction remnants; both of these areas provide the potential for such discoveries. The neutral hydrogen observations were complemented by optical and radio follow-up observations with a number of telescopes. A total of 87 galaxies were found, of which 39 (45%) were previously cataloged and 15 (17%) have prior redshifts. Two dwarf galaxies have been discovered in the NGC 7332 group and a single dwarf galaxy in the vicinity of NGC 1156. A parallel optical search of the area revealed one further possible dwarf galaxy near NGC 7332.

  9. An extremely optically dim tidal feature in the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877

    E-print Network

    Lee-Waddell, K; Cuillandre, J -C; Cannon, J; Haynes, M P; Sick, J; Chandra, P; Patra, N; Stierwalt, S; Giovanelli, R

    2014-01-01

    We present GMRT HI observations and deep CFHT MegaCam optical images of the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877 (hereafter NGC 871/6/7). Our high-resolution data sets provide a census of the HI and stellar properties of the detected gas-rich group members. In addition to a handful of spiral, irregular and dwarf galaxies, this group harbours an intriguing HI feature, AGC 749170, that has a gas mass of ~10^9.3 M_sol, a dynamical-to-gas mass ratio of ~1 (assuming the cloud is rotating and in dynamical equilibrium) and no optical counterpart in previous imaging. Our observations have revealed a faint feature in the CFHT g'- and r'-bands; if it is physically associated with AGC 749170, the latter has M/L_g > 1000 M_sol/L_sol as well as a higher metallicity (estimated using photometric colours) and a significantly younger stellar population than the other low-mass gas-rich group members. These properties, as well as its spectral and spatial location with respect to its suspected parent galaxie...

  10. Constraints on the minor merging and star formation history of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 5430 through observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Umei, Michiko

    2015-10-01

    We used multi-wavelength analysis of the newly observed molecular gas [12CO and 13CO(1-0)] with interferometer CARMA and archival star formation tracers to constrain the interaction, merging, and star formation history of an off-center minor merger, a three-spiral barred galaxy NGC 5430 and its satellite embedded in the bar. Morphology of the molecular gas in the bar of NGC 5430 shows minimal signs of recent interactions with our resolution. The apparent morphological remnant of the past galaxy interaction is an asymmetric spiral arm, containing more molecular gas and exhibiting higher star formation rate (SFR) surface density than the two primary arms. Rotation curve analysis suggests that NGC 5430 collided with its satellite several Gyr ago. History of star formation was constrained by using SFRs that trace different timescales (infrared, radio continuum, and H?). The collision occurred 5-10 Myr ago, triggering a transient off-center starburst of Wolf-Rayet stars at the eastern bar end. In the past, the global SFR during the Wolf-Rayet starburst peaked at 35 M? yr-1. At present, the merger-driven starburst is rapidly decaying and the current global SFR has decreased to the Galactic value. The SFR will continue to decay as suggested by the present amount of dense gas [traced by HCN(1-0)]. Nonetheless, the global SFR is still dominated by the Wolf-Rayet region rather than the circumnuclear region. Compared with other barred galaxies, the circumnuclear region exhibits a particularly low dense gas fraction, low star formation activity, and high concentration of gas. Physical properties of the molecular gas are inferred by using the large velocity gradient calculations. The initial mass ratio of NGC 5430 to its satellite is suggested to be in an intermediate ratio range of 7:1-20:1.

  11. CO(J=3-2) On-the-fly Mapping of the Nearby Spiral Galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793: Spatially-resolved CO(J=3-2) Star-formation Law

    E-print Network

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of CO(J=3-2) on-the-fly mappings of two nearby non-barred spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793 with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment at an effective angular resolution of 25". We successfully obtained global distributions of CO(J=3-2) emission over the entire disks at a sub-kpc resolution for both galaxies. We examined the spatially-resolved (sub-kpc) relationship between CO(J=3-2) luminosities (L'CO(3-2)) and infrared (IR) luminosities (LIR) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with global luminosities of JCMT Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey sample. We found a striking linear L'CO(3-2)-LIR correlation over the 4 orders of magnitude, and the correlation is consistent even with that for ultraluminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter selected galaxies. In addition, we examined the spatially-resolved relationship between CO(J=3-2) intensities (ICO(3-2)) and extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with that f...

  12. ROSAT PSPC and HRI observations of the composite starburst/Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1672

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Halpern, Jules P.; Iwasawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    The nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672 has been observed with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) and High Resolution Imager (HRI) instruments on board the ROSAT X-ray satellite. NGC 1672 is thought to have an obscured Seyfert nucleus, and it has strong starburst activity as well. Three bright X-ray sources with luminosities 1-2 x 10(exp 40) erg/s are clearly identified with NGC 1672. The strongest lies at the nucleus, and the other two lie at the ends of NGC 1672's prominent bar, locations that are also bright in H alpha and near-infrared images. The nuclear source is resolved by the HRI on about the scale of the recently identified nuclear ring, and one of the sources at the ends of the bar is also probably resolved. The X-ray spectrum of the nuclear source is quite soft, having a Raymond-Smith plasma temperature of approximately equals 0.7 keV and little evidence for intrinsic absorption. The ROSAT band X-ray flux of the nuclear source appears to be dominated not by X-ray binary emission but rather by diffuse gas emission. The absorption and emission properties of the sources, as well as their spatial extents, lead us to models of superbubbles driven by supernovae. However, the large density and emission measure of the nuclear X-ray source stretch the limits that can be comfortably accommodated by these models. We do not detect direct emission from the putative Seyfert nucleus, although an alternative model for the nuclear source is thermal emission from gas that is photoionized by a hidden Seyfert nucleus. The spectra of the other two X-ray sources are harder than that of the nuclear source, and have similar difficulties with regard to superbubble models.

  13. Constraints on the Minor Merging and Star Formation History of the Wolf-Rayet Galaxy NGC 5430 Through Observations

    E-print Network

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo; Umei, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    We used multi-wavelength analysis of the newly observed molecular gas (12CO and 13CO (1-0)) with interferometer CARMA and archival star formation tracers to constrain the interaction, merging, and star formation history of an off-center minor merger, a three-spiral barred galaxy NGC 5430 and its satellite embedded in the bar. Morphology of the molecular gas in the bar of NGC 5430 shows minimal signs of recent interactions in our resolution. The apparent morphological remnant of the past galaxy interaction is an asymmetric spiral arm, containing more molecular gas and exhibiting higher star formation rate (SFR) surface density than the two primary arms. Rotation curve analysis suggests that NGC 5430 and its satellite collided several Gyr ago. History of star formation was constrained by using SFRs that trace different timescales (infrared, radio continuum, and H-alpha). The collision occurred 5 - 10 Myr ago, triggering a transient off-center starburst of Wolf-Rayet stars at the eastern bar end. In the past, th...

  14. Bars and secular evolution in disk galaxies: Theoretical input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.

    2013-10-01

    Bars play a major role in driving the evolution of disk galaxies and in shaping their present properties. They cause angular momentum to be redistributed within the galaxy, emitted mainly from (near-)resonant material at the inner Lindblad resonance of the bar, and absorbed mainly by (near-)resonant material in the spheroid (i.e., the halo and, whenever relevant, the bulge) and in the outer disk. Spheroids delay and slow down the initial growth of the bar they host, but, at the later stages of the evolution, they strengthen the bar by absorbing angular momentum. Increased velocity dispersion in the (near-)resonant regions delays bar formation and leads to less strong bars. When bars form they are vertically thin, but soon their inner parts puff up and form what is commonly known as the boxy/peanut bulge. This gives a complex and interesting shape to the bar which explains a number of observations and also argues that the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar in our Galaxy are, respectively, the thin and the thick part of a single bar. The value of the bar pattern speed may be set by optimising the balance between emitters and absorbers, so that a maximum amount of angular momentum is redistributed. As they evolve, bars grow stronger and rotate slower. Bars also redistribute matter within the galaxy, create a disky bulge (pseudo-bulge), increase the disk scale-length and extent and drive substructures such as spirals and rings. They also affect the shape of the inner part of the spheroid, which can evolve from spherical to triaxial.

  15. Circumnuclear molecular gas in megamaser disk galaxies NGC 4388 and NGC 1194

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; Lyubenova, Mariya; Van de Ven, Glenn; Läsker, Ronald; Walsh, Jonelle

    2014-06-20

    We explore the warm molecular and ionized gas in the centers of two megamaser disk galaxies using K-band spectroscopy. Our ultimate goal is to determine how gas is funneled onto the accretion disk, here traced by megamaser spots on sub-parsec scales. We present NIR IFU data with a resolution of ?50 pc for two galaxies: NGC 4388 with VLT/SINFONI and NGC 1194 with Keck/OSIRIS+AO. The high spatial resolution and rich spectral diagnostics allow us to study both the stellar and gas kinematics as well as gas excitation on scales only an order of magnitude larger than the maser disk. We find a drop in the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner ?100 pc of NGC 4388, a common signature of a dynamically cold central component seen in many active nuclei. We also see evidence for noncircular gas motions in the molecular hydrogen on similar scales, with the gas kinematics on 100 parsec scales aligned with the megamaser disk. In contrast, the high ionization lines and Br? trace outflow along the 100 parsec-scale jet. In NGC 1194, the continuum from the accreting black hole is very strong, making it difficult to measure robust two-dimensional kinematics, but the spatial distribution and line ratios of the molecular hydrogen and Br? have consistent properties between the two galaxies.

  16. Star formation in the merging Galaxy NGC3256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, James R.; Wright, G. S.; Joseph, R. D.; Frogel, J. A.; Phillips, M. M.; Meikle, W. P. S.

    1987-01-01

    The central 5 kpc of the ultra-luminous merging galaxy NGC 3256 was mapped at J, H, K, L, and 10 micrometer, and a 2 micrometer spectra of the nuclear region was obtained. This data was used to identify and characterize the super starburst which has apparently been triggered and fuelled by the merger of two gas rich galaxies. It is also shown that the old stellar population has relaxed into a single spheroidal system, and that a supernova driven wind might eventually drive any remaining gas from the system to leave a relic which will be indistinguishable from an elliptical galaxy.

  17. The H II regions of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239

    SciTech Connect

    Krienke, K.; Hodge, P. Washington, University, Seattle )

    1991-03-01

    The luminosities of the 88 H II regions of NGC 3239, very likely a merging galaxy system, were measured by digital analysis of a photographic plate (20 A bandwidth filter). Despite evidence for earlier starburst activity, the present H II luminosity function is very similar to that for the LMC, including a supergiant H II region of 0.76 the luminosity of 30 Dor. The measured H II regions of NGC 3239 have an H-alpha total luminosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 40th erg/s. 13 refs.

  18. A barred spiral at the centre of the giant elliptical radio galaxy Centaurus A

    E-print Network

    Mirabel, I F; Sanders, D B; Sauvage, M; Tagger, M; Charmandaris, V; Vigroux, L; Gallais, P; Césarsky, C J; Block, D L

    1999-01-01

    We report observations at mid-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths of Centaurus A (CenA, NGC 5128), the giant elliptical galaxy that harbors the closest radio loud Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) to Earth. The dust emission from the deep interior of CenA reveals a bisymmetric structure with a diameter of 5' (5 kpc), centred at the AGN. This structure is remarkably similar to that of a barred spiral galaxy, with the bar lying in a plane that is tilted ~18 degrees from the line of sight. The true nature of the distribution of dust in the inner regions of CenA is noticeably displaced from the more chaotic and widespread optical obscuration. The barred spiral is a quasi-stable structure formed at the center of the giant elliptical from the tidal debris of a gas-rich object(s) accreted in the past 10^9 years. The total size and mass of interstellar gas in the barred spiral at the center of CenA is comparable to the small Local Group spiral galaxy Messier 33. The observation of this remarkable structure opens the ...

  19. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, M.; Jungwiert, B.; Jílková, L.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.; K?ížek, M.

    2013-11-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is surrounded by numerous stellar shells that are concentric arcs centered on the Galactic core. They are very likely a result of a minor merger and they consist of stars in nearly radial orbits. For a given potential, the shell radii at a given time after the merger can be calculated and compared to observations. The MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a theory that aims to solve the missing mass problem by modifying the laws of classical dynamics in the limit of small accelerations. Hernquist & Quinn (1987, ApJ, 312, 1) claimed that the shell distribution of NGC 3923 contradicted MOND, but Milgrom (1988, ApJ, 332, 86) found several substantial insufficiencies in their work. Aims: We test whether the observed shell distribution in NGC 3923 is consistent with MOND using the current observational knowledge of the shell number and positions and of the host galaxy surface brightness profile, which supersede the data available in the 1980s when the last (and negative) tests of MOND viability were performed on NGC 3923. Methods: Using the 3.6 ?m bandpass image of NGC 3923 from the Spitzer space telescope we construct the mass profile of the galaxy. The evolution of shell radii in MOND is then computed using analytical formulae. We use 27 currently observed shells and allow for their multi-generation formation, unlike the Hernquist & Quinn one-generation model that used the 18 shells known at the time. Results: Our model reproduces the observed shell radii with a maximum deviation of ~5% for 25 out of 27 known shells while keeping a reasonable formation scenario. A multi-generation nature of the shell system, resulting from successive passages of the surviving core of the tidally disrupted dwarf galaxy, is one of key ingredients of our scenario supported by the extreme shell radial range. The 25 reproduced shells are interpreted as belonging to three generations.

  20. Intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxy: NGC 1052 using modified prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Singh, Arun; Chakraborty, D. K.

    Determination of intrinsic shapes of the individual elliptical galaxies using photometry is an important problem because the number of galaxies with good photometry is many more than those with good kinematics. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies by combining the profiles of photometric data from the literature with triaxial models. We use ensembles of models so that the shape estimates are largely model independent. We follow the methodology as described in Statler (1994) which is modified to suit our requirements. We find that short to long axial ratios at very small radii and at very large radii, and the absolute value of the triaxiality difference are the best constrained shape parameters. Using a flat prior, the shapes of elliptical galaxies are reported by Chakraborty et al (2008) and Singh & Chakraborty (2009). The flat prior of 20 galaxies are superimposed over EAC-Ph other to obtain the distribution. This distribution is regarded as a prior (a modified prior) and shapes of 20 galaxies are again recalculated by using such modified prior. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 using modified prior should be more reliable. These results are compared with the previous estimates which are determined by using flat prior. The plot shows the intrinsic shapes of the NGC 1052 as a function of (q0,q?) for two dimensional shapes and (q0,q?, |Td|) for three dimensional shapes, where q0 and q?(=q) are the short to long axial ratios at small and at large radii and |Td| is the absolute values of the triaxiality difference, defined as |Td|= |T? - T0|. The probability is shown in the dark gray region: darker is the region higher is the probability. We find that the galaxy NGC 1052 is flatter inside and flatter outside.

  1. Atomic hydrogen in the NGC 4631 group of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, R. J.

    1994-05-01

    We present WSRT observations of 21-cm line emission from the disturbed, edge-on galaxy NGC 4631. Maps at resolutions 12"x22", 35", and 45"x89" are presented, and these are used in conjunction with position-velocity cuts through the various data cubes in order to understand the structure of the disk and the many tidal spurs which protrude from this interacting galaxy. We also study the two companions NGC 4656 and NGC 4627, and three dwarfs in the system with H I detections. We first attempt to get a rough idea of the structure of the disk of NGC 4631. The data can be well modelled by a differentially rotating disk with a steep fall-off beyond 4 kpc, and an outer disk restricted to the radius range 7-15 kpc. The latter component could simply be a set of spiral arms. Radial motions are probably present in the central few arcminutes. The inner disk bends upwards with increasing distance from the center on both the east and west sides. Strong tides may be responsible. The H I layer at high resolution shows many disturbances, a large extent parallel to the minor axis, and a ragged appearance along its edges. The velocity structure of the gas far from the major axis of NGC 4631 suggests that most of this emission is due to the galaxy being not quite edge-on, a rather large (500-1000 pc) scale-height in the outer galaxy, and the connection of one of the spurs with the disk. A few high latitude features with a probable inner disk origin are found, and these are more likely to be due to gas raised out of the plane by stellar winds and supernovae. However, outer galaxy star formation may contribute to the large H I scale-height there. No gas can be unambiguously associated with the dwarf elliptical companion, NGC 4627. It is difficult to identify any of the spurs as gas that once belonged to this galaxy (despite recent signs of star formation), as in the model of Combes. Modelling of the tidal encounters should now be redone, since more tidal debris has been discovered and an optical velocity of NGC 4627 has been determined. Position-velocity diagrams parallel to the major axis of the edge-on companion, NGC 4656, reveal a ring-like structure in the inner 15 kpc. Furthermore, the high and low-velocity sides of the ring arise from opposite sides of the midplane. Two possible explanations are given for this structure. First, NGC 4656 may consist primarily of two loosely wrapped tidal arms, viewed not quite edge-on. Second, NGC 4656 may be a ring galaxy similar to the Cartwheel. The south-west side of the disk shows many "worms" (or vertical filaments) with velocities consistent with an outer disk origin. The most prominent worm, however, is on the north-east side, above the center of the major axis. Its mass is ~3 x 10^7^ Msun_. At very marginal signal-to-noise ratios, the worm bends around to form a complete loop.

  2. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-10-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 109 solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from the material associated with the system and that this entire complex contains several proto- or young dwarf irregular galaxies in various stages of development. We are therefore witnessing the early evolution of a number of genuinely young galaxies. Given the evident importance of the NGC 5291 system as a 'nursery' for young galaxies, careful modeling is required if we are to understand this remarkable galaxy.

  3. Nuclear outflow from the edge-on galaxy NGC 3628

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Heckman, T.; Keel, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    New evidence is presented for collimated outflow from a starburst nucleus in the edge-on galaxy NGC 3628. A plume of X-ray emission along the minor axis of this galaxy is suggested by the distribution of counts in the softer energy channels of the Einstein Observatory IPC. Plumes of H-alpha emission are visible in a CCD image of the southern minor axis region, at a position angle consistent with that of the X-ray plume, while extended, possibly filamentary, H-alpha emission is visible in the north. Optical spectroscopy along the northern minor axis clearly detects line emission, with line ratios of H-alpha, N II, and S II changing from those characteristic of normal H II regions near the nucleus, to a low-ionization state, consistent with shock heating, farther out. All this evidence, and the IR and radio continuum properties of this galaxy, make NGC 3628 another member of the growing class of galaxies with starburst nuclear activity and outflowing winds, to which NGC 253 and M82 already belong.

  4. A survey of satellite galaxies around NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Meghin; Loebman, Sarah; Yoachim, Peter

    2014-06-20

    We conduct a survey of satellite galaxies around the nearby spiral NGC 4258 by combining spectroscopic observations from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. New spectroscopy is obtained for 15 galaxies. Of the 47 observed objects, we categorize 8 of them as probable satellites, 8 as possible satellites, and 17 as unlikely to be satellites. We do not speculate on the membership of the remaining 14 galaxies due to a lack of velocity and distance information. Radially integrating our best-fit NFW profile for NGC 4258 yields a total mass of 1.8 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ?} within 200 kpc. We find that the angular distribution of the satellites appears to be random, and not preferentially aligned with the disk of NGC 4258. In addition, many of the probable satellite galaxies have blue u–r colors and appear to be star-forming irregulars in SDSS images; this stands in contrast to the low number of blue satellites in the Milky Way and M31 systems at comparable distances.

  5. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey: Observations towards the NGC 7817/7798 Galaxy Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Amanda; Robert Minchin

    2016-01-01

    The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) examines the environment of neutral hydrogen gas in the interstellar medium. AGES uses the 305m Arecibo Radio Telescope and the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array to create a deep field neutral hydrogen survey which we used to detect galaxies in an area five square degrees around the galaxy pair NGC 7817/7798. By finding and investigating hydrogen rich galaxies we hope to gain a better understanding of how the environment affects galaxy evolution. H1 line profiles were made for the detected H1 emission and ten galaxies which had the characteristic double-horned feature were found. NGC 7798 was not detected, but NGC 7817 and the other galaxies were cross-identified in NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database as well as in Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain optical data. Out of the ten, two of the sources were uncatalogued. We analyzed the hydrogen spectra and aperture photometry to learn about the characteristics of these galaxies such as their heliocentric velocity, flux, and mass of the neutral hydrogen. Furthermore, we graphed the Tully-Fisher and the Baryonic Tully-Fisher of the ten sources and found that most followed the relation. One that is the biggest outlier is suspected be a galaxy cluster while other outliers may be caused by ram pressure stripping deforming the galaxy.

  6. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  7. Constraining Galaxy Evolution With Bulge-Disk-Bar Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Tim Weinzirl; Shardha Jogee; Fabio D. Barazza

    2008-02-26

    Structural decomposition of galaxies into bulge, disk, and bar components is important to address a number of scientific problems. Measuring bulge, disk, and bar structural parameters will set constraints on the violent and secular processes of galaxy assembly and recurrent bar formation and dissolution models. It can also help to quantify the fraction and properties of bulgeless galaxies (those systems having no bulge or only a relatively insignificant disky-pseudobulges), which defy galaxy formation paradigms requiring almost every disk galaxy to have a classical bulge at its core. We demonstrate a proof of concept and show early results of our ongoing three-component bulge-disk-bar decomposition of NIR images for a sample of three complementary samples spanning different epochs and different environments (field and cluster). In contrast to most early studies, which only attempt two-component bulge-disk decomposition, we fit three components using GALFIT: a bulge, a disk, and a bar. We show that it is important to include the bar component, as this can significantly lower the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), in many cases by a factor of two or more, thus effectively changing the Hubble type of a galaxy from early to late.

  8. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H.; Kayaci, S.; Ozel, M. E.; Sonbas, E.; Balman, S.

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  9. Massive Star Formation in Two Spiral Galaxies: NGC 3938 and NGC 3184; Multiwavelength Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldú-Primo, A.; Cruz-González, I.

    2008-12-01

    The clumpy structure of two spiral galaxies NGC 3184 (SAB(rs)cd HII) and NGC 3938 (SA(s)c HII) is analyzed at different wavelengths (8 and 24 ?m, NUV, H?, and CO) using an algorithm called ``Clumpfind2d'' (Williams et al. 1994). Based on the clumps found by this algorithm, the star formation rates (SFR) of both galaxies are calculated by different methods from the literature, which vary depending on the wavelength used in each case. The dispersion on the results obtained from these methods is large. For each wavelength, a specific relation between the luminosity and area of each clump is found. New formulas for calculating the SFR at all the studied wavelengths are proposed. These formulas result from the extrapolation of the H? formula taken from the literature via the relation found in this same project. The mean multiwavelength SFR for NGC 3184 is found to be 0.72+/-0.40 M_? yr^{-1}, while for NGC 3938 it is 0.33+/-0.09 M_? yr^{-1}.

  10. A Mid-IR comparative analysis of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386

    E-print Network

    Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel; Riffel, Rogério; Sales, Dinalva A; Winge, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    New Gemini mid-infrared spectroscopic observations together with Spitzer Space telescope archival data, are used to study the properties of the dusty torus and circumnuclear star formation in the active galaxies NGC 7213 and NGC 1386. Our main conclusions can be summarised as follows. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is absent in the T-ReCS nuclear spectra but is ubiquitous in the data from Spitzer at distances above 100 pc. Star formation rates surface densities are estimated from the 12.8 $\\mu m$ [Ne{\\sc ii}] line strengths leading to values close to 0.1M$_\\odot\\,\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}\\,\\,{\\rm kpc}^{-2}$. Analogous estimates based on photometric fluxes of IRAC's 8 $\\mu m$ images are higher by a factor of almost 15, which could be linked to excitation of PAH molecules by older stellar populations. T-ReCS high spatial resolution data reveal silicate absorption at $\\lambda$ 9.7 $\\mu m$ in the central tens of parsecs of the Seyfert 2 NGC 1386, and silicate emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7213. In th...

  11. ALMA-backed NIR high resolution integral field spectroscopy of the NUGA galaxy NGC 1433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaji?, Semir; Moser, Lydia; Eckart, Andreas; Valencia-S., Mónica; Combes, Françoise; Horrobin, Matthew; García-Burillo, Santiago; García-Marín, Macarena; Fischer, Sebastian; Zuther, Jens

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) H- and K-band European Southern Observatory SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1433. We investigate the central 500 pc of this nearby galaxy, concentrating on excitation conditions, morphology, and stellar content. NGC 1433 was selected from our extended NUGA(-south) sample, which was additionally observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). NGC 1433 is a ringed, spiral galaxy with a main stellar bar in roughly east-west direction (PA 94°) and a secondary bar in the nuclear region (PA 31°). Several dusty filaments are detected in the nuclear region with the Hubble Space Telescope. ALMA detects molecular CO emission coinciding with these filaments. The active galactic nucleus is not strong and the galaxy is also classified as a low-ionization emission-line region (LINER). Methods: The NIR is less affected by dust extinction than optical light and is sensitive to the mass-dominating stellar populations. SINFONI integral field spectroscopy combines NIR imaging and spectroscopy, allowing us to analyse several emission and absorption lines to investigate the stellar populations and ionization mechanisms over the 10? × 10? field of view (FOV). Results: We present emission and absorption line measurements in the central kpc of NGC 1433. We detect a narrow Balmer line and several H2 lines. We find that the stellar continuum peaks in the optical and NIR in the same position, indicating that there is no covering of the center by a nuclear dust lane. A strong velocity gradient is detected in all emission lines at that position. The position angle of this gradient is at 155° whereas the galactic rotation is at a position angle of 201°. Our measures of the molecular hydrogen lines, hydrogen recombination lines, and [Fe ii] indicate that the excitation at the nucleus is caused by thermal excitation, i.e., shocks that can be associated with active galactic nuclei emission, supernovae, or outflows. The line ratios [Fe ii]/Pa? and H2/Br? show a Seyfert to LINER identification of the nucleus. We do not detect high star formation rates in our FOV. The stellar continuum is dominated by spectral signatures of red-giant M stars. The stellar line-of-sight velocity follows the galactic field whereas the light continuum follows the nuclear bar. Conclusions: The dynamical center of NGC 1433 coincides with the optical and NIR center of the galaxy and the black hole position. Within the central arcsecond, the molecular hydrogen and the 12CO(3-2) emissions - observed in the NIR and in the submillimeter with SINFONI and ALMA, respectively - are indicative for a nuclear outflow originating from the galaxy's SMBH. A small circum-nuclear disk cannot be fully excluded. Derived gravitational torques show that the nuclear bar is able to drive gas inward to scales where viscosity torques and dynamical friction become important. The black hole mass, derived using stellar velocity dispersion, is ~107M?. Based on the ESO-VLT proposal ID: 090.B-0657(A) and on observations carried out with ALMA in cycle 0.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  13. GIANT GALAXIES, DWARFS, AND DEBRIS SURVEY. I. DWARF GALAXIES AND TIDAL FEATURES AROUND NGC 7331

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, Johannes; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Gallagher, John S. III

    2012-12-01

    The Giant GAlaxies, Dwarfs, and Debris Survey (GGADDS) concentrates on the nearby universe to study how galaxies have interacted in groups of different morphology, density, and richness. In these groups, we select the dominant spiral galaxy and search its surroundings for dwarf galaxies and tidal interactions. This paper presents the first results from deep wide-field imaging of NGC 7331, where we detect only four low-luminosity candidate dwarf companions and a stellar stream that may be evidence of a past tidal interaction. The dwarf galaxy candidates have surface brightnesses of {mu}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 23-25 mag arcsec{sup -2} with (g - r){sub 0} colors of 0.57-0.75 mag in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey filter system, consistent with their being dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. A faint stellar stream structure on the western edge of NGC 7331 has {mu}{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 27 mag arcsec{sup -2} and a relatively blue color of (g - r){sub 0} = 0.15 mag. If it is tidal debris, then this stream could have formed from a rare type of interaction between NGC 7331 and a dwarf irregular or transition-type dwarf galaxy. We compare the structure and local environments of NGC 7331 to those of other nearby giant spirals in small galaxy groups. NGC 7331 has a much lower ({approx}2%) stellar mass in the form of early-type satellites than found for M31 and lacks the presence of nearby companions like luminous dwarf elliptical galaxies or the Magellanic Clouds. However, our detection of a few dSph candidates suggests that it is not deficient in low-luminosity satellites.

  14. Low-luminosity X-ray Active Nuclei in S0 galaxies NGC 3065 and NGC 4203

    E-print Network

    Iyomoto, N; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Tashiro, M; Ohashi, T; Iyomoto, Naoko; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsushita, Kyoko; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Tashiro, Makoto; Ohashi, Takaya

    1998-01-01

    We present ASCA X-ray results on two S0 galaxies, NGC 3065 and NGC 4203. In both galaxies, we detected hard X-ray emission from a point-like source at the nucleus. Single power law model having a photon index of 1.8 well described the spectra of these sources, while thin thermal emission which is common in S0 galaxies was not detected. The 2-10 keV luminosities of these nuclear sources, 2.2 times 10^{41} erg s^{-1} and 1.5 times 10^{40} erg s^{-1}, are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those expected as an assembly of low-mass X-ray binaries in these galaxies. Our results strongly suggest that NGC 3065 and NGC 4203 host low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs).

  15. The Evolutionary History of the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Michael Pierce; Jean P. Brodie; Duncan A. Forbes; Michael A. Beasley; Robert Proctor; Jay Strader

    2005-02-13

    We have obtained Keck spectra for 16 globular clusters (GCs) associated with the merger remnant elliptical NGC 1052, as well as a long-slit spectrum of the galaxy. We derive ages, metallicities and abundance ratios from simple stellar population models using the methods of Proctor & Sansom (2002), applied to extragalactic GCs for the first time. We find all of the GCs to be ~13 Gyr old according to simple stellar populations, with a large range of metallicities. From the galaxy spectrum we find NGC 1052 to have a luminosity-weighted central age of ~2 Gyr and metallicity of [Fe/H]~+0.6. No strong gradients in either age or metallicity were found to the maximum radius measured (~1 kpc). However, we do find a strong radial gradient in alpha-element abundance, which reaches a very high central value. The young central starburst age is consistent with the age inferred from the HI tidal tails and infalling gas of \\~1 Gyr. Thus, although NGC 1052 shows substantial evidence for a recent merger and an associated starburst, it appears that the merger did not induce the formation of new GCs, perhaps suggesting that little recent star formation occurred. This interpretation is consistent with ``frosting'' models for early-type galaxy formation. (Abridged)

  16. Chandra and Hubble Composite Image of Spiral Galaxy NGC 4631

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the central region of the spiral galaxy NGC 4631 as seen edge-on from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Chandra data, shown in blue and purple, provide the first unambiguous evidence for a halo of hot gas surrounding a galaxy that is very similar to our Milky Way. The structure across the middle of the image and the extended faint filaments, shown in orange, represent the observation from the HST that reveals giant bursting bubbles created by clusters of massive stars. Scientists have debated for more than 40 years whether the Milky Way has an extended corona, or halo, of hot gas. Observations of NGC 4631 and similar galaxies provide astronomers with an important tool in the understanding our own galactic environment. A team of astronomers, led by Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, observed NGC 4631 with CXO's Advanced Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). The observation took place on April 15, 2000, and its duration was approximately 60,000 seconds.

  17. XMM-Newton observation of the interacting galaxies NGC 1512 and NGC 1510

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducci, L.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 1512 is interacting with the smaller galaxy NGC 1510 and shows a peculiar morphology, characterised by two extended arms immersed in an HI disc whose size is about four times larger than the optical diameter of NGC 1512. Aims: For the first time we performed a deep X-ray observation of the galaxies NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 with XMM-Newton to gain information on the population of X-ray sources and diffuse emission in a system of interacting galaxies. Methods: We identified and classified the sources detected in the XMM-Newton field of view by means of spectral analysis, hardness-ratios calculated with a Bayesian method, X-ray variability, and cross-correlations with catalogues in optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths. We also made use of archival Swift (X-ray) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (radio) data to better constrain the nature of the sources detected with XMM-Newton. Results: We detected 106 sources in the energy range of 0.2-12 keV, out of which 15 are located within the D25 regions of NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 and at least six sources coincide with the extended arms. We identified and classified six background objects and six foreground stars. We discussed the nature of a source within the D25 ellipse of NGC 1512, whose properties indicate a quasi-stellar object or an intermediate ultra-luminous X-ray source. Taking into account the contribution of low-mass X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, the number of high-mass X-ray binaries detected within the D25 region of NGC 1512 is consistent with the star formation rate obtained in previous works based on radio, infrared optical, and UV wavelengths. We detected diffuse X-ray emission from the interior region of NGC 1512 with a plasma temperature of kT = 0.68 (0.31-0.87) keV and a 0.3-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 1.3 × 1038 erg s-1, after correcting for unresolved discrete sources. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The radio observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, which is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A115

  18. LOCAL GROUP DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. STELLAR KINEMATICS TO LARGE RADII IN NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    SciTech Connect

    Geha, M.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Kalirai, J.; Guhathakurta, P.; Kirby, E. N.

    2010-03-01

    We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M 31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of 8 half-light radii (8r{sub eff} {approx} 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. In contrast to previous studies, we find that both dEs have significant internal rotation. We measure a maximum rotational velocity of 17 +- 2 km s{sup -1} for NGC 147 and 15 +- 5 km s{sup -1} for NGC 185. While both rotation profiles suggest a flattening in the outer regions, there is no indication that we have reached the radius of maximum rotation velocity. The velocity dispersions decrease gently with radius with average dispersions of 16 +- 1 km s{sup -1} and 24 +- 1 km s{sup -1} for NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. The average metallicities for NGC 147 and NGC 185 are [Fe/H] = -1.1 +- 0.1 and [Fe/H] = -1.3 +- 0.1, respectively; both dEs have internal metallicity dispersions of 0.5 dex, but show no evidence for a radial metallicity gradient. We construct two-{integral} axisymmetric dynamical models and find that the observed kinematical profiles cannot be explained without modest amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. We measure central mass-to-light ratios of M/L{sub V} = 4.2 +- 0.6 and M/L{sub V} = 4.6 +- 0.6 for NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. Both dE galaxies are consistent with being primarily flattened by their rotational motions, although some anisotropic velocity dispersion is needed to fully explain their observed shapes. The velocity profiles of all three Local Group dEs (NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205) suggest that rotation is more prevalent in the dE galaxy class than previously assumed, but often manifests only at several times the effective radius. Since all dEs outside the Local Group have been probed to only inside the effective radius, this opens the door for formation mechanisms in which dEs are transformed or stripped versions of gas-rich rotating progenitor galaxies.

  19. The interstellar halo of spiral galaxies: NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Rand, R. J.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have detected the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) phase in the galaxy NGC 891. They found that the radial distribution of the WIM follows the molecular or young star distribution - an expected dependence. The amount of the WIM in this galaxy exceeds that in our Galaxy. The major surprize is the large thickness of the WIM phase - about 9 kpc instead 3 kpc as in our Galaxy. Clearly, this is the most significant result of the observations. The presence of low ionization gas at high z as well as at large galactocentric radii (where young stars are rare) is an important clue to the origin of the halo and observations such as the one reported here provide important data on this crucial question. In particular, the ionization of gas at high absolute z implies that either the UV photons manage to escape from the disk of the galaxy or that the extragalactic UV background plays an important role. The bulk of the WIM in spiral galaxies is a result of star-formation activity and thus these results can be understood by invoking a high star formation rate in NGC 891. Only the concerted action of supernovae can get the gas to the large z-heights as is observed in this galaxy. Support for this view comes from our detection of many worms i.e., bits and pieces of supershells in the form of kilo-parsec long vertical filaments. Researchers also saw a 600-pc size supershell located nearly one kpc above the plane of the galaxy.

  20. Dynamical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Balcells, Marc

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system are presented. Two sets of models were produced to investigate the postulated three-galaxy system of two colliding disk galaxies within NGC 520 and the dwarf galaxy UGC 957. The first set of models simulated a dwarf perturbing one-disk galaxy, which tested the possibility that NGC 520 contains only one galaxy disturbed by the passage of UGC 957. The resulting morphology of the perturbed single disk in the simulation fails to reproduce the observed tidal tails and northwest mass condensation of NGC 520. A second set of models simulated two colliding disks, which tested the hypothesis that NGC 520 itself contains two galaxies in a strong collision and UGC 957 is unimportant to the interaction. These disk-disk models produced a good match to the morphology of the present NGC 520. It is concluded that (1) NGC 520 contains two colliding disk galaxies which have produced the brighter southern half of the long tidal tail and (2) UGC 957, which may originally have been a satellite of one of the disk galaxies, formed the diffuse northern tail as it orbited NGC 520.

  1. LUMINOSITIES OF BARRED AND UNBARRED S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2012-07-20

    Lenticular galaxies with M{sub B} < -21.5 are almost exclusively unbarred, whereas both barred and unbarred objects occur at fainter luminosity levels. This effect is observed both for objects classified in blue light, and for those that were classified in the infrared. This result suggests that the most luminous (massive) S0 galaxies find it difficult to form bars. As a result, the mean luminosity of unbarred lenticular galaxies in both B and IR light is observed to be {approx}0.4 mag brighter than that of barred lenticulars. A small contribution to the observed luminosity difference that is found between SA0 and SB0 galaxies may also be due to the fact that there is an asymmetry between the effects of small classification errors on SA0 and SB0 galaxies. An elliptical (E) galaxy might be misclassified as a lenticular (S0) or an S0 as an E. However, an E will never be misclassified as an SB0, nor will an SB0 ever be called an E. This asymmetry is important because E galaxies are typically twice as luminous as S0 galaxies. The present results suggest that the evolution of luminous lenticular galaxies may be closely linked to that of elliptical galaxies, whereas fainter lenticulars might be more closely associated with ram-pressure stripped spiral galaxies. Finally, it is pointed out that fine details of the galaxy formation process might account for some of the differences between the classifications of the same galaxy by individual competent morphologists.

  2. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  3. WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION IN NORMAL EDGE-ON GALAXIES NGC 4565 AND NGC 5907

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, Seppo; Appleton, Philip N.; Gottesman, Stephen T.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Garland, Catherine A. E-mail: apple@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-15

    We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 {mu}m and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 {mu}m pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H{sub 2} excitation temperature and the ratio of the H{sub 2} line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, {Sigma}(L{sub H{sub 2}})/{Sigma}(L{sub TIR}), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H{sub 2} operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H{sub 2} emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} and 3(-50) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, respectively. The higher values represent very unlikely point-source upper limits. The point-source case is not supported by the observed emission distribution in the spectral slits. These mass surface densities cannot support the observed rotation velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. Therefore, warm molecular hydrogen cannot account for dark matter in these disk galaxies, contrary to what was implied by a previous Infrared Space Observatory study of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891.

  4. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ?CDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ?CDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ?CDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor, it is at odds with predictions from current ?CDM cosmological simulations. It may be possible that the observed velocity dispersions could be reproduced if the galaxy is significantly flattened along the line of sight (e.g. due to rotation); however, invoking this flattening is problematic. Based on observations taken at the Gemini Observatory, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and SECYT (Argentina).

  5. Star Formation Color-Time Sequence and ``Anti-Spiral" Wagon-Spoke Perturbation in Resonance Ring Galaxies: NGC3081

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousley, D.; Byrd, G. G.

    1998-12-01

    Byrd, Ousley, and Dalla Piazza(1998a, MNRAS, 298, 78) described a hybrid analytic/computer formulation of periodic interstellar cloud orbits which explains morphologies of resonance rings in SB galaxies. Byrd, Ousley, Dalla Piazza, and Domingue (1998b, Dynamics of Galaxies conf.) applied the formulation to NGC 3081 to show how ring morphology and rotation curve can give the two-fold perturbation strength and pattern speed plus the disk inclination and line of nodes. Using the perturbation in Poisson's equation with the outer disk isophote ellipticity gives the disk surface mass density as a function of radius. Within errors, the density is sufficient to explain the NGC 3081 rotation curve i.e. no halo is required. Disk density/surface brightness at each radius gives the NGC 3081 M/L, indicating a large amount of dark matter in its outer disk plane possibly eliminating certain galaxy dark matter candidates. In this poster, we study how star formation in inner resonance rings occurs where gas clouds are crowded near the end of the bar of NGC 3081. As these orbit in position angle away from the end, they age and their B-I colors change. Using the above formulation, color indexes of stellar associations can thus be empirically calibrated in years, to serve in age estimates of associations in other galaxies and as an observational test of association models. Our morphological match for NGC 3081 is excellent from the nuclear ring through the outer rings. The perturbation potential must also be valid indicating it is the radial ``wagon-spoke" type descried by Shu (1970) with two spokes. Thus NGC 3081's disk must be non-dissipational (stellar) with a stabilizing velocity dispersion. Globally, gas must be gravitationally unimportant. We explore the possibility that the elongated ``bar" of NGC3081 may only be a minority of luminous resonance ring stars superposed on a gentler global old disk star perturbation. Ousley was supported by a McWane Undergraduate Research Fellowship. We thank R. Buta and G. Purcell for use of figures.

  6. Interacting binary galaxies. III. Observations of NGC 1587/1588 and NGC 7236/7237

    SciTech Connect

    Borne, K.D.; Hoessel, J.G.

    1988-07-01

    The catalog of isolated galaxy pairs prepared by Karachentsev has been culled for its E-E constituents, and the results are reported. Radial variations of rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are extracted from the spectroscopic data for each of the two galaxies of a given pair. Such observations are described for two Karachentsev pairs, Nos. 99 and 564. The observed disturbances in rotation velocity and luminosity distribution are discussed in terms of the gravitational interaction hypothesis. It is argued that observational evidence of tidal friction in action is evidenced by these findings. One of the highest rotation rates known for an E2 galaxy of average luminosity is found in NGC 1587, the brighter component of K99. Because this rotation is in the same sense as the binary orbital motion, the net angular momentum in this isolated binary system is large, challenging simple tidal torque theories to identify the source of the momentum. 62 references.

  7. Peanuts at an angle: detecting and measuring the three-dimensional structure of bars in moderately inclined galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that direct detection and measurement of the vertically thickened parts of bars (so-called `boxy' or `peanut-shaped' bulges) are possible not only for edge-on galaxies but also for galaxies with moderate inclinations (i < 70°), and that examples are relatively common in the nearby Universe. The analysis of a sample of 78 nearby, moderately inclined (i ? 65°) early-type (S0-Sb) barred galaxies shows that the isophotal signature of the box/peanut can usually be detected for inclinations as low as i ˜ 40° - and in exceptional cases down to i ˜ 30°. In agreement with the predictions from N-body simulations, the signature is most easily detectable when the bar's position angle is within ˜50° of the galaxy major axis; in particular, galaxies where the bar lies very close to the minor axis do not show the signature clearly or at all. For galaxies with i = 40°-65° and relative angles <45°, we find evidence for the signature ?2/3 of the time; the true frequency of box/peanut structures in bars may be higher. Comparison with N-body models also allows us to link observed photometric morphology with 3D physical structures, and thus estimate the relative sizes of box/peanut structures and bars. For our local sample, we find that box/peanut structures range in radial size (measured along the bar major axis) from 0.4 to 3.8 kpc (mean =1.5 ± 0.9 kpc) and span 0.26-0.58 of the bar length (mean of 0.38 ± 0.08). This is a clear observational confirmation that when bars thicken, it is not the entire bar which does so, but only the inner part. This technique can also be used to identify galaxies with bars which have not vertically thickened. We suggest that NGC 3049 and IC 676 may be particularly good examples, and that the fraction of S0-Sb bars which lack box/peanut structures is at least ˜13 per cent.

  8. Cepheid Variables in the Maser-Host Galaxy NGC 4258

    E-print Network

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2015-01-01

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via VLBI observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and GMOS, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the SDSS gri bands over 4 years. We carried out PSF photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period-Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  9. Cepheid Variables in the Maser-host Galaxy NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Macri, Lucas M.

    2015-06-01

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via very long baseline interferometry observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri bands over 4 yr. We carried out point-spread function photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period-Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  10. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C.; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M. C.; Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A.; Minezaki, T.; Siverd, R. J.; Bord, D. J.; and others

    2014-11-10

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for H? ?4861 and He II ?4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M {sub BH} ? 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}, consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new H? measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the H?-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and H? and He II ?4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  11. Enhanced star formation: The importance of bars in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puxley, P. J.; Hawarden, T. G.; Mountain, C. M.; Leggett, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    It was found that among an IR luminous subset of nearby spiral galaxies, nearly all of the systems with IRAS colors and luminosities indicative of enhanced star formation are barred. Radio continuum and IR spectroscopic results support the hypothesis that this emission originates within the central 2 kpc; possibly in a circumnuclear ring. It was also found that outer rings are over represented among these barred systems and suggest possible reasons for this phenomena.

  12. Star formation in isolated AMIGA galaxies: dynamical influence of bars

    E-print Network

    S. Verley; F. Combes; L. Verdes-Montenegro; G. Bergond; S. Leon

    2007-07-27

    Star formation depends strongly both on the local environment of galaxies, and on the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project, Ha and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. We characterise the Ha emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and less inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We could subsequently study the Ha morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (Ha) and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r). We interpret the various bar/spiral morphologies observed in terms of the secular evolution experienced by galaxies in isolation. We also classify the different spatial distributions of star forming regions in barred galaxies. The observed frequency of particular patterns brings constraints on the lifetime of the various evolution phases. We propose an evolutive sequence accounting for the transitions between the different phases we could observe. Isolated galaxies appear not to be preferentially barred or unbarred. Through numerical simulations, trying to fit the Ha distributions yields constraints on the star formation law, which is likely to differ from a genuine Schmidt law. In particular, it is probable that the relative velocity of the gas in the bar also needs to be taken into account.

  13. Interstellar Gas in the NGC 4410 Galaxy Group

    E-print Network

    Beverly J. Smith

    2000-05-04

    We present new radio continuum, 21 cm HI, and 2.6 mm CO data for the peculiar radio galaxy NGC 4410A and its companion NGC 4410B, and compare with available optical and X-ray maps. Our radio continuum maps show an asymmetric double-lobedstructure, with a high surface brightness lobe extending 3.6 arcmin (~100 kpc) to the southeast and a 6.2 arcmin (~180 kpc) low surface brightness feature in the northwest. Molecular gas is abundant in NGC 4410A, with M(H2) ~ 4 X 10^9 M(sun) (using the standard Galactic conversion factor), but is undetected in NGC 4410B. HI is less abundant, with M(HI) ~ 10^9 M(sun) for the pair. Our HI map shows a 3 X 10^8 M(sun) HI tail extending 1.7 arcmin (50 kpc) to the southeast of the pair, coincident with a faint optical tail and partially overlapping with the southeastern radio lobe. The HI tail is anti-coincident with a 2' (56 kpc) long X-ray structure aligned with a stellar bridge that connects the pair to a third galaxy. If this X-ray emission is associated with the group, there is 3 - 8 X 10^8 M(sun) of hot gas in this feature: either intracluster gas or shocked gas associated with the bridge. Our detection of abundant interstellar gas in this pair suggests that the distortions in this lobe map have been caused by the interstellar medium in this system. The interaction of the two galaxies and the subsequent motion of the interstellar medium in the system relative to the jet may have produced sufficient ram pressure to bend the radio jet. An alternative hypothesis is that the jet was distorted by ram pressure due to an intracluster medium, although the small radial velocity of NGC 4410A relative to the group and the lack of diffuse X-ray emission in the group makes this less likely unless the group is not virialized or is in the process of merging with another group.

  14. The ULX Population in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Strickland, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Optimism is mounting for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH), which occupy the mass spectrum somewhere between the stellar-mass and supermassive varieties. IMBH are naturally predicted by theoretical stellar and black hole evolution models, but the strong attention to them began only recently with the discovery of ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULX). If isotropic and accreting normally, ULX have luminosities tens to thousands of times greater than the Eddington luminosity of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole. A standard interpretation of their x-ray flux implies that they are powered by IMBH. On the other hand, they may be stellar-mass black holes that are beamed or emit anisotropically. Therefore, the exact nature of ULX is highly controversial. ULX are common in starburst galaxies. At a distance of only 3 Mpc, NGC 253 is bright, nearby, and one of the best-studied starburst galaxies. Approximately 50 distinct x-ray point sources are detected in or near the plane of the galaxy. At least six of these are ULX, with luminosities greater than 10 times that expected for a stellar-mass, accreting compact object. We present new Chandra data from an 80 ksec observation of NGC 253 obtained in 2003 that provides high quality spectra of these sources. Comparing the 1999 and 2003 Chandra observations, the sources have varied significantly over the course of four years, with one of the ULX disappearing completely. The ULX spectra are similar to black-hole XRBs and at least one appears to possess an iron K line. We will discuss what insight these data provide for the nature of ULX in NGC 253 .

  15. Peculiarities in the optical variability of the galaxy NGC 4151

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutyi, V.M.; Oknyanskii, V.L.

    1981-11-01

    Photographic and photoelectric observations of the optical variability of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 are analyzed. The presence of a quasiperiodic 126/sup d/ component is confirmed. The 126/sup d/ period varies in cycles of roughly-equal20 yr. If these fluctuations represent orbital motion about a central body (such as a supermassive black hole), its mass would be roughly-equal10/sup 8/ M/sub sun/ and the orbital velocity would be roughly-equal10/sup 4/ km/sec.

  16. The circumnuclear environment of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516

    SciTech Connect

    Pogge, R.W.; McDonald Observatory, Austin, TX )

    1989-07-01

    Results of an emission-line imaging and spectrophotometric study of the ionized gas in the circumnuclear regions of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 are reported. The morphology and ionization of the gas are consistent with excitation by the power law continuum from the active nucleus. The optical emission-line gas is well aligned with the extended 6 cm radio-continuum emission. The ionization, structure, and published kinematical data are strongly suggestive of an outflow origin for the circumnuclear gas, although important details are missing to firmly establish outflow as the origin of all of the ionized gas. 31 refs.

  17. PHOTODISSOCIATION CHEMISTRY FOOTPRINTS IN THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    MartIn, Sergio; MartIn-Pintado, J.; Viti, S.

    2009-12-01

    UV radiation from massive stars is thought to be the dominant heating mechanism of the nuclear interstellar medium (ISM) in the late stages of evolution of starburst galaxies, creating large photodissociation regions (PDRs) and driving a very specific chemistry. We report the first detection of PDR molecular tracers, namely HOC{sup +} and CO{sup +}, and also confirm the detection of the PDR tracer HCO toward the starburst galaxy NGC 253, claimed to be mainly dominated by shock heating and in an earlier stage of evolution than M 82, the prototypical extragalactic PDR. Our CO{sup +} detection suffers from significant blending to a group of transitions of {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, tentatively detected for the first time in the extragalactic ISM. These species are efficiently formed in the highly UV-irradiated outer layers of molecular clouds, as observed in the late stage nuclear starburst in M 82. The molecular abundance ratios we derive for these molecules are very similar to those found in M 82. This strongly supports the idea that these molecules are tracing the PDR component associated with the starburst in the nuclear region of NGC 253. The presence of large abundances of PDR molecules in the ISM of NGC 253, which is dominated by shock chemistry, clearly illustrates the potential of chemical complexity studies to establish the evolutionary state of starbursts in galaxies. A comparison with the predictions of chemical models for PDRs shows that the observed molecular ratios are tracing the outer layers of UV-illuminated clouds up to two magnitudes of visual extinction. We combine the column densities of PDR tracers reported in this paper with those of easily photodissociated species, such as HNCO, to derive the fraction of material in the well-shielded core relative to the UV-pervaded envelopes. Chemical models, which include grain formation and photodissociation of HNCO, support the scenario of a photo-dominated chemistry as an explanation to the abundances of the observed species. From this comparison, we conclude that the molecular clouds in NGC 253 are more massive and with larger column densities than those in M 82, as expected from the evolutionary stage of the starbursts in both galaxies.

  18. Hydrodynamical Simulations of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Shen, Juntai; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2015-08-01

    Dust lanes, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals are typical gas structures in the inner region of barred galaxies. Their shapes and properties are linked to the physical parameters of the host galaxy. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study 2D gas flows in simple barred galaxy models. The nuclear rings formed in our simulations can be divided into two groups: one group is nearly round and the other is highly elongated. We find that roundish rings may not form when the bar pattern speed is too high or the bulge central density is too low. We also study the periodic orbits in our galaxy models, and find that the concept of inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) may be generalized by the extent of x2 orbits. All roundish nuclear rings in our simulations settle in the range of x2 orbits (or ILRs). However, knowing the resonances is insufficient to pin down the exact location of these nuclear rings. We suggest that the backbone of round nuclear rings is the x2 orbital family, i.e. round nuclear rings are allowed only in the radial range of x2 orbits. A round nuclear ring forms exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of infalling gas balances the centrifugal force, which can be described by a parameter f_ring measured from the rotation curve. We find an empirical relation between the bar parameters and f_ring, and apply it to measure bar pattern speed in a sample of barred galaxies with nuclear rings.

  19. Secular- and merger-built bulges in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Debattista, V. P.; Corsini, E. M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Historically, galaxy bulges were thought to be single-component objects at the center of galaxies. However, this picture is now questioned since different bulge types with different formation paths, namely classical and pseudobulges, have been found coexisting within the same galaxy. Aims: We study the incidence and nature of composite bulges in a sample of 10 face-on barred galaxies to constrain the formation and evolutionary processes of the central regions of disk galaxies. Methods: We analyze the morphological, photometric, and kinematic properties of each bulge. Then, by using a case-by-case analysis we identify composite bulges and classify every component into a classical or pseudobulge. In addition, bar-related boxy/peanut (B/P) structures were also identified and characterized. Results: We find only three galaxies hosting a single-component bulge (two pseudobulges and one classical bulge). Thus, we demonstrate the high incidence of composite bulges (70%) in barred galaxies. We find evidence of composite bulges coming in two main types based on their formation: secular-built and merger- and secular-built. We denote as secular-built those composite bulges that are made up of structures associated with secular processes, such as pseudobulges, central disks, or B/P bulges. We find four composite bulges of this kind in our sample. On the other hand, merger- and secular-built bulges are those where structures with different formation paths coexist within the same galaxy, i.e., a classical bulge coexisting with a secular-built structure (pseudobulge, central disk, or B/P). Three bulges of this kind were found in the sample. We notice the importance of detecting kinematic structures such as ?-drops to identify composite bulges. A high percentage (~80%) of galaxies were found to host ?-drops or ?-plateaus in our sample, revealing their high incidence in barred galaxies. Conclusions: The high frequency of composite bulges in barred galaxies points toward a complex formation and evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the evidence of coexisting merger- and secular-built bulges reinforce this idea. We discuss how the presence of different bulge types with different formation histories and timescales can constrain current models of bulge formation.

  20. TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES AROUND A POST-MERGER GALAXY, NGC 4922

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Young-Wook; Ferreras, Ignacio; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Dickinson, Mark; Barnes, Sydney; Park, Jang-Hyun; Ree, Chang H.; Madore, Barry F.; Barlow, Tom A.; Conrow, Tim; Foster, Karl; Friendman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2009-12-15

    One possible channel for the formation of dwarf galaxies involves birth in the tidal tails of interacting galaxies. We report the detection of a bright UV tidal tail and several young tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the post-merger galaxy NGC 4922 in the Coma cluster. Based on a two-component population model (combining young and old stellar populations), we find that the light of tidal tail predominantly comes from young stars (a few Myr old). The Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet data played a critical role in the parameter (age and mass) estimation. Our stellar mass estimates of the TDG candidates are {approx}10{sup 6-7} M {sub sun}, typical for dwarf galaxies.

  1. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Prototypical Starburst Galaxy NGC7714

    E-print Network

    B. R. Brandl; D. Devost; S. J. U. Higdon; V. Charmandaris; D. Weedman; H. W. W. Spoon; T. L. Herter; L. Hao; J. Bernard-Salas; J. R. Houck; L. Armus; B. T. Soifer; C. J. Grillmair; P. N. Appleton

    2004-06-14

    We present observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 with the Infrared Spectrograph IRS on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra yield a wealth of ionic and molecular features that allow a detailed characterization of its properties. NGC 7714 has an HII region-like spectrum with strong PAH emission features. We find no evidence for an obscured active galactic nucleus, and with [NeIII]/[NeII]~0.73, NGC7714 lies near the upper end of normal-metallicity starburst galaxies. With very little slicate absorption and a temperature of the hottest dust component of 340K, NGC 7714 is the perfect template for a young, unobscured starburst

  2. AKARI observations of dust processing in merger galaxies: NGC2782 and NGC7727

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Mori, Tamami; Wu, Ronin; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2015-08-01

    Dust grains are the major reservoir of heavy elements and play significant roles in the thermal balance and chemistry in the interstellar medium. Where dust grains are formed and how they evolve in the ISM are one of the key issues for the understanding of the material evolution in the Universe. Although theoretical studies have been made, very little is so far known observationally about the lifecycle of dust grains in the ISM and that associated with Galactic scale events. The lifecycle of very small carbonaceous grains that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or PAH-like atomic groups are of particular interest because they emit distinct band emission in the near- to mid-infrared region and they are thought to be most vulnerable to environmental conditions. PAHs may be formed in carbon-rich stars, while recent AKARI observations suggest that they may be formed by fragmentation of large carbonaceous grains in shocks in a supernova remnant or a galactic wind (Onaka et al. 2010, A&A, 514, 15; Seok et al. 2012, ApJ, 744, 160).Here we report results of AKARI observations of two mergers. NGC2782 (Arp 215) and NGC7727 (Arp 222). NGC2782 is a merger of 200Myr old. It shows a very long western tail of HI gas by a tidal interaction and the eastern tail that consists mainly of stellar components without an appreciable amount of gas and is thought to be a relic of the colliding low-mass galaxy whose gas component has been stripped off Smith 1994, AJ, 107, 1695. We found significant emission at the 7 ?m band of the IRC onboard AKARI, which must come from PAH 6.2 and 7.7 ?m bands, in the eastern tail. Based on dust model fitting, we found a low abundance of ~10nm size dust despite of the presence of PAHs, suggesting that PAHs may be formed from fragmentation of ~10nm carbonaceous dust grains. NGC7727 is a 1.2Gyr old merger and shows a SED similar to the NGC2782 tail in the northern tail of the merger event product, suggesting also the formation of PAHs from fragmentation. The observations of both galaxies indicate that PAHs can survive in violent events. We discuss these results in relation to the PAH formation and destruction.

  3. RR Lyrae stars in local group galaxies. II. NGC 147

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.; Hoessel, J.G.; Mossman, A.E. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI )

    1990-07-01

    Deep CCD images of NGC 147 taken with the 4-shooter on the Hale 5 m telescope have been processed to find and photometrically measure RR Lyrae stars. 36 variable stars have been found, of which 32 are surmised to be RR Lyrae stars. Finding charts, periods, and light curves are presented. The mean magnitude of the RR Lyraes is determined to be 25.25 mag. A distance modulus 23.92 is derived, based on the best currently available values of foreground extinction and mean absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. A wide range of periods is seen for the RR Lyrae stars, indicating a correspondingly wide range of metallicities for the stars in NGC 147. The distance modulus derived here places NGC 147 at a distance of 154 kpc from the center of M31, and in conjunction with the line sight velocities of these two galaxies, this implies a lower limit of 7.2 x 10 to the 11th solar masses for the mass of M31. 23 refs.

  4. Rotation of classical bulges during secular evolution of barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kanak; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-03-01

    Bar driven secular evolution plays a key role in changing the morphology and kinematics of disk galaxies, leading to the formation of rapidly rotating boxy/peanut bulges. If these disk galaxies also hosted a preexisting classical bulge, how would the secular evolution influence the classical bulge, and also the observational properties. We first study the co-evolution of a bar and a preexisting non-rotating low-mass classical bulge such as might be present in galaxies like the Milky Way. It is shown with N-body simulations that during the secular evolution, such a bulge can gain significant angular momentum emitted by the bar through resonant and stochastic orbits. Thereby it transforms into a cylindrically rotating, anisotropic and triaxial object, embedded in the fast rotating boxy bulge that forms via disk instability (Saha et al. 2012). The composite boxy/peanut bulge also rotates cylindrically. We then show that the growth of the bar depends only slightly on the rotation properties of the preexisting classical bulge. For the initially rotating small classical bulge, cylindrical rotation in the resulting composite boxy/peanut bulge extends to lower heights (Saha & Gerhard 2013). More massive classical bulges also gain angular momentum emitted by the bar, inducing surprisingly large rotational support within about 4 Gyrs (Saha et al. in prep).

  5. Gas Dynamics in Central Regions of Barred Galaxies: Hydrodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.; Seo, W.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate dynamical evolution of gas in barred galaxies using two-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, unmagnetized, and non-self-gravitating. To study the effects of various galactic environments on the gas evolution, we vary the gas sound speed cs as well as the mass MBH of a super massive black hole (BH) located at the galaxy center. An introduction of the bar potential produces bar substructure including a pair of dust-lane shocks, a nuclear ring, and nuclear spirals. As the sound speed increases, the dust-lane shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis, resulting in a smaller nuclear ring. The location of a nuclear ring is independent of the BH mass, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Coherent nuclear spirals that develop inside a nuclear ring can persist only when either cs is low or MBH is large: they would otherwise be destroyed by the ring material in eccentric orbits. While the mass inflow rate toward the galaxy center in models with low sound speed is quite small because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01Surf when cs is large, potentially powering active galactic nuclei in Seyfert galaxies.

  6. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ?5.5? detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  7. Wind and Reflections From Black Hole in Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Chandra X-Ray Observatory provided this composite X-ray (blue and green) and optical (red) image of the active galaxy NGC 1068 showing gas blowing away in a high-speed wind from the vicinity of a central supermassive black hole. Regions of intense star formation in the irner spiral arms of the galaxy are highlighted by both optical and x-ray emissions. A doughnut shaped cloud of cool gas and dust surrounding the black hole, known as the torus, appears as the elongated white spot . It has has a mass of about 5 million suns and is estimated to extend from within a few light years of the black hole out to about 300 light years.

  8. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: emartinez@cida.ve

    2011-06-20

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that {approx}50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar {Omega}{sub p}, while three (33%) do not.

  9. Resolving Molecular Clouds in the Nearby Galaxy NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faesi, Christopher; Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We present results from our ongoing Submillimeter Array (SMA) survey in which we resolve Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) for the first time in the nearby (D = 1.9 Mpc) spiral galaxy NGC 300. We have conducted CO(2-1) and 1.3 mm dust continuum observations of several massive star-forming regions in NGC 300, following up on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) survey of Faesi et al. (2014). We find that the unresolved CO sources detected with APEX at ~250 pc resolution typically resolve into one dominant GMC in our SMA observations, which have a resolution of ~3.5' (30 pc). The majority of sources are significantly detected in CO, but only one exhibits dust continuum emission. Comparing with archival H-alpha, GALEX far-ultraviolet, and Spitzer 24 micron images, we note physical offsets between the young star clusters, warm dust, and ionized and molecular gas components in these regions. We recover a widely varying fraction -- between 30% and almost 100% -- of the full APEX single dish flux with our interferometric observations. This implies that the fraction of CO-emitting molecular gas that is in a diffuse state (i.e. with characteristic spatial scales > 100 pc) differs greatly amongst star forming regions in NGC 300. We investigate potential trends in the implied diffuse molecular gas fraction with GMC properties and star formation activity. We compute virial masses and analyze the velocity structure of these resolved extragalactic GMCs and compare to results from surveys of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies.

  10. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II: NGC 6166

    E-print Network

    Harris, William E; Whitmore, Bradley C; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. HST data from the ACS and WFC3 cameras in F475W, F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sersic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least $R_{gc} = 250$ kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is N_{GC} = 39000 +- 2000, the global specific frequency is S_N = 11.2 +- 0.6, and 57\\% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the Intra-Cluster Medium of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected e...

  11. AN IONIZATION CONE IN THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 5253

    SciTech Connect

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Martin, Crystal L.

    2011-11-01

    There are few observational constraints on how the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies depends on galactic parameters. Here we report on the first major detection of an ionization cone in NGC 5253, a nearby starburst galaxy. This high-excitation feature is identified by mapping the emission-line ratios in the galaxy using [S III] {lambda}9069, [S II] {lambda}6716, and H{alpha} narrowband images from the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. The ionization cone appears optically thin, which suggests the escape of ionizing photons. The cone morphology is narrow with an estimated solid angle covering just 3% of 4{pi} steradians, and the young, massive clusters of the nuclear starburst can easily generate the radiation required to ionize the cone. Although less likely, we cannot rule out the possibility of an obscured active galactic nucleus source. An echelle spectrum along the minor axis shows complex kinematics that are consistent with outflow activity. The narrow morphology of the ionization cone supports the scenario that an orientation bias contributes to the difficulty in detecting Lyman continuum emission from starbursts and Lyman break galaxies.

  12. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Bray, Hubert L.; Matos, Tonatiuh

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  13. XMM-Newton observations of the hot spot galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Caballero-García, M. D.; Ebrero, J.; Leon, S.

    2010-11-01

    We report on the first deeper X-ray broad-band observation of the hot spot galaxy NGC 2903 obtained with XMM-Newton. X-ray imaging and spectra of the spiral barred galaxy NGC 2903 were obtained from XMM-Newton archival data to study its X-ray population and the conditions of the hot gas in its central region. We investigate the spectral properties of the discrete point-source population and give estimates of their X-ray spectral parameters. By analysing the RGS spectra, we derive temperature and abundances for the hot gas located in its central region. A total of six X-ray point sources (four of them ULX candidates) were detected in the energy range of 0.3-10.0 keV located within the galaxy D25 optical disk. Three of these sources are detected for the first time, and one of them, XMM-NGC2903 X2 with a luminosity of higher than 1039 erg s-1. After fitting three different models, we were able to estimate their luminosities, which are compatible with those of binaries with a compact object in the form of black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs). We extracted the combined first-order RGS1 and RGS2 spectra of its central region, which display several emission lines. The spectrum is dominated by a strong O viii Ly? emission line along with Ne x Ly? and several Fe xvii features. The O vii complex is also significantly detected, although only the forbidden and resonance lines could be resolved. Both O vii f and r lines seem to be of similar strength, which is consistent with the presence of the collisionally ionized gas that is typical of starburst galaxies. We fitted the spectrum to a model for a plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) and the continuum was modelled with a power law, resulting in a plasma temperature of T = 0.31 ± 0.01 keV and an emission measure EM ? nHneV = 6.4-0.4+0.5 × 1061 cm-3. We also estimated abundances that are consistent with solar values.

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PIXEL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTING S0 GALAXY NGC 5195 (M51B)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Minjin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Jong Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann E-mail: sckim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: mkim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr

    2012-08-01

    We report the properties of the interacting S0 galaxy NGC 5195 (M51B), revealed in a pixel analysis using the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. We analyze the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5195, focusing on the properties of its red and blue pixel sequences and the difference from the pCMD of NGC 5194 (M51A; the spiral galaxy interacting with NGC 5195). The red pixel sequence of NGC 5195 is redder than that of NGC 5194, which corresponds to the difference in the dust optical depth of 2 < {Delta}{tau}{sub V} < 4 at fixed age and metallicity. The blue pixel sequence of NGC 5195 is very weak and spatially corresponds to the tidal bridge between the two interacting galaxies. This implies that the blue pixel sequence is not an ordinary feature in the pCMD of an early-type galaxy, but that it is a transient feature of star formation caused by the galaxy-galaxy interaction. We also find a difference in the shapes of the red pixel sequences on the pixel color-color diagrams (pCCDs) of NGC 5194 and NGC 5195. We investigate the spatial distributions of the pCCD-based pixel stellar populations. The young population fraction in the tidal bridge area is larger than that in other areas by a factor >15. Along the tidal bridge, young populations seem to be clumped particularly at the middle point of the bridge. On the other hand, the dusty population shows a relatively wide distribution between the tidal bridge and the center of NGC 5195.

  15. Rings and spirals in barred galaxies. I Building blocks

    E-print Network

    E. Athanassoula; M. Romero-Gomez; J. J. Masdemont

    2009-02-05

    In this paper we present building blocks which can explain the formation and properties both of spirals and of inner and outer rings in barred galaxies. We first briefly summarise the main results of the full theoretical description we have given elsewhere, presenting them in a more physical way, aimed to an understanding without the requirement of extended knowledge of dynamical systems or of orbital structure. We introduce in this manner the notion of manifolds, which can be thought of as tubes guiding the orbits. The dynamics of these manifolds can govern the properties of spirals and of inner and outer rings in barred galaxies. We find that the bar strength affects how unstable the L1 and L2 Lagrangian points are, the motion within the 5A5A5Amanifold tubes and the time necessary for particles in a manifold to make a complete turn around the galactic centre. We also show that the strength of the bar, or, to be more precise, of the non-axisymmetric forcing at and somewhat beyond the corotation region, determines the resulting morphology. Thus, less strong bars give rise to R1 rings or pseudorings, while stronger bars drive R2, R1R2 and spiral morphologies. We examine the morphology as a function of the main parameters of the bar and present descriptive two dimensional plots to that avail. We also derive how the manifold morphologies and properties are modified if the L1 and L2 Lagrangian points become stable. Finally, we discuss how dissipation affects the manifold properties and compare the manifolds in gas-like and in stellar cases. Comparison with observations, as well as clear predictions to be tested by observations will be given in an accompanying paper.

  16. Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disk height

    E-print Network

    A. Klypin; O. Valenzuela; P. Colin; T. Quinn

    2008-08-26

    We study dynamics of bars in models of disk galaxies embeded in realistic dark matter halos. We find that disk thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick disks typically used in this type of modeling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd=0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin disks with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd= 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar approx R_d, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius 1.2-1.4 compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 percent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the thin disk models, which result in the formation of a dense central bulge. Special attention is paid to numerical effects such as the accuracy of orbital integration, force and mass resolution. Using three N-body codes -- Gadget, ART, and Pkdgrav -- we find that numerical effects are very important and, if not carefully treated, may produce incorrect and misleading results. Once the simulations are performed with sufficiently small time-steps and with adequate force and mass resolution, all the codes produce nearly the same results: we do not find any systematic deviations between the results obtained with TREE codes (Gadget and Pkdgrav) and with the Adaptive-Mesh-Refinement (ART) code.

  17. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  18. Star formation in isolated AMIGA galaxies: dynamical influence of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Combes, F.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Leon, S.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Star formation depends strongly on both the local environment of galaxies and the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project, H? and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. Aims: We characterise the H? emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and least inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We subsequently study the H? morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Methods: Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (H?), and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r). Results: We interpret the various bar/spiral morphologies observed in terms of the secular evolution experienced by galaxies in isolation. We also classify the different spatial distributions of star forming regions in barred galaxies. The observed frequency of particular patterns brings constraints on the lifetime of the various evolution phases. We propose an evolutive sequence accounting for the transitions between the different phases we observed. Conclusions: Isolated galaxies do not appear to be preferentially barred or unbarred. Fitting the H? distributions using numerical simulations yields constraints on the star formation law, which is likely to differ from a genuine Schmidt law. In particular, it is probable that the relative velocity of the gas in the bar also needs to be taken into account. Partially based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), as well as at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), operated by the IAA/CSIC. Table [see full text] and Figs. [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    E-print Network

    Andrews, J.?E.

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young (?8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing ...

  20. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  1. Star formation in isolated AMIGA galaxies: dynamical influence of bars

    E-print Network

    Verley, S; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Bergond, G; Leon, S

    2007-01-01

    Star formation depends strongly both on the local environment of galaxies, and on the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project, Ha and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. We characterise the Ha emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and less inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We could subsequently study the Ha morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (Ha) and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r). We interpret the various bar/spiral morphologies observed in terms of the secular evolution experienced by galaxies in isolation. We also classify the different spatial distrib...

  2. Discovery of new dwarf galaxies around NGC4631 with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka; Chiba, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    We have been carrying out archaeological surveys of nearby galaxies using the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope in order to understand an universal formation scenario of galactic halos, based on wide-field observations of the Local Group galaxies and the Local Volume galaxies. HSC consists of 104 effective 2048 x 4096 CCDs with a scale of 0.17 arcsec per pixel and covers a circular field of view with 1.5 degree in diameter. Especially, it is important to understand the variety of morphology of galactic halos through a detailed comparison of structures already found in the Local Group galaxies with structures recently detected in the Local Volume galaxies. In this conference, we report the discovery of new classical dwarf galaxies in the outskirts of NGC4631, which is a nearby edge-on Local Volume spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC4656, using Subaru/HSC. We have confirmed dwarf galaxies detected by Karachentsev+14 and have newly found 8 uncatalogued dwarf galaxies based on visual inspection. We have measured physical parameters of these dwarf galaxies, such as a total magnitude, a half-light radius and a surface brightness profile described by a sersic parameter, based on our i-band HSC image. Furthermore, we show spatial distribution of blue young stars of each dwarf galaxy and comparisons with UV sources from GALEX. The relation between total absolute magnitude and half-light radius of dwarf galaxies of the NGC4631 group suggests that these dwarf galaxies with brighter total luminosity probably tend to be more extending. Finally, we conclude that provided that the luminosity to half-light radius relation of dwarf galaxies in the NGC4631 group is the same as that observed in the Local Group, the dwarf galaxy system of the NGC4631 group may have formed through the same manner as that of the Local Group.

  3. Diffuse Ionized Gas inside the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Peimbert, A.

    2007-05-01

    We have studied the differences between the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and the H II regions along a slit position in the local dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The slit position passes through the two most prominent H II regions: Hubble V and Hubble X. Important differences have been found in the excitation, ionization, and [N II] ?6584/H? and [S II] ?6717/H? line ratios between the DIG and the H II locations. Moreover, the values of all the line ratios are not similar to those in the DIG locations of spiral galaxies but are very similar to the values in other irregular galaxies, such as IC 10. We also determined the rate of recombination using the He I ?5875 line. Finally, we obtained a picture of the ionization sources of the DIG. We consider that the leakage of photons from the H II regions might explain most of the line ratios, except [N II]/H?, which might be explained by turbulence. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal 69.C-0203(A).

  4. Nuclear outflows in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5929

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmmann, T.; Riffel, R.

    2014-10-01

    We present two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared spectra of the inner 3^{"}× 3^{"} of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5929 at a spatial resolution of ˜ 20 pc obtained with the Gemini NIFS. We report the discovery of a linear structure ˜ 300 pc in extent and of ˜ 50 pc in width oriented perpendicular to the radio jet, showing broadened emission-line profiles. While over most of the field the emission-line profiles have full-widths-at -half-maximum (FWHM) of ? 200km s^{-1}, at the linear structure perpendicular do the radio jet the emission-line FWHMs are twice this value, and are due to two velocity components, one blueshifted and the other redshifted relative to the systemic velocity. We attribute these velocities to an outflow from the nucleus which is launched perpendicular to the radio jet. This means that: (1) both ionizing radiation and relativistic particles are escaping through holes in the torus perpendicular to the radio jet; and/or (2) the torus is also outflowing, as proposed by recent models of tori as winds from the outer parts of an accretion flow; or (3) the torus is absent in NGC 5929.

  5. DUST DISK AROUND A BLACK HOLE IN GALAXY NGC 4261

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope image of an 800-light-year-wide spiral-shaped disk of dust fueling a massive black hole in the center of galaxy, NGC 4261, located 100 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Virgo. By measuring the speed of gas swirling around the black hole, astronomers calculate that the object at the center of the disk is 1.2 billion times the mass of our Sun, yet concentrated into a region of space not much larger than our solar system. The strikingly geometric disk -- which contains enough mass to make 100,000 stars like our Sun -- was first identified in Hubble observations made in 1992. These new Hubble images reveal for the first time structure in the disk, which may be produced by waves or instabilities in the disk. Hubble also reveals that the disk and black hole are offset from the center of NGC 4261, implying some sort of dynamical interaction is taking place, that has yet to be fully explained. Credit: L. Ferrarese (Johns Hopkins University) and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format, captions, and press release text may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo:

  6. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1990-01-01

    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  7. Dense Plasma Torus in the GPS Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Seiji Kameno; Makoto Inoue; Kiyoaki Wajima; Satoko Sawada-Satoh; Zhi-Qiang Shen

    2002-10-21

    We report results from nearly simultaneous pentachromatic VLBI observations towa rds a nearby GPS galaxy NGC 1052. The observations at 1.6 and 4.8 GHz with VSOP, and at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz wit h VLBA, provide linear resolutions of $\\sim 0.1$ pc. Convex spectra of a double-sided jet imply that synchrotron emission is obscured through foreground cold dense plasma, in terms of free--free absorption (FFA). We found a central condensation of the plasma which covers about 0.1 pc and 1 pc of the approaching and receding jets, respectively. A simple model with a geometrically thick plasma torus perpendicular to the jets is established to explain the asymmetric distribution of FFA opacities.

  8. RR Lyrae stars in local group galaxies. I. NGC 185

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.; Hoessel, J.G. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI )

    1990-01-01

    Deep CCD images of NGC 185 taken with the 4-shooter on the Hale 5-m telescope have been processed to find and photometrically measure RR Lyrae stars. 176 variable stars have been found, of which 151 are surmised to be RR Lyrae stars. Finding charts, periods, and light curves are presented. The RR Lyrae stars in this galaxy have a very wide distribution of periods indicating a wide range of metallicity. The mean magnitudes of the RR Lyraes is determined to be 25.20 mag. A distance modulus of 23.79 is derived, based on the best currently available values of foreground extinction and mean absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. 33 refs.

  9. Stellar Clusters Forming in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    Star formation is one of the most basic phenomena in the Universe. Inside stars, primordial material from the Big Bang is processed into heavier elements that we observe today. In the extended atmospheres of certain types of stars, these elements combine into more complex systems like molecules and dust grains, the building blocks for new planets, stars and galaxies and, ultimately, for life. Violent star-forming processes let otherwise dull galaxies shine in the darkness of deep space and make them visible to us over large distances. Star formation begins with the collapse of the densest parts of interstellar clouds, regions that are characterized by comparatively high concentration of molecular gas and dust like the Orion complex (ESO PR Photo 20/04) and the Galactic Centre region (ESO Press Release 26/03). Since this gas and dust are products of earlier star formation, there must have been an early epoch when they did not yet exist. But how did the first stars then form? Indeed, to describe and explain "primordial star formation" - without molecular gas and dust - is a major challenge in modern Astrophysics. A particular class of relatively small galaxies, known as "Blue Dwarf Galaxies", possibly provide nearby and contemporary examples of what may have occurred in the early Universe during the formation of the first stars. These galaxies are poor in dust and heavier elements. They contain interstellar clouds which, in some cases, appear to be quite similar to those primordial clouds from which the first stars were formed. And yet, despite the relative lack of the dust and molecular gas that form the basic ingredients for star formation as we know it from the Milky Way, those Blue Dwarf Galaxies sometimes harbour very active star-forming regions. Thus, by studying those areas, we may hope to better understand the star-forming processes in the early Universe. Very active star formation in NGC 5253 NGC 5253 is one of the nearest of the known Blue Dwarf Galaxies; it is located at a distance of about 11 million light-years in the direction of the southern constellation Centaurus. Some time ago a group of European astronomers [1] decided to take a closer look at this object and to study star-forming processes in the primordial-like environment of this galaxy. True, NGC 5253 does contains some dust and heavier elements, but significantly less than our own Milky Way galaxy. However, it is quite extreme as a site of intense star formation, a profuse "starburst galaxy" in astronomical terminology, and a prime object for detailed studies of large-scale star formation. ESO PR Photo 31a/04 provides an impressive view of NGC 5253. This composite image is based on a near-infrared exposure obtained with the multi-mode ISAAC instrument mounted on the 8.2-m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile), as well as two images in the optical waveband obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope data archive (located at ESO Garching). The VLT image (in the K-band at wavelength 2.16 ?m) is coded red, the HST images are blue (V-band at 0.55 ?m) and green (I-band at 0.79 ?m), respectively. The enormous light-gathering capability and the fine optical quality of the VLT made it possible to obtain the very detailed near-infrared image (cf. PR Photo 31b/04) during an exposure lasting only 5 min. The excellent atmospheric conditions of Paranal at the time of the observation (seeing 0.4 arcsec) allow the combination of space- and ground-based data into a colour photo of this interesting object. A major dust lane is visible at the western (right) side of the galaxy, but patches of dust are visible all over, together with a large number of colourful stars and stellar clusters. The different colour shades are indicative of the ages of the objects and the degree of obscuration by interstellar dust. The near-infrared VLT image penetrates the dust clouds much better than the optical HST images, and some deeply embedded objects that are not detected in the optical therefore appear as red in the combined image. Me

  10. Chandra observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Ward, M.; Zezas, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ueno, S.

    2002-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of high-resolution Chandra observations of the merger system NGC 3256, the most infrared-luminous galaxy in the nearby universe. The X-ray data show that several discrete sources embedded in complex diffuse emission contribute >~20 per cent of the total emission (LtotX\\sim 8\\times 1041\\,erg\\,s-1 in the 0.5-10keV energy range). The compact sources are hard and extremely bright and their emission is probably dominated by accretion-driven processes. Both galaxy nuclei are detected with LX~3-10×1040ergs-1. No evidence is found for the presence of an active nucleus in the southern nucleus, contrary to previous speculation. Once the discrete sources are removed, the diffuse component has a soft spectrum that can be modelled by the superposition of three thermal plasma components with temperatures kT=0.6, 0.9 and 3.9keV. Alternatively, the latter component can be described as a power law with index ?~3. Some evidence is found for a radial gradient of the amount of absorption and temperature of the diffuse component. We compare the X-ray emission with optical, H? and NICMOS images of NGC 3256 and find a good correlation between the inferred optical/near-infrared and X-ray extinctions. Although inverse Compton scattering could be important in explaining the hard X-rays seen in the compact sources associated with the nuclei, the observed diffuse emission is probably of thermal origin. The observed X-ray characteristics support a scenario in which the powerful X-ray emission is driven solely by the current episode of star formation.

  11. Chandra Observations of the Luminous IR Galaxy NGC3256

    E-print Network

    P. Lira; M. Ward; A. Zezas; A. Alonso-Herrero; S. Ueno

    2001-10-05

    We present a detailed analysis of high-resolution Chandra observations of the merger system NGC3256, the most IR luminous galaxy in the nearby universe. The X-ray data show that several discrete sources embedded in complex diffuse emission contribute ~>20 of the total emission (L_x^tot ~8E41 ergs/s in the 0.5-10 keV energy range). The compact sources are hard and extremely bright and their emission is probably dominated by accretion driven processes. Both galaxy nuclei are detected with L_x ~3-10E40 ergs/s. No evidence is found for the presence of an active nucleus in the southern nucleus, contrary to previous speculation. Once the discrete sources are removed, the diffuse component has a soft spectrum which can be modelled by the superposition of 3 thermal plasma components with temperatures kT = 0.6, 0.9 and 3.9 keV. Alternatively, the latter component can be described as a power-law with index Gamma ~3. Some evidence is found for a radial gradient of the amount of absorption and temperature of the diffuse component. We compare the X-ray emission with optical, Halpha and NICMOS images of NGC3256 and find a good correlation between the inferred optical/near-IR and X-ray extinctions. Although Inverse Compton scattering could be important in explaining the hard X-rays seen in the compact sources associated with the nuclei, the observed diffuse emission is probably of thermal origin. The observed X-ray characteristics support a scenario in which the powerful X-ray emission is driven solely by the current episode of star formation.

  12. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  13. Spontaneous formation of double bars in dark-matter-dominated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kanak; Maciejewski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    Although nearly one-third of barred galaxies host an inner, secondary bar, the formation and evolution of double barred galaxies remain unclear. We show here an example model of a galaxy, dominated by a live dark matter halo, in which double bars form naturally, without requiring gas, and we follow its evolution for a Hubble time. The inner bar in our model galaxy rotates almost as slowly as the outer bar, and it can reach up to half of its length. The route to the formation of a double bar may be different from that of a single strong bar. Massive dark matter halo or dynamically hot stellar disc may play an important role in the formation of double bars and their subsequent evolution.

  14. Multimolecule ALMA observations toward the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Krips, M.; Meier, D. S.; Aladro, R.; Matsushita, S.; Takano, S.; Turner, J. L.; Espada, D.; Nakajima, T.; Terashima, Y.; Fathi, K.; Hsieh, P.-Y.; Imanishi, M.; Lundgren, A.; Nakai, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Wiklind, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory for exploring the molecular chemistry in the surroundings of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the interstellar medium both in the AGN vicinity and in the outer star forming molecular ring. Methods: We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations that include seven different molecular species, namely HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO, as well as the 13C isotopologues of the first two. Spectra were extracted from selected positions and all species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30'') of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2'' × 1.5'' (150 pc × 100 pc). Results: HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH shows the largest variations across NGC 1097 and is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO, and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Conclusions: Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We conclude that the HCN/HCO+ and HCN/CS differences observed between AGN-dominated and starburst (SB) galaxies are not due to a HCN enhancement due to X-rays, but rather this enhancement is produced by shocked material at distances of 200 pc from the AGN. Additionally, we claim that lower HCN/CS is a combination of a small underabundance of CS in AGNs, together with excitation effects, where a high density gas component (~106 cm-3) may be more prominent in SB galaxies. However, the most promising are the differences found among the dense gas tracers that, at our modest spatial resolution, seem to outline the physical structure of the molecular disk around the AGN. In this picture, HNCO probes the well-shielded gas in the disk, surrounding the dense material moderately exposed to the X-ray radiation traced by HC3N. Finally SiO might be the innermost molecule in the disk structure.

  15. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Octavio; Hernandez-Toledo, Hector; Cano, Mariana; Pichardo, Bárbara; Puerari, Ivanio; Buta, Ronald; Groess, Robert

    2014-02-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 ?m surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity. Distinguishing between them requires detailed modeling of environmental effects. A similar analysis to ours may reveal such structures in other nearby dwarf satellite galaxies; if this is confirmed, the same evolutionary scenario will be applicable to them. This implies biases in constraining their dark matter distribution and also in making comparisons against theoretical predictions for isolated galaxies.

  16. THE FORMATION OF SHELL GALAXIES SIMILAR TO NGC 7600 IN THE COLD DARK MATTER COSMOGONY

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun; Crawford, Ken; Zibetti, Stefano; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.

    2011-12-10

    We present new deep observations of 'shell' structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.

  17. Bar-Halo Friction in Galaxies. III. Halo Density Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The predicted central densities of dark matter halos in ?CDM models exceed those observed in some galaxies. Weinberg & Katz argue that angular momentum transfer from a rotating bar in the baryonic disk can lower the halo density, but they also contend that N-body simulations of this process will not reveal the true continuum result unless many more than the usual numbers of particles are employed. Adopting their simplified model of a rotating rigid bar in a live halo, I have been unable to find any evidence to support their contention. I find that both the angular momentum transferred and the halo density change are independent of the number of particles over the range usually employed, up to that advocated by these authors. I show that my results do not depend on any numerical parameters and that field methods perform equally with grid methods. I also identify the reasons that the required particle number suggested by Weinberg & Katz is excessive. I further show that when countervailing compression by baryonic settling is ignored, moderate bars can reduce the mean density of the inner halo by 20%-30%. Long, massive, skinny bars can reduce the mean inner density by a factor ~10. The largest density reductions are achieved at the expense of removing most of the angular momentum likely to reside in the baryonic component. Compression of the halo by baryonic settling must reduce, and may even overwhelm, the density reduction achievable by bar friction.

  18. NGC 4656UV: A UV-selected Tidal Dwarf Galaxy Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Hess, Kelley M.

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of a UV-bright tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidate in the NGC 4631/4656 galaxy group, which we designate NGC 4656UV. Using survey and archival data spanning from 1.4 GHz to the ultraviolet, we investigate the gas kinematics and stellar properties of this system. The H I morphologies of NGC 4656UV and its parent galaxy NGC 4656 are extremely disturbed, with significant amounts of counterrotating and extraplanar gas. From UV-FIR photometry, computed using a new method to correct for surface gradients on faint objects, we find that NGC 4656UV has no significant dust opacity and a blue spectral energy distribution. We compute a star formation rate of 0.027 M ? yr-1 from the far-ultraviolet flux and measure a total H I mass of 3.8 × 108 M ? for the object. Evolutionary synthesis modeling indicates that NGC 4656UV is a low-metallicity system whose only major burst of star formation occurred within the last ~260-290 Myr. The age of the stellar population is consistent with a rough timescale for a recent tidal interaction between NGC 4656 and NGC 4631, although we discuss the true nature of the object—whether it is tidal or pre-existing in origin—in the context of its metallicity being a factor of 10 lower than its parent galaxy. We estimate that NGC 4656UV is either marginally bound or unbound. If bound, it contains relatively low amounts of dark matter. The abundance of archival data allows for a deeper investigation into this dynamic system than is currently possible for most TDG candidates. Based in part on observations made with the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  19. SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY (SINGS) IMAGING OF NGC 7331: A PANCHROMATIC VIEW OF A RINGED GALAXY

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY (SINGS) IMAGING OF NGC 7331: A PANCHROMATIC VIEW. In this paper we report on the first imaging results from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS Received 2004 March 26; accepted 2004 May 26 ABSTRACT Well-resolved infrared observations of nearby

  20. Keck Imaging of the Globular Cluster Systems in the Early--type Galaxies NGC 1052 and NGC 7332

    E-print Network

    Duncan A. Forbes; Antonis E. Georgakakis; Jean P. Brodie

    2001-03-28

    The presence of two globular cluster subpopulations in early-type galaxies is now the norm rather than the exception. Here we present two more examples for which the host galaxy appears to have undergone a recent merger. Using multi-colour Keck imaging of NGC 1052 and NGC 7332 we find evidence for a bimodal globular cluster colour distribution in both galaxies, with roughly equal numbers of blue and red globular clusters. The blue ones have similar colours to those in the Milky Way halo and are thus probably very old and metal-poor. If the red GC subpopulations are at least solar metallicity, then stellar population models indicate young ages. We discuss the origin of globular clusters within the framework of formation models. We conclude that recent merger events in these two galaxies have had little effect on their overall GC systems. We also derive globular cluster density profiles, global specific frequencies and in the case of NGC 1052, radial colour gradients and azimuthal distribution. In general these globular cluster properties are normal for early-type galaxies.

  1. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN IN THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Evans, Aaron S.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2010-12-20

    Infrared pumping and its effect on the excitation of HCN molecules can be important when using rotational lines of HCN to probe dense molecular gas in galaxy nuclei. We report the first extragalactic detection of (sub)millimeter rotational lines of vibrationally excited HCN, in the dust-enshrouded nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. We estimate the excitation temperature of T{sub vib} {approx} 230 K between the vibrational ground and excited (v{sub 2} = 1) states. This excitation is most likely due to infrared radiation. At this high vibrational temperature the path through the v{sub 2} = 1 state must have a strong impact on the rotational excitation in the vibrational ground level, although it may not be dominant for all rotational levels. Our observations also revealed nearly confusion-limited lines of CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, CS, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HC{sub 3}N at {lambda} {approx} 1 mm. Their relative intensities may also be affected by the infrared pumping.

  2. Chandra Observations of the Luminous IR Galaxy NGC3256

    E-print Network

    Lira, P; Ueno, S; Ward, M; Zezas, A L

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of high-resolution Chandra observations of the merger system NGC3256, the most IR luminous galaxy in the nearby universe. The X-ray data show that several discrete sources embedded in complex diffuse emission contribute ~>20 of the total emission (L_x^tot ~8E41 ergs/s in the 0.5-10 keV energy range). The compact sources are hard and extremely bright and their emission is probably dominated by accretion driven processes. Both galaxy nuclei are detected with L_x ~3-10E40 ergs/s. No evidence is found for the presence of an active nucleus in the southern nucleus, contrary to previous speculation. Once the discrete sources are removed, the diffuse component has a soft spectrum which can be modelled by the superposition of 3 thermal plasma components with temperatures kT = 0.6, 0.9 and 3.9 keV. Alternatively, the latter component can be described as a power-law with index Gamma ~3. Some evidence is found for a radial gradient of the amount of absorption and temperature of the diffuse ...

  3. The difference in age of the two counter-rotating stellar disks of the spiral galaxy NGC 4138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzella, A.; Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Sanjana, G.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Galaxies accrete material from the environment through acquisitions and mergers. These processes contribute to the galaxy assembly and leave their fingerprints on the galactic morphology, internal kinematics of gas and stars, and stellar populations. Aims: The Sa spiral NGC 4138 is known to host two counter-rotating stellar disks, with the ionized gas co-rotating with one of them. We measured the kinematics and properties of the two counter-rotating stellar populations to constrain their formation scenario. Methods: A spectroscopic decomposition of the observed major-axis spectrum was performed to disentangle the relative contribution of the two counter-rotating stellar and one ionized-gas components. The line-strength indices of the two counter-rotating stellar components were measured and modeled with single stellar population models that account for the ?/Fe overabundance. Results: The counter-rotating stellar population is younger, marginally more metal poor, and more ?-enhanced than the main stellar component. The younger stellar component is also associated with a star-forming ring. Conclusions: The different properties of the counter-rotating stellar components of NGC 4138 rule out the idea that they formed because of bar dissolution. Our findings support the results of numerical simulations in which the counter-rotating component assembled from gas accreted on retrograde orbits from the environment or from the retrograde merging with a gas-rich dwarf galaxy. Based on observation carried out at the Galileo 1.22 m telescope at Padua University.

  4. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Star Formation in the NGC 5846 Group of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Lucas; Koopmann, R. A.; Darling, H.; ALFALFA Team

    2013-01-01

    We examine gas and star formation properties of galaxies in the NGC 5846 group. Narrowband Halpha and broadband R images for a sample of galaxies were obtained at the KPNO WIYN 0.9m with MOSAIC and the SMARTS 0.9m telescope at CTIO. Neutral hydrogen data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey trace the cold neutral gas content. The amounts and extents of star formation in a subsample of galaxies are compared as a function of cold gas content and position in the group. The typical star formation rates and extents of NGC 5846 galaxies are less than those of isolated galaxies and similar to those of galaxies located in the Virgo Cluster and other group environments. This work is part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project, a collaborative undertaking of faculty and undergraduates at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey.

  5. Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

    2010-04-01

    We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an H? survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

  6. Model of outgrowths in the spiral galaxies NGC 4921 and NGC 7049 and the origin of spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlqvist, Per

    2013-02-01

    NGC 4921 and 7049 are two spiral galaxies presenting narrow, distinct dust features. A detailed study of the morphology of those features has been carried out using Hubble Space Telescope archival images. NGC 4921 shows a few but well-defined dust arms midway to its centre while NGC 7049 displays many more dusty features, mainly collected within a ring-shaped formation. Numerous dark and filamentary structures, called outgrowths, are found to protrude from the dusty arms in both galaxies. The outgrowths point both outwards and inwards in the galaxies. Mostly they are found to be V-shaped or Y-shaped with the branches connected to dark arm filaments. Often the stem of the Y appears to consist of intertwined filaments. Remarkably, the outgrowths show considerable similarities to elephant trunks in H ii regions. A model of the outgrowths, based on magnetized filaments, is proposed. The model provides explanations of both the shapes and orientations of the outgrowths. Most important, it can also give an account for their intertwined structures. It is found that the longest outgrowths are confusingly similar to dusty spiral arms. This suggests that some of the outgrowths can develop into such arms. The time-scale of the development is estimated to be on the order of the rotation period of the arms or shorter. Similar processes may also take place in other spiral galaxies. If so, the model of the outgrowths can offer a new approach to the old winding problem of spiral arms.

  7. Triple Scoop from Galaxy Hunter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    Silver Dollar Galaxy: NGC 253 (figure 1) Located 10 million light-years away in the southern constellation Sculptor, the Silver Dollar galaxy, or NGC 253, is one of the brightest spiral galaxies in the night sky. In this edge-on view from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the wisps of blue represent relatively dustless areas of the galaxy that are actively forming stars. Areas of the galaxy with a soft golden glow indicate regions where the far-ultraviolet is heavily obscured by dust particles.

    Gravitational Dance: NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 (figure 2) In this image, the wide ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer show spiral galaxy NGC 1512 sitting slightly northwest of elliptical galaxy NGC 1510. The two galaxies are currently separated by a mere 68,000 light-years, leading many astronomers to suspect that a close encounter is currently in progress.

    The overlapping of two tightly wound spiral arm segments makes up the light blue inner ring of NGC 1512. Meanwhile, the galaxy's outer spiral arm is being distorted by strong gravitational interactions with NGC 1510.

    Galaxy Trio: NGC 5566, NGC 5560, and NGC 5569 (figure 3) NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a triplet of galaxies in the Virgo cluster: NGC 5560 (top galaxy), NGC 5566 (middle galaxy), and NGC 5569 (bottom galaxy).

    The inner ring in NGC 5566 is formed by two nearly overlapping bright arms, which themselves spring from the ends of a central bar. The bar is not visible in ultraviolet because it consists of older stars or low mass stars that do not emit energy at ultraviolet wavelengths. The outer disk of NGC 5566 appears warped, and the disk of NGC 5560 is clearly disturbed. Unlike its galactic neighbors, the disk of NGC 5569 does not appear to have been distorted by any passing galaxies.

  8. NGC 2276: a remarkable galaxy with a large number of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Esposito, Paolo; Mapelli, Michela; Pizzolato, Fabio; Ripamonti, Emanuele

    2015-03-01

    The starbusting, nearby (D = 32.9 Mpc) spiral (Sc) galaxy NGC 2276 belongs to the sparse group dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 2300. NGC 2276 is a remarkable galaxy, as it displays a disturbed morphology at many wavelengths. This is possibly due to gravitational interaction with the central elliptical galaxy of the group. Previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations resulted in the detection of extended hot gas emission and of a single very bright (˜1041 erg s-1) ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate. Here, we report on a study of the X-ray sources of NGC 2276 based on Chandra data taken in 2004. Chandra was able to resolve 16 sources, 8 of which are ULXs, and to reveal that the previous ULX candidate is actually composed of a few distinct objects. We construct the luminosity function of NGC 2276, which can be interpreted as dominated by high-mass X-ray binaries, and estimate the star formation rate (SFR) to be ˜5-15 M? yr-1, consistent with the values derived from optical and infrared observations. By means of numerical simulations, we show that both ram pressure and viscous transfer effects are necessary to produce the distorted morphology and the high SFR observed in NGC 2276, while tidal interaction have a marginal effect.

  9. The environment of barred galaxies in the low-redshift universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ye; Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Wang, Enci E-mail: leech@shao.ac.cn

    2014-12-01

    We present a study of the environment of barred galaxies using a volume-limited sample of over 30,000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use four different statistics to quantify the environment: the projected two-point cross-correlation function, the background-subtracted number count of neighbor galaxies, the overdensity of the local environment, and the membership of our galaxies to galaxy groups to segregate central and satellite systems. For barred galaxies as a whole, we find a very weak difference in all the quantities compared to unbarred galaxies of the control sample. When we split our sample into early- and late-type galaxies, we see a weak but significant trend for early-type galaxies with a bar to be more strongly clustered on scales from a few 100 kpc to 1 Mpc when compared to unbarred early-type galaxies. This indicates that the presence of a bar in early-type galaxies depends on the location within their host dark matter halos. This is confirmed by the group catalog in the sense that for early-types, the fraction of central galaxies is smaller if they have a bar. For late-type galaxies, we find fewer neighbors within ?50 kpc around the barred galaxies when compared to unbarred galaxies from the control sample, suggesting that tidal forces from close companions suppress the formation/growth of bars. Finally, we find no obvious correlation between overdensity and the bars in our sample, showing that galactic bars are not obviously linked to the large-scale structure of the universe.

  10. A GIANT STAR FACTORY IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY NGC 6822

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling curling flames from a campfire, this magnificent nebula in a neighboring galaxy is giving astronomers new insight into the fierce birth of stars as it may have more commonly happened in the early universe. The glowing gas cloud, called Hubble-V, has a diameter of about 200 light-years. A faint tail of nebulosity trailing off the top of the image sits opposite a dense cluster of bright stars at the bottom of the irregularly shaped nebula. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's resolution and ultraviolet sensitivity reveals a dense knot of dozens of ultra-hot stars nestled in the nebula, each glowing 100,000 times brighter than our Sun. These youthful 4-million-year-old stars are too distant and crowded together to be resolved from ground-based telescopes. The small, irregular host galaxy, called NGC 6822, is one of the Milky Way's closest neighbors and is considered prototypical of the earliest fragmentary galaxies that inhabited the young universe. The galaxy is 1.6 million light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Hubble-V image data was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) by two science teams: C. Robert O'Dell of Vanderbilt University and collaborators, and Luciana Bianchi of Johns Hopkins University and Osservatorio Astronomico, Torinese, Italy, and collaborators. This color image was produced by The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). A Hubble image of Hubble-X, another intense star-forming region in NGC 6822, was released by The Heritage Team in January 2001. Credits: NASA, ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and L. Bianchi (Johns Hopkins University and Osservatorio Astronomico, Torinese, Italy) NOTE TO EDITORS: For additional information, please contact C. R. O'Dell, Vanderbilt University, Physics and Astronomy Dept., Box 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235, (phone) 615-343-1779, (fax) 615-343-7263, (e-mail) cr.odell@vanderbilt.edu or Luciana Bianchi, Johns Hopkins University, Physics and Astronomy Dept., Baltimore, MD 21218, (phone) 410-516-4009, (fax) 410-516-7239, (e-mail) bianchi@pha.jhu.edu or Keith Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, (phone) 410-338-1828, (fax) 410-338-4579, (e-mail) noll@stsci.edu. Electronic images and additional information are available at: http://heritage.stsci.edu http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/39 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html http://hubble.stsci.edu/go/news To receive STScI press releases electronically, send an Internet electronic mail message to public-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type the word subscribe in the body of the message. The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and you will receive new press releases as they are issued. Please subscribe using the email account with which you would like to receive list messages. To unsubscribe, send mail to public-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type the word unsubscribe in the body of the message. Please unsubscribe using the email account that you used to subscribe to the list.

  11. Hierarchical star formation across the ring galaxy NGC 6503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Thilker, David; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C.; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Cignoni, Michele; Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Gallagher, John S.; Grasha, Kathryn; Grebel, Eva K.; Davó, Artemio Herrero; Hunter, Deidre A.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Kim, Hwihyun; Nair, Preethi; Nota, Antonella; Pellerin, Anne; Ryon, Jenna; Sabbi, Elena; Sacchi, Elena; Smith, Linda J.; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo; Whitmore, Brad

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed clustering analysis of the young stellar population across the star-forming ring galaxy NGC 6503, based on the deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry obtained with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey. We apply a contour-based map analysis technique and identify in the stellar surface density map 244 distinct star-forming structures at various levels of significance. These stellar complexes are found to be organized in a hierarchical fashion with 95 per cent being members of three dominant super-structures located along the star-forming ring. The size distribution of the identified structures and the correlation between their radii and numbers of stellar members show power-law behaviours, as expected from scale-free processes. The self-similar distribution of young stars is further quantified from their autocorrelation function, with a fractal dimension of ˜1.7 for length-scales between ˜20 pc and 2.5 kpc. The young stellar radial distribution sets the extent of the star-forming ring at radial distances between 1 and 2.5 kpc. About 60 per cent of the young stars belong to the detected stellar structures, while the remaining stars are distributed among the complexes, still inside the ring of the galaxy. The analysis of the time-dependent clustering of young populations shows a significant change from a more clustered to a more distributed behaviour in a time-scale of ˜60 Myr. The observed hierarchy in stellar clustering is consistent with star formation being regulated by turbulence across the ring. The rotational velocity difference between the edges of the ring suggests shear as the driving mechanism for this process. Our findings reveal the interesting case of an inner ring forming stars in a hierarchical fashion.

  12. The evolution of interacting spiral galaxy NGC 5194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here, we focus on investigating main properties of its star formation history by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disk builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parametrizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time tp = 7.0 Gyr can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disk is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disk of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disk galaxy UGC 8802. In this paper, we also introduce a ‘toy’ model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the star formation rate and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic star formation process.

  13. The evolution of interacting spiral galaxy NGC 5194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Chang, Ruixiang; Zhang, Fenghui; Cheng, Liantao; Wang, Lang

    2015-05-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here, we focus on investigating main properties of its star formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time tp = 7.0 Gyr can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disc galaxy UGC 8802. In this paper, we also introduce a `toy' model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the star formation rate and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic star formation process.

  14. The Evolution of Interacting Spiral Galaxy NGC\\,5194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruixiang

    2015-08-01

    NGC\\,5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here we focus on investigating main properties of its star-formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time $t_{\\rm p}\\,=\\,7.0{\\rm Gyr}$can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disc galaxy UGC\\,8802. In this paper, we also introduce a 'toy' model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the SFR and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic SF process.

  15. Triggered star formation in a merging, gas-rich dwarf galaxy around NGC 7241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Ryan; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Cisternas, Mauricio; Knapen, Johan H.

    2015-07-01

    Using multiwavelength kinematic and photometric data we have analysed the gaseous and stellar properties of a previously uncharacterized low-mass star-forming companion and newly discovered stellar stream seen projected against the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 7241. The companion object was identified serendipitously as an offset velocity component in H ? Fabry-Perot observations along the line of sight to NGC 7241, and is most prominent visually in UV and blue wavelengths. Its occulting position with respect to NGC 7241 allows measurement of its dust extinction properties which are then combined with photometric spectral energy distribution fitting and long-slit spectroscopy to study star formation (SF) in this gas-rich accreting dwarf galaxy. The dynamical properties of the stream and companion suggest that they may likely be remnants of the same low-mass progenitor dwarf galaxy which is being disrupted during its accretion on to NGC 7241 - with the companion's recent SF triggered during its passage with the disc of NGC 7241. This is supported by the companion's metallicity and SF rates, the asymmetric SF in the disc of NGC 7241, as well as the coincident velocity of the extraplanar H I filament and the star-forming companion. In contrast, mass estimates from dynamical modelling of NGC 7241 rule out an interaction between NGC 7241 and UGC 11964 (the other large spiral galaxy in the group) within the last ˜3 Gyr - making such an interaction a poor candidate for inducing the recent SF in the system. Together, the data for this system offer a window into how SF proceeds in low-mass mergers.

  16. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David; Dolphin, Andrew; Skillman, Evan D. E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  17. DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE EXTENDED H I STRUCTURE AROUND LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXY NGC 1569

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Megan

    2013-06-15

    This work presents an extended, neutral hydrogen emission map around Magellanic-type dwarf irregular galaxy (dIm) NGC 1569. In the spring of 2010, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope was used to map a 9 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign region in H I line emission that includes NGC 1569 and IC 342 as well as two other dwarf galaxies. The primary objective for these observations was to search for structures potentially connecting NGC 1569 with IC 342 group members in order to trace previous interactions and thus, provide an explanation for the starburst and peculiar kinematics prevalent in NGC 1569. A large, half-degree diameter H I cloud was detected that shares the same position and velocity as NGC 1569. Also, two long structures were discovered that are reminiscent of intergalactic filaments extending out in a V-shaped manner from NGC 1569 toward UGCA 92, a nearby dwarf galaxy. These filamentary structures extend for about 1. Degree-Sign 5, which is 77 kpc at NGC 1569. There is a continuous velocity succession with the 0. Degree-Sign 5 H I cloud, filaments, and main body of the galaxy. The 0. Degree-Sign 5 H I cloud and filamentary structures may be foreground Milky Way, but are suggestive as possible remnants of an interaction between NGC 1569 and UGCA 92. The data also show two tidal tails extending from UGCA 86 and IC 342, respectively. These structures may be part of a continuous H I bridge but more data are needed to determine if this is the case.

  18. THE DISTRIBUTION OF BAR AND SPIRAL ARM STRENGTHS IN DISK GALAXIES R. Buta and S. Vasylyev

    E-print Network

    Salo, Heikki

    in disk galaxies is a fundamental property of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. We that as much as 70% of normal bright galaxies are barred at some level (e.g., Eskridge et al. 2002), which to be permanent fea- tures of galaxies but should dissolve in much less than a Hubble time owing to mass inflow

  19. Star formation in blue galaxies. I - Ultraviolet, optical, and infrared observations of NGC 4214 and NGC 4670

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Hartmann, L.; Fabbiano, G.; Huchra, J. P.; Gallagher, J.; Hunter, D.; Aaronson, M.

    1983-01-01

    NGC 4214 and NGC 4760 have been observed between 1150 A and 1950 A with the IUE satellite, and new infrared and optical broad-band photometry have been obtained. The spectra of both galaxies are dominated by O stars, and, in the spectrum of NGC 4214, the C IV 1550 A line exhibits a P Cygni profile indicative of hot stars with large mass-loss rates. Although the optical spectra of both galaxies are dominated by strong narrow emission lines, no strong emission lines are seen in the UV (the observed Ly-alpha flux is dominated by geocoronal emission). Both galaxies contain giant H II region complexes in which the energy (in particular, the H-beta luminosity and the ultraviolet continuum) is provided by several hundred O stars. The comparison of the observed UVOIR energy distributions with evolutionary population models indicates that the regions observed consist of young 'bursts' of star formation superposed on an underlying old population. The initial mass function for this epoch of star formation is constrained to be similar in slope to or flatter than the Salpeter function.

  20. An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC?1277.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2012-11-29

    Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC?4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC?1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2?×?10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7?×?10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC?1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations. PMID:23192149

  1. Discovery of New Dwarf Galaxy near The Isolated Spiral Galaxy NGC 6503

    E-print Network

    Koda, Jin; Komiyama, Yutaka; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Bouquin, Alexandre Y K; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; de Paz, Armando Gil; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Madore, Barry F; Thilker, David A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy (NGC6503-d1) during the Subaru extended ultraviolet (XUV) disk survey. It is a likely companion of the spiral galaxy NGC6503. The resolved images, in B, V, R, i, and Halpha, show an irregular appearance due to bright stars with underlying, smooth and unresolved stellar emission. It is classified as the transition type (dIrr/dSph). Its structural properties are similar to those of the dwarfs in the Local Group, with a V absolute magnitude ~ -10.5, half-light radius ~400 pc, and central surface brightness ~25.2. Despite the low stellar surface brightness environment, one HII region was detected, though its Halpha luminosity is low, indicating an absence of any appreciable O-stars at the current epoch. The presence of multiple stellar populations is indicated by the color-magnitude diagram of ~300 bright resolved stars and the total colors of the dwarf, with the majority of its total stellar mass ~4x10^6 Msun in an old stellar population.

  2. New Cepheid distances to nearby galaxies based on BVRI CCD photometry. III - NGC 300

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, W.L.; Madore, B.F.; Hawley, S.L.; Horowitz, I.K.; Mould, J.; Navarrete, M.; Sallmen, S. JPL, Pasadena, CA Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena California, University, Berkeley )

    1992-09-01

    A true distance modulus of (m - M) sub 0 = 26.66 +/- 0.10 mag (corresponding to 2.1 +/- 0.1 Mpc) has been determined for the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 300. New CCD data have been obtained for a sample of known Cepheids in this galaxy from which apparent distance moduli at B, V, R, and I wavelengths are determined. Combining the data available at different wavelenghts, and assuming a true distance modulus to the LMC of 18.5 mag, a true distance modulus is obtained for NGC 300, corrected for the effects of interstellar reddening. The availability of a new distance to NGC 300 brings to five the total number of galaxies with new CCD photometry of Cepheids, useful for calibration of the Hubble constant. 26 refs.

  3. Discovery of a stellar tidal stream around the Whale galaxy, NGC 4631

    E-print Network

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Chonis, Taylor S; Beaton, Rachael L; Teuwen, Karel; GaBany, R Jay; Grebel, Eva K; Morales, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40-cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extended between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (stream_SE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (stream_NW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc and display a clear (g-r) colour gradient. The orientation of stream_SE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e=0.6) around NGC 4631 over $\\sim$ 3.5 Gyr, with a dynamical mass ratio (m1:m2) of ~40. Both modelling and inferences from the morpho...

  4. The 0.3-30 keV Spectra of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: NuSTAR and Chandra Observations of NGC 3256 and NGC 3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Wik, D. R.; Yukita, M.; Antoniou, V.; Boggs, S.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Maccarone, T. J.; Ptak, A.; Stern, D.; Zezas, A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-06-01

    We present nearly simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two actively star-forming galaxies within 50 Mpc: NGC 3256 and NGC 3310. Both galaxies are significantly detected by both Chandra and NuSTAR, which together provide the first-ever spectra of these two galaxies spanning 0.3-30 keV. The X-ray emission from both galaxies is spatially resolved by Chandra; we find that hot gas dominates the E < 1-3 keV emission while ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) provide majority contributions to the emission at E > 1-3 keV. The NuSTAR galaxy-wide spectra of both galaxies follow steep power-law distributions with ? ? 2.6 at E > 5-7 keV. Using new and archival Chandra data, we search for signatures of heavily obscured or low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that both NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 have X-ray detected sources coincident with nuclear regions; however, the steep NuSTAR spectra of both galaxies restricts these sources to be either low luminosity AGNs (L2-10 keV/LEdd ? 10-5) or non-AGNs in nature (e.g., ULXs or crowded X-ray sources that reach L2-10 keV ˜ 1040 erg s-1 cannot be ruled out). Combining our constraints on the 0.3-30 keV spectra of NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 with equivalent measurements for nearby star-forming galaxies M83 and NGC 253, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR) normalized spectra of these starburst galaxies. The spectra of all four galaxies show sharply declining power-law slopes at energies above 3-6 keV primarily due to ULX populations. Our observations therefore constrain the average spectral shape of galaxy-wide populations of luminous accreting binaries (i.e., ULXs). Interestingly, despite a completely different galaxy sample selection, emphasizing here a range of SFRs and stellar masses, these properties are similar to those of super-Eddington accreting ULXs that have been studied individually in a targeted NuSTAR ULX program. We also find that NGC 3310 exhibits a factor of ?3-10 elevation of X-ray emission over the other star-forming galaxies due to a corresponding overabundance of ULXs. We argue that the excess of ULXs in NGC 3310 is most likely explained by the relatively low metallicity of the young stellar population in this galaxy, a property that is expected to produce an excess of luminous X-ray binaries for a given SFR.

  5. Effect of bars in AGN host galaxies and black hole activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. S.; Coldwell, G.; Lambas, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on active galactic nuclei (AGN), we present an analysis of host characteristics and nuclear activity of active galaxies with and without bars. Methods: We selected AGN host galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7), using the available emission-line fluxes. By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral hosts of AGNs brighter than g-mag < 16.5 into barred or unbarred. With the purpose of providing an appropriate quantification of the effects of bars, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred active galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local environment distributions. Results: We find that the bar fraction, with respect to the full sample of spiral face-on AGN host galaxies, is 28.5%, in good agreement with previous works. barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of young stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index), dominated by red u - r and g - r colors, with respect to the control sample, suggesting that bars produce an important effect on galaxy properties of AGN hosts. Regarding the nuclear activity distribution, we find that barred active galaxies show a shift toward higher Lum [OIII] values with respect to AGN without bars. In addition, we also find that this trend is more significant in less massive, younger stellar population and bluer AGN host galaxies. We found that the fraction of powerful AGN increases toward more massive hosts with bluer colors and younger stellar populations residing in denser environments. However, barred host AGN systematically show a higher fraction of powerful active nuclei galaxies with respect to the control sample. We also explored the accretion rate onto the central black holes, finding that barred AGN host show an excess of objects with high accretion rate values with respect to unbarred active galaxies.

  6. Galaxy Zoo: AGN may be fueled by stellar bars in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Melanie; Willett, Kyle; Fortson, Lucy; Galaxy Zoo Science Team

    2015-01-01

    Bars are a mechanism that have been proposed to explain how gas in the outer regions of a galaxy can be channeled inward and fuel AGN. Multiple observational studies have reported a significantly higher bar fraction in AGN than non-AGN. To accurately probe whether an excess of bars in AGN host galaxies exists because the galaxies host a bar, it is necessary to compare bar and AGN fractions at fixed mass and color, because the presence of bars strongly correlates with both. Thus, a sufficiently large sample is necessary to maintain adequate numbers in subsets of fixed mass and color. We have created a large, volume-limited sample of 19,765 disc galaxies using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By using morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we identify stellar bars in 51.8% of AGN hosts and 37.1% of star-forming disk galaxies. Once mass and color are fixed, there remains a statistically significant increase in the fraction of barred AGN over their unbarred counterparts. Using the L[O III]/MBH ratio as a measure of accretion efficiency, we also show that barred AGN do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGN at fixed mass or color. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fueling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to AGN fueling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  7. Velocity dispersion of stars and gas motion in double-barred galaxies

    E-print Network

    A. V. Moiseev

    2001-11-12

    The current state of the problem of double-barred galaxies investigation is reviewed. The necessity for application of the panoramic spectroscopy methods to a detailed study of kinematics of these objects is being proved. The first results of observing double-barred galaxies at the 6m telescope using the multipupil spectrograph MPFS and the scanning interferometer Fabry-Perot are described.

  8. Short-term dynamical evolution of grand-design spirals in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the short-term dynamical evolution of stellar grand-design spiral arms in barred spiral galaxiesusing a three-dimensional (3D) N-body/hydrodynamic simulation. Similar to previous numerical simulations of unbarred, multiple-arm spirals, we find that grand-design spiral arms in barred galaxies are not stationary, but rather dynamic. This means that the amplitudes, pitch angles, and rotational frequencies of the spiral arms are not constant, but change within a few hundred million years (i.e. the typical rotational period of a galaxy). We also find that the clear grand-design spirals in barred galaxies appear only when the spirals connect with the ends of the bar. Furthermore, we find that the short-term behaviour of spiral arms in the outer regions (R > 1.5-2 bar radius) can be explained by the swing amplification theory and that the effects of the bar are not negligible in the inner regions (R < 1.5-2 bar radius). These results suggest that although grand-design spiral arms in barred galaxies are affected by the stellar bar, the grand-design spiral arms essentially originate not as bar-driven stationary density waves, but rather as self-excited dynamic patterns. We imply that a rigidly rotating grand-design spiral could not be a reasonable dynamical model for investigating gas flows and cloud formation even in barred spiral galaxies.

  9. The richness of the globular cluster system of NGC 3923: Clues to elliptical galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Geisler, Doug; Ashman, Keith M.

    1994-01-01

    We present new data on the globular cluster system of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 which show that it has the most globular clusters per unit luminosity of any noncluster elliptical yet observed, with S(sub N) = 6.4 +/- 1.4. NGC 3923 is also among the brightest ellipticals outside of a galaxy cluster for which the number of globular clusters has been determined. Our observation of a large number of clusters per unit luminosity (high S(sub N)-value) for a bright elliptical in a sparse environment is consistent with the suggestion of Djorgovski and Santiago that the number of globular clusters is a power-law function of the luminosity with an exponent greater than 1. We relate this higher specific frequency of globular clusters in more luminous galaxies to other observations which indicate that the physical conditions within elliptical galaxies at the time of their formation were dependent on galaxy mass.

  10. The `shook up' galaxy NGC 3079: the complex interplay between H I, activity and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafi, N.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Morganti, R.; Colafrancesco, S.; Booth, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present deep neutral hydrogen (H I) observations of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079 and its environment, obtained with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Our observations reveal previously unknown components, both in H I emission and in absorption, that show that NGC 3079 is going through a hectic phase in its evolution. The H I disc appears much more extended than previously observed and is morphologically and kinematically lopsided on all scales with evidence for strong non-circular motions in the central regions. Our data reveal prominent gas streams encircling the entire galaxy suggesting strong interaction with its neighbours. A 33 kpc long H I bridge is detected between NGC 3079 and MCG 9-17-9, likely caused by ram-pressure stripping of MGC 9-17-9 by the halo of hot gas of NGC 3079. The cometary H I tail of the companion NGC 3073, earlier discovered by Irwin et al., extends about twice as long in our data, while a shorter, second tail is also found. This tail is likely caused by ram-pressure stripping by the strong, starburst-driven wind coming from NGC 3079. We also detect, in absorption, a nuclear H I outflow extending to velocities well outside what expected for gravitational motion. This is likely an atomic counterpart of the well-studied outflow of ionized gas present in this galaxy. This may indicate that also large amounts of cold gas are blown out of NGC 3079 by the starburst/AGN. Our estimates of the jet energy and kinetic power suggest that both the AGN and the starburst in NGC 3079 are powerful enough to drive the atomic outflow.

  11. The star formation history of low-mass disk galaxies: A case study of NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Fenghui; Chang, Ruixiang; Wang, Lang; Cheng, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Context. Since NGC 300 is a bulgeless, isolated low-mass galaxy and it has not experienced radial migration during its evolution history, it can be treated as an ideal laboratory to test the simple galactic chemical evolution model. Aims: Our main aim is to investigate the main properties of the star formation history (SFH) of NGC 300 and compare its SFH with that of M 33 to explore the common properties and differences between these two nearby low-mass systems. Methods: We construct a simple chemical evolution model for NGC 300, assuming its disk forms gradually from continuous accretion of primordial gas and including the gas-outflow process. The model allows us to build a bridge between the SFH and observed data of NGC 300, in particular, the present-day radial profiles and global observed properties (e.g., cold gas mass, star formation rate, and metallicity). By means of comparing the model predictions with the corresponding observations, we adopt the classical ?2 methodology to find out the best combination of free parameters a, b, and bout. Results: Our results show that by assuming an inside-out formation scenario and an appropriate outflow rate, our model reproduces well most of the present-day observational values. The model not only reproduces well the radial profiles, but also the global observational data for the NGC 300 disk. Our results suggest that NGC 300 may experience a rapid growth of its disk. Through comparing the best-fitting, model-predicted SFH of NGC 300 with that of M 33, we find that the mean stellar age of NGC 300 is older than that of M 33 and there is a recent lack of primordial gas infall onto the disk of NGC 300. Our results also imply that the local environment may play a key role in the secular evolution of galaxy disks.

  12. A search for intergalactic HI gas in the NGC 1808 group of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Michael Dahlem; Matthias Ehle; Stuart D. Ryder

    2001-06-04

    A mosaic of six HI line observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array is used to search for intergalactic gas in the NGC 1808 group of galaxies. Within the field of view of about 1.4 deg x 1.2 deg, no emission from intergalactic HI gas is detected, either in the form of tidal plumes or tails, intergalactic HI clouds, or as gas associated with tidal dwarf galaxies, with a 5-sigma limiting sensitivity of about 3x10^{18} cm^{-2} (or 1.4x10^7 M_sun at a distance of 10.9 Mpc, for the given beam size of 127.9" x 77.3"). The HI data of NGC 1792 and NGC 1808, with a velocity resolution of 6.6 km/s, confirm the results of earlier VLA observations. Simultaneous wide-band 1.34 GHz continuum observations also corroborate the results of earlier studies. However, the continuum flux of NGC 1808 measured by us is almost 20% higher than reported previously. No radio continuum emission was detected from the type Ia supernova SN1993af in the north-eastern spiral arm of NGC 1808. A comparison of NGC 1792 and NGC 1808 shows that it is not primarily the total energy input that makes the big difference between the starburst-related outflow in NGC 1808 and the absence of such extraplanar features in NGC 1792, but the area over which the energy released by stellar winds and supernovae is injected into the ISM.

  13. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Sanchez, S. F.

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  14. Spatially Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3

    E-print Network

    R. A. Knop; L. Armus; K. Matthews; T. W. Murphy; B. T. Soifer

    2001-05-25

    We present near-infrared spectra with resolutions of lambda/dlambda~1200 in the emission lines of Pa-beta, [FeII] (1.2567um), Br-gamma, and H2 v=1-0S(1) of the nuclei and circumnuclear regions of the four Seyfert 2 galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3. All of these galaxies show strong near-infrared line emission that is detected at radii several times the spatial resolution, corresponding to projected physical scales of 0.07 to 0.7 kpc. Velocity gradients are detected in these nuclei, as are spatial variations in line profiles and flux ratios. We compare the spatial and velocity distribution of the line emission to previously observed optical line and radio emission. The evidence indicates that the [FeII] emission is associated with the Seyfert activity in the galaxies. Our data are consistent with X-ray heating being responsible for most of the [FeII] emission, although differences in [FeII] and Pa-beta line profiles associated with radio emission suggests that the [FeII] emission is enhanced by fast shocks associated with radio outflows. The H2 emission is not as strongly associated with outflows or ionization cones as is the emission in other lines, but rather appears to be primarily associated with the disk of the galaxy.

  15. The Star Clusters in the Starburst Irregular Galaxy NGC 1569

    E-print Network

    D. A. Hunter; R. W. O'Connell; J. S. Gallagher; T. A. Smecker-Hane

    2000-09-18

    We examine star clusters in the irregular, starburst galaxy NGC 1569 from HST images. In addition to the two known super star clusters, we identify 45 other clusters that are compact but resolved. Integrated UVI colors of the clusters span a large range, and suggest that ages range from 3 Myrs to 1 Gyr. However, most of the clusters were formed at the tail end of the recent starburst. Numerous clusters in addition to the know super star clusters are similar in luminosity to a small globular cluster. We examined the radial surface brightness of four of the clusters. Their half-light radii and core radii are in the range observed in present-day globular clusters. Therefore, conditions that produced the recent starburst have also been those necessary for producing compact, bright star clusters. We examine resolved stars in the outer parts of the two super star clusters. Cluster A is dominated by bright blue stars with a small population of red supergiants. Sub-components A1 and A2 have similar colors and a two-dimensional color map does not offer evidence that one component is dominated by red supergiants and the other not. The contradiction of the presence of red super- giants with Wolf-Rayet stars may instead not be a contradiction at all since there coexistence in a coeval population is not inconsistent with the evolution of massive stars. Cluster B is dominated by red supergiants, and this is confirmed by the presence of the stellar CO absorption feature in an integrated spectrum. The various age indicators are consistent with a picture in which cluster B is of order 10--20 Myrs old, and cluster A is >4-5 Myrs old.

  16. Dense molecular gas in galaxies - HCN, HCO(+), and CS in M 82 and NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Q-Rieu; Nakai, N.; Jackson, J. M.

    1989-08-01

    The HCN (J = 1 to 0), HCO(+) (J = 1 to 0), and CS (J = 2 to 1) lines have been observed in five positions along the major axis toward the nuclei of M 82 and NGC 253. The present line strengths suggest that a large fraction of the molecular gas in M 82 and NGC 253 resides in small dense clumps with a low volume filling factor. The results are consistent with quiescent Milky Way molecular clouds. It is found that the HCO(+)/HCN abundance ratio in M 82 is enhanced with respect to that in NGC 253, and that the distribution of HCN and HCO(+) is depressed or flat toward the center or M 82 and appears centrally peaked in NGC 253. The HCN spectra toward the central position of M82 are shown to exhibit an absorption feature at 230 km/s which probably arises from the cold and dense gas in the disk of the galaxy.

  17. STAR FORMATION RATES IN RESOLVED GALAXIES: CALIBRATIONS WITH NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED DATA FOR NGC 5055 AND NGC 6946

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yiming; Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela; Wilson, Christine D.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Galametz, M.; Murphy, Eric J.; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Groves, B.; Draine, B. T.; Johnson, B. D.; Armus, L.; Gordon, K. D.; Croxall, K.; Dale, D. A.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J.; Hao, C.-N.; Helou, G.; Hunt, L. K.; and others

    2013-05-10

    We use the near-infrared Br{gamma} hydrogen recombination line as a reference star formation rate (SFR) indicator to test the validity and establish the calibration of the Herschel/PACS 70 {mu}m emission as a SFR tracer for sub-galactic regions in external galaxies. Br{gamma} offers the double advantage of directly tracing ionizing photons and of being relatively insensitive to the effects of dust attenuation. For our first experiment, we use archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Br{gamma} and Ks images of two nearby galaxies: NGC 5055 and NGC 6946, which are also part of the Herschel program KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel). We use the extinction corrected Br{gamma} emission to derive the SFR(70) calibration for H II regions in these two galaxies. A comparison of the SFR(70) calibrations at different spatial scales, from 200 pc to the size of the whole galaxy, reveals that about 50% of the total 70 {mu}m emission is due to dust heated by stellar populations that are unrelated to the current star formation. We use a simple model to qualitatively relate the increase of the SFR(70) calibration coefficient with decreasing region size to the star formation timescale. We provide a calibration for an unbiased SFR indicator that combines the observed H{alpha} with the 70 {mu}m emission, also for use in H II regions. We briefly analyze the PACS 100 and 160 {mu}m maps and find that longer wavelengths are not as good SFR indicators as 70 {mu}m, in agreement with previous results. We find that the calibrations show about 50% difference between the two galaxies, possibly due to effects of inclination.

  18. EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS IN THE REMOTE HALO OF THE INTRIGUING DWARF GALAXY NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Narae; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Park, Won-Kee; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    We present a study on four new star clusters discovered in the halo of the intriguing dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 from a wide-field survey covering 3{sup 0} x 3{sup 0} area carried out with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The star clusters have extended structures with half-light radii R{sub h} {approx} 7.5-14.0 pc, larger than typical Galactic globular clusters and other known globular clusters in NGC 6822. The integrated colors and color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stars suggest that the new star clusters are 2-10 Gyr old and relatively metal poor with Z = 0.0001-0.004 based on the comparison with theoretical models. The projected distance of each star cluster from the galaxy center ranges from 10.'7 ({approx}1.5 kpc) to 77' ({approx}11 kpc), far beyond the optical body of the galaxy. Interestingly, the new star clusters are aligned along the elongated old stellar halo of NGC 6822, which is almost perpendicular to the H I gas distribution where young stellar populations exist. We also find that the colors and half-light radii of the new clusters are correlated with the galactocentric distance: clusters farther from the galaxy center are larger and bluer than those closer to the galaxy center. We discuss the stellar structure and evolution of NGC 6822 implied by these new extended star clusters in the halo. We also discuss the current status of observational and theoretical understandings regarding the origin of extended star clusters in NGC 6822 and other galaxies.

  19. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-12-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  20. A Constant Bar Fraction out to Redshift z~1 in the Advanced Camera for Surveys Field of the Tadpole Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Bruce G. Elmegreen; Debra Meloy Elmegreen; Amelia C. Hirst

    2004-07-28

    Bar-like structures were investigated in a sample of 186 disk galaxies larger than 0.5 arcsec that are in the I-band image of the Tadpole galaxy taken with the HST ACS. We found 22 clear cases of barred galaxies, 21 galaxies with small bars that appear primarily as isophotal twists in a contour plot, and 11 cases of peculiar bars in clump-cluster galaxies, which are face-on versions of chain galaxies. The latter bars are probably young, as the galaxies contain only weak interclump emission. Four of the clearly barred galaxies at z~0.8-1.2 have grand design spirals. The bar fraction was determined as a function of galaxy inclination and compared with the analogous distribution in the local Universe. The bar fraction was also determined as a function of galaxy angular size. These distributions suggest that inclination and resolution effects obscure nearly half of the bars in our sample. The bar fraction was also determined as a function of redshift. We found a nearly constant bar fraction of 0.23+-0.03 from z~0 to z=1.1. When corrected for inclination and size effects, this fraction is comparable to the bar fraction in the local Universe, ~0.4, as tabulated for all bar and Hubble types in the Third Reference Catalogue of Galaxies. The average major axis of a barred galaxy in our sample is ~10 kpc after correcting for redshift with a LambdaCDM cosmology. Galaxy bars were present in normal abundance at least ~8 Gy ago (z~1); bar dissolution cannot be common during a Hubble time unless the bar formation rate is comparable to the dissolution rate.

  1. Antlia B: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Member of the NGC 3109 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D. J.; Spekkens, K.; Crnojevi?, D.; Hargis, J. R.; Willman, B.; Strader, J.; Grillmair, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery of Antlia B, a faint dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of ˜72 kpc from NGC 3109 ({M}V ˜ -15 {mag}), the primary galaxy of the NGC 3109 dwarf association at the edge of the Local Group. The tip of the red giant branch distance to Antlia B is D = 1.29 ± 0.10 Mpc, which is consistent with the distance to NGC 3109. A qualitative analysis indicates the new dwarf's stellar population has both an old, metal-poor red giant branch (? 10 {{Gyr}}, [Fe/H] ˜ -2), and a younger blue population with an age of ˜200-400 Myr, analogous to the original Antlia dwarf, another likely satellite of NGC 3109. Antlia B has H i gas at a velocity of {v}{helio,{{H}} {{I}}} = 376 km s-1, confirming the association with NGC 3109 (vhelio = 403 km s-1). The H i gas mass (MH i = 2.8 ± 0.2 × 105 {M}? ), stellar luminosity (MV = -9.7 ± 0.6 mag) and half light radius (rh = 273 ± 29 pc) are all consistent with the properties of dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Volume, and is most similar to the Leo P dwarf galaxy. The discovery of Antlia B is the initial result from a Dark Energy Camera survey for halo substructure and faint dwarf companions to NGC 3109 with the goal of comparing observed substructure with expectations from the ?+Cold Dark Matter model in the sub-Milky Way regime.

  2. Results from five Chandra observations of the normal galaxy NGC 3877

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Edgar Raul, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of five Chandra observations of the normal galaxy NGC 3877. A total of 27 X-ray sources are detected, including SN 1998S. We find 15 sources to be variable during the 646-day period covered by the ...

  3. NGC 5253 and ESO 269-G058: Dwarf Galaxies with a Past

    E-print Network

    Davidge, T J

    2007-01-01

    Deep r' and i' images obtained with GMOS on Gemini South are used to probe the bright stellar content in the outer regions of NGC 5253 and ESO269-G058. Red giant branch (RGB) stars are traced out to a distance of 8 kpc along the major axis of NGC 5253, and 6 kpc in ESO269-G058. The outer regions of both galaxies are metal-poor; RGB stars located between projected major axis distances of 2 and 4 kpc in NGC 5253 have [Fe/H] ~ -1, whereas RGB stars in the corresponding portion of ESO269-G058 have [Fe/H] ~ -1.8. Stars with metallicities that differ from the mean by more than a few tenths of a dex make only a modest contribution to the stellar content in the outer regions of both galaxies. A population of bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is seen in both galaxies. Roughly 1 - 10% of the stellar mass of NGC 5253 may have formed during the past few hundred million years, and it is suggested that the progenitors of the two recent SN Ia in this galaxy may have formed at this time. It is argued that the curren...

  4. X-Ray Source Population in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 720 with Chandra

    E-print Network

    Canizares, Claude R.

    With a Chandra ACIS-S3 observation, we detect 42 X-ray point sources in the elliptical galaxy NGC 720, including a possible central source. Most of these sources will be low-mass X-ray binaries, and 12 are located within ...

  5. The Black Hole in the Compact, High-dispersion Galaxy NGC 1271

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonelle; van den Bosch, R.; Gebhardt, K.; Yildirim, A.; Gultekin, K.; Richstone, D. O.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations linking the mass of the black hole in the centers of galaxies to bulge properties have been clearly established over the past decade; however there still remain major open questions, particularly concerning the sparsely populated upper end of the black hole mass distribution. Through a large survey with the Hobby Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory, we have identified a sample of ideal galaxies for studying the upper end of the black hole mass scaling relations. These galaxies are compact, rapidly rotating, and have low luminosities for their very large stellar velocity dispersions, in sharp contrast to the objects typically found at the high end of the black holes mass - bulge relationships. In this talk, we focus on one galaxy in the sample: the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 1271. We present laser guide star adaptive optics observations of NGC 1271 with the integral field spectrograph NIFS on the Gemini North telescope. By combining the high spatial resolution stellar kinematics measured from the NIFS observations with imaging and large-scale stellar kinematics, we construct orbit-based stellar dynamical models. We will present results of the dynamical modeling, emphasizing the constraints on the black hole mass, and place NGC 1271 on the black hole mass - host galaxy relationships.

  6. On the offset of barred galaxies from the black hole M {sub BH}-? relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P. E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu

    2013-12-01

    We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion ? (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average ? 10%, whereas the increase is only ? 4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors: (1) orientation and inclination effects; (2) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; and (3) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast, the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. The increase in ? following the growth of the SMBH is insensitive to a variation of a factor of 10 in the final mass of the SMBH, showing that it is the growth process rather than the actual SMBH mass that alters bar evolution in a way that increases ?. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M {sub BH}, especially if a constant M/L ratio is assumed. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an increase in ? that is roughly 4%-8% larger than the increase that occurs in an axisymmetric system. While the increase in ? due to SMBH growth in a barred galaxy might partially account for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo bulges from the M {sub BH}-? relation obtained for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges in unbarred galaxies, it is inadequate to account for all of the offset.

  7. Red giants in the outer halo of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5128/Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.; Flynn, Chris; Harris, William E.; Valtonen, Mauri

    2015-03-01

    We used VIMOS on VLT to perform V and I band imaging of the outermost halo of NGC 5128/Centaurus A ((m - M)0 = 27.91±0.08), 65 kpc from the galaxy's center and along the major axis. The stellar population has been resolved to I0 ? 27 with a 50% completeness limit of I0 = 24.7, well below the tip of the red-giant branch (TRGB), which is seen at I0 ? 23.9. The surface density of NGC 5128 halo stars in our fields was sufficiently low that dim, unresolved background galaxies were a major contaminant in the source counts. We isolated a clean sample of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars extending to ?0.8 mag below the TRGB through conservative magnitude and color cuts, to remove the (predominantly blue) unresolved background galaxies. We derived stellar metallicities from colors of the stars via isochrones and measured the density falloff of the halo as a function of metallicity by combining our observations with HST imaging taken of NGC 5128 halo fields closer to the galaxy center. We found both metal-rich and metal-poor stellar populations and found that the falloff of the two follows the same de Vaucouleurs' law profiles from ?8 kpc out to ?70 kpc. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) and the density falloff agree with the results of two recent studies of similar outermost halo fields in NGC 5128. We found no evidence of a "transition" in the radial profile of the halo, in which the metal-rich halo density would drop rapidly, leaving the underlying metal-poor halo to dominate by default out to greater radial extent, as has been seen in the outer halo of two other large galaxies. If NGC 5128 has such a transition, it must lie at larger galactocentric distances.

  8. NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS. II. GLOBULAR CLUSTER METALLICITIES IN NGC 300

    SciTech Connect

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.

    2010-03-15

    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B and C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s{sup -1}. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s{sup -1} and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies.

  9. Massive Star Formation in the Fireworks Galaxy: A High Resolution JVLA Survey of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Christina; Pannuti, Thomas; Stockdale, Christopher; Calbo, Zuzana

    2015-08-01

    The Fireworks Galaxy, NGC 6946, is a face-on, nearby, grand design spiral galaxy that has a high star formation rate and is the current leader in producing supernovae (SNe) with nine SNe produced over the past century. The study of star formation regions and massive star SN/SNRs is ideally suited for NGC 6946 given its face-on inclination and well defined spiral arms. We present the results of an ongoing high resolution, low frequency Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array survey of NGC 6946 at 20, 6, and 3.6 cm. These high resolution radio observations reveal HII regions, including ultra dense (UDHII) HII regions, SNe, and supernova remnants (SNRs) that represent the beginning and end stages of massive star formation. Our new survey is a factor of two times more sensitive than an older survey and also includes new data at 3.6 cm. Previous radio surveys have identified both UDHII regions and SNRs in NGC 6946. The radio SNRs are correlated with the spiral arms and star formation regions, indicative of a massive star progenitor origin for the SNe/SNRs. We present our new radio maps and discuss the newly identified sources and their relevance to the massive star formation in NGC 6496.

  10. NGC 1277: A MASSIVE COMPACT RELIC GALAXY IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Balcells, Marc; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia

    2014-01-10

    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10{sup 11} M {sub ?} of stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (?0.1%) may have survived untouched until today. Searches for such relic galaxies, useful windows to explore the early universe, have been inconclusive to date: galaxies with masses and sizes like those observed at high redshift (M {sub *} ? 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}; R{sub e} ? 1.5 kpc) have been found in the local universe, but their stars are far too young for the galaxy to be a relic galaxy. This paper explores the first case of a nearby galaxy, NGC 1277 (at a distance of 73 Mpc in the Perseus galaxy cluster), which fulfills many criteria to be considered a relic galaxy. Using deep optical spectroscopy, we derive the star formation history along the structure of the galaxy: the stellar populations are uniformly old (>10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.04 with a smooth decline toward the outer regions) and ?-enriched ([?/Fe] = 0.4 ± 0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of the stars in this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (V {sub rot} ? 300 km s{sup –1}) and has a large central velocity dispersion (? > 300 km s{sup –1}). NGC 1277 allows the exploration in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, and initial mass function as they were at ?10-12 Gyr ago when the first massive galaxies were built.

  11. Extended soft X-ray emission in Seyfert galaxies: ROSAT HRI observations of NGC 3516, NGC 4151, and Markarian 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jon A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Elvis, Martin; Weaver, Kimberly A.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) to examine the distribution of soft X-rays in three nearby Seyfert galaxies with approximately 4 to 5 arcsecs FWHM spatial resolution. A feature of our analysis is an attempt to remove errors in the aspect solution using a method developed by one of us (J.M.). NGC 4151 shows resolved X-ray emission that is spatially correlated with the optical extended narrow-line region (ENLR), confirming the results obtained with the Einstein HRI by Elvis, Briel, & Henry. NGC 3516 is elongated along a position angle of approximately 40 to 220 deg, similar to the direction of the Z-shaped narrow-line region. MRK 3 is very faint in our HRI image and is probably spatially unresolved. We detect the faint X-ray source approximately 2 arcmins west of the MRK 3 nucleus previously found by Turner, Urry, & Mushotzky. We also detected the BL Lac object BL 1207 + 39 approximately 5 arcmins north-northwest of NGC 4151. This object appears spatially unresolved, but some excess X-ray emission may be observed in the azimuthally averaged radial brightness profile of BL 1207 + 39 between radii of 10 arcsecs and 30 arcsecs when compared to a calibration source. A much deeper image is necessary to confirm this result.

  12. Velocity dispersions in galaxies. I - The E7 galaxy NGC 7332.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A coude spectrum of the E7 galaxy NGC 7332 with 0.9 A-resolution from 4186 to 4364 A was obtained with the Princeton SEC vidicon television camera and the Hale telescope. Comparisons with spectra of G and K giant stars, numerically broadened for various Maxwellian velocity distributions, give a dispersion velocity in the line of sight of 160 (plus or minus 20) km/sec with the best fit at G8 III. The dispersion appears to be constant within plus or minus 35 km/sec out to 1.4 kpc. After correction for projection, the rotation curve has a slope of 0.18 km/sec per pc at the center and a velocity of 130 km/sec at 1.4 kpc where it is still increasing. For an estimated effective radius of 3.5 kpc enclosing half the light, the virial theorem gives a mass of 140 billion solar masses if the mass-to-light ratio is constant throughout the galaxy.

  13. The Globular Cluster System of the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 2937 as a Marker of its Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Emily; West, Michael; Harris, William

    2015-01-01

    Using imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive, we examine the rich globular cluster population of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 2937, located at a distance of 70 Mpc. We present a color-magnitude diagram and two-color diagram of the galaxy's globular cluster system and discuss their possible implications for the evolutionary history of the galaxy.

  14. Bar formation as driver of gas inflows in isolated disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanali, R.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Haardt, F.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar bars are a common feature in massive disc galaxies. On a theoretical ground, the response of gas to a bar is generally thought to cause nuclear starbursts and, possibly, AGN activity once the perturbed gas reaches the central supermassive black hole. By means of high-resolution numerical simulations, we detail the purely dynamical effects that a forming bar exerts on the gas of an isolated disc galaxy. The galaxy is initially unstable to the formation of non-axisymmetric structures, and within ˜1 Gyr it develops spiral arms that eventually evolve into a central stellar bar on kpc scale. A first major episode of gas inflow occurs during the formation of the spiral arms while at later times, when the stellar bar is establishing, a low-density region is carved between the bar corotational and inner Lindblad resonance radii. The development of such `dead zone' inhibits further massive gas inflows. Indeed, the gas inflow reaches its maximum during the relatively fast bar-formation phase and not, as often assumed, when the bar is fully formed. We conclude that the low efficiency of long-lived, evolved bars in driving gas towards galactic nuclei is the reason why observational studies have failed to establish an indisputable link between bars and AGNs. On the other hand, the high efficiency in driving strong gas inflows of the intrinsically transient process of bar formation suggests that the importance of bars as drivers of AGN activity in disc galaxies has been overlooked so far. We finally prove that our conclusions are robust against different numerical implementations of the hydrodynamics routinely used in galaxy evolution studies.

  15. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Galametz, M.; and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ?10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  16. Optical rotation velocities and images of the spiral galaxy NGC 3198

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D. A.; Rubin, V. C.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1986-01-01

    H-alpha rotation velocities obtained from an echelle spectrogram to a radius of 2 arcmin for the spiral galaxy NGC 3198 agree well with the 21 cm rotation velocities of van Albada et al. (1985). The rotation curve is typical of Sc type galaxies in spite of NGC 3198's extended H I disk. From optical R and H-alpha-emission images, used to search for star-forming regions in the outer parts of this galaxy, several H-alpha knots are identified as far out as the Holmberg radius. With increasing radial distance out to 2 arcmin, the R-band surface brightness falls, the H-alpha is approximately constant, and the H I surface brightness rises.

  17. A Stellar Dynamical Black Hole Mass for the Reverberation-Mapped Active Galaxy NGC6814

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Misty; Manne-Nicholas, Emily; Onken, Christopher; Valluri, Monica

    2013-08-01

    We propose to obtain spatially-resolved spectroscopy of the nucleus of the nearby (z=0.005) AGN NGC 6814 with Gemini NIFS+ALTAIR to model the gravitational influence of the central supermassive black hole on the stellar dynamics of the inner galaxy. A recent reverberation-based black hole mass of 2.0 x 10^7 M_sun for NGC 6814 places the black hole sphere of influence within the spatial resolution range of current ground-based AO systems. Because of the differing technical limitations of dynamical mass modeling and reverberation mapping, NGC 6814 is only the third galaxy where it is currently possible to directly compare a reverberation and a dynamical mass. Such a direct comparison provides an independent constraint on the geometric scaling factor that is currently the largest uncertainty in reverberation-based masses. All AGN black hole masses from spectroscopic surveys fundamentally rely on the reverberation sample, and thus our current understanding of the growth and evolution of black holes and galaxies across cosmic time relies on the accuracy of reverberation-based black hole masses. A stellar dynamical mass for NGC 6814 will increase by 50% the small sample of black holes that provide an independent check on the stability of the entire AGN black hole mass scale. We are also currently targeting additional AGNs for reverberation-mapping campaigns with the intent of further increasing this sample in the future.

  18. GALEX UV observations of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; De Paz, A G; Buat, V; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Madore, B F; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Byun, Y I; Donas, J; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Heckman, T M; Jelinsky, P N; Lee, Y W; Malina, R; Martin, D C; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Seibert, M; Siegmund, O; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B; Wyder, T K

    2005-01-01

    We present GALEX NUV (2310 A) and FUV (1530 A) images of the interacting galaxy NGC 4438 (Arp 120) in the center of the Virgo cluster. These images show an extended (20 kpc) tidal tail at the north-west edge of the galaxy previously undetected at other wavelengths, at 15-25 kpc from its nucleus. Except in the nucleus, the UV morphology of NGC 4438 is totally different from the Halpha+[NII] one, more similar to the X-ray emission, confirming its gas cooling origin. We study the star formation history of NGC 4438 combining spectro-photometric data in the UV-visible-near-IR wavelength range with population synthesis and galaxy evolution models. The data are consistent with a recent (~ 10 Myr), instantaneous burst of star formation in the newly discovered UV north-western tail which is significantly younger than the age of the tidal interaction with NGC 4435, dated by dynamical models at ~ 100 Myr ago. Recent star formation events are also present at the edge of the northern arm and in the southern tail, while to...

  19. Multiwavelength Study of the Bright X-ray Source Population in the Interacting Galaxies NGC 5774/NGC 5775

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray source population in the field of the interacting pair of galaxies NGC 5774/5775 is reported. A total of 49 discrete sources are detected, including 12 ultraluminous X-ray source candidates with lum inosities above 10(exp 39)erg/s in the 0.5 - 8.0 keV X-ray band. Several of these latter are transient X-ray sources that fall below detect ion levels in one of two X-ray observations spaced 15 months apart. X-ray source positions are mapped onto optical and radio images to sear ch for potential counterparts. Eleven sources have optically-bright c ounterparts. Optical colors are used to differentiate these sources, which are mostly located outside the optical extent of the interacting galaxies, as potential globular clusters (3 sources) and quasars (5) . Follow-up optical spectroscopy confirms two of the latter are background quasars.

  20. Central enhancement of the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, E.; Zurita, A.; Pérez, I.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Coelho, P. R. T.; Gadotti, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Bar-induced gas inflows towards galaxy centres are recognised as a key agent for the secular evolution of galaxies. One immediate consequence of this inflow is the accumulation of gas in the centre of galaxies where it can form stars and alter the chemical and physical properties. Aims: Our aim is to study whether the properties of the ionised gas in the central parts of barred galaxies are altered by the presence of a bar and whether the change in central properties is related to bar and/or parent galaxy properties. Methods: We use a sample of nearby face-on disc galaxies with available SDSS spectra, morphological decomposition, and information on the stellar population of their bulges, to measure the internal Balmer extinction from the H? to H? line ratio, star formation rate, and relevant line ratios to diagnose chemical abundances and gas density. Results: The distributions of all the parameters analysed (internal Balmer extinction at H? (c(H?)), star formation rate per unit area, electron density, [N ii]?6583/H? emission-line ratio, ionisation parameter, and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) abundance ratio) are different for barred and unbarred galaxies, except for the R23 metallicity tracer and the oxygen abundance obtained from photoionisation models. The median values of the distributions of these parameters point towards (marginally) larger dust content, star formation rate per unit area, electron density, and ionisation parameter in the centres of barred galaxies than in their unbarred counterparts. The most remarkable difference between barred and unbarred galaxies appears in the [N ii]?6583/H? line ratio that is, on average, ~25% higher in barred galaxies, due to an increased N/O abundance ratio in the centres of these galaxies compared to the unbarred ones. We analyse these differences as a function of galaxy morphological type (as traced by bulge-to-disc light ratios and bulge mass), total stellar mass, and bulge Sérsic index. We observe an enhancement of the differences between central gas properties in barred and unbarred galaxies in later-type galaxies or galaxies with less massive bulges. However, the bar seems to have a lower impact on the central gas properties for galaxies with bulges above ~1010 M? or total mass M? ? 1010.8 M?. Conclusions: We find observational evidence that the presence of a galactic bar affects the properties of the ionised gas in the central parts of disc galaxies (radii ?0.6-2.1 kpc). The most striking effect is an enhancement in the N/O abundance ratio. This can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of our current knowledge of bar formation and evolution, and of chemical evolution models, as being the result of a different star formation history in the centres of barred galaxies caused by the gas inflow induced by the bar. Our results lend support to the scenario in which less massive and more massive bulges have different origins or evolutionary processes, with the gaseous phase of the former currently having a closer relation to the bars. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgExtinction-corrected line fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http:// http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A88

  1. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, T.R.; Faber, S.M.; Holtzman, J.A.; Baum, W.A.; Currie, D.G.; Ewald, S.P.; Groth, E.J.; Hester, J.J.; Kelsall, T. Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ Washington Univ., Seattle Maryland Univ., College Park Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Princeton Univ., NJ California Institute of Technology, Pasadena NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1991-03-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common. 20 refs.

  2. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fuelling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19 756 disc galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.05 which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8 per cent) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1 per cent). This difference is primarily due to known effects: that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16 per cent of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the L_{[O III]}/MBH ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGNs do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGNs at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fuelling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fuelling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  3. CO emission from the nucleus of infrared galaxy NGC 4418 - an early AGM phase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawara, Kimiaki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Naomasa; Sofue, Yoshiaki

    1990-12-01

    The present consideration of the highly extinguished galaxy NGC 4418, from which the C-12O (J=1-0) emission has been detected, notes that the combination of the narrow CO line width with the extinction value derived from the 10 micron silicate absorption suggests either a high concentration of the molecular gas clouds toward the center or their dynamical decoupling from the underlying stellar system. It is in view of this hypothesis that NGC 4418 is at the very early phase of its AGN activity, and that nucleus radiation is first efficiently absorbed by the dense ambient gas and then reemitted in the far-IR.

  4. A kinematic study of the irregular dwarf galaxy NGC 2366 using HI and H? observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eymeren, J.; Marcelin, M.; Koribalski, B.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Bomans, D. J.; Gach, J.-L.; Balard, P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The metal content of dwarf galaxies and the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium both suggest that mass loss from galaxies is a significant factor for the chemical evolution history of galaxies, in particular of dwarf galaxies. However, no clear evidence of a blow-away in local dwarf galaxies has been found so far. Aims: Dwarf galaxies provide a perfect environment for studying feedback processes because their kinematics and their generally low gravitational potential support the long-term survival of shells, filaments, and holes. We therefore performed a detailed kinematic analysis of the neutral and ionised gas in the nearby star-forming irregular dwarf galaxy NGC 2366 in order to make predictions about the fate of the gas and to get a more complete picture of this galaxy. Methods: A deep H? image and Fabry-Perot interferometric data of NGC 2366 were obtained. They were complemented by HI synthesis data from the THINGS survey. We searched for line-splitting both in H? and HI by performing a Gaussian decomposition. To get an idea whether the expansion velocities are high enough for a gas blow-away, we used the pseudo-isothermal halo model, which gives us realistic values for the escape velocities of NGC 2366. The good data quality also allowed us to discuss some peculiarities of the morphology and the dynamics in NGC 2366. Results: A large red-shifted outflow north west of the giant extragalactic HII region with an expansion velocity of up to 50 km s-1 is found in H?, but not in HI. Additionally, a blue-shifted component north of the giant extragalactic HII region was detected both in H? and HI with an expansion velocity of up to 30 km s-1. A comparison with the escape velocities of NGC 2366 reveals that the gas does not have enough kinetic energy to leave the gravitational potential. Conclusions: This result is in good agreement with hydrodynamic simulations and suggests that we need to examine even less massive galaxies (M_gas=10^6 M?).

  5. Mapping the inner regions of the polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iodice, E.; Coccato, L.; Combes, F.; de Zeeuw, T.; Arnaboldi, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Spavone, M.

    2015-11-01

    The polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A was observed during the commissioning of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the ESO Very Large Telescope to obtain the first 2D map of the velocity and velocity dispersion for both stars and gas. The new MUSE data allow the analysis of the structure and kinematics towards the central regions of NGC 4650A, where the two components co-exist. These regions were unexplored by the previous long-slit literature data available for this galaxy. The stellar velocity field shows that there are two main directions of rotation, one along the host galaxy major axis (PA = 67 deg) and the other along the polar disk (PA = 160 deg). The host galaxy has, on average, the typical pattern of a rotating disk, with receding velocities on the SW side and approaching velocities on the NE side, and a velocity dispersion that remains constant at all radii (?star ~ 50-60 km s-1). The polar disk shows a large amount of differential rotation from the centre up to the outer regions, reaching V ~ 100-120 km s-1 at R ~ 75 arcsec ~ 16 kpc. Inside the host galaxy, a velocity gradient is measured along the photometric minor axis. Close to the centre, for R ? 2 arcsec the velocity profile of the gas suggests a decoupled component and the velocity dispersion increases up to ~110 km s-1, while at larger distances it remains almost constant (?gas ~ 30-40 km s-1). The extended view of NGC 4650A given by the MUSE data is a galaxy made of two perpendicular disks that remain distinct and drive the kinematics right into the very centre of this object. In order to match this observed structure for NGC 4650A, we constructed a multicomponent mass model made by the combined projection of two disks. By comparing the observations with the 2D kinematics derived from the model, we found that the modelled mass distribution in these two disks can, on average, account for the complex kinematics revealed by the MUSE data, also in the central regions of the galaxy where the two components coexist. This result is a strong constraint on the dynamics and formation history of this galaxy; it further supports the idea that polar disk galaxies like NGC 4650A were formed through the accretion of material that has different angular momentum. This work is based on observations taken at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory within the MUSE Commissioning.

  6. The ghost of a dwarf galaxy: fossils of the hierarchical formation of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5907

    E-print Network

    David Martinez-Delgado; Jorge Penarrubia; R. Jay Gabany; Ignacio Trujillo; Steven R. Majewski; Michael Pohlen

    2008-08-13

    We present an extragalactic perspective of an extended stellar tidal stream wrapping around the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5907. Our deep images reveal for the first time a large scale complex of arcing loops that is an excellent example of how a low-mass satellite accretion can produce an interwoven, rosette-like structure of debris dispersed in the halo of its host galaxy. The existence of this structure, which has probably formed and survived for several Gigayears, confirms that halos of spiral galaxies in the Local Universe may still contain a significant number of galactic fossils from their hierarchical formation. To examine the validity of the external accretion scenario, we present N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of a dwarf galaxy-like system in a disk galaxy plus dark halo potential that demonstrate that most of the observed tidal features observed in NGC 5907 can be explained by a single accretion event. Unfortunately, with no kinematic data and only the projected geometry of the stream as constraint, the parameters of our model are considerably degenerate and, for now, must be considered illustrative only. Interestingly, NGC 5907 has long been considered a prototypical example of a warped spiral in relative isolation. The presence of an extended tidal stream challenges this picture and suggests that the gravitational perturbations induced by the stream progenitor may be the cause for the warp. The detection of an old, complex tidal stream in a nearby galaxy with rather modest instrumentation points to the viability of surveys to find extragalactic tidal substructures around spiral galaxies in the Local Volume (< 15 Mpc) -- with the prospect of obtaining a census with enough statistical significance to be compared with cosmological simulations.

  7. Peanut-shaped bulges in face-on disk galaxies

    E-print Network

    Mendez-Abreu, J; Debattista, V P; De Rijcke, S; Aguerri, J A L; Pizzella, A

    2010-01-01

    We present high resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of 3 face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703 with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P)-shaped bulges. These observations test and confirm the prediction of Debattista et al. (2005) that face-on B/P-shaped bulges can be recognized by a double minimum in the profile of the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment h_4. In NGC 1703, which is an unbarred control galaxy, we found no evidence of a B/P bulge. In NGC 98, a clear double minimum in h_4 is present along the major axis of the bar and before the end of the bar, as predicted. In contrast, in NGC 600, which is also a barred galaxy but lacks a substantial bulge, we do not find a significant B/P shape.

  8. Spectral decomposition of the stellar kinematics in the polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, L.; Iodice, E.; Arnaboldi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The prototype of polar ring galaxies NGC 4650A contains two main structural components, a central spheroid, which is the host galaxy, and an extended polar disk. Both photometric and kinematic studies revealed that these two components co-exist on two different planes within the central regions of the galaxy. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the spectroscopic and kinematic properties of the host galaxy and the polar disk in the central regions of NGC 4650A by disentangling their contributions to the observed galaxy spectrum. Methods: We applied the spectral decomposition technique introduced in previous works to long-slit spectroscopic observations in the CaII triplet region. We focused the analysis along the PA = 152° that corresponds to the photometric minor axis of the host galaxy, where the superimposition of the two components is more relevant and the spectral decomposition is necessary. We aim to disentangle the stars that move in the equatorial plane of the host galaxy from those that move in the meridan plane, which is along the polar disk. Results: We successfully disentangled the spectra of the two structural components of NGC 4650A and measured their line-of-sight velocity and velocity dispersion profiles, and the stellar content along PA = 152°. The host galaxy shows significant rotation along its photometric minor axis, indicating that the gravitational potential is not axisymmetric. The polar disk shows a kinematic decoupling: the inner regions counter-rotating with respect the outer-regions and the host spheroid. This suggests a complex formation history for the polar disk, characterised by mass accretion with decoupled angular momenta.

  9. Behavior of Neutral Hydrogen in the NGC 877/6 Galaxy Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning Hall, Porter; Minchin, Robert F.; Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    We observed a 5 square degree area centered on -02:17:31, 14:32:00 at 21-cm as part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) with the NGC 877/6 galaxy group at a velocity of 4000 km/s as the primary target. Our observations covered the redshift range -5,000 < cz < 20,000 km/s allowing for a large volume in front and behind the complex to be analyzed. The NGC 877/6 group contains 8 galaxies inside a common HI envelope with a total neutral hydrogen mass of LogMHI = 10.73. HI is detected outside of the optically-identified galaxies and there are a number of tidal features within the complex. These include AGC 749170, a possible tidal remnant identified by ALFALFA and whose detection we confirm here. Another, smaller group associated with UGC 1742 (LogMHI = 9.95; cz = 6900 km/s) was identified as showing signs of galaxy interaction as well as the possibility of a tidal formation not catalogued in NED as a galaxy. Of the 44 HI sources identified in the data cube, 12 (27%) were not previously recorded in the NED database as galaxies. We will continue our analysis with data from the Mock spectrometers which will extend the redshift range to 45000 km/s.

  10. The Rings Survey. I. H? and H I Velocity Maps of Galaxy NGC 2280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Carl J.; Williams, T. B.; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the H? line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey, as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from H? FP interferometry and H i aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our H? velocity map of the kind that have previously been detected in other galaxies. Models produced from our two velocity maps agree well with each other and our estimates of the systemic velocity and projection angles confirm previous measurements of these quantities for NGC 2280. Based in part on observations obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) program 2011-3-RU-003.

  11. The stellar populations in the low luminosity, early-type galaxy NGC59

    E-print Network

    Sansom, A E; Deakin, M A; Väisänen, P; Kniazev, A Y; van Loon, J Th

    2015-01-01

    Low luminosity galaxies may be the building blocks of more luminous systems. Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) observations of the low luminosity, early-type galaxy NGC59 are obtained and analysed. These data are used to measure the stellar population parameters in the centre and off-centre regions of this galaxy, in order to uncover its likely star formation history. We find evidence of older stars, in addition to young stars in the emission line regions. The metallicity of the stellar population is constrained to be [Z/H] ~ -1.1 to -1.6, which is extremely low, even for this low luminosity galaxy, since it is not classed as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The measured [alpha/Fe] ratio is sub-solar, which indicates an extended star formation history in NGC59. If such objects formed the building blocks of more massive, early-type galaxies, then they must have been gaseous mergers, rather than dry mergers, in order to increase the metals to observed levels in luminous, early-type galaxies.

  12. Cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2014-05-09

    Cosmic rays in galaxies interact with the interstellar medium and give us a direct view of nuclear and particle interactions in the cosmos. For example, cosmic-ray proton interactions with interstellar hydrogen produce gamma rays via PcrPism??{sup 0}???. For a 'normal' star-forming galaxy like the Milky Way, most cosmic rays escape the Galaxy before such collisions, but in starburst galaxies with dense gas and huge star formation rate, most cosmic rays do suffer these interactions [1,2]. We construct a 'thick-target' model for starburst galaxies, in which cosmic rays are accelerated by supernovae, and escape is neglected. This model gives an upper limit to the gamma-ray emission. Only two free parameters are involved in the model: cosmic-ray proton acceleration energy rate from supernova and the proton injection spectral index. The pionic gamma-radiation is calculated from 10 MeV to 10 TeV for the starburst galaxy NGC 253, and compared to Fermi and HESS data. Our model fits NGC 253 well, suggesting that cosmic rays in this starburst are in the thick target limit, and that this galaxy is a gamma-ray calorimeter.

  13. An Accreting Black Hole in the Nuclear Star Cluster of the Bulgeless Galaxy NGC 1042

    E-print Network

    Joseph C. Shields; C. Jakob Walcher; Torsten Boeker; Luis C. Ho; Hans-Walter Rix; Roeland P. van der Marel

    2008-04-24

    We present spectroscopic evidence for a low-luminosity, low-excitation active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 1042, powered by an intermediate-mass black hole. These findings are significant in that the AGN is coincident with a compact star cluster known to reside in the nucleus, thus providing an example where the two types of central mass concentration coexist. The existence of a central black hole is additionally remarkable in that NGC 1042 lacks a stellar bulge. Objects such as NGC 1042 may have an important role in testing theories for the genesis of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei, and the extent to which they are in symbiosis with the larger stellar host.

  14. The distribution of far-infrared light in the 'Dusty Hand' galaxy NGC 2146

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Harvey, P. M.; Lester, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) has been used to obtain high spatial resolution 50 and 100 micrometers observations of the peculiar galaxy NGC 2146. We find that the far-infrared luminosity of NGC 2146 arises in a 21 arcsecs x less than or = 16 arcsecs (1.5 kpc x less than or equal 1.1 kpc) region (FWHM) elongated along the major axis. This limit is consistent with the size of the central radio continuum and (12)CO (1-0) sources. The far-infrared distribution is slightly more compact than that of the H-alpha; this difference is consistent with observed pattern of extinction in this galaxy. From a study of the energetics in this galaxy, we conclude that young massive stars are largely responsible for powering the far-infrared luminosity of NGC 2146. The far-infrared and CO (1-0) distributions differ from the reddening morphology as seen in optical images and in the Br-gamma/H-alpha ratio. The starlight and the ionized gas appear most highly reddened at the prominent dust lane 15 arcsecs to the west of the nucleus, while the CO and far-infrared emission peak near the nucleus. This result dust lane lies in front of the main body of the galaxy.

  15. The young nuclear stellar disc in the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023

    E-print Network

    Corsini, E M; Pastorello, N; Bontà, E Dalla; Pizzella, A; Portaluri, E

    2015-01-01

    Small kinematically-decoupled stellar discs with scalelengths of a few tens of parsec are known to reside in the centre of galaxies. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they form, including gas dissipation and merging of globular clusters. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging and ground-based integral-field spectroscopy, we investigated the structure and stellar populations of the nuclear stellar disc hosted in the interacting SB0 galaxy NGC 1023. The stars of the nuclear disc are remarkably younger and more metal rich with respect to the host bulge. These findings support a scenario in which the nuclear disc is the end result of star formation in metal enriched gas piled up in the galaxy centre. The gas can be of either internal or external origin, i.e. from either the main disc of NGC 1023 or the nearby satellite galaxy NGC 1023A. The dissipationless formation of the nuclear disc from already formed stars, through the migration and accretion of star clusters into the galactic cen...

  16. DISCOVERY OF A NEW FAINT DWARF GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, D. J.; Crnojevi?, D.; Strader, J.; Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Caldwell, N.; McLeod, B.; Seth, A. C.

    2014-09-20

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, which we dub Scl-MM-Dw1, at a projected distance of ?65 kpc from the spiral galaxy NGC 253. The discovery results from the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), a program with the Magellan/Megacam imager to study faint substructure in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to Scl-MM-Dw1 of D = 3.9 ± 0.5 Mpc, consistent with that of NGC 253, making their association likely. The new dwarf's stellar population is complex, with an old, metal-poor red giant branch (?10 Gyr, [Fe/H] ? –2), and an asymptotic giant branch with an age of ?500 Myr. Scl-MM-Dw1 has a half-light radius of r{sub h} = 340 ± 50 pc and an absolute magnitude of M{sub V}  = –10.3 ± 0.6 mag, comparable to the Milky Way's satellites at the same luminosity. Once complete, our imaging survey of NGC 253 and other nearby massive galaxies will provide a census of faint substructure in halos beyond the Local Group, both to put our own environment into context and to confront models of hierarchical structure formation.

  17. 3D evolution of barred galaxies based on the cosmic-ray driven dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Natalia; Otmianowska-Mazur, Katarzyna; Hanasz, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Our MHD numerical calculations provide results for a three-dimensional model of barred galaxies involving a cosmic-ray driven dynamo process that depends on star formation rates. We applied global 3D numerical calculations of a cosmic-ray driven dynamo in barred galaxies with different physical input parameters such as the supernova (SN) rate.Furthermore, we argue that the cosmic-ray driven dynamo can account for a number of magnetic features in barred galaxies, such as magnetic arms observed along the gaseous arms, magnetic arms in the inter-arm regions, polarized emission that is at the strongest in the central part of the galaxy, where the bar is situated, polarized emission that forms ridges coinciding with the dust lanes along the leading edges of the bar, as well as their very strong total radio intensity. Our results give the modelled magnetic field topology similar to the observational maps of polarized intensity in barred galaxies. Moreover, they cast a new light on a number of polarization properties observed in barred or even spiral galaxies, like fast exponential growth of the total magnetic energy to the present values, stochastic nature of magnetic field reversals (for instance: in the Milky Way).We concluded that a cosmic-ray driven dynamo process in barred galaxies could boost magnetic fields efficiently. The fastest rate of magnetic field increase is 195 yr for SN frequency 1/50 yr-1.The obtained intensity of magnetic field corresponds to the observational values (few ?G in spiral arms). We also found the effect of shifting magnetic arms.

  18. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  19. Clouds in Context: The Cycle of Gas and Stars in the Nearby Galaxy NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faesi, Christopher; Lada, Charles; Forbrich, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The physical process by which gas is converted into stars takes place on small scales within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), while the formation and evolution of these GMCs is influenced by global, galactic-scale processes. It is thus of key importance to connect GMC (~10 pc) and galaxy (~10 kpc) scales in order to approach a fundamental understanding of the star formation process. With this goal in mind, we have conducted a multiscale, comprehensive, multiwavelength study of the interstellar medium and star formation in the nearby (d~1.9 Mpc) spiral galaxy NGC 300. We have fully mapped the dust content within this star-forming galaxy with the Herschel Space Observatory, combining these observations with archival Spitzer data to construct a high-sensitivity, ~250 pc-scale map of the column density and dust temperature across the entire NGC 300 disk. We find that peaks in the dust temperature generally correspond with active star-forming regions, and use our Herschel data along with pointed CO(2-1) observations from APEX to characterize the ISM in these regions. To derive star formation rates from ultraviolet, visible, and infrared photometry, we have developed a new method that utilizes population synthesis modeling of individual stellar populations and accounts for both the presence of extinction and the short (< 10 Myr) timescales appropriate for cloud-scale star formation. We find that the average molecular gas depletion time at GMC complex scales in NGC 300 is similar to that of Milky Way clouds, but significantly shorter than depletion times measured over kpc-sized regions in nearby galaxies. This difference likely reflects the presence of a diffuse, non-star-forming component of molecular gas between GMCs, as well as the fact that star formation is strongly concentrated in discrete regions within galaxies. I will also present first results from follow-up interferometric observations with the SMA and ALMA that resolve individual GMCs in NGC 300 for the first time, connecting GMC and galaxy scales. Finally, I will compare GMC properties between NGC 300 and other galaxies including the Milky Way.

  20. NGC 3310 and Its Stellar Debris: the Remnants of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Elizabeth H.; Gallagher, J. S.; Papaderos, P.; Fritze-von Alvensleben, U.; Westfall, K. B.

    2006-06-01

    NGC 3310 is a local (d = 14 Mpc) starburst galaxy that shows signs of a recent and complex merging history. Its most well-known debris features are the "bow and arrow" which extend to the northwest and are strong sources of H-alpha emission. NGC 3310 is also surrounded by a radially symmetric network of shell-like stellar debris, and a large closed stellar loop emanates from the eastern side of the galaxy and rejoins in the north. It has an H I disk and two massive H I tails. One tail begins in the northwest and coincides with the bow and arrow, and the other extends to the south. We present deep UBV and R photometry of this debris network and a compare these results to spectral synthesis models used to examine the origins of these debris. We find that the shell-like debris are not consistent with having originated in NGC 3310's disk and that the underlying disk in this system is extremely blue. We also examine the surface brightness profiles of this system and will discuss the implications of our results for the merging history of NGC 3310.

  1. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  2. HDI in Action: Comparison Imaging of the Interacting Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    NGC 3310 is an interacting starburst galaxy located approximately 18 Mpc away. Previous studies reveal a circumnuclear starburst, substantial star formation in its spiral arms, and an extensive system of tidal debris likely induced from the collision with and subsequent merger of a now-destroyed companion galaxy. A study by Wehner et al. in 2006 revealed the presence of a previously undetected tidal loop in the Northeast quadrant of the system. We have obtained follow up observations of this system using the newly-built Half Degree Imager (HDI) recently mounted on the WIYN 0.9m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizaon. We present a comparison of deep imaging of NGC 3310 from HDI and from S2KB, the former primary CCD camera on the 0.9m. We present our results for comparison of image depth and image quality in order to assess the new HDI camera for future low surface brightness observations.

  3. Carbon abundances and radial gradients in NGC300 and other nearby spiral galaxies

    E-print Network

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Esteban, C

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results of deep echelle spectrophotometry of a sample of HII regions along the disk of the Scd galaxy NGC300 obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of detect and measure very faint OII and CII permitted lines. We focus this study on the C and O abundances obtained from faint optical recombination lines (ORLs) instead of the most commonly used collisionally excited lines (CELs). We have derived the ionic abundances of C++ from the CII 4267 angstrom RL and O++ from the multiplet 1 of OII around 4649 angstrom in several objects. Finally, we have computed the radial gradients of C/H, O/H and C/O ratios in NGC300 from RLs, which has allowed the comparison with similar data obtained by our group in other nearby spiral galaxies.

  4. Narrowband imaging and spectroscopy close to the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7682

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodie, Jean; Willick, Jeffrey A.; Bowyer, Stuart; Henry, J. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    Keel's (1985) report of a jet-like optical feature emanating from the nucleus of NGC 7682 is investigated. Deep CCD images of NGC 7682 were taken with narrowband filters centered on the redshifted wavelength of H-alpha + forbidden N II and on a nearby continuum region. The continuum-subtracted line images show no evidence of the jet feature, although numerous H II regions appear clearly, both close to the nucleus and in the extended spiral arm structure. Spectra were taken at various dispersions and position angles, including the supposed position angle of the jet. These data were used to obtain background-subtracted spectra at the precise location of the jet. No excess emission was detected above the background-galaxy contribution. The highest-resolution spectra were used to determine the redshift of the galaxy to high precision.

  5. A Multiwavelength Imaging and Spectral Study of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 2110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Daniel A.; Lee, J. C.; Kamenetska, M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Kraft, R. P.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Marshall, H. L.; Weaver, K. A.

    2006-09-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy, when combined with multiwavelength imaging, is a powerful tool for probing the circumnuclear environments of Seyfert galaxies. Here, we present results from Chandra, HST, and VLA observations of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110. We find resolved soft X-ray emission 4'' (650 pc) north of the nucleus, which is spatially coincident with [OIII] emission, but lies just beyond the northern edge of the radio jet in the source. We discuss different models that may account for the extended emission, including shock heating, electron scattering, and photoionization, and combine the results from these imaging data with a 200 ks Chandra HETGS spectroscopic study of NGC 2110 to assess the nuclear and circumnuclear contributions to the integrated X-ray emission.

  6. High-resolution Observations of Molecular Gas in the Early-type Dwarf Galaxy NGC 404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher L.; Petitpas, Glen R.; del Rio, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    We present Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association CO (1-0) observations of the nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 404. The detected CO emission is concentrated in a small feature, slightly larger than the beam size, at the center of the optical galaxy. For an assumed CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 2.3 × {{10}20} (K km s-1)-1, the molecular gas mass is 9.0 × {{10}6} M?. The velocity field suggests rotation, with a position angle ˜90° different from previous single-dish observations. Both position angles are different from that of the extended H i distribution detected by del Rió et al. The lack of agreement between the postion angle of the CO velocity field and other position angles suggests an external origin for the central molecular gas clump in NGC 404.

  7. NGC 1614 - An IR-luminous merger but not (yet?) an active galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.; Standord, S. A.; Unger, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of the merging galaxy NGC 1614 are described. The system has a nuclear region of QSO-like luminosity, but shows no direct evidence for an active nucleus. It is heavily and unevenly reddened across its nucleus, while infrared imaging also shows a 'ridge' of dust. The inner spiral structure of the galaxy has normal rotation for an inclined disk, as indicated by the H-alpha emission. A linear 'tail' to the S and extended arms to the E have more positive velocities, and probably are the remains of an interacting companion and the tidal plume(s) caused by the collision. The only H I seen in emission appears to coincide with bright knots of H-alpha and forbidden O III emission of the base of the tail. The lack of direct evidence for an active nucleus indicates that if NGC 1614 is a precursor to a Seyfert-like system the AGN has not yet turned on.

  8. Carbon abundances and radial gradients in NGC 300 and other nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Esteban, C.

    2015-05-01

    We present preliminary results of deep echelle spectrophotometry of a sample of HII regions along the disk of the Scd galaxy NGC 300 obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of detect and measure very faint oii\\ and ? permitted lines. We focus this study on the C and O abundances obtained from faint optical recombination lines (ORLs) instead of the most commonly used collisionally excited lines (CELs). We have derived the ionic abundances of C^{2+} from the ? 4267Å RL and O^{2+} from the multiplet 1 of oii\\ around 4649Å in several objects. Finally, we have computed the radial gradients of C/H, O/H and C/O ratios in NGC 300 from RLs, which has allowed the comparison with similar data obtained by our group in other nearby spiral galaxies.

  9. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster kinematics in a `double sigma' galaxy - NGC 4473

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, Adebusola B.; Foster, Caroline; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Pastorello, Nicola; Brodie, Jean P.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Usher, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    NGC 4473 is a so-called double sigma (2?) galaxy, i.e. a galaxy with rare, double peaks in its 2D stellar velocity dispersion. Here, we present the globular cluster (GC) kinematics in NGC 4473 out to ˜10Re (effective radii) using data from combined Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging and Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find that the 2? nature of NGC 4473 persists up to 3Re, though it becomes misaligned to the photometric major axis. We also observe a significant offset between the stellar and GC rotation amplitudes. This offset can be understood as a co-addition of counter-rotating stars producing little net stellar rotation. We identify a sharp radial transition in the GC kinematics at ˜4Re suggesting a well defined kinematically distinct halo. In the inner region (<4Re), the blue GCs rotate along the photometric major axis, but in an opposite direction to the galaxy stars and red GCs. In the outer region (>4Re), the red GCs rotate in an opposite direction compared to the inner region red GCs, along the photometric major axis, while the blue GCs rotate along an axis intermediate between the major and minor photometric axes. We also find a kinematically distinct population of very red GCs in the inner region with elevated rotation amplitude and velocity dispersion. The multiple kinematic components in NGC 4473 highlight the complex formation and evolutionary history of this 2? galaxy, as well as a distinct transition between the inner and outer components.

  10. Measuring supermassive black holes with gas kinematics: the active S0 galaxy NGC 3998

    E-print Network

    Giovanna De Francesco; Alessandro Capetti; Alessandro Marconi

    2006-09-21

    We present results from a kinematical study of the gas in the nucleus of the active S0 galaxy NGC 3998 obtained from archival HST/STIS long-slit spectra. We analyzed the emission lines profiles and derived the map of the gas velocity field. The observed velocity curves are consistent with gas in regular rotation around the galaxy's center. By modeling the surface brightness distribution and rotation curve of the H_alfa emission line we found that the observed kinematics of the circumnuclear gas can be accurately reproduced by adding to the stellar mass component a compact dark mass (black hole) of M_bh = 2.7(-2.0,+2.4) 10**8 M_sun (uncertainties at a 2 sigma level); the radius of its sphere of influence (R_sph ~ 0".16) is well resolved at the HST resolution. The BH mass estimate in NGC 3998 is in good agreement with both the M_bh vs. M_bul (with an upward scatter by a factor of ~2) and M_bh vs. sigma correlations (with a downward scatter by a factor of ~3-7, depending on the form adopted for the dependence of M_bh on sigma). Although NGC 3998 cannot be considered as an outlier, its location with respect to the M_bh-sigma relation conforms with the trend suggesting the presence of a connection between the ``residuals'' from the M_bh-sigma correlation and the galaxy's effective radius. In fact, NGC 3998 has one of the smallest values of R_e among the galaxies with measured M_bh (0.85 kpc) and it shows a negative residual. This suggests that a combination of both sigma and R_e is necessary to drive the correlations between M_bh and other bulge properties, an indication for the presence of a black holes ``fundamental plane''.

  11. Nuclear Star Formation in the Hot-Spot Galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ryder, S. D.; Knapen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-resolution near-infrared imaging obtained using adaptive optics and HST/NICMOS and ground-based spectroscopy of the hot-spot galaxy NGC 2903. Our near-infrared resolution imaging enables us to resolve the infrared hot spots into individual young stellar clusters or groups of these. The spatial distribution of the stellar clusters is not coincident with that of the bright H II regions, as revealed by the HST/NICMOS Pace image. Overall, the circumnuclear star formation in NGC 2903 shows a ring-like morphology with an approximate diameter of 625 pc. The SF properties of the stellar clusters and H II regions have been studied using the photometric and spectroscopic information in conjunction with evolutionary synthesis models. The population of bright stellar clusters shows a very narrow range of ages, 4 to 7 x 10(exp 6) yr after the peak of star formation, or absolute ages 6.5 to 9.5 x 10(exp 6) yr (for the assumed short-duration Gaussian bursts), and luminosities similar to the clusters found in the Antennae interacting galaxy. This population of young stellar clusters accounts for some 7 - 12% of the total stellar mass in the central 625 pc of NGC 2903. The H II regions in the ring of star formation have luminosities close to that of the super-giant H II region 30 Doradus, they are younger than the stellar clusters, and will probably evolve into bright infrared stellar clusters similar to those observed today. We find that the star formation efficiency in the central regions of NGC 2903 is higher than in normal galaxies, approaching the lower end of infrared luminous galaxies.

  12. Extended gas in Seyfert galaxies: near-infrared observations of NGC 2110 and Circinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Winge, Claudia; Ward, Martin J.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1999-03-01

    We present results of near-IR long-slit spectroscopy in the J and K bands of the Seyfert 2 galaxies NGC 2110 and Circinus. Our goal is to investigate the gaseous distribution, excitation, reddening and kinematics, looking for signatures of the molecular torus hypothesized in unified models to both obscure and collimate the nuclear radiation. The two galaxies show extended emission in the IR emission lines [Fe ii] lambda 1.257 mum, Pa beta and H_2 v=1-0 S(1), both along the major axis of the galaxy disc and perpendicular to it. In NGC 2110, the emission-line ratio [Fe ii]/Pa beta increases towards the nucleus, where its value is ~ 7. Further, the nuclear [Fe ii] and Pa beta lines are broader (FWHM ~ 500 km s^-1) than the H_2 line (FWHM <= 300 km s^-1). Both these results suggest that shocks, driven by the radio jet, are an important source of excitation of [Fe ii], while the H_2 excitation is dominated by X-rays from the nucleus. Br gamma is only observed at the nucleus, where H_2/Br gamma ~ 3. In the case of Circinus, both [Fe ii]/Pa beta and H_2/Br gamma decrease from ~ 2 at 4 arcsec from the nucleus to nuclear values of ~ 0.6 and ~ 1, respectively, suggesting that the starburst dominates the nuclear excitation, while the active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominates the excitation further out (r >= 2 arcsec). For both galaxies, the gaseous kinematics are consistent with circular rotation in the plane of the disc. Our rotation curves suggest that the nucleus (identified with the peak of the IR continuum) is displaced from the kinematic centre of the galaxies. This effect has been observed previously in NGC 2110 based on the kinematics of optical emission lines, but the displacement is smaller in the infrared, suggesting the effect is related to obscuration. The continuum J-K colours indicate a red stellar population in NGC 2110 and a reddened young stellar population in Circinus, outside the nucleus. Right at the nucleus of both galaxies, the colours are redder, apparently a result of hot dust emission, perhaps from the inner edge of a circumnuclear torus. In NGC 2110, the signature of the hot dust emission is particularly clear in the K band, being seen as an additional component superimposed on the continuum observed in the J band.

  13. The role of interactions in triggering bars, spiral arms and AGN in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of secular structures like bars, rings and spiral arms in triggering star formation and AGN activity in disk galaxies are not well understood. In addition, the mechanisms which create and destroy these structures are not well characterized. Mergers are considered to be one of the main mechanisms which can trigger bars in massive disk galaxies. Using a sample of ~8000 close pair galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.06 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, I will present results illustrating the role of mergers in triggering bars, rings, spiral arms and AGN as a function of close pair separation and merger ratios as well as their dependence on morphology and other physical properties of the galaxies. Time permitting, I will show how resolved IFU observations from SDSS MaNGA will help to place stronger constraints on the role of these structures in triggering star formation and AGN.

  14. Pre-peak ram pressure stripping in the Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, B.; Soida, M.; Chung, A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Beck, R.; Urbanik, M.; Kenney, J. D. P.

    2008-05-01

    VIVA Hi observations of the Virgo spiral galaxy NGC 4501 are presented. The Hi disk is sharply truncated to the southwest, well within the stellar disk. A region of low surface-density gas, which is more extended than the main Hi disk, is discovered northeast of the galaxy center. These data are compared to existing 6 cm polarized radio continuum emission, H?, and optical broad band images. We observe a coincidence between the western Hi and polarized emission edges, on the one hand, and a faint H? emission ridge, on the other. The polarized emission maxima are located within the gaps between the spiral arms and the faint H? ridge. Based on the comparison of these observations with a sample of dynamical simulations with different values for maximum ram pressure and different inclination angles between the disk and the orbital plane, we conclude that ram pressure stripping can account for the main observed characteristics. NGC 4501 is stripped nearly edge-on, is heading southwest, and is 200{-}300 Myr before peak ram pressure, i.e. its closest approach to M 87. The southwestern ridge of enhanced gas surface density and enhanced polarized radio-continuum emission is due to ram pressure compression. It is argued that the faint western H? emission ridge is induced by nearly edge-on ram pressure stripping. NGC 4501 represents an especially clear example of early stage ram pressure stripping of a large cluster-spiral galaxy.

  15. Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Laine, Seppo; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lacey, Christina K.; Moffitt, William P.; Sharma, Biswas; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron M.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function ? = –1.3{}-1.6+0.7 (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence intervals). The VLA observations reveal seven discrete radio sources: we find no overlaps between these sources and the X-ray detected sources. Based on their measured spectral indices and their locations with respect to the visible extent of NGC 45, we classify one source as a candidate radio SNR associated with the galaxy and the others as likely background galaxies seen in projection toward NGC 45. Finally, we discuss the properties of a background cluster of galaxies (denoted as CXOU J001354.2–231254.7) seen in projection toward NGC 45 and detected by the Chandra observations. The fit parameters to the extracted Chandra spectra of this cluster are a column density {N}{{H}} = 0.07(<0.14) × 1022 cm?2, a temperature kT = 4.22{}-1.42+2.08 keV, an abundance Z = 0.30(<0.75) relative to solar and a redshift z = 0.28 ± 0.14. From the fit parameters we derive an electron number density {n}{{e}} = 4(±1) × 10?3 cm?3, an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity {L}0.5-7.0 {keV} ? 8.77(±0.96) × 1043 erg s?1 for the cluster and an X-ray emitting mass M = 2.32(±1.75) × 1012 {M}? .

  16. A Supermassive Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onken, C. A.; Peterson, B. M.

    2004-01-01

    Updated analysis techniques and recalibrated archival monitoring data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 indicated the presence of a supermassive black hole in this galaxy. Using UV data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite and ground-based optical spectra, we have measured more precise emission line reverberation in response to continuum variations. The stratification of the broad line region (BLR) suggested by our results, combined with estimates of the line velocity widths, is consistent with a gravitationally-dominated BLR and allows us to derive a mass for the central black hole.

  17. The optically thick homogenous SSC model: Application to radio galaxy NGC 1275

    E-print Network

    Banasinski, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model for jets in active galaxies in which produced $\\gamma$-ray photons can be absorbed in collisions with the synchrotron radiation already at the emission region. In terms of such modified SSC model, we argue that the higher emission stages should be characterised by $\\gamma$-ray spectra extending to lower energies due to the efficient absorption of the highest energy $\\gamma$-rays. As an example, we show that different emission stages of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 1275 could be explained by such scenario.

  18. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N.; Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom; Johnson, Megan; Li, Jiang-Tao; Murphy, E. J.; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for internal Faraday rotation) are consistent with previous observations and also reveal some new features. On broad scales, we find strong support for the notion that magnetic fields constrain the X-ray-emitting hot gas.

  19. A Combined X-Ray and Gamma Ray Study of the Seyfert Galaxies NGC 7469 and NGC 3227

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 has been observed with both the OSSE instrument on the Compton Observatory at hard x-ray energies, and with both the PCA and HEXTE detectors on the Rossi XTE satellite. The OSSE spectral data were combined with ASCA and Ginga spectra. The combined spectrum is largely consistent with a Compton reflection model, with a weakly constrained exponential cutoff above 50 keV. Significant flux variability was observed in the x-ray data, and the XTE data are being used to better under- stand the combined x-ra and gamma ray spectrum. and to measure spectral and flux variability with greater accuracy. At the present time, background subtraction uncertainty in the XTE data is still being refined, which is limiting the study of time variability. Work has recently been slowed bN, my participation in the launch and operations of the Chandra Observatory.

  20. ISOCAM Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Quiescent Spiral Galaxy NGC 7331

    E-print Network

    Beverly J. Smith

    1998-01-11

    Using the mid-infrared camera (ISOCAM) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Sb LINER galaxy NGC 7331 has been imaged in two broadband and four narrowband filters between 6.75 and 15 microns. These maps show a prominent circumnuclear ring of radius 0.25 arcminutes X 0.75 arcminutes (1.1 X 3.3 kpc) encircling an extended central source. The 7.7 and 11.3 micron dust emission features are strong in this galaxy, contributing approximately 1/3 of the total IRAS 12 micron broadband flux from this galaxy. In contrast to starburst galaxies, the 15 micron continuum is weak in NGC 7331. The mid-infrared spectrum does not vary dramatically with position in this quiescent galaxy, showing neither large-scale destruction of the carriers of the emission bands or a large increase in the 15 micron continuum in the star forming ring. In the bulge, there is some enhancement of the 6.75 micron flux, probably because of contributions from photospheric light, however, the 11.3 micron dust feature is also seen, showing additional emission from interstellar or circumstellar dust.

  1. HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

  2. Modeling Vertically Extended Neutral Gas in the Edge-on Galaxy NGC 4302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschaechner, Laura; Rand, R. J.; Walterbos, R. A. M.; Benjamin, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent realizations concerning kinematic measurements of gaseous halos in nearby galaxies may provide important clues to the origin of such halos and thereby the growth and evolution of galaxy disks. In particular, recent measurements have shown a decrease in rotation speed with height in a few halos, leading to various models which attempt to understand this gradient in terms of disk-halo flows and accretion of primordial gas. One observational issue is whether ionized and neutral halos show the same kinematics, suggesting a common origin or whether they diverge, leading to potentially different origins. The steepest gradient of rotation speed is -30 km/s/kpc in NGC 4302 (Heald et al. 2007), a galaxy with relatively weak star formation activity. Here we present deep VLA HI observations of this galaxy in the B and C configurations. From these observations, we clearly detect a vertically extended component. We present models showing whether the kinematics of this component are best represented by a flare, a warp along the line of sight, a lagging halo or a combination of the three. Due to asymmetries in the galaxy itself, these models vary somewhat between the approaching and receding halves. At this time we have successfully modeled a warp along the line of site and will have put constraints on any flare or lagging halo by the time of the meeting. Furthermore, we hope to complete analogous models of NGC 4244 in time for the meeting.

  3. Stellar populations in edge-on galaxies from deep CCD surface photometry, 1: NGC 5907

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Boroson, Todd A.; Harding, Paul

    1994-01-01

    We present extremely deep charge coupled device (CCD) surface photometry of the edge-on Sc galaxy NGC 5907. Our data reach reliably to a surface brightness of R=27 mag/sq arcsec, some two magnitudes fainter than any previous work. We obtained this improvement using a 2048X2048 CCD with a wide (approximately 24 min) field, which made it possible to sky subtract directly from the galaxy frame, and by taking many dark sky flatfields. Our analysis of these data, using a full 2D model fitting procedure with a detailed error model, confirm the thin disk parameters of van der Kruit & Searle (1981). In particular, we confirm that the galaxy's disk has a radial cutoff and a constant scale height with radius. We find evidence for a stellar warp in this system, which has the same orientation as the H I warp. Our deep data also confirm that NGC 5907 has no thick disk. This suggests that theories of thick disk formation from star formation in the early stages of disk collapse, or by secular heating mechanisms, are unlikely to be correct, because they would predict that every galaxy would have a thick disk. Thick disk formation from the accretion of satellite galaxies is more likely.

  4. The Interacting Dwarf Galaxy NGC 3077 The Interplay of Atomic and Molecular Gas with Violent Star Formation

    E-print Network

    Walter, F; Martin, C; Scoville, N Z

    2002-01-01

    We present a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of the nearby interacting dwarf galaxy NGC3077 (member of the M81 triplet). High resolution VLA HI observations show that most of the atomic gas (~90%) around NGC3077 is situated in a prominent tidal arm with a complex velocity structure. Little HI (~5 x 10^7 M_sun) is associated with NGC3077 itself. High resolution OVRO observations of the molecular component (CO) reveal the presence of 16 molecular complexes near the center of NGC3077 (total mass: ~1.6 x 10^6 M_sun). A virial mass analysis of the individual complexes yields a lower CO-to-H_2 conversion factor in NGC3077 than the Galactic value - a surprising result for a dwarf galaxy. The total (atomic and molecular) gas content in the centre of NGC3077 is displaced from the stellar component of NGC3077 -- this implies that not only the gas at large galactocentric radii is affected by the interaction within the triplet but also the center. We speculate that the starburst activity of NGC3077 was triggered by ...

  5. The Black Hole in the Compact, High-dispersion Galaxy NGC 1271

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jonelle L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Gebhardt, Karl; Yildirim, Akin; Gültekin, Kayhan; Husemann, Bernd; Richstone, Douglas O.

    2015-08-01

    Located in the Perseus cluster, NGC 1271 is an early-type galaxy with a small effective radius of 2.2 kpc and a large bulge stellar velocity dispersion of 276 km s-1 for its K-band luminosity of 8.9× {10}10 {L}? . We present a mass measurement for the black hole in this compact, high-dispersion galaxy using observations from the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer on the Gemini North telescope assisted by laser guide star adaptive optics, large-scale integral field unit observations with PPAK at the Calar Alto Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging observations. We are able to map out the stellar kinematics both on small spatial scales, within the black hole sphere of influence, and on large scales that extend out to four times the galaxy’s effective radius. We find that the galaxy is rapidly rotating and exhibits a sharp rise in the velocity dispersion. Through the use of orbit-based stellar dynamical models, we determine that the black hole has a mass of ({3.0}-1.1+1.0)× {10}9 {M}? and the H-band stellar mass-to-light ratio is {1.40}-0.11+0.13 {\\Upsilon }? (1? uncertainties). NGC 1271 occupies the sparsely populated upper end of the black hole mass distribution but is very different from the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and giant elliptical galaxies that are expected to host the most massive black holes. Interestingly, the black hole mass is an order of magnitude larger than expectations based on the galaxy’s bulge luminosity but is consistent with the mass predicted using the galaxy’s bulge stellar velocity dispersion. More compact, high-dispersion galaxies need to be studied using high spatial resolution observations to securely determine black hole masses, as there could be systematic differences in the black hole scaling relations between these types of galaxies and the BCGs/giant ellipticals, thereby implying different pathways for black hole and galaxy growth.

  6. Escape fraction of ionizing photons from a dwarf galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yumi; Fouesneau, Morgan; Gordon, Karl D.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Weisz, Daniel R.; Arab, Heddy; Sandstrom, Karin; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that starburst dwarf galaxies played an important role in the early universe. Because these galaxies dominate by number, their leaked ionizing photons are likely main contributors to the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, the complex structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) even at the pc scale makes it hard to predict the escape fraction of ionizing photons from high-redshift galaxies accurately. Analogues to their high-redshift counterparts, nearby starburst dwarf galaxies provide excellent laboratories to study the impact of star formation on the surrounding ISM and IGM in detail. Thanks to its proximity, the dwarf galaxy, NGC 4214, has been imaged with the high-resolution of WFC3 on HST from the near-UV to the near-IR (F225W, F336W, F438W, F814W, F110W, and F160W). These observations yielded measurements of the broad spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for ˜36,000 resolved stars within this galaxy. We developed a probabilistic tool (Bayesian Extinction and Stellar Tool, a.k.a. BEAST) to simultaneously infer from their SEDs the stellar properties of individual stars and the intervening dust properties along the line of sight to each star. With the aid of BEAST, we are able to infer the intrinsic ionizing flux produced by individual stars. By comparing this intrinsic ionizing flux with the flux that is used to ionize the ISM in the galaxy, derived based on the extinction-corrected H? emission, we can estimate the escape fraction and its local variation within the galaxy. Our preliminary results show that the global UV leakage of NGC 4214 is ˜10%.

  7. Spectroscopic study of extended star clusters in dwarf galaxy NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Narae; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel; Miller, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South 8.1 m telescope. The radial velocities derived from the spectra range from –61.2 ± 20.4 km s{sup –1} (for C1) to –115.34 ± 57.9 km s{sup –1} (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate-age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old (?8 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] ? –1.5). NGC 6822 is found to have both metal poor ([Fe/H] ?–2.0) and metal rich ([Fe/H] ?–0.9) star clusters within 15' (2 kpc) from the center, whereas only metal poor clusters are observed in the outer halo with r ? 20'(2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have determined the total mass and the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 6822: M{sub N6822}=7.5{sub ?0.1}{sup +4.5}×10{sup 9} M{sub ?} and (M/L){sub N6822}=75{sub ?1}{sup +45}(M/L){sub ?}. It shows that NGC 6822 is one of the most dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  8. Bar-formation as driver of gas inflows in isolated disc galaxies

    E-print Network

    Fanali, R; Fiacconi, D; Haardt, F

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are a common feature in massive disc galaxies. On a theoretical ground, the response of gas to a bar is generally thought to cause nuclear starbursts and, possibly, AGN activity once the perturbed gas reaches the central super-massive black hole. By means of high resolution numerical simulations we detail the purely dynamical effects that a forming bar exerts on the gas of an isolated disc galaxy. The galaxy is initially unstable to the formation of non-axisymmetric structures, and within 1 Gyr it develops spiral arms that eventually evolve into a central stellar bar on kpc scale. A first major episode of gas inflow occurs during the formation of the spiral arms while at later times, when the stellar bar is establishing, a low density region is carved between the bar co-rotational and inner Lindblad resonance radii. The development of such "dead zone" inhibits further massive gas inflows. Indeed, the gas inflow reaches its maximum during the relatively fast bar formation phase and not, as often a...

  9. Kinematics of Superbubbles and Supershells in the Irregular Galaxy, NGC 1569

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rosado, M.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2015-02-01

    We present observations in the optical lines of H? and [S II] (??6717, 6731 Å) and in X-rays of the irregular galaxy, NGC 1569. The observations in H? and [S II] were made with the UNAM scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (PUMA) and the X-ray data were obtained from the Chandra data archive. We detected several superbubbles, filaments, and supershells in NGC 1569 for which we determined size as well as their kinematic properties. We present a catalog of expansion velocities of 12 superbubbles, listing their positions, diameters, and physical parameters. Likewise, we present a catalog of 15 filaments and 4 supershells. In order to identify possible X-ray emission from the superbubbles in this galaxy, we analyzed the X-ray emission of NGC 1569 in two energy bands: 0.2-2.0 keV (soft X-rays) and 2.0-8.0 keV (hard X-rays). Based on X-ray images, we detected X-ray emission that could possibly be related to some of the superbubbles. The spectrum of the X-ray superbubbles can be described by an optically thin thermal plasma model. In order to identify the possible coexistence of galactic super winds and superbubbles we have performed adiabatic three-dimensional N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to follow the evolution of the most important stellar clusters in this galaxy, SSC A and SSC B, using the GADGET-2 code. Those simulations demonstrate that depending on the specific initial conditions, the formation of superbubbles or a galactic superwind can result in NGC 1569.

  10. KINEMATICS OF SUPERBUBBLES AND SUPERSHELLS IN THE IRREGULAR GALAXY, NGC 1569

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rosado, M.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2015-02-01

    We present observations in the optical lines of H? and [S II] (??6717, 6731 Å) and in X-rays of the irregular galaxy, NGC 1569. The observations in H? and [S II] were made with the UNAM scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (PUMA) and the X-ray data were obtained from the Chandra data archive. We detected several superbubbles, filaments, and supershells in NGC 1569 for which we determined size as well as their kinematic properties. We present a catalog of expansion velocities of 12 superbubbles, listing their positions, diameters, and physical parameters. Likewise, we present a catalog of 15 filaments and 4 supershells. In order to identify possible X-ray emission from the superbubbles in this galaxy, we analyzed the X-ray emission of NGC 1569 in two energy bands: 0.2-2.0 keV (soft X-rays) and 2.0-8.0 keV (hard X-rays). Based on X-ray images, we detected X-ray emission that could possibly be related to some of the superbubbles. The spectrum of the X-ray superbubbles can be described by an optically thin thermal plasma model. In order to identify the possible coexistence of galactic super winds and superbubbles we have performed adiabatic three-dimensional N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to follow the evolution of the most important stellar clusters in this galaxy, SSC A and SSC B, using the GADGET-2 code. Those simulations demonstrate that depending on the specific initial conditions, the formation of superbubbles or a galactic superwind can result in NGC 1569.

  11. Dark matter and MOND dynamical models of the massive spiral galaxy NGC 2841

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurovi?, S.; Vudragovi?, A.; Jovanovi?, M.

    2015-08-01

    We study dynamical models of the massive spiral galaxy NGC 2841 using both the Newtonian models with Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and isothermal dark haloes, as well as various MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) models. We use the observations coming from several publicly available data bases: we use radio data, near-infrared photometry as well as spectroscopic observations. In our models, we find that both tested Newtonian dark matter approaches can successfully fit the observed rotational curve of NGC 2841. The three tested MOND models (standard, simple and, for the first time applied to another spiral galaxy than the Milky Way, Bekenstein's toy model) provide fits of the observed rotational curve with various degrees of success: the best result was obtained with the standard MOND model. For both approaches, Newtonian and MOND, the values of the mass-to-light ratios of the bulge are consistent with the predictions from the stellar population synthesis (SPS) based on the Salpeter initial mass function (IMF). Also, for Newtonian and simple and standard MOND models, the estimated stellar mass-to-light ratios of the disc agree with the predictions from the SPS models based on the Kroupa IMF, whereas the toy MOND model provides too low a value of the stellar mass-to-light ratio, incompatible with the predictions of the tested SPS models. In all our MOND models, we vary the distance to NGC 2841, and our best-fitting standard and toy models use the values higher than the Cepheid-based distance to the galaxy NGC 2841, and the best-fitting simple MOND model is based on the lower value of the distance. The best-fitting NFW model is inconsistent with the predictions of the ? cold dark matter cosmology, because the inferred concentration index is too high for the established virial mass.

  12. The Interplay between Bulge-Disk-Bar Photometric Measures in the Most Isolated Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbala, Adriana; Sulentic, J. W.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2008-05-01

    We perform bulge-disk-bar decomposition using the BUDDA code (de Souza, Gadotti, dos Anjos 2004) on i-band SDSS images for a sample isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2004). We studied 100 of the isolated galaxies classified Sb-Sc that were also included in SDSS. This appears to be the dominant population of isolated galaxies representing 2/3 of the reasonably complete AMIGA sample. We report a series of correlations and scaling relations between the photometrically derived parameters describing the three main structural components i.e. bulges, disks and bars. We illustrate how various measures that quantify the structure of galaxies evolve along the Sb-Sbc-Sc morphological sequence. Comparison with other studies seems to suggest that both the frecquency of barred galaxies and the bar sizes are sensitive to environment. Additionally our results suggest that most galaxies in our sample host pseudobulges rather than classical bulges, consistent with the idea that classical bulges are environmentally formed and fostered.

  13. An Off-nucleus Nonstellar Black Hole in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Bianchi, Stefano; Cappi, Massimo; Dadina, Mauro; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Wang, Chen

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery of an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX; CXO J133815.6+043255) in NGC 5252. This ULX is an off-nuclear point source, which is 22? away from the center of NGC 5252, and has an X-ray luminosity of 1.5 × 1040 erg s?1. It is one of the rare examples of a ULX, which exhibits clear counterparts in radio, optical, and UV bands. A follow-up optical spectrum of the ULX shows strong emission lines. The redshift of the [O iii] emission line coincides with the systematic velocity of NGC 5252, suggesting that the ULX is gravitationally bound to NGC 5252. The flux of [O iii] appears to be correlated with both X-ray and radio luminosity in the same manner as ordinary active galactic nuclei (AGNs), indicating that the [O iii] emission is intrinsically associated with the ULX. Based on the multiwavelength data, we argue that the ULX is unlikely to be a background AGN. A more likely option is an accreting black hole with a mass of ?slant {10}4 {M}? , which might be a stripped remnant of a merging dwarf galaxy.

  14. An Off-Nucleus Nonstellar Black Hole in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5252

    E-print Network

    Kim, Minjin; Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Bianchi, Stefano; Cappi, Massimo; Dadina, Mauro; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX; CXO J133815.6+043255) in NGC 5252. This ULX is an off-nuclear point-source, which is 22$^{\\prime\\prime}$ away from the center of NGC 5252, and has an X-ray luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ $10^{40}$erg s$^{-1}$. It is one of the rare examples of ULX, which exhibits clear counterparts in radio, optical, UV bands. Follow-up optical spectrum of the ULX shows strong emission lines. The redshift of [O III] emission line coincides with the systematic velocity of NGC 5252, suggesting the ULX is gravitationally bound to NGC 5252. The flux of [O III] appears to be correlated with both X-ray and radio luminosity in the same manner as ordinary AGNs, indicating that the [O III] emission is intrinsically associated with the ULX. Based on the multiwavelength data, we argue that the ULX is unlikely to be a background AGN. A more likely option is an accreting BH with a black hole mass of $\\geq 10^4M_\\odot$, which might be a stripped remnant of a merging dwarf galaxy.

  15. SPECTRAL TYPES OF RED SUPERGIANTS IN NGC 6822 AND THE WOLF-LUNDMARK-MELOTTE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip

    2012-07-15

    We present moderate-resolution spectroscopic observations of red supergiants (RSGs) in the low-metallicity Local Group galaxies NGC 6822 (Z = 0.4 Z{sub Sun} ) and Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM; Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun} ). By combining these observations with reduction techniques for multislit data reduction and flux calibration, we are able to analyze spectroscopic data of 16 RSGs in NGC 6822 and spectrophotometric data of 11 RSGs in WLM. Using these observations, we determine spectral types for these massive stars, comparing them to Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud RSGs and thus extending observational evidence of the abundance-dependent shift of RSG spectral types to lower metallicities. In addition, we have uncovered two RSGs with unusually late spectral types (J000158.14-152332.2 in WLM, with a spectral type of M3 I, and J194453.46-144552.6 in NGC 6822, with a spectral type of M4.5 I) and a third RSG (J194449.96-144333.5 in NGC 6822) whose spectral type has varied from an M2.5 in 1997 to a K5 in 2008. All three of these stars could potentially be members of a recently discovered class of extreme RSG variables.

  16. The incidence of bar-like kinematic flows in CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, L.; Spekkens, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Kalinova, V.; Marino, R. A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.

    2015-08-01

    We carry out a direct search for bar-like non-circular flows in intermediate-inclination, gas-rich disc galaxies with a range of morphological types and photometric bar classifications from the first data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Spectroscopy Area (CALIFA) survey. We use the DISKFIT algorithm to apply rotation only and bisymmetric flow models to H ? velocity fields for 49/100 CALIFA DR1 systems that meet our selection criteria. We find satisfactory fits for a final sample of 37 systems. DISKFIT is sensitive to the radial or tangential components of a bar-like flow with amplitudes greater than 15 km s-1 across at least two independent radial bins in the fit, or ˜2.25 kpc at the characteristic final sample distance of ˜75 Mpc. The velocity fields of 25/37 {(67.6^{+6.6}_{-8.5} per cent)} galaxies are best characterized by pure rotation, although only 17/25 {(68.0^{+7.7}_{-10.4} per cent)} of them have sufficient H ? emission near the galaxy centre to afford a search for non-circular flows. We detect non-circular flows in the remaining 12/37 {(32.4^{+8.5}_{-6.6} per cent)} galaxies. We conclude that the non-circular flows detected in 11/12 {(91.7^{+2.8}_{-14.9} per cent)} systems stem from bars. Galaxies with intermediate (AB) bars are largely undetected, and our detection thresholds therefore represent upper limits to the amplitude of the non-circular flows therein. We find 2/23 {(8.7^{+9.6}_{-2.9} per cent)} galaxies that show non-circular motions consistent with a bar-like flow, yet no photometric bar is evident. This suggests that in ˜10 per cent of galaxies either the existence of a bar may be missed completely in photometry or other processes may drive bar-like flows and thus secular galaxy evolution.

  17. Serendipitous discovery of a dying Giant Radio Galaxy associated with NGC 1534, using the Murchison Widefield Array

    E-print Network

    Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Ekers, Ron; Hunstead, Richard; Sadler, Elaine M; Hindson, Luke; Hancock, Paul; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, Frank; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Deshpande, Avinash A; Emrich, David; Gaensler, Bryan M; Goeke, Robert; Greenhill, Lincoln; Hazelton, Bryna J; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Kaplan, David L; Kasper, Justin; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin; Lynch, Mervyn; Mitchell, Daniel; McWhirter, Russell; Morales, Miguel; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Offringa, Andre; Ord, Stephen; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Rogers, Alan; Roshi, Anish; Shankar, Udaya; Srivani, K; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven; Waterson, Mark; Wayth, Randall B; Webster, Rachel; Whitney, Alan; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations with the Murchison Widefield Array at 185~MHz have serendipitously unveiled a heretofore unknown giant and relatively nearby ($z = 0.0178$) radio galaxy associated with NGC\\,1534. The diffuse emission presented here is the first indication that NGC\\,1534 is one of a rare class of objects (along with NGC\\,5128 and NGC\\,612) in which a galaxy with a prominent dust lane hosts radio emission on scales of $\\sim$700\\,kpc. We present details of the radio emission along with a detailed comparison with other radio galaxies with disks. NGC1534 is the lowest surface brightness radio galaxy known with an estimated scaled 1.4-GHz surface brightness of just 0.2\\,mJy\\,arcmin$^{-2}$. The radio lobes have one of the steepest spectral indices yet observed: $\\alpha=-2.1\\pm0.1$, and the core to lobe luminosity ratio is $dying) phase of radio galaxy evolution as $7\\times10^{-7}$\\,Mpc$^{-3}$ and argue that normal AGN cannot spend more than 6\\% of...

  18. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey - IX. 12CO J = 3?2 observations of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Boon-Kok; Leech, J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Attewell, D.; Azimlu, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Butner, H. M.; Brinks, E.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Heesen, V.; Israel, F.; Knapen, J. H.; Matthews, H. E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Mühle, S.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A.; van der Werf, P.; Zhu, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present 12CO J = 3?2 maps of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351 obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), both early targets of the JCMT Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey (NGLS). We combine the present observations with 12CO J = 1?0 data and find that the computed 12CO J = 3?2 to 12CO J = 1?0 line ratio (R31) agrees with values measured in other NGLS field galaxies. We compute the MH2 value and find that it is robust against the value of R31 used. Using H I data from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, we find a tight correlation between the surface density of H2 and star formation rate density for NGC 3351 when 12CO J = 3?2 data are used. Finally, we compare the 12CO J = 3?2 intensity with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 8 ?m surface brightness and find a good correlation in the high surface brightness regions. We extend this study to include all 25 Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey galaxies within the NGLS sample and find a tight correlation at large spatial scales. We suggest that both PAH 8 ?m and 12CO J = 3?2 are likely to originate in regions of active star formation.

  19. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    PubMed

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-09-22

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. PMID:21881560

  20. The SLUGGS Survey: Globular cluster kinematics in a "double sigma" galaxy - NGC 4473

    E-print Network

    Alabi, Adebusola B; Forbes, Duncan A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Pastorello, Nicola; Brodie, Jean P; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Usher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4473 is a so--called double sigma (2$\\sigma$) galaxy, i.e. a galaxy with rare, double peaks in its 2D stellar velocity dispersion. Here, we present the globular cluster (GC) kinematics in NGC 4473 out to $\\sim10\\,R_e$ (effective radii) using data from combined HST/ACS and Subaru/Suprime--Cam imaging and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. We find that the 2$\\sigma$ nature of NGC 4473 persists up to 3 $R_e$, though it becomes misaligned to the photometric major axis. We also observe a significant offset between the stellar and GC rotation amplitudes. This offset can be understood as a co--addition of counter--rotating stars producing little net stellar rotation. We identify a sharp radial transition in the GC kinematics at $\\sim4\\,R_e$ suggesting a well defined kinematically distinct halo. In the inner region ($4\\,R_e$), the red GCs rotate in an opposite direction compared to the inner region red GCs, along the photometric major axis, while the blue GCs rotate along an axis intermediate between the major and minor p...

  1. Hot gas in the center of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakai, Naomasa; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Nagai, Makoto; Ishii, Shun; Yamauchi, Aya

    2015-08-01

    The nearby (d = 19.7 Mpc) Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079 exhibits a prominent bubble emerging from the nucleus. In order to investigate the nuclear power source, we carried out ammonia observations toward the center of NGC 3079 with the Tsukuba 32-m telescope and the JVLA. The NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) through (6,6) lines were detected in absorption at the center of NGC 3079 with the JVLA, although the profile of NH3(3,3) was in emission in contrast to the other transitions. All ammonia absorption lines have two distinct velocity components: one is at the systemic velocity (Vsys ~ 1116 km s-1) and the other is blueshifted (Vsys ~ 1020 km s-1), and both components are aligned along the nuclear jets. The blueshifted NH3(3,3) emission can be regarded as ammonia masers associated with shocks by strong winds probably from newly formed massive stars or supernova explosions in the nuclear megamaser disk. The derived rotational temperature, Trot = 120±12 K for the systemic component and Trot = 157±19 K for the blueshifted component, and fractional abundance of NH3 relative to molecular hydrogen H2 are higher than those in other galaxies reported. The high temperature environment at the center may be mainly attributed to heating by the nuclear jets.

  2. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 821: KINEMATICS AND DISTANCE DETERMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, A. M.; Mendez, R. H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Bernardi, F.; Riffeser, A. E-mail: mendez@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-09-20

    Using a slitless spectroscopy method with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope and its FOCAS Cassegrain spectrograph, we have increased the number of planetary nebula (PN) detections and PN velocity measurements in the flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 821. A comparison with the detections reported previously by the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph group indicates that we have confirmed most of their detections. The velocities measured by the two groups, using different telescopes, spectrographs, and slitless techniques, are in good agreement. We have built a combined sample of 167 PNs and have confirmed the Keplerian decline of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion reported previously. We also confirm misaligned rotation from the combined sample. A dark matter halo may exist around this galaxy, but it is not needed to keep the PN velocities below the local escape velocity as calculated from the visible mass. We have measured the m(5007) magnitudes of 145 PNs and produced a statistically complete sample of 40 PNs in NGC 821. The resulting PN luminosity function (PNLF) was used to estimate a distance modulus of 31.4 mag, equivalent to 19 Mpc. We also estimated the PN formation rate. NGC 821 becomes the most distant galaxy with a PNLF distance determination. The PNLF distance modulus is smaller than the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distance modulus by 0.4 mag. Our kinematic information permits to rule out the idea that a shorter PNLF distance could be produced by the contamination of the PNLF by background galaxies with emission lines redshifted into the on-band filter transmission curve.

  3. Mapping the galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) through its globular cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Juan C.; Vega, E. Irene; Faifer, Favio

    2012-03-01

    As shown in previous works, globular clusters (GCs) can be used to trace the overall structure of the diffuse stellar populations in early-type galaxies if the number of clusters per unit stellar mass depends on metallicity. In this paper we further test this assumption in the galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) by combining several data sources. The results show that GCs allow the mapping of the galaxy in terms of the surface brightness profile, integrated colour gradient, chemical abundance and mass-to-luminosity ratios up to 1000 arcsec (or 80.4 kpc) from its centre (i.e. some 10 effective radii). The analysis indicates the presence of a dominant high-metallicity bulge associated with the red globulars, whose ellipticity increases outwards, and of a more flattened low-metallicity halo connected with the blue globulars. The chemical abundance gradient of the composite stellar population is remarkably similar to that inferred from X-ray observations of hot gas. The mass-metallicity spectrum of the stellar population can, in principle, be understood in terms of inhomogeneous enrichment models. In turn, the distribution of the bluest GCs, and lowest metallicity halo stars, has an intriguing similarity with that of dark matter, a feature shared with NGC 1399. Also, in these two galaxies, the number of blue GCs per dark mass unit is identical within the errors, ?1.0(±0.3) × 10-9. The total stellar mass derived for NGC 4486 is 6.8(±1.1) × 1011 M? with a baryonic mass fraction fb= 0.08(±0.01).

  4. ROSAT PSPC observation of the X-ray faint early-type galaxy NGC5866

    E-print Network

    S. Pellegrini

    1994-07-03

    We present the results of the analysis of the ROSAT PSPC pointed observation of the S0 galaxy NGC5866. Previous Einstein observations had revealed that this galaxy has a low X-ray to optical ratio Lx/Lb. Theoretical models of the X-ra emission of early-type galaxies had suggested that in objects of this kind the emission is not dominated by the presence of a hot diffuse gas, but should originate in stellar sources. We discuss the evidence in favor of this hypothesis following from the results of the analysis of the ROSAT PSPC data. The X-ray spectrum shows properties similar to those of the other two low Lx/Lb early-type galaxies observed by ROSAT so far, including the presence of very soft emission. So, these galaxies can be recognized as a group with homogeneous properties, and a more exhaustive picture of the nature of the X-ray emission across the Lx/Lb plane of early-type galaxies can be outlined. We also discuss the importance of rotation in the X-ray emission of S0 galaxies, and suggest that it could explain why on average S0s are less X-ray luminous than ellipticals.

  5. Strong non-circular motions of gas in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084

    E-print Network

    A. V. Moiseev

    2000-09-09

    The results of $H_\\alpha$ and [NII]$\\lambda 6583$ observations of the spiral galaxy NGC 1084 at the SAO 6m telescope with a Fabry-Perot interferometer are presented. The complex structure of the emission line profile has revealed the presence of giant star formation regions (``spur'') in the NE part of the galaxy. In this region the $H_\\alpha$ line shows two distinct components, with line-of-sight velocity differences of $\\pm(100-150)\\km$. The first component corresponds to normal circular rotation. The second velocity component may be a signature of non-circular motions of the ionized gas in shock wave fronts. An increase of the ${[NII]}/H_\\alpha$ line ratio confirms the shock wave interpretation of these features. The ionized gas kinematics in this galaxy is discussed.

  6. The Mass of the Central Black Hole in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3783

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2004-01-01

    Improved analysis of ultraviolet and optical monitoring data on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 provides evidence for the existence of a supermassive, (8.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp 6) solar mass, black hole in this galaxy. By using recalibrated spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite and ground-based optical data, as well as refined techniques of reverberation mapping analysis, we have reduced the statistical uncertainties in the response of the emission lines to variations in the ionizing continuum. The different time lags in the emission-line responses indicate a stratification in the ionization structure of the broad-line region and are consistent with the virial relationship suggested by the analysis of similar active galaxies.

  7. Deep Fabry-Perot imaging of NGC 6240: Kinematic evidence for merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorn, J. Bland; Wilson, A. S.; Tully, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have observed the superluminous, infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (z = 0.025) at H alpha with the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI - Bland and Tully 1989). During the past decade, observational evidence from all wavebands indicates that the unusual appearance of NGC 6240 has resulted from a collision between two gas-rich systems, a view which is supported by our spectrophotometric data. However, the origin of the enormous infrared luminosity (4 times 10(exp 11) solar luminosity) detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) remains highly controversial, where opinions differ on the relative roles of large-scale shocks, massive star formation or a buried 'active' nucleus. These mechanisms are discussed in the light of the author's Fabry-Perot observations.

  8. X-RAY NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IN S{sup 4}G BARRED GALAXIES: NO LINK BETWEEN BAR STRENGTH AND CO-OCCURRENT SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FUELING

    SciTech Connect

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Knapen, Johan H.; González-Martín, Omaira; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; Díaz-García, Simón; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Ho, Luis C.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Sheth, Kartik; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Gil de Paz, Armando; Holwerda, Benne W.; and others

    2013-10-10

    Stellar bars can lead to gas inflow toward the center of a galaxy and stimulate nuclear star formation. However, there is no compelling evidence on whether they also feed a central supermassive black hole: by measuring the fractions of barred active and inactive galaxies, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to understand the lack of observational evidence for bar-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity by studying a sample of 41 nearby (d < 35 Mpc) barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey for Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We use Chandra observations to measure nuclear 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities and estimate Eddington ratios, together with Spitzer 3.6 ?m imaging to quantify the strength of the stellar bar in two independent ways: (1) from its structure, as traced by its ellipticity and boxiness, and (2) from its gravitational torque Q{sub b} , taken as the maximum ratio of the tangential force to the mean background radial force. In this way, rather than discretizing the presence of both stellar bars and nuclear activity, we are able to account for the continuum of bar strengths and degrees of AGN activity. We find nuclear X-ray sources in 31 out of 41 galaxies with median X-ray luminosity and Eddington ratio of L{sub X} = 4.3 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} = 6.9 × 10{sup –6}, respectively, consistent with low-luminosity AGN activity. Including upper limits for those galaxies without nuclear detections, we find no significant correlation between any of the bar strength indicators and the degree of nuclear activity, irrespective of galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, Hubble type, or bulge size. Strong bars do not favor brighter or more efficient nuclear activity, implying that at least for the low-luminosity regime, supermassive black hole fueling is not closely connected to large-scale features.

  9. Distribution and kinematics of H I in the active elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    van Gorkom, J.H.; Knapp, G.R.; Raimond, E.; Faber, S.M.; Gallagher, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    The H I distribution in the active elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 has been mapped at a resolution of 1 arcmin with the VLA. The H I structure is about three times the size of the optical galaxy and is roughly perpendicular to its major axis. The H I has a circular velocity of approx.200 km/s, roughly constant with radius; the mass of the galaxy is 1.5 x 10/sup 11/ M/sub sun/ at a radius of 16 kpc (D = 13.4 Mpc), and the mass to blue luminosity ratio at this radius is M/L/sub B/ approx.15 M/sub sun//L/sub sun/. H I absorption is seen against the central radio continuum source, at both the systemic velocity and at redshifted velocities. The gas in NGC 1052, as in other ellipticals, has a rotation axis that is not aligned with the stellar rotation axis (the difference is 63/sup 0/) and a mean specific angular momentum that is considerably larger than that of the stars. The H I distribution is unusually irregular. In the southwest region of the galaxy, the distribution shows what appears to be a tidal tail, suggesting that the H I may have been acquired about 10/sup 9/ years ago. The presence of dust associated with the H I and the distribution and kinematics of the H I are consistent with capture of gas from a gas-rich dwarf or spiral. In the inner regions of the galaxy (r<5 kpc) the H I velocity field shows evidence of noncircular orbits and therefore possibly of a triaxial mass distribution for the galaxy. Alternatively the gas could be falling in toward the center.

  10. HIERARCHICAL STELLAR STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXY NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Walter, Fabian; Schmeja, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; De Blok, W. J. G. E-mail: walter@mpia-hd.mpg.d E-mail: rklessen@ita.uni-heidelberg.d

    2010-12-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the star cluster population and the hierarchical structure in the clustering of blue stars with ages {approx}<500 Myr in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Our observational material comprises the most complete optical stellar catalog of the galaxy from imaging with the Suprime-Cam at the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We identify 47 distinct star clusters with the application of the nearest-neighbor density method to this catalog for a detection threshold of 3{sigma} above the average stellar density. The size distribution of the detected clusters can be very well approximated by a Gaussian with a peak at {approx}68 pc. The total stellar masses of the clusters are estimated by extrapolating the cumulative observed stellar mass function of all clusters to be in the range 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} M{sub sun}. Their number distribution is fitted very well by a power law with index {alpha} {approx} 1.5 {+-} 0.7, which is consistent with the cluster mass functions of other Local Group galaxies and the cluster initial mass function. In addition to the detected star clusters of the galaxy, the application of the nearest-neighbor density method for various density thresholds, other than 3{sigma}, enabled the identification of stellar concentrations in various lengthscales. The stellar density maps constructed with this technique provide a direct proof of hierarchically structured stellar concentrations in NGC 6822, in the sense that smaller dense stellar concentrations are located inside larger and looser ones. We illustrate this hierarchy by the so-called dendrogram, or structure tree of the detected stellar structures, which demonstrates that most of the detected structures split up into several substructures over at least three levels. We quantify the hierarchy of these structures with the use of the minimum spanning tree method. We find that structures detected at 1, 2, and 3{sigma} density thresholds are hierarchically constructed with a fractal dimension of D {approx} 1.8. Some of the larger stellar concentrations, particularly in the northern part of the central star-forming portion of the galaxy, coincide with IR-bright complexes previously identified with Spitzer and associated with high column density neutral gas, indicating structures that currently form stars. The morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering, which we observe in NGC 6822, resembles that of the turbulent interstellar matter, suggesting that turbulence on pc and kpc scales has been probably the major agent that regulated clustered star formation in NGC 6822.

  11. The Massive Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy NGC 4486B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A.; Green, R. F.; Gebhardt, K.; Bower, G. A.; Kormendy, J.; Lauer, T.; Richstone, D. O.; STIS IDT Galaxy Nuclei Team; Nuker Team

    2003-12-01

    We report results from the application of a three-integral galactic dynamical model to NGC 4486B. This dwarf E1 companion to M87 has long been known to be an outlier in the Fundamental Plane. Kormendy and Magorrian et al. found a substantial central black hole mass, making it an outlier in the MBH to Lbulge relationship as well. From the modeling we are able to determine the extent to which NGC 4486B follows the MBH - sigma relation more closely than the other bulge galaxy relationships. The other unique feature NGC 4486B exhibits is a double nucleus structure, the second of only two observed. We combine the high resolution of STIS spectra with ground based data to form a more complete description of the line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in the nuclear region of NGC 4486B. Through the increased resolution of the dynamics and the three-integral model, we place an improved constraint on the mass-to-light ratio and black hole mass. Bender's research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation through Scientific Program Order No. 3 (AST-0243875) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF. RG and GB were supported by NASA for the STIS Instrument Definition Team. This work is a collaboration with the STIS Instrument Definition Team galaxy nuclei group, which also includes John Hutchings, Charles Joseph, Mary Elizabeth Kaiser, Charles Nelson, Donna Weistrop, and Bruce Woodgate. This work is a collaboration with the Nuker Team, which also includes Ralf Bender, Alan Dressler, Sandra Faber, Alex Filippenko, Carl Grillmair, Luis Ho, John Magorrian, Jason Pinkney, Christos Siopis, and Scott Tremaine.

  12. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF EDGES AND BUBBLES IN THE NGC 5846 GALAXY GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Machacek, Marie E.; Jerius, Diab; Kraft, Ralph; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Randall, Scott; Giacintucci, Simona; Sun Ming

    2011-12-10

    We use a combined 120 ks Chandra exposure to analyze X-ray edges produced by non-hydrostatic gas motions (sloshing) from galaxy collisions, and cavities formed by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Evidence for gas sloshing is seen in the spiral morphology and multiple cold front edges in NGC 5846's X-ray surface brightness distribution, while the lack of spiral structure in the temperature map suggests that the perturbing interaction was not in the plane of the sky. Density and spectral modeling across the edges indicate that the relative motion of gas in the cold fronts is at most transonic. Evidence for AGN activity is seen in two inner bubbles at 0.6 kpc, filled with 5 GHz and 1.5 GHz radio plasma and coincident with H{alpha} emission, and in a ghost bubble at 5.2 kpc west of NGC 5846's nucleus. The outburst energy and ages for the inner (ghost) bubbles are {approx}10{sup 55} erg and {approx}2 Myr ({approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 55} erg and 12 Myr), respectively, implying an AGN duty cycle of 10 Myr. The inner bubble rims are threaded with nine knots, whose total 0.5-2 keV X-ray luminosity is 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}, a factor {approx}2-3 less than that of the surrounding rims, and 0.7 keV mean temperature is indistinguishable from that of the rims. We suggest that the knots may be transient clouds heated by the recent passage of a shock from the last AGN outburst. We also observe gas stripping from a cE galaxy, NGC 5846A, in a 0.5 kpc long ({approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }) hot gas tail, as it falls toward NGC 5846.

  13. Probing the gas content of the dwarf galaxy NGC 3109 with background X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahabka, P.; Puzia, T. H.; Pietsch, W.

    2000-09-01

    We established the catalog of X-ray point sources in the field of the Magellanic-type spiral galaxy NGC 3109 (DDO 236) from two ROSAT PSPC observations. Of the 91 X-ray sources 26 are contained within the Hi extent of NGC 3109 as derived by Jobin & Carignan (1990) with the VLA. For 10 of these we can determine accurate hardness ratios delta H R2<=0.2. We find 3 candidate AGN, 2 candidate X-ray binaries and one source which may belong to either class. We also find 2 candidate foreground stars. In a field of 8 arcmin x 8' observed with the NTT in the I-band and centered on the nucleus of NGC 3109 we determine candidates for optical counterparts in the X-ray error circle of 7 ROSAT PSPC sources. We apply a spectral fit to the ROSAT spectrum of the X-ray brightest absorbed candidate AGN behind NGC 3109, RX J1003.2-2607. Assuming a galactic foreground hydrogen column density of 4.3 1020 cm-2 we derive from the X-ray spectral fit, assuming reduced metallicities ( ~ 0.2 solar), a hydrogen column density due to NGC 3109 of 11+/-75 1020 cm-2. This value is slightly larger than the hydrogen column density derived from the 21-cm observations of ~ 8 1020 cm-2. We estimate that the molecular mass fraction of the gas is not larger than ~ 60%. Table~6 and Fig. 8 are only available electronically with the On-Line publication at http://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/

  14. Chandra Observations of Expanding Shells in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 3077

    E-print Network

    Juergen Ott; Crystal L. Martin; Fabian Walter

    2003-05-09

    Deep Chandra observations (53 ks, ACIS-S3) of NGC 3077, a starburst dwarf galaxy in the M 81 triplet, resolve the X-ray emission from several supershells. The emission is brightest in the cavities defined by expanding shells detected previously in H alpha emission (Martin 1998). Thermal emission models fitted to the data imply temperatures ranging from ~1.3 to 4.9 x 10^(6) K and indicate that the strongest absorption is coincident with the densest clouds traced by CO emission. The fitted emission measures give pressures of P/k~10^(5-6) xi^(-0.5) f_(v)^(-0.5) K cm^(-3) (xi: metallicity of the hot gas in solar units, f_(v): volume filling factor). Despite these high pressures, the radial density profile of the hot gas is not as steep as that expected in a freely expanding wind (e.g., as seen in the neighboring starburst galaxy M 82) implying that the hot gas is still confined by the H alpha shells. The chaotic dynamical state of NGC 3077 undermines reliable estimates of the escape velocity. The more relevant quantity for the ultimate fate of the outflow is probably the gas density in the rich intragroup medium. Based on the HI distribution of NGC 3077 and a connected tidal tail we argue that the wind has the potential to leave the gravitational well of NGC 3077 to the north but not to the south. The total 0.3-6.0 keV X-ray luminosity is ~2-5 x 10^(39) erg s^(-1) (depending on the selected thermal plasma model). Most (~85%) of the X-ray luminosity in NGC 3077 comes from the hot interstellar gas; the remainder comes from six X-ray point sources. In spite of previous claims to the contrary, we do not find X-ray emission originating from the prominent tidal tail near NGC 3077.

  15. Isolated elliptical galaxies and their globular cluster systems. II. NGC 7796 - globular clusters, dynamics, companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richtler, T.; Salinas, R.; Lane, R. R.; Hilker, M.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Rich globular cluster systems, particularly the metal-poor part of them, are thought to be the visible manifestations of long-term accretion processes. The invisible part is the dark matter halo, which may show some correspondence to the globular cluster system. It is therefore interesting to investigate the globular cluster systems of isolated elliptical galaxies, which supposedly have not experienced extended accretion. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster system of the isolated elliptical NGC 7796, present new photometry of the galaxy, and use published kinematical data to constrain the dark matter content. Methods: Deep images in B and R, obtained with the VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS) at the VLT, form the data base. We performed photometry with DAOPHOT and constructed a spherical photometric model. We present isotropic and anisotropic Jeans-models and give a morphological description of the companion dwarf galaxy. Results: The globular cluster system has about 2000 members, so it is not as rich as those of giant ellipticals in galaxy clusters with a comparable stellar mass, but richer than many cluster systems of other isolated ellipticals. The colour distribution of globular clusters is bimodal, which does not necessarily mean a metallicity bimodality. The kinematic literature data are somewhat inconclusive. The velocity dispersion in the inner parts can be reproduced without dark matter under isotropy. Radially anisotropic models need a low stellar mass-to-light ratio, which would contrast with the old age of the galaxy. A MONDian model is supported by X-ray analysis and previous dynamical modelling, but better data are necessary for a confirmation. The dwarf companion galaxy NGC 7796-1 exhibits tidal tails, multiple nuclei, and very boxy isophotes. Conclusions: NGC 7796 is an old, massive isolated elliptical galaxy with no indications of later major star formation events as seen frequently in other isolated ellipticals. Its relatively rich globular cluster system shows that isolation does not always mean a poor cluster system. The properties of the dwarf companion might indicate a dwarf-dwarf merger. Based on observations taken at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, under the programme 089.B-0457. Partly based on observations taken at the Las Campanas Observatory and the Gemini observatory (GS-2011B-Q83).The catalogue of the photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A21

  16. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 1482

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagshette, N. D.; Pandge, M. B.; Pandey, S. K.; Patil, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to ˜11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV = 3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is ˜2.7 × 105 M?, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not sensitive to the intermix component of dust. Comparison of the observed dust in the galaxy with that supplied by the SNe to the ISM, imply that this supply is not sufficient to account for the observed dust and hence point towards the origin of dust in this galaxy through a merger like event. Our multiband imaging analysis reveals a qualitative physical correspondence between the morphologies of the dust and H? emission lines as well as diffuse X-ray emission in this galaxy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of the hot gas along outflows exhibit a gradient in the temperature. Similar gradient was also noticed in the measured values of metallicity, indicating that the gas in the halo is not yet enriched. High resolution, 2-8 keV Chandra image reveals a pair of point sources in the nuclear region with their luminosities equal to 2.27 × 1039 erg s-1 and 9.34 × 1039 erg s-1, and are in excess of the Eddington-limit of 1.5 M? accreting source. Spectral analysis of these sources exhibit an absorbed-power law with the hydrogen column density higher than that derived from the optical measurements.

  17. Radio continuum emission and HI gas accretion in the NGC 5903/5898 compact group of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul; Gopal-Krishna; Mhaskey, Mukul

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the nature of the multi-component radio continuum and HI emission associated with the nearby galaxy group comprised of two dominant ellipticals, NGC 5898 and NGC 5903 and a dwarf lenticular ESO514-G003. Striking new details of radio emission come from the ongoing TIFR.GMRT.SKY.SURVEY (TGSS) which provides images with a resolution of ˜24^'' x18^'' and rms noise of 5 mJy at 150 MHz. Previous observations of this compact triplet include images at higher frequencies of the radio continuum as well as huge HI trails originating from the vicinity of NGC 5903. The TGSS 150 MHz image has revealed a large asymmetric radio halo around NGC 5903 and also established that the dwarf SO galaxy ESO514-G003 is the host to a previously known bright double radio source. The radio emission from NGC 5903 is found to have a very steep radio spectrum (?˜-1.5) and to envelope a network of radio continuum filaments bearing a spatial relationship to the HI trails. Both its radio loud members are also the only galaxies that are seen to be connected to an HI filament. This correlation is consistent with the premise that cold gas accretion is of prime importance for triggering powerful jet activity in the nuclei of early-type galaxies.

  18. Detailed comparison of the structures and kinematics of simulated and observed barred galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. K. O'Neill; J. Dubinski

    2003-05-09

    We examine the observable properties of simulated barred galaxies including radial mass profiles, edge-on structure and kinematics, bar lengths and pattern speed evolution for detailed comparison to real systems. We have run several simulations in which bars are created through inherent instabilities in self-consistent simulations of a realistic disc+halo galaxy model with a disc-dominated, flat rotation curve. These simulations were run at high (N=20M particles) and low (N=500K) resolution to test numerical convergence. We determine the pattern speeds in simulations directly from the phase angle of the bar versus time and the Tremaine-Weinberg method. Fundamental dynamics do not change between the high and low resolution, suggesting that convergence has been reached in this case. We find the higher resolution is needed to simulate structural and kinematic properties accurately. The edge-on view of the higher-resolution system clearly shows the bending instability and formation of a peanut-shaped bulge. We determined bar lengths by different means to determine the simulated bar is fast, with a corotation to bar length ratio under 1.5. Simulated bars in these models form with pattern speeds slower than those observed and slow down during their evolution. Dynamical friction between the bar and dark halo is responsible for this deceleration, as revealed by the transfer of angular momentum between the disc and the halo. However, even though the pattern speed is reduced at later times, the instantaneous scale length of the disc has grown sufficiently for the bar motion to agree with many observations. By using a different model and simulation technique than other authors, we are able to compare the robustness of these methods.

  19. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF NGC 4636 AND FORMATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: sckim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: yoshihiko.yamada@nao.ac.jp E-mail: monodera@phys.ethz.ch

    2012-11-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie and Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [{alpha}/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23({sigma} = 0.32) and -0.35({sigma} = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age <5 Gyr is about 27%. The [{alpha}/Fe] of the GCs shows a broad distribution with a mean value [{alpha}/Fe] Almost-Equal-To 0.14 dex. The dependence of these chemical properties on the galactocentric radius is weak. We also derive the metallicities, ages, and [{alpha}/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [{alpha}/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs.

  20. Structure and Formation of cD Galaxies: NGC 6166 in ABELL 2199

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John; Cornell, Mark E.; Fisher, David B.

    2015-07-01

    ?Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectroscopy is used to measure the velocity dispersion profile of the nearest prototypical cD galaxy, NGC 6166 in the cluster Abell 2199. We also present composite surface photometry from many telescopes. We confirm the defining feature of a cD galaxy; i.e., (we suggest), a halo of stars that fills the cluster center and that is controlled dynamically by cluster gravity, not by the central galaxy. Our HET spectroscopy shows that the velocity dispersion of NGC 6166 rises from ? ? 300 km s-1 in the inner r˜ 10\\prime\\prime to ? =865+/- 58 km s-1 at r ˜ 100? in the cD halo. This extends published observations of an outward ? increase and shows for the first time that ? rises all the way to the cluster velocity dispersion of 819 ± 32 km s-1. We also observe that the main body of NGC 6166 moves at +206 ± 39 km s-1 with respect to the cluster mean velocity, but the velocity of the inner cD halo is ˜70 km s-1 closer to the cluster velocity. These results support our picture that cD halos consist of stars that were stripped from individual cluster galaxies by fast tidal encounters. ?However, our photometry does not confirm the widespread view that cD halos are identifiable as an extra, low-surface-brightness component that is photometrically distinct from the inner, steep-Sérsic-function main body of an otherwise-normal giant elliptical galaxy. Instead, all of the brightness profile of NGC 6166 outside its core is described to ±0.037 V mag arcsec-2 by a single Sérsic function with index n? 8.3. The cD halo is not recognizable from photometry alone. This blurs the distinction between cluster-dominated cD halos and the similarly-large-Sérsic-index halos of giant, core-boxy-nonrotating ellipticals. These halos are believed to be accreted onto compact, high-redshift progenitors (“red nuggets”) by large numbers of minor mergers. They belong dynamically to their central galaxies. Still, cDs and core-boxy-nonrotating Es may be more similar than we think: both may have outer halos made largely via minor mergers and the accumulation of tidal debris. ?We construct a main-body+cD-halo decomposition that fits both the brightness and dispersion profiles. To fit ? (r), we need to force the component Sérsic indices to be smaller than a minimum-{? }2 photometric decomposition would suggest. The main body has {M}V? -22.8? 30% of the total galaxy light. The cD halo has {M}V? -23.7, ˜1/2 mag brighter than the brightest galaxy in the Virgo cluster. A mass model based on published cluster dynamics and X-ray observations fits our observations if the tangential dispersion is larger than the radial dispersion at r? 20\\prime\\prime -60\\prime\\prime . The cD halo is as enhanced in ? element abundances as the main body of NGC 6166. Quenching of star formation in ?1 Gyr suggests that the center of Abell 2199 has been special for a long time during which dynamical evolution has liberated a large mass of now-intracluster stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  1. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF NGC 4178: A BULGELESS GALAXY WITH AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Moran, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Bergmann, M. P.; Seth, A. C.

    2013-11-10

    We present Gemini longslit optical spectroscopy and Very Large Array radio observations of the nuclear region of NGC 4178, a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy recently confirmed to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) through infrared and X-ray observations. Our observations reveal that the dynamical center of the galaxy is coincident with the location of the Chandra X-ray point source discovered in a previous work, providing further support for the presence of an AGN. While the X-ray and IR observations provide robust evidence for an AGN, the optical spectrum shows no evidence for the AGN, underscoring the need for the penetrative power of mid-IR and X-ray observations in finding buried or weak AGNs in this class of galaxy. Finally, the upper limit to the radio flux, together with our previous X-ray and IR results, is consistent with the scenario in which NGC 4178 harbors a deeply buried AGN accreting at a high rate.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Central Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC1808

    E-print Network

    Sales, Dinalva A; Riffel, R; Winge, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We present mid infrared (MIR) spectra of the Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (T-ReCS) at a spatial resolution of 26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6micron and 11.3micron in the galaxy centre (26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne ii]12.8micron ionic lines, and H2 S(2)12.27micron molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggests that the molecules in the region located 26 pc NE of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the neutral state, while at 26 pc SW of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionised state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's clumpy torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a d...

  3. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  4. THE MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4649 FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXTENDED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, M. A.; Garcia, G.; Hernandez, X.; Nasser, L.

    2013-05-10

    Elliptical galaxies are systems where dark matter is usually less necessary to explain observed dynamics than in the case of spiral galaxies; however, there are some instances where Newtonian gravity and the observable mass are insufficient to explain their observed structure and kinematics. Such is the case of NGC 4649, a massive elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster for which recent studies report a high fraction of dark matter, 0.78 at 4 R{sub e} . However, this galaxy has been studied within the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis, where a good agreement with the observed values of velocity dispersion is found. Using a MONDian gravity force law, here we model this galaxy as a self-consistent gravitational equilibrium dynamical system. This force law reproduces the MOND phenomenology in the a < a{sub 0} regime, and reduces to the Newtonian case when a > a{sub 0}. Within the MONDian a < a{sub 0} scales, centrifugal equilibrium or dispersion velocities become independent of radius, and show a direct proportionality to the fourth root of the total baryonic mass, V {sup 4}{proportional_to}(MGa{sub 0}). We find that the recent detailed observations of the surface brightness profile and the velocity dispersion profile for this galaxy are consistent with the phenomenology expected in MONDian theories of modified gravity, without the need to invoke the presence of any hypothetical dark matter.

  5. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    SciTech Connect

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 ?m) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  6. Revisiting the Abundance Gradient in the Maser Host Galaxy NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresolin, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    New spectroscopic observations of 36 H II regions in NGC 4258 obtained with the Gemini telescope are combined with existing data from the literature to measure the radial oxygen abundance gradient in this galaxy. The [O III]?4363 auroral line was detected in four of the outermost targets (17-22 kpc from the galaxy center), allowing a determination of the electron temperature Te of the ionized gas. From the use of different calibrations of the R 23 abundance indicator, an oxygen abundance gradient of approximately -0.012 ± 0.002 dex kpc-1 is derived. Such a shallow gradient, combined with the difference in the distance moduli measured from the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Macri et al. between two distinct fields in NGC 4258, would yield an unrealistically strong effect of metallicity on the Cepheid distances. This strengthens the suggestion that systematic biases might affect the Cepheid distance of the outer field. Evidence for a similar effect in the differential study of M33 by Scowcroft et al. is presented. A revision of the transformation between strong-line and Te -based abundances in Cepheid-host galaxies is discussed. In the Te abundance scale, the oxygen abundance of the inner field of NGC 4258 is found to be comparable with the LMC value. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  7. Star formation and nuclear activity in the blue early-type galaxy NGC 5373

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Alfvin, Erik; Martinkus, Charlotte; Molter, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical and X-ray observations of NGC 5373, an isolated star-forming elliptical that has a stellar mass of 7e10 solar and lies at a distance of 175 Mpc. Our B and R band Magellan IMACS imaging substantially improves on SDSS resolution and sensitivity, enabling accurate modeling of the galaxy surface brightness profile. As expected from its mass, NGC 5373 is a core galaxy with a best-fit Sersic profile of n~3.8; no prominent tidal tails or shells are found, although there are slight residual asymmetries. The H-alpha emission in the SDSS spectrum is narrow, and the line ratios confirm a star-forming classification in the BPT diagram, near the transition/composite line. The star formation rate is about 6 solar masses per year, making NGC 5373 an extreme outlier relative to typical local early-type galaxies of similar mass. Our 50 ks Chandra ACIS-S exposure provides a clear detection of a central X-ray source, with a hardness ratio consistent with a power-law photon index of 2.0+/-0.5. The unabsorbed luminosity is Lx = 2e40 erg/s over 0.3-8 keV. Comparison with a MARX simulated point spread function suggests the central source may be extended, for example due to contributions from one or more unresolved high-mass X-ray binaries, as might be present given the high star formation rate. For a black hole of 1.6e8 solar masses as predicted from scaling relations, Lx/Ledd is then around 1e-6 (or potentially lower).

  8. A Tidally Disrupting Dwarf Galaxy in the Halo of NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, Elisa; Sand, David J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Crnojevi?, Denija; Simon, Joshua D.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson; McLeod, Brian; Seth, Anil C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of Scl-MM-Dw2, a new dwarf galaxy at a projected separation of ˜50 kpc from NGC 253, as part of the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor project (PISCeS). We measure a tip of the red giant branch (RGB) distance of 3.12 ± 0.30 Mpc, suggesting that Scl-MM-Dw2 is likely a satellite of NGC 253. We qualitatively compare the distribution of RGB stars in the color-magnitude diagram with theoretical isochrones and find that it is consistent with an old, ˜12 Gyr, and metal-poor, -2.3 < [Fe/H] < -1.1, stellar population. We also detect a small number of asymptotic giant branch stars consistent with a metal-poor 2-3 Gyr population in the center of the dwarf. Our non-detection of HI in a deep Green Bank Telescope spectrum implies a gas fraction {M}{HI}/{L}V< 0.02 {M}? /{L}? . The stellar and gaseous properties of Scl-MM-Dw2 suggest that it is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Scl-MM-Dw2 has a luminosity of {M}V=-12.1+/- 0.5 mag and a half-light radius of rh =2.94+/- 0.46 {{kpc}}, which makes it moderately larger than dwarf galaxies in the Local Group of the same luminosity. However, Scl-MM-Dw2 is very elongated (? =0.66+/- 0.06), and it has an extremely low surface brightness ({? }0,V=27.7+/- 0.6 mag arcsec-2). Its elongation and diffuseness make it an outlier in the ellipticity-luminosity and surface brightness-luminosity scaling relations. These properties suggest that this dwarf is being tidally disrupted by NGC 253.

  9. Luminous clusters of Wolf-Rayet stars in the SBmIII galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported of strong broad emission lines attributed to WR stars in the spectra of several bright knots in the nearby Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4214 (classified as type SBmIII), in addition to the emission produced by the more prevalent WN stars). Data are presented on measurements of the line fluxes, the line equivalent widths, and continuum flux densities in the four observed knots, showing that the strongest WR lines generally appear in knots having the most luminous stellar continuum. The significance of this observation is discussed.

  10. Planetary Camera imaging of the counter-rotating core galaxy NGC 4365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze F555W(V) band Planetary Camera images of NGC 4365, for which ground-based spectroscopy has revealed a misaligned, counter-rotating core. Line profile analysis by Surma indicates that the counter-rotating component has a disk structure. After deconvolution and galaxy modeling, we find photometric evidence, at small radii to support this claim. There is no indication of a central point source or dust lane. The surface brightness profile reveals a steep outer profile and shallow, by not flat, inner profile with the inflection radius occurring at 1.8 sec. The inner profile is consistent with a cusp.

  11. The extremely populated globular cluster system of the lenticular galaxy NGC 6861

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Carlos G.; Faifer, Favio R.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Calderón, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2015-05-01

    We present a photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system associated with the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a relatively low density environment. It is based on Gemini/GMOS images in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, obtained under good seeing conditions. Analysing the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams, we find a large number of GC candidates, which extend out to 100 kpc, and we estimate a total population of 3000 ± 300 GCs. Besides the well-known blue and red subpopulations, the colour distribution shows signs of the possible existence of a third subpopulation with intermediate colours. This could be interpreted as evidence of a past interaction or fusion event. Other signs of interactions presented by the galaxy are the non-concentric isophotes and the asymmetric spatial distribution of GC candidates with colours (g' - i')0 > 1.16. As observed in other galaxies, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. In addition, the spatial distribution of these candidates exhibits strong signs of elongation. This feature is also detected in the intermediate subpopulation. On the other hand, the blue candidates show an excellent agreement with the X-ray surface brightness profile, outside 10 kpc. They also show a colour-luminosity relation (blue tilt), similar to that observed in other galaxies. A new distance modulus has been estimated through the blue subpopulation, which is in good agreement with the previous value obtained through the surface brightness fluctuation method. The specific frequency of NGC 6861 (S N = 10.6 ± 2.1) is probably one of the highest values obtained for an S0 galaxy so far.

  12. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Chiba, M.; Geisler, D.; Caffau, E.; Duffau, S.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, it is suspected that the Sgr dSph has lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are thought to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed owing to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. Aims: NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two of these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. Methods: We analyze high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of unassociated MW halo globulars, and of the metal-poor Sgr dSph main body population. Results: We derive a metallicity of [Fe ii/H] = -2.26 ± 0.10 for NGC 5053, and of [Fe i/H] = -1.99 ± 0.075 and -1.97 ± 0.076 for the two stars in NGC 5634. This makes NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor globular clusters in the MW. Both clusters display an ? enhancement similar to the one of the halo at comparable metallicity. The two stars in NGC 5634 clearly display the Na-O anticorrelation widespread among MW globulars. Most other abundances are in good agreement with standard MW halo trends. Conclusions: The chemistry of the Sgr dSph main body populations is similar to that of the halo at low metallicity. It is thus difficult to discriminate between an origin of NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 in the Sgr dSph, and one in the MW. However, the abundances of these clusters do appear closer to that of Sgr dSph than of the halo, favoring an origin in the Sgr dSph system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgAtomic data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/vol/A104

  13. Estimating non-circular motions in barred galaxies using numerical N-body simulations

    E-print Network

    Randriamampandry, Toky; Carignan, Claude; Deg, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The observed velocities of the gas in barred galaxies are a combination of the azimuthally-averaged circular velocity and non-circular motions, primarily caused by gas streaming along the bar. These non-circular flows must be accounted for before the observed velocities can be used in mass modeling. In this work, we examine the performance of the tilted-ring method and the DiskFit algorithm for transforming velocity maps of barred spiral galaxies into rotation curves (RCs) using simulated data. We find that the tilted-ring method, which does not account for streaming motions, under/over-estimates the circular motions when the bar is parallel/perpendicular to the projected major axis. DiskFit, which does include streaming motions, is limited to orientations where the bar is not-aligned with either the major or minor axis of the image. Therefore, we propose a method of correcting RCs based on numerical simulations of galaxies. We correct the RC derived from the tilted-ring method based on a numerical simulation...

  14. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster than the primary bar in this model, the stellar velocity field in the central region only shows a weakly twisted kinematic minor axis. Recently more simulations of double-barred galaxies with simpler initial conditions are explored (Du, Shen & Debattista 2014). We expect that the new models can be used to cross-check with the kinematic properties of double-barred galaxies from IFU observations such as SAURON and Atlas3D.

  15. Rotation and outflow in the central kiloparsec of the water megamaser galaxies IC 2560, NGC 1386, NGC 1052, and Mrk 1210

    E-print Network

    H. Schulz; C. Henkel

    2002-12-20

    Optical emission-line profiles were evaluated in order to explore the structure of galactic nuclei containing H2O megamaser sources. Galactic rotation and outflow of narrow-line gas are common features of this sample of water megamaser galaxies. All decomposed line-systems exhibit AGN typical line ratios. Recent detections of H2O megamasers in starburst galaxies and the apparent asssociation of one megamaser with a Seyfert 1 AGN suggest that megamasers can possibly be triggered by optically detectable outflows. The frequently encountered edge-on geometry favoring large molecular column densities appears to be verified for NGC 1386 and IC 2560. For NGC 1052 and Mrk 1210, maser emission triggered by the optically detected outflow components cannot be ruled out.

  16. The Nuclear Spectral Energy Distribution of NGC 4395, The Least Luminous Type 1 Seyfert Galaxy

    E-print Network

    E. C. Moran; A. V. Filippenko; L. C. Ho; J. C. Shields; T. Belloni; A. Comastri; S. L. Snowden; R. A. Sramek

    1999-04-28

    We present X-ray (ROSAT), infrared, and radio observations of NGC 4395, which harbors the optically least luminous type 1 Seyfert nucleus discovered thus far. In combination with published optical and ultraviolet spectra, we have used these data to assemble the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of the galaxy's nucleus. Interestingly, the SED of NGC 4395 differs markedly from the SEDs of both quasars and typical low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, which may be a manifestation of the different physical conditions (i.e., black hole masses, accretion rates, and/or accretion modes) that exist in these objects. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4395 is variable and has an observed luminosity of just ~ 10^38 ergs/s. Although this emission could plausibly be associated with either a weak active nucleus or a bright stellar-mass binary system, the optical and ultraviolet emission-line properties of the nucleus strongly suggest that the X-rays arise from a classical AGN.

  17. A MILLIMETER-WAVE INTERFEROMETRIC SEARCH FOR A MOLECULAR TORUS IN THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 4261

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Takeshi; Iguchi, Satoru; Kohno, Kotaro

    2013-05-01

    NGC 4261 is an elliptical galaxy with a pair of symmetric kiloparsec-scale jets. We observed a nucleus of NGC 4261 at 2.6 mm and 1.3 mm with the NRO RAINBOW interferometer, the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to determine the excitation state of molecular gas. In this observation, neither CO(J = 2-1) nor CO(J = 1-0) absorption lines were detected even at higher sensitivity than the previous work. The 3{sigma} upper limits on the optical depths of CO lines were 0.098 for J = 2-1 and 0.042 for J = 1-0, respectively. These upper limits are much smaller than the optical depth obtained from the previous claimed detection of CO(J = 2-1) absorption (0.7), indicating that the claimed CO(J = 2-1) absorption profile could be a false feature. Our results suggest that there is a possibility that CO molecules are highly excited by the active galactic nucleus, since the optical depths of low-J CO molecules in NGC 4261 are significantly low.

  18. MRK 1216 & NGC 1277 - An orbit-based dynamical analysis of compact, high velocity dispersion galaxies

    E-print Network

    Y?ld?r?m, Ak?n; van de Ven, Glenn; Husemann, Bernd; Lyubenova, Mariya; Walsh, Jonelle L; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamical analysis to infer the structural parameters and properties of the two nearby, compact, high velocity dispersion galaxies MRK1216 & NGC1277. Combining deep HST imaging, wide-field IFU stellar kinematics, and complementary long-slit spectroscopic data out to 3 R_e, we construct orbit-based models to constrain their black hole masses, dark matter content and stellar mass-to-light ratios. We obtain a black hole mass of log(Mbh/Msun) = 10.1(+0.1/-0.2) for NGC1277 and an upper limit of log(Mbh/Msun) = 10.0 for MRK1216, within 99.7 per cent confidence. The stellar mass-to-light ratios span a range of Upsilon_V = 6.5(+1.5/-1.5) in NGC1277 and Upsilon_H = 1.8(+0.5/-0.8) in MRK1216 and are in good agreement with SSP models of a single power-law Salpeter IMF. Even though our models do not place strong constraints on the dark halo parameters, they suggest that dark matter is a necessary ingredient in MRK1216, with a dark matter contribution of 22(+30/-20) per cent to the total mass budget withi...

  19. Dust in the nuclei of the Seyfert galaxies Markarian 231 and NGC 4151

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Worrall, D.M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J.M.; Stein, W.A.

    1984-09-01

    Observations carried out with a 8-13 micron grating-spectrometer of Mrk 231 and NGC 4151 are reported. The Mrk 231 data can be fitted to various thermal dust emission models or a single power law, with dust extinction. In all the model fits, except for that of graphite and silicon carbide grain emission, a component of silicate absorption of optical depth of not more than 0.7 is required. Confirming published work, the absorption being at the redshift of the low-redshift absorption-line system is ruled out. The high values of silicate optical depth absorption do not give ratios to the galaxy's visual extinction which are comparable to those of galactic H II regions. Weak evidence for a 10-micron absorption feature in NGC 4151 is also reported. This is somewhat contrary to expectation, since the visual extinction of NGC 4151 is lower than that of Mrk 231, and since there is evidence to support a nonthermal rather than thermal dust origin for the infrared continuum emission. 46 references.

  20. Spitzer and JCMT Observations of the Active Galactic Nucleus in the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594)

    E-print Network

    Bendo, G J; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D; Joseph, R D; Kennicutt, R C; Murphy, E J; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D T; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-160 micron images, Spitzer mid-infrared spectra, and JCMT SCUBA 850 micron images of the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594), an Sa galaxy with a 10^9 M_solar low luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). The brightest infrared sources in the galaxy are the nucleus and the dust ring. The spectral energy distribution of the AGN demonstrates that, while the environment around the AGN is a prominent source of mid-infrared emission, it is a relatively weak source of far-infrared emission, as had been inferred for AGN in previous research. The weak nuclear 160 micron emission and the negligible polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from the nucleus also implies that the nucleus is a site of only weak star formation activity and the nucleus contains relatively little cool interstellar gas needed to fuel such activity. We propose that this galaxy may be representative of a subset of low ionization nuclear emission region galaxies that are in a quiescent AGN phase because of the lack of gas needed to...

  1. SHAKEN, NOT STIRRED: THE DISRUPTED DISK OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-12-10

    Near-infrared images obtained with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the recent history of the nearby Sculptor Group spiral NGC 253, which is one of the nearest starburst galaxies. Bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are traced out to projected distances of {approx}22-26 kpc ({approx}13-15 disk scale lengths) along the major axis. The distribution of stars in the disk is lopsided, in the sense that the projected density of AGB stars in the northeast portion of the disk between 10 and 20 kpc from the galaxy center is {approx}0.5 dex higher than on the opposite side of the galaxy. A large population of red supergiants is also found in the northeast portion of the disk and, with the exception of the central 2 kpc, this area appears to have been the site of the highest levels of star-forming activity in the galaxy during the past {approx}0.1 Gyr. It is argued that such high levels of localized star formation may have produced a fountain that ejected material from the disk, and the extraplanar H I detected by Boomsma et al. may be one manifestation of such activity. Diffuse stellar structures are found in the periphery of the disk, and the most prominent of these is to the south and east of the galaxy. Bright AGB stars, including cool C stars that are identified based on their J - K colors, are detected out to 15 kpc above the disk plane, and these are part of a diffusely distributed, flattened extraplanar component. Comparisons between observed and model luminosity functions suggest that the extraplanar regions contain stars that formed throughout much of the age of the universe. Additional evidence of a diffuse, extraplanar stellar component that contains moderately young stars comes from archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer images. It is suggested that the disk of NGC 253 was disrupted by a tidal encounter with a now defunct companion. This encounter introduced asymmetries that remain to this day, and the projected distribution of stars in and around NGC 253 suggests that the companion had an orbit that was prograde and moderately inclined to the NGC 253 disk. The star-forming history of the extraplanar stars suggests that they either originated in the NGC 253 disk, or in a gas-rich companion. In the latter case, the companion must have had an initial M{sub B} < -15 in order to produce the more-or-less continuous star-forming history that is suggested by the stellar content. The ages of the youngest extraplanar stars suggest that the event that produced the extraplanar population, and presumably induced the starburst, occurred within the past {approx}0.2 Gyr.

  2. Distribution and motions of H I and H_2_ in the peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 3310.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, P. S.; van Driel, W.; Braine, J.

    1995-08-01

    The peculiar Sbc-type starburst galaxy NGC 3310 was mapped in the 21 cm H i line at Westerbork with an angular resolution of 12.2"x15.1" (?x?) and a velocity resolution of 33km/s. The galaxy was also partially mapped in the CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines at IRAM with resolutions of ~23" and ~12", respectively. In the H i line, an extension of the optical jet-like feature in the Northwestern outer parts (the "arrow") is observed, extending outward to ~6.5' (38kpc) from the centre in data degraded to a resolution of 60". A region of H I emission is found some 9' to the South of NGC 3310 at radial velocities around 1040km/s, i.e. just above systemic, which may be connected to the "main body" H I by a weak bridge. At higher resolutions, the H I shows a central "hole" and two ridges partially coincident with the inner arms seen in H? and continuing outwards as an extension of these, bending strongly just beyond their optical extent. The central hole is centered on the Southeastern side of the optical inner ring, not on the optical nucleus. The Northern ridge seems to connect its H? counterpart in the inner regions to the "arrow" in the outer parts. Going from the optical disc to the outer regions, radial velocities measured in the H I gas generally change gradually, with the notable exception of the region of the optical "arrow". The receding half of the galaxy shows rather normal kinematics, as do the inner ~70" of radius of the half with velocities below systemic. Severely disturbed H I kinematics are found in the approaching half beyond that radius, which corresponds to the domain of the optical "bow and arrow" feature. Fits of a circular rotation model to the apparently undisturbed parts of the observed H I velocity field yield a kinematic inclination of 52deg+/-2deg and major axis position angle of 167deg+/-1deg. Subtraction of a model velocity field based on these results from that observed in H I confirms that the gas in the Northwestern (disturbed) half of the galaxy exhibits highly non-circular motions, with radial velocity deviations up to 120km/s. The observed H I kinematics are most naturally explained as due to a recent merger of NGC 3310 with a gas-rich dwarf galaxy. While being quite normal in its optical and H I global properties, NGC 3310 has an exceptionally low rotation velocity at radii near its de Vaucouleurs' radius (~80km/s), and hence a very low dynamical mass inside that radius (~2x10^10^Msun_). This may indicate that the pre-merger object was a dwarf spiral galaxy. The CO observations show that NGC 3310 has rather weak CO emission, implying a low H_2_ mass if a standard conversion is appropriate. If so, the ratio of H_2_ to H I gas mass is typical for a very late-type spiral, once more suggesting a recent merger with such an object. The ratio of CO(2-1) to CO(1-0) emission is exceptionally high. This may be due to the CO(1-0) line being optically thin. Combined with a low metallicity, a strong UV radiation field and a high dust temperature in the interstellar medium, this probably results in a CO flux to molecular hydrogen column density conversion factor lower than Galactic, closer to that found in the Magellanic clouds.

  3. TOWARD A NEW GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 4258. III. FINAL RESULTS AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, E. M. L.; Reid, M. J.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Argon, A. L.

    2013-09-20

    We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight (LOS) velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of very long baseline interferometry observations, and LOS accelerations measured from a 10 yr monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble constant, based on the use of the Cepheid variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale, is H{sub 0} = 72.0 {+-} 3.0 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}.

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Extended Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Narae; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W.; Kim, Sang Chul; Miller, Bryan; Weisz, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South 8.1 m telescope. The radial velocities derived from the spectra range from -61.2 ± 20.4 km s-1 (for C1) to -115.34 ± 57.9 km s-1 (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate-age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old (>=8 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] <~ -1.5). NGC 6822 is found to have both metal poor ([Fe/H] ?-2.0) and metal rich ([Fe/H] ?-0.9) star clusters within 15' (2 kpc) from the center, whereas only metal poor clusters are observed in the outer halo with r >= 20'(2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have determined the total mass and the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 6822: M_{N6822} = 7.5^{+4.5}_{-0.1} \\times 10^{9}\\ M_{\\odot } and (M/L)_{N6822} = 75^{+45}_{-1} (M/L)_{\\odot }. It shows that NGC 6822 is one of the most dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  5. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey IX: $^{12}$CO $J=3\\to2$ Observations of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351

    E-print Network

    Tan, Boon-Kok; Rigopoulou, D; Warren, B E; Wilson, C D; Attewell, D; Azimlu, M; Bendo, G J; Butner, H M; Brinks, E; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Heesen, V; Israel, F; Knapen, J H; Matthews, H E; Mortier, A M J; Mühle,; Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; van der Werf, P; Zhu, M

    2013-01-01

    We present $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} maps of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351 obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), both early targets of the JCMT Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey (NGLS). We combine the present observations with $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=1$\\rightarrow$0} data and find that the computed $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} to $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=1$\\rightarrow$0} line ratio ($R_{31}$) agrees with values measured in other NGLS field galaxies. We compute the M$_{\\rm{H_2}}$ value and find that it is robust against the value of $R_{31}$ used. Using \\textsc{Hi} data from the The \\textsc{Hi} Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) survey, we find a tight correlation between surface density of H$_2$ and star formation rate density for NGC 3351 when $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} data are used. Finally, we compare the $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} intensity with the PAH 8 $\\mu$m surface brightness and find a good correlation in the high surface brightness regions. We extend this study to incl...

  6. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kissel, J. S.; Da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; O'Connell, R. W.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Kim, Hwihyun E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu

    2013-04-10

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young ({<=}8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing photon rate by the cluster mass to investigate the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We have found that within the uncertainties the upper end of the stellar IMF appears to be universal in this galaxy, and that deviations from a universal IMF can be attributed to stochastic sampling of stars in clusters with masses {approx}<10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, we have found that there does not seem to be a dependence of the maximum stellar mass on the cluster mass. We have also found that for massive clusters, feedback may cause an underrepresentation in H{alpha} luminosities, which needs to be taken into account when conducting this type of analysis.

  7. NGC 1266: Characterization of the Nuclear Molecular Gas in an Unusual SB0 Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip R; Kamenetzky, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    With a substantial nuclear molecular gas reservoir and broad, high-velocity CO molecular line wings previously interpreted as an outflow, NGC 1266 is a rare SB$0$ galaxy. Previous analyses of interferometry, spectrally resolved low-$J$ CO emission lines, and unresolved high-$J$ emission lines have established basic properties of the molecular gas and the likely presence of an AGN. Here, new spectrally resolved CO $J = 5 - 4$ to $J = 8 - 7$ lines from {\\it Herschel Space Observatory} HIFI observations are combined with ground-based observations and high-$J$ {\\it Herschel} SPIRE observations to decompose the nuclear and putative outflow velocity components and to model the molecular gas to quantify its properties. Details of the modeling and results are described, with comparisons to previous results and exploration of the implications for the gas excitation mechanisms. Among the findings, like for other galaxies, the nuclear and putative outflow molecular gas are well represented by components that are cool ($...

  8. Understanding the Puzzling X-Ray Spectrum of the SO Galaxy NGC 4382; NGC 43819: Spectral Analysis of the Prototypical Early Merger and ASCA Observations of a Dynamically Young Elliptical: NGC 4125

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the ASCA observations of NGC 4382, NGC 4038/9, NGC 4125 and produced papers for publication. NGC 4382 is one of the E and SO galaxies detected with the lowest X-ray to optical luminosity ratio. These galaxies have a peculiar X-ray (0.1-3 keV) spectrum, with a significant excess of counts in the lowest spectral channels (less than 1 keV) relative to the spectral count distributions of X-ray brihter E and SO galaxies. Analyzing the ROSAT PSPC observation of NGC 4382 it was unclear whether this soft excess was due to a real very soft component in a multi-component spectrum, or reflected an extremely low metal abundance in an isothermal hot gas. Our ASCA observations show that the low-abundance single-temperature model does not fit well to the X-ray spectrum, in agreement with our previous suggestions. A better explanation is a composite spectrum with a very soft component (0.3 keV) in addition to a harder (5 keV) component from X-ray binaries. In this model, the abundance cannot be constrained. More complex spectral models are also possible. The ASCA observations of The Antennae - (NGC4038/9) show that at least two spectral components are required to describe the emission-thermal emission from a plasma at 0.8 keV, and a component at higher energies. The hot gas contributes about half of the flux in the 0.5 to 6 keV band. If the column density to the higher energy component is greater than 2 x 10 (exp 21) per square centimeter, then the fitted abundance in the hot gas component is less than 0.2 solar. This low abundance is not expected for the hot interstellar medium in NGC4038/9 in which supernovae and star formation (expected to enrich and heat the gas) are ongoing. We do not detect any spatial variations in the spectrum. We relate these findings to data obtained by other satellites (Einstein, ROSAT) for this interacting galaxy pair. NGC4125's ASCA data was analyzed jointly with its Beppo-SAX observation. A hard component (kT /sim 4-10 keV) is observed together with a thermal component with line emission.

  9. THE STELLAR AND GAS KINEMATICS OF THE LITTLE THINGS DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY NGC 1569

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Megan; Hunter, Deidre A.; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Herrmann, Kimberly; Oh, Se-Heon; Elmegreen, Bruce; Brinks, Elias; Tollerud, Erik E-mail: dah@lowell.edu E-mail: herrmann@lowell.edu E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com E-mail: etolleru@uci.edu

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the formation and evolution of Magellanic-type dwarf irregular (dIm) galaxies, one needs to understand their three-dimensional structure. We present measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in NGC 1569, a nearby post-starburst dIm galaxy. The stellar vertical velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub z}, coupled with the maximum rotational velocity derived from H I observations, V{sub max}, gives a measure of how kinematically hot the galaxy is, and, therefore, indicates its structure. We conclude that the stars in NGC 1569 are in a thick disk with a V{sub max}/{sigma}{sub z} = 2.4 {+-} 0.7. In addition to the structure, we analyze the ionized gas kinematics from O III observations along the morphological major axis. These data show evidence for outflow from the inner starburst region and a potential expanding shell near supermassive star cluster (SSC) A. When compared to the stellar kinematics, the velocity dispersion of the stars increases in the region of SSC A supporting the hypothesis of an expanding shell. The stellar kinematics closely follow the motion of the gas. Analysis of high-resolution H I data clearly reveals the presence of an H I cloud that appears to be impacting the eastern edge of NGC 1569. Also, an ultra-dense H I cloud can be seen extending to the west of the impacting H I cloud. This dense cloud is likely the remains of a dense H I bridge that extended through what is now the central starburst area. The impacting H I cloud was the catalyst for the starburst, thus turning the dense gas into stars over a short timescale, {approx}1 Gyr. We performed a careful study of the spectral energy distribution using infrared, optical, and ultraviolet photometry, producing a state-of-the-art mass model for the stellar disk. This mass modeling shows that stars dominate the gravitational potential in the inner 1 kpc. The dynamical mass of NGC 1569, derived from V{sub max}, shows that the disk may be dark matter deficient in the inner region, although, when compared to the expected virial mass determined from halo abundance matching techniques, the dark matter profile seems to agree with the observed mass profile at a radius of 2.2 kpc.

  10. The Diffuse Emission and a Variable ULX in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3379

    E-print Network

    Laurence P. David; Christine Jones; William Forman; Steve Murray

    2005-06-01

    A Chandra observation of the intermediate luminosity (M_B=-20) elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 resolves 75% of the X-ray emission within the central 5kpc into point sources. Spectral analysis of the remaining unresolved emission within the central 770pc indicates that 90% of the emission probably arises from undetected point sources, while 10% arises from thermal emission from kT=0.6keV gas. Assuming a uniform density distribution in the central region of the galaxy gives a gas mass of 5.0e5 Mo.Such a small amount of gas can be supplied by stellar mass loss in only 1.0e7 years. Thus, the gas must be accreting into the central supermassive black hole at a very low radiative efficiency as in the ADAF or RIAF models, or is being expelled in a galactic wind driven by the same AGN feedback mechanism as that observed in cluster cooling flows. If the gas is being expelled in an AGN driven wind, then the ratio of mechanical to radio power of the AGN must be 1.0e4, which is comparable to that measured in cluster cooling flows which have recently been perturbed by radio outbursts. The brightest point source in NGC 3379 is located 360pc from the central AGN with a peak luminosity of 3.5e39 ergs/s, which places it in the class of ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULX). Analysis of an archival ROSAT HRI observation of NGC 3379 shows that this source was at a comparable luminosity 5 years prior to the Chandra observation. During the Chandra observation, the source intensity smoothly varies by a factor of two with the suggestion of an 8-10 hour period.

  11. GALAXIES M32 AND NGC 5102 CONFIRM A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CHRONOMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Miner; Cecil, Gerald; Rose, James A.

    2011-01-20

    We present near-infrared (NIR) IRTF/SpeX spectra of the intermediate-age galaxy M32 and the post-starburst galaxy NGC 5102. We show that features from thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars yield similar ages to those derived from optical spectra. The TP-AGB can dominate the NIR flux of a coeval stellar population between {approx}0.1 and {approx}2 Gyr, and the strong features of (especially C-rich) TP-AGB stars are useful chronometers in integrated light studies. Likewise, the Paschen series in MSTO stars is strongly dependent on age and is an indicator of a young stellar component in integrated spectra. We define four NIR spectroscopic indices to measure the strength of absorption features from both C-rich TP-AGB stars and hydrogen features in main-sequence stars, in a preliminary effort to construct a robust chronometer that probes the contributions from stars in different evolutionary phases. By comparing the values of the indices measured in M32 and NGC 5102 to those in the Maraston stellar population synthesis models for various ages and metallicities, we show that model predictions for the ages of the nuclei of M32 and NGC 5102 agree with previous results obtained from integrated optical spectroscopy and color-magnitude diagram analysis of the giant branches. The indices discriminate between an intermediate-age population of {approx}3-4 Gyr, a younger population of {approx}<1 Gyr, and can also detect the signatures of very young {approx}<100 Myr populations.

  12. Chandra Observations of Expanding Shells in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 3077

    E-print Network

    Ott, J; Walter, F; Ott, Juergen; Martin, Crystal L.; Walter, Fabian

    2003-01-01

    Deep Chandra observations (53 ks, ACIS-S3) of NGC 3077, a starburst dwarf galaxy in the M 81 triplet, resolve the X-ray emission from several supershells. The emission is brightest in the cavities defined by expanding shells detected previously in H alpha emission (Martin 1998). Thermal emission models fitted to the data imply temperatures ranging from ~1.3 to 4.9 x 10^(6) K and indicate that the strongest absorption is coincident with the densest clouds traced by CO emission. The fitted emission measures give pressures of P/k~10^(5-6) xi^(-0.5) f_(v)^(-0.5) K cm^(-3) (xi: metallicity of the hot gas in solar units, f_(v): volume filling factor). Despite these high pressures, the radial density profile of the hot gas is not as steep as that expected in a freely expanding wind (e.g., as seen in the neighboring starburst galaxy M 82) implying that the hot gas is still confined by the H alpha shells. The chaotic dynamical state of NGC 3077 undermines reliable estimates of the escape velocity. The more relevant qu...

  13. VLA detection of OH absorption from the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Amitesh Omar; K. R. Anantharamaiah; Michael Rupen; J. Rigby

    2001-11-14

    VLA observations of OH absorption towards the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 are presented. Both OH lines, at 1665 and 1667 MHz, were detected in absorption towards the center of NGC 1052. The hyperfine ratio of the two OH lines ($\\tau$$_{1667}$/$\\tau$$_{1665}$) is 2.6$\\pm$0.8 as compared to 1.8 expected for the excitation under LTE conditions for an optically thin cloud. The column density of OH is estimated to be $2.73(\\pm0.26)\\times10^{14} cm^{-2}$ assuming $T_{ex} \\sim$10 K. The centers of both the OH lines are redshifted from the systemic velocity of the galaxy by $\\sim$173 km s$^{-1}$. The velocity of OH line coincides with the velocity corresponding to the strongest HI absorption. We suggest that OH absorption is arising from a molecular cloud falling towards the nucleus. The OH line, though narrower, is found to be within the much broader and smoother H$_2$O megamaser emission. The possible link between OH/HI and $H_2O$ emission is discussed.

  14. SAMI Galaxy Survey: Disk and Bar Kinematics, Mass Decompositions with Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Fogarty, Lisa; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team, GAMA Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey (SGS, P.I. Scott Croom, U. of Sydney) uses a custom multiple-integral-field feed to the Australian Astronomical Telescope (AAT) AAOmega dual-spectrograph to map the inner 15 arcsec diameter of 3400 galaxies a dozen at a time. The SGS spans environmental densities up to clusters, out to z = 0.1. (See http://sami-survey.org/edr for ~100 galaxies in the public Early Release Data.) We discuss circular speed curves (CSCs) of gas and stars derived from non-parametric fits to a flat disk in ~130 late-type barred and unbarred galaxies across the full mass range of the SGS, and at radii up to 4 r_e. Gas and stellar rotational fields agree well, but can differ substantially in line of nodes. At least 2/3 of the fitted CSCs are compatible with the ``universal rotation curve''. Velocity model residuals are compared to residuals from single-Sersic profile fits to SDSS photometry that highlight light asymmetries. For galaxies where photometry minus model residuals delineate stellar bars, the VIKING Z-band image is fit with a dual-Sersic form, one component addressing the bulge/bar, then gas kinematics are refit to include a bisymmetric (m=2) velocity distortion in the disk. This distortion often aligns with photometric residuals, and has amplitude at most 80 km/s but usually <20 km/s in the disk plane. Thus we debias the CSC from, and map the effects of, gas streaming due to a bar/oval. Because of generally low in-plane velocity distortions, only 2 of 18 barred galaxies have shock-indicating, emission-line flux ratios that correlate with m=2 spatio-kinematical variations and concentrate near the bar ends. Each dual- or single-Sersic fit is mapped into mass using one M/L constant with radius and the non-axisymmetric or axisymmetric CSC to decompose the mass distribution into luminous bulge and disk, and dark halo components. Some fits require a maximal luminous disk, others require a non-negligible or even dominant dark halo within the SAMI aperture. We discuss interesting individual systems and statistics of our sample from the first 600 galaxies surveyed. GC was a visiting professor supported by U. of Sydney. The SAMI and GAMA surveys are supported by grants from the Australian Research Council.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope First Observations of the Brightest Stars in the Virgo Galaxy M100 = NGC 4321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F.; Stetson, P. B.; Hughes, S. M. G.; Holtzman, J. A.; Mould, J. R.; Trauger, J. T.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Ballester, G. E.; Burrows, C. J.; Casertano, S.; Clarke, J. T; Crisp, D.; Ferrarese, L.; Ford, H.; Graham, J. A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hester, J. J.; Hill, R.; Hoessel, J. G.; Huchra, J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Scowen, P. A.; Sparks, B.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    As part of both the Early Release Observations fromthe Hubble Space Telescope and the Key PRoject on the Extragalctic Distance Scale, we have obtained multi-wavelength BVR WFPC2 images for the face-on Virgo cluster spiral galaxy M11 = NGC 4321.

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE COLLIDING GALAXY PAIR NGC 2207/IC 2163

    E-print Network

    Mineo, S.

    We present a comprehensive study of the total X-ray emission from the colliding galaxy pair NGC 2207/IC 2163, based on Chandra, Spitzer, and GALEX data. We detect 28 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), 7 of which were not ...

  17. Galaxy Zoo: Are Bars Responsible for the Feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan; Athanassoula, Lia; Bamford, Steven; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, Albert; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin; Faber, Sandra M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy; Kocevski, Dale; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo J.; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Nichol, Robert; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle; Galaxy Zoo, Aegis, Cosmos, Goods

    2015-01-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disk galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame color, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the bar fraction in the control sample by more than a factor of two, at 99.7% confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  18. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044 erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame colour, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the control bar fraction by more than a factor of 2, at 99.7 per cent confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  19. Unveiling the structure of barred galaxies at 3.6 ?m with the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S{sup 4}G). I. Disk breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Madore, Barry F.; Ho, Luis C.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Knapen, Johan H.; Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Zaritsky, Dennis; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Holwerda, Benne; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ron; and others

    2014-02-20

    We have performed two-dimensional multicomponent decomposition of 144 local barred spiral galaxies using 3.6 ?m images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Our model fit includes up to four components (bulge, disk, bar, and a point source) and, most importantly, takes into account disk breaks. We find that ignoring the disk break and using a single disk scale length in the model fit for Type II (down-bending) disk galaxies can lead to differences of 40% in the disk scale length, 10% in bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), and 25% in bar-to-total luminosity ratios. We find that for galaxies with B/T ? 0.1, the break radius to bar radius, r {sub br}/R {sub bar}, varies between 1 and 3, but as a function of B/T the ratio remains roughly constant. This suggests that in bulge-dominated galaxies the disk break is likely related to the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar and thus moves outward as the bar grows. For galaxies with small bulges, B/T < 0.1, r {sub br}/R {sub bar} spans a wide range from 1 to 6. This suggests that the mechanism that produces the break in these galaxies may be different from that in galaxies with more massive bulges. Consistent with previous studies, we conclude that disk breaks in galaxies with small bulges may originate from bar resonances that may be also coupled with the spiral arms, or be related to star formation thresholds.

  20. Circumnuclear Regions In Barred Spiral Galaxies. 1; Near-Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Ramirez, D.; Knapen, J. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Laine, S.; Doyon, R.; Nadeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based near-infrared images of the central regions of a sample of twelve barred galaxies with circumnuclear star formation activity, which is organized in ring-like regions typically one kiloparsec in diameter. We also present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared images of ten of our sample galaxies, and compare them with our ground-based data. Although our sample galaxies were selected for the presence of circumnuclear star formation activity, our broad-band near-infrared images are heterogeneous, showing a substantial amount of small-scale structure in some galaxies, and practically none in others. We argue that, where it exists, this structure is caused by young stars, which also cause the characteristic bumps or changes in slope in the radial profiles of ellipticity, major axis position angle, surface brightness and colour at the radius of the circumnuclear ring in most of our sample galaxies. In 7 out of 10 HST images, star formation in the nuclear ring is clearly visible as a large number of small emitting regions, organised into spiral arm fragments, which are accompanied by dust lanes. NIR colour index maps show much more clearly the location of dust lanes and, in certain cases, regions of star formation than single broad-band images. Circumnuclear spiral structure thus outlined appears to be common in barred spiral galaxies with circumnuclear star formation.

  1. Dynamics of stars around spiral arms in an N-body/SPH simulated barred spiral galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2012-10-01

    We run N-body smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a Milky Way-sized galaxy. The code takes into account hydrodynamics, self-gravity, star formation, supernova and stellar wind feedback, radiative cooling and metal enrichment. The simulated galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy consisting of a stellar and gas disc, enveloped in a static dark matter halo. Similar to what is found in our pure N-body simulation of a non-barred galaxy in Grand et al., we find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is similar to the rotation of star particles. Compared to the non-barred case, we find that the spiral arm pattern speed is slightly faster than the rotation speed of star particles: the bar appears to boost the pattern speed ahead of the rotational velocity. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms at different radii, and demonstrate that there are star particles that are drawn towards and join the arm from behind (in front of) the arm and migrate towards the outer (inner) regions of the disc until the arm disappears as a result of their transient nature. We see this migration over the entire radial range analysed, which is a consequence of the spiral arm rotating at similar speeds to star particles at all radii, which is inconsistent with the prediction of classical density wave theory. The bar does not prevent this systematic radial migration, which is shown to largely preserve circular orbits. We also demonstrate that there is no significant offset of different star-forming tracers across the spiral arm, which is also inconsistent with the prediction of classical density wave theory.

  2. The Star-forming Histories of the Nucleus, Bulge, and Inner Disk of NGC 5102: Clues to the Evolution of a Nearby Lenticular Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Long slit spectra recorded with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini South are used to examine the star-forming history (SFH) of the lenticular galaxy NGC 5102. Structural and supplemental photometric information are obtained from archival Spitzer [3.6] images. Absorption features at blue and visible wavelengths are traced out along the minor axis to galactocentric radii ~60 arcsec (~0.9 kpc), sampling the nucleus, bulge, and disk components. Comparisons with model spectra point to luminosity-weighted metallicities that are consistent with the colors of resolved red giant branch stars in the disk. The nucleus has a luminosity-weighted age at visible wavelengths of {˜ } 1+0.2-0.1 Gyr, and the integrated light is dominated by stars that formed over a time period of only a few hundred Myr. For comparison, the luminosity-weighted ages of the bulge and disk are {˜ } 2+0.5-0.2 Gyr and 10+2-2 Gyr, respectively. The g' - [3.6] colors of the nucleus and bulge are consistent with the spectroscopically based ages. In contrast to the nucleus, models that assume star-forming activity spanning many Gyr provide a better match to the spectra of the bulge and disk than simple stellar population models. Isophotes in the bulge have a disky shape, hinting that the bulge was assembled from material with significant rotational support. The SFHs of the bulge and disk are consistent with the bulge forming from the collapse of a long-lived bar, rather than from the collapse of a transient structure that formed as the result of a tidal interaction. It is thus suggested that the progenitor of NGC 5102 was a barred disk galaxy that morphed into a lenticular galaxy through the buckling of its bar. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Supernova Remnants in the Most Fertile Galaxy: NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.

    2014-08-01

    As the host to more recorded supernovae (nine in the past century) than any other galaxy, ngal is a unique venue for studying young (and old) supernova remnants (SNRs). Using deep emission-line images of ngal we obtained from WIYN, we have identified 148 new emission nebulae through their high S II:H? ratios, indicating that they are strong SNR candidates. This is over 5 times as many as have previously been identified; yet of the 175 total objects, only 6 have been spectroscopically confirmed. We propose multislit spectroscopy from GMOS-N to study the majority of those with no spectra to date. Some 26 are essentially unresolved in our images (diameters ? 1 arcsec=27 pc at ngal) and hence probably are relatively young. Several are also coincident with soft X-ray sources (a further indicator of youthful vigor) and have strong O III emission. Some may be rare, ejecta- dominated core-collapse SNRs akin to Cas A, where ``fresh" nucleosynthesis products can be seen. Only spectroscopy, to look for broad emission lines from fast-moving ejecta, can confirm this. We will include spectra of two of the nine recorded SNe in ngal-the first late-time spectrum of SN 2004et, and the first of SN 1980K with high signal-to-noise-adding to the extremely small number of spectra for SNRs only a few decades old. Finally we will use the H II:H? ratio in a large number of ISM-dominated SNRs to map the N abundance and its gradient across the disk of ngal, and we will use archival HST images to identify the stellar environments that produced the SNe whose remnants we see today.

  4. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies (SWAN): Physical Conditions in NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jüergen; Rand, Richard J.; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Nearby galaxies provide the vital link between local Galactic findings and integrated, galaxy-wide properties of star formation. We have observed four nearby star forming galaxies with the VLA in K and Ka bands, yielding a resolution on order of a few tens of parsecs. The sample spans a range of star formation rates and galactic environments. We present the first results from the nearby, prototypical starburst galaxy NGC 253. The K band observations cover ammonia inversion transitions from (1,1) to (5,5) in addition to the 22.3GHz water maser line with a resolution of ?63pc. Ammonia is a known temperature probe and traces gas densities greater than 102 cm-3. We observe relatively warm and uniform temperature distribution in the inner 0.5 kpc. The (3,3) line appears to be masing in the innermost 200 pc. Furthermore, we see indications of extended H20 maser components in the direction of the galactic outflow.

  5. An H I study of the galaxy NGC 4945 with a two-element synthesis telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ables, J. G.; Forster, J. R.; Manchester, R. N.; Rayner, P. T.; Whiteoak, J. B.; Mathewson, D. S.; Kalnajs, A. J.; Peters, W. L.; Wehner, H.

    1987-05-01

    TEST, a two-element synthesis telescope operating at 1.4 GHz, consists of the Parkes 64-m radio telescope and a movable 18-m antenna. The system has several unconventional features, which are described. TEST has been used for an H I study of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4945; the angular resolution was 47×73 arcsec2. H I absorption and emission are both present in the galaxy. The absorption occurs against the small-diameter radio nucleus and its velocity range (380 - 740 km s-1) is almost as large as the range observed across the entire galaxy. The absorbing clouds are probably located within a few hundred parsecs of the nucleus. The H I emission is extended along the optical major axis of the galaxy. Structure symmetrical about the nucleus in the H I distribution may be related to spiral features or rings of gas. A rotation curve fitted to the velocity field yields a total mass of 8.8×1010M_sun;. The velocity field shows departures from uniform circular motion which have been interpreted in terms of radial motions of 20 - 30 km s-1 towards the nucleus.

  6. AKARI infrared observations of edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    E-print Network

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Komugi, Shinya; Onaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2010-01-01

    We present AKARI near- to far-infrared images of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3079 in 10 photometric bands. The spectral energy distribution consists of continuum emission from dust with a single temperature of 28-33 K together with strong mid-infrared emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We derive the dust masses of 5.6x10^6 M_sun and 1.4x10^7 M_sun for the central 4 kpc region and the whole galaxy, respectively, and find that a gas-to-dust mass ratio is unusually high in the central region (\\sim 1100) and even for the whole galaxy (\\sim 860). The ratio of the surface brightness distribution at the wavelength of 7 um to that at 11 um suggests that the properties of PAHs have spatial variations. Emission from ionized and neutral PAHs is relatively strong in the center and the disk regions, respectively, suggesting stronger radiation field and thus relatively active star formation in the center. Yet the total infrared luminosities of the galaxy indicate rather low star format...

  7. ON THE MASS-LOSS RATE OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LOW-METALLICITY GALAXIES IC 1613, WLM, AND NGC 3109

    SciTech Connect

    Tramper, F.; Sana, H.; De Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter observations of six O-type stars in the low-metallicity (Z {approx} 1/7 Z {sub sun}) galaxies IC 1613, WLM, and NGC 3109. The stellar and wind parameters of these sources allow us, for the first time, to probe the mass loss versus metallicity dependence of stellar winds at metallicities below that of the Small Magellanic Cloud (at Z {approx} 1/5 Z {sub sun}) by means of a modified wind momentum versus luminosity diagram. The wind strengths that we obtain for the objects in WLM and NGC 3109 are unexpectedly high and do not agree with theoretical predictions. The objects in IC 1613 tend toward a higher than expected mass-loss rate, but remain consistent with predictions within their error bars. We discuss potential systematic uncertainties in the mass-loss determinations to explain our results. However, if further scrutinization of these findings point towards an intrinsic cause for this unexpected sub-SMC mass-loss behavior, implications would include a higher than anticipated number of Wolf-Rayet stars and Ib/Ic supernovae in low-metallicity environments, but a reduced number of long-duration gamma-ray bursts produced through a single-star evolutionary channel.

  8. Secular bar formation in galaxies with significant amount of dark matter

    E-print Network

    Octavio Valenzuela; Anatoly Klypin

    2003-05-06

    Using high resolution N-body simulations of stellar disks embedded in cosmologically motivated dark matter halos, we study the evolution of bars and the transfer of angular momentum between halos and bars. We find that dynamical friction results in some transfer of angular momentum to the halo, but the effect is much smaller than previously found in low resolution simulations and is incompatible with early analytical estimates. In simulations with millions of particles reaching a resolution of 20-40 pc, the pattern speed may not change over billions of years. Our high resolution models produce bars which are fast rotators, where the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar major semi-axis lies in the range R =1.2-1.7, marginally compatible with observational results. In contrast to many previous simulations, we find that bars are relatively short. As in many observed cases, the bar major semi-axis is close to the exponential length of the disk. The transfer of angular momentum between inner and outer parts of the disk plays a very important role in the secular evolution of the disk and the bar. The bar formation increases the exponential length of the disk by a factor of 1.2 -1.5. The transfer substantially increases the stellar mass in the centre of the galaxy and decreases the dark matter-to-baryons ratio. As the result, the central 2 kpc region is always strongly dominated by the baryonic component. At intermediate 3-10kpc scales the disk is sub-dominant. In summary, realistic models produce bar structure in striking agreement with observational results.

  9. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy?

    E-print Network

    Sbordone, L; Bidin, C Moni; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Chiba, M; Geisler, D; Caffau, E; Duffau, S

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, the Sgr dSph is suspected to have lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are suspected to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed due to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two among these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. We analize high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of "unassociated" MW halo globulars, and of the metal poor Sgr dSph main body population...

  10. Hubble space telescope observations of young star clusters in NGC-4038/4039, 'the antennae' galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Schweizer, Francois

    1995-01-01

    New, high-resolution images of the disks of NGC 4038/4039 obtained with the Wide Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. NGC 4038/4039, nicknamed The Antennae, is a prototypical example of a pair of colliding galaxies believed to be at an early stage of a merger. Down to the limiting magnitude of V approximately 23 mag, the HST images reveal a population of over 700 blue pointlike objects within the disks. The mean absolute magnitude of these objects is M(sub V) = -11 mag, with the brightest objects reaching M(sub V) approximately -15. Their mean apparent color indices ar U - V = -0.7 mag and V - 1 = 0.8 mag on the Johnson UVI passband system, while their mean indices corrected for internal reddening are (u - v)(sub 0) = -1.0 mag and (V - I(sub 0) = 0.5. Their mean effective radius, determined from slightly resolved images, is 18 pc (for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s /Mpc). Based on their luminosities and resolution, most of these objects cannot be individual stars, but are likely young compact star clusters. The brighter ones are similar to the objects found in NGC 1275 and NGC 7252, which appear to be young globular clusters formed during recent galazy mergers. Based on their U - V and V - I colors, the brightest, bluest clusters of NGC 4038/4039 appear to be less than 10 Myr old. Most of these bright clusters are relatively tightly clustered themselves, with typically a dozen individual clusters belonging to a complex identified as a giant H II region from ground-based observations. The cluster luminosity function (LF) is approximately a power law, phi(L)dL proportional to L(exp -1.78+/-0.05)dL, with no hint of a turnover at fainter magnitudes. This power-law shape agrees with the LF of Magellanic Cloud clusters and Galactic open clusters, but differs from the LF of old globular cluster systems that is typically Gaussian with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of approximately 3 mag. Besides the blue clusters, we also find about a dozen extremely red objects with V - I greater than 3.0. The highest number density of these red objects is found in the SE quadrant, where star formation appears to be most recent. We propose that these objects may be very young star clusters still embedded in their placental dust cocoons.

  11. FIREWORKS NEAR A BLACK HOLE IN THE CORE OF SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) simultaneously records, in unprecedented detail, the velocities of hundreds of gas knots streaming at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour from the nucleus of NGC 4151, thought to house a supermassive black hole. This is the first time the velocity structure in the heart of this object, or similar objects, has been mapped so vividly this close to its central black hole. The twin cones of gas emission are powered by the energy released from the supermassive black hole believed to reside at the heart of this Seyfert galaxy. The STIS data clearly show that the gas knots illuminated by one of these cones is rapidly moving towards us, while the gas knots illuminated by the other cone are rapidly receding. The images have been rotated to show the same orientation of NGC 4151. The figures show: WFPC2 (upper left) -- A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the oxygen emission (5007 Angstroms) from the gas at the heart of NGC 4151. Though the twin cone structure can be seen, the image does not provide any information about the motion of the oxygen gas. STIS OPTICAL (upper right) -- In this STIS spectral image of the oxygen gas, the velocities of the knots are determined by comparing the knots of gas in the stationary WFPC2 image to the horizontal location of the knots in the STIS image. STIS OPTICAL (lower right) -- In this false color image the two emission lines of oxygen gas (the weaker one at 4959 Angstroms and the stronger one at 5007 Angstroms) are clearly visible. The horizontal line passing through the image is from the light generated by the powerful black hole at the center of NGC 4151. STIS ULTRAVIOLET (lower left) -- This STIS spectral image shows the velocity distribution of the carbon emission from the gas in the core of NGC 4151. It requires more energy to make the carbon gas glow (CIV at 1549 Angstroms) than it does to ionize the oxygen gas seen in the other images. This means we expect that the carbon emitting gas is closer to the heart of the energy source. Credit: John Hutchings (Dominion Astrophysical Observatory), Bruce Woodgate (GSFC/NASA), Mary Beth Kaiser (Johns Hopkins University), Steven Kraemer (Catholic University of America), and the STIS Team. Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  12. A Supergiant Supernova-Blown Bubble in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 1620

    E-print Network

    J. Patricia Vader; Brian Chaboyer

    1994-12-06

    We present UBR and H$\\alpha$ imaging of NGC 1620, a highly inclined spiral galaxy that contains a large scale, arc-like feature of radius 3 kpc in its outer disk at a distance of $\\sim$ 11 kpc from the center. What is unusual about this arc-like feature is its stellar nature and the presence of a luminous star cluster at its center. The arc is fragmented into HII region complexes and OB star clusters and shows two kinks in optical continuum light. It spans an angle of 220$^{\\circ}$ on our U image and a full, though fragmented, circle on an unsharp masked R image. It is centered on a young star cluster that is the most luminous clump in blue optical continuum light besides the nucleus of the galaxy. This central star cluster has UBR colors and a surface brightness similar to those of other HII regions, but is a relatively weak H$\\alpha$ emitter. It consists of at least three unresolved condensations in optical continuum light. Its location at the center of the arc and its prominence within the galaxy suggests that it has been the site of several generations of supernova explosions that swept up the surrounding gas into a supershell. When it attained a radius of $0.5-1$ kpc, this shell became gravitationally unstable and formed the stars which now delineate the arc. The constraints imposed by the survival of the expanding arc against random stellar motions and the age of the stars in the arc yield a required energy input by a minimum of 400 and a maximum of 6500 supernovae. In this scenario the asymmetry in surface brightness of the arc reflects the radial gradient of the gas density in the disk of NGC 1620, while the kinks reflect inhomogeneities in the original gas distribution with respect to the central star cluster. The supernova superbubble formed at least $5 \\times 10^7$ yr ago so that, unless

  13. Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole in the Galaxy NGC 1023 From The Nuclear Stellar Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Bender, R.; Gebhardt, K.; Lauer, T. R.; Magorrian, J.; Richstone, D. O.; Danks, A.; Gull, T.; Hutchings, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the nuclear stellar dynamics of the SBO galaxy NGC 1023, utilizing observational data both from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground. The stellar kinematics measured from these long-slit spectra show rapid rotation (V equals approx. 70 km/s at a distance of O.1 deg = 4.9 pc from the nucleus) and increasing velocity dispersion toward the nucleus (where sigma = 295 +/- 30 km/s). We model the observed stellar kinematics assuming an axisymmetric mass distribution with both two and three integrals of motion. Both modeling techniques point to the presence of a central dark compact mass (which presumably is a supermassive black hole) with confidence > 99%. The isotropic two-integral models yield a best-fitting black hole mass of (6.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and mass-to-light ratio (M/L(sub v)) of 5.38 +/- 0.08, and the goodness-of-fit (CHI(exp 2)) is insensitive to reasonable values for the galaxy's inclination. The three-integral models, which non-parametrically fit the observed line-of-sight velocity distribution as a function of position in the galaxy, suggest a black hole mass of (3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and M/L(sub v) of 5.56 +/- 0.02 (internal errors), and the edge-on models are vastly superior fits over models at other inclinations. The internal dynamics in NGC 1023 as suggested by our best-fit three-integral model shows that the velocity distribution function at the nucleus is tangentially anisotropic, suggesting the presence of a nuclear stellar disk. The nuclear line of sight velocity distribution has enhanced wings at velocities >= 600 km/s from systemic, suggesting that perhaps we have detected a group of stars very close to the central dark mass.

  14. Off-Nuclear Star Formation and Obscured Activity in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. S.; Vavilkin, T.; Pizagno, J.; Modica, F.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Iwasawa, K.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Armus, L.; Petric, A. O.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Barnes, J. E.; Suer, T. A.; Sanders, D. B.; Chan, B.; Lord, S.

    2008-03-01

    New optical Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer Space Telescope, and XMM observations of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 2623 are presented. This galaxy was observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). The prominent 3.2 kpc southern extension to the nucleus has been resolved by HST observations into ~100 star clusters, making it one of the richest off-nuclear concentrations of bright clusters observed in GOALS. The clusters have MF555W~-6.6 to -12.6 mag, which is within the magnitude range of Antennae galaxy clusters and in excess of 30 Doradus clusters at the high end. Their optical colors are primarily consistent with ages of ~1-100 Myr. Archival GALEX data show the off-nuclear region to be extremely bright in the far-ultraviolet, being equivalent in luminosity to the resolved nuclear region at 0.15 ?m, but becoming less energetically significant at increasing wavelengths. In addition, [Ne V] 14.3 ?m emission is detected with Spitzer IRS, confirming the inference from the X-ray and radio data that an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is present. Thus, the off-nuclear optical clusters are associated with a secondary burst of activity corresponding to a star formation rate ~0.1-0.2 Msolar yr-1; the bulk of infrared (and thus bolometric) luminosity is generated via star formation and an AGN embedded behind dust within the inner kiloparsec of the system. If the infrared luminosity is primarily reprocessed starlight, the off-nuclear starburst accounts for <1% of the present star formation in NGC 2623.

  15. GHOSTS IN THE ATTIC: MAPPING THE STELLAR CONTENT OF THE S0 GALAXY NGC 5102

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2010-02-15

    The spatial distribution of stars in the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 5102 is investigated using images obtained with WIRCam and MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. With the exception of gaps between detector elements, the entire galaxy is surveyed in r' and i', while the J and Ks data extend out to R {sub GC} {approx} 6 kpc, which corresponds to almost 7 disk scale lengths. A modest population of main-sequence stars with M{sub V} < -3.5 and ages {approx}70 Myr are detected throughout the disk, with the majority located in the southern half of the galaxy. The stellar disk in the northern half of the galaxy is warped, following structure that is also seen in H I. Objects with photometric properties that are consistent with those of bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are seen throughout the disk, and the ratio of C stars to bright M giants is consistent with an overall increase in the star formation rate within the past 1 Gyr. Star-forming activity during the interval 0.1-2 Gyr was more centrally concentrated than during the past {approx}100 Myr. The structure of the disk changes near R {sub GC} {approx} 5 kpc (5.5 disk scale lengths), in the sense that the radial surface density profile defined by red supergiants (RSGs) and bright AGB stars levels off at larger radii. RSGs and bright AGB stars are traced out to a radius of 14 kpc (15.6 scale lengths) along the southern portion of the major axis, while a tentative detection is also made of bright AGB stars at a projected distance of {approx}16 kpc along the southeast minor axis. A large clump of AGB stars that subtends {approx}1 arcmin is identified to the west of the galaxy center. It is argued that this is the remnant of a companion galaxy that triggered past episodes of elevated star-forming activity.

  16. The Cepheid distance to the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258: studying systematics with the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Gerke, J. R.; Macri, L. M.; Riess, A. G.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2015-07-01

    We identify and phase a sample of 81 Cepheids in the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258 using the Large Binocular Telescope, and obtain calibrated mean magnitudes in up to four filters for a subset of 43 Cepheids using archival Hubble Space Telescope data. We employ three models to study the systematic effects of extinction, the assumed extinction law, and metallicity on the Cepheid distance to NGC 4258. We find a correction to the Cepheid colours consistent with a greyer extinction law in NGC 4258 compared to the Milky Way (RV = 4.9_{-0.7}^{+0.9}), although we believe this is indicative of other systematic effects. If we combine our Cepheid sample with previously known Cepheids, we find a significant metallicity adjustment to the distance modulus of ?1 = -0.61 ± 0.21 mag dex-1 for the Zaritsky et al. metallicity scale, as well as a weak trend of Cepheid colours with metallicity. Conclusions about the absolute effect of metallicity on Cepheid mean magnitudes are limited by the available data on the metallicity gradient in NGC 4258, but our Cepheid data require at least some metallicity adjustment to make the Cepheid distance consistent with independent distances to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and NGC 4258. From our ensemble of models and the geometric maser distance of NGC 4258 (?N4258 = 29.40 ± 0.06 mag), we estimate ?LMC = 18.57 ± 0.14 mag (51.82 ± 3.23 kpc), including the uncertainties due to metallicity.

  17. Regrowth of stellar disks in mature galaxies: The two component nature of NGC 7217 revisited with VIRUS-W† ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Coccato, Lodovico; Bender, Ralf; Drory, Niv; Gössl, Claus; Landriau, Martin; Saglia, Roberto P.; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.

    2015-02-01

    We have obtained high spectral resolution (R ~ 9000), integral field observations of the three spiral galaxies NGC 3521, NGC 7217 and NGC 7331 using the new fiber-based Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W at the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Our data allow us to revisit previous claims of counter rotation in these objects. A detailed kinematic decomposition of NGC 7217 shows that no counter rotating stellar component is present. We find that NGC 7217 hosts a low dispersion, rotating disk that is embedded in a high velocity dispersion stellar halo or bulge that is co-rotating with the disk. Due to the very different velocity dispersions (~ 20 km s-1 vs. 150 km s-1) , we are further able to perform a Lick index analysis on both components separately which indicates that the two stellar populations are clearly separated in (Mgb,) space. The velocities and dispersions of the faster component are very similar to those of the interstellar gas as measured from the [O iii] emission. Morphological evidence of active star formation in this component further suggests that NGC 7217 may be in the process of (re)growing a disk inside a more massive and higher dispersion stellar halo.

  18. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 4342, AN OPTICALLY FAINT, X-RAY GAS-RICH EARLY-TYPE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine; Randall, Scott W.; Li Zhiyuan; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Blom, Christina; Zhang Zhongli; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-08-10

    Chandra x-ray observations of NGC 4342, a low-stellar mass (M{sub K} = -22.79 mag) early-type galaxy, show luminous, diffuse x-ray emission originating from hot gas with temperature of kT {approx} 0.6 keV. The observed 0.5-2 keV band luminosity of the diffuse x-ray emission within the D{sub 25} ellipse is L{sub 0.5-2keV} = 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. The hot gas has a significantly broader distribution than the stellar light, and shows strong hydrodynamic disturbances with a sharp surface brightness edge to the northeast and a trailing tail. We identify the edge as a cold front and conclude that the distorted morphology of the hot gas is produced by ram pressure as NGC 4342 moves through external gas. From the thermal pressure ratios inside and outside the cold front, we estimate the velocity of NGC 4342 and find that it moves supersonically (M {approx} 2.6) toward the northeast. Outside the optical extent of the galaxy, we detect {approx}17 bright (L{sub 0.5-8keV} > or approx. 3 x 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) excess x-ray point sources. The excess sources are presumably LMXBs located in metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) in the extended dark matter halo of NGC 4342. Based on the number of excess sources and the average frequency of bright LMXBs in GCs, we estimate that NGC 4342 may host roughly 850-1700 GCs. In good agreement with this, optical observations hint that NGC 4342 may harbor 1200 {+-} 500 GCs. This number corresponds to a GC specific frequency of S{sub N} = 19.9 {+-} 8.3, which is among the largest values observed in full-size galaxies.

  19. The 'sleeping beauty' galaxy NGC 4826: an almost textbook example of the Abelian Higgs vorto-source (-sink)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniga, Metod

    1995-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the kinematic 'peculiarity' of the early Sab galaxy NGC 4826 can easily be understood in terms of the Abelian Higgs (AH) model of spiral galaxies. A cylindrically symmetric AH vorto-source (-sink) with a disk-to-bulge ratio Omega greater than 1 is discussed and the distributions of the diagonal components of the corresponding stress-energy tensor Tmu,nu are presented. It is argued that the sign-changing component Tphiphi could account for the existence of two counter-rotating gas disks while negative values of Trr imply inward gas motions as observed in the outer and transition regions of the galaxy.

  20. STAR FORMATION AND DUST OBSCURATION IN THE TIDALLY DISTORTED GALAXY NGC 2442

    SciTech Connect

    Pancoast, Anna; Sajina, Anna; Lacy, Mark; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rho, Jeonghee

    2010-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the morphological distribution and level of star formation and dust obscuration in the nearby tidally distorted galaxy NGC 2442. Spitzer images in the IR at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 {mu}m and GALEX images at 1500 A and 2300 A allow us to resolve the galaxy on scales between {approx}240 and 600 pc. We supplement these with archival data in the B, J, H, and K bands. We use the 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, and FUV (1500 A) emission to study the star formation rate (SFR). We find that, globally, these tracers of star formation give a range of results of {approx}6-11 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with the dust-corrected FUV giving the highest value of SFR. We can reconcile the UV- and IR-based estimates by adopting a steeper UV extinction curve that lies in between the starburst (Calzetti) and Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curves. However, the regions of the highest SFR intensity along the spiral arms are consistent with a starburst-like extinction. Overall, the level of star formation we find is higher than previously published for this galaxy, by about a factor of 2, which, contrary to previous conclusions, implies that the interaction that caused the distorted morphology of NGC 2442 likely also triggered increased levels of star formation activity. We also find marked asymmetry in that the north spiral arm has a noticeably higher SFR than the southern arm. The tip of the southern spiral arm shows a likely tidally distorted peculiar morphology. It is UV bright and shows unusual IRAC colors, consistent with other published tidal features IRAC data. Outside of the spiral arms, we discover what appears to be a superbubble, {approx}1.7 kpc across, which is seen most clearly in the IRAC images. Significant H{alpha}, UV, and IR emission in the area also suggest vigorous ongoing star formation. A known, recent supernova (SN 1999ga) is located at the edge of this superbubble. Although speculative at this stage, this area suggests a large star-forming region with a morphology shaped by generations of supernovae. Lastly, we discover an 8 {mu}m (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) circumnuclear ring with an {approx}0.8 kpc radius. The H{alpha} emission is largely concentrated inside that ring and shows a vague spiral structure in the rest of the galaxy. The nuclear region shows the highest obscuration levels in the galaxy (A{sub 1600} {approx} 3-4) most likely due to the circumnuclear dust ring.

  1. HST Observations and Photoionization Modeling of the LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    J. R. Gabel; F. C. Bruhweiler; D. M. Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer; C. L. Miskey

    2000-01-19

    We present a study of available Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectroscopic and imaging observations of the low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. The WFPC2 imagery clearly differentiates extended nebular Halpha emission from that of the compact core. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) observations provide a full set of optical and UV data (1200-6800 Angstroms). These spectral data sample the innermost region (0."86 x 0."86 ~ 82pc x 82pc) and exclude the extended Halpha emission seen in the WFPC2 image. The derived emission line fluxes allow a detailed analysis of the physical conditions within the nucleus. The measured flux ratio for Halpha/Hbeta, F{Halpha}/F{Hbeta}=4.53, indicates substantial intrinsic reddening, E(B-V)=0.42, for the nuclear nebular emission. This is the first finding of a large extinction of the nuclear emission line fluxes in NGC 1052. If the central ionizing continuum is assumed to be attenuated by a comparable amount, then the emission line fluxes can be reproduced well by a simple photoionization model using a central power law continuum source with a spectral index of alpha = -1.2 as deduced from the observed flux distribution. A multi-density, dusty gas gives the best fit to the observed emission line spectrum. Our calculations show that the small contribution from a highly ionized gas observed in NGC 1052 can also be reproduced solely by photoionization modeling. The high gas covering factor determined from our model is consistent with the assumption that our line of sight to the central engine is obscured.

  2. Environmental dependence of star formation induced by cloud collisions in a barred galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yusuke; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao

    2014-11-01

    Cloud collision has been proposed as a way to link the small-scale star formation process with the observed global relation between the surface star formation rate and gas surface density. We suggest that this model can be improved further by allowing the productivity of such collisions to depend on the relative velocity of the two clouds. Our adjustment implements a simple step function that results in the most successful collisions being at the observed velocities for triggered star formation. By applying this to a high-resolution simulation of a barred galaxy, we successfully reproduce the observational result that the star formation efficiency (SFE) in the bar is lower than that in the spiral arms. This is not possible when we use an efficiency dependent on the internal turbulence properties of the clouds. Our results suggest that high-velocity collisions driven by the gravitational pull of the clouds are responsible for the low bar SFE.

  3. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253: I. Point sources in the bulge, disk and halo

    E-print Network

    A. Vogler; W. Pietsch

    1998-11-04

    We report the results of a deep spatial, spectral, and timing analysis of ROSAT HRI and PSPC observations of the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 253. In this first paper, point-like X-ray sources detected within the galaxy and in the field are discussed. In total, 73 X-ray sources have been collected in the NGC 253 field, 32 of which are associated with the disk of the galaxy. Though 27 of these disk sources are detected with the HRI (some being resolvable with the PSPC), the remaining 5 PSPC-only detected sources are likely not to be real point sources, being instead due to fluctuations within the X-ray structure of the disk. The source close to the center of the galaxy is extended (L_x = 1e39 erg/s in the ROSAT 0.1-2.4 keV band), and is most likely associated with the nuclear starburst activity. The remaining sources have luminosities ranging from 7e36 erg/s to 3e38 erg/s, yielding an integrated point source luminosity of 1e39 erg/s. The halo of NGC 253 is filled with diffuse, filamentary X-ray emission. Seven sources are located (or projected) in this diffuse emission region. Time variability arguments, together with optical identifications, are put forward to explain 4 sources as background objects, the other 3 sources likely being spurious detections caused by local enhancements in the diffuse emission of the halo of NGC 253. The diffuse X-ray emission components of NGC 253 will be discussed in a separate paper.

  4. A dwarf galaxy's transformation and a massive galaxy's edge: detailed modeling of the extended stream in NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano Amorisco, Nicola; Martinez-Delgado, David

    2015-08-01

    Low surface brightness tidal features around massive galaxies are the smoking gun of hierarchical galaxy formation. These debris are informative of: (i) the evolutionary struggles of the progenitor dwarf galaxies, transformed and partially destroyed by the tides; (ii) the formation history of the massive host, its halo populations and the structure of its dark matter halo. However, extracting reliable measurements of the progenitor’s initial mass, infall time, host halo mass and density profile has so far been difficult, as the parameter space is too wide to explore with N-body simulations.We use new deep imaging data of the extended, X shaped stream in NGC1097 [1,2] and a new dynamical technique to quantitatively reconstruct: (i) the density profile of the massive spiral host (inferred virial mass M200=1012.25±0.1 M?) ; and (ii) the dramatic evolution of the progenitor galaxy; by modeling its stream within a fully statistical framework. I will show that the current location of the remnant coincides with a nucleated dwarf Spheroidal, with a luminosity of ~3.3x106LV,? [3], and a predicted total mass of M(<0.45±0.2 kpc)=107.8±0.6 M?. This is the result of a strong transformation: at its first interaction with the host, 4.4±0.4 Gyr and three pericentric passages ago, the progenitor was over two orders of magnitude more massive, with Mtot(3.2±0.7 kpc)=1010.4±0.2 M?. Its orbit has a pericenter of a few kpc, but reaches out to 150±12 kpc. In this range the stream’s morphology allows us to see the total density slope of the host bending and steepening towards large radii. For the first time in a single galaxy (rather than on stacked data), both central and outer slope are constrained by observations and can be compared to LCDM expectations [4]. Finally, I will discuss prospects of applying this technique to more known streams, to map the structure of a wider sample of galaxy haloes and unveil the evolutionary histories of more individual dwarf galaxies.Refs.[1] Arp, 1976, ApJ, 207[2] Higdon & Wallin, 2003, ApJ, 585[3] Galianni et al., 2010, A&A, 521[4] Diemer & Kravtsov, 2014, ApJ, 789

  5. 2-D stationary gas dynamics in a barred galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    A code for solving the 2-D isothermal Euler equations of gas dynamics in a rotating disc is presented. The gravitational potential represents a weak bar and controls the flow. A damped Newton method solves the second-order upwind discretisation of the equations for a steady-state solution, using a consistent linearisation and a direct solver. Successive grid refinement, starting from a finite-volume grid with 8 by 8 cells, is applied to find solutions on subsequently finer meshes. On coarser meshes, a first-order spatial discretisation is used. The method obtains quadratic convergence once the solution approaches the steady state. The initial search is quick with the first-order scheme and slower with the second-order discretisation, up to 256 by 256 cells. Beyond, with 512 by 512 cells, the number of iterations becomes too large to be of practical use. Potential causes are discussed. The code can be applied as a tool for generating flow models if used on not too fine meshes.

  6. Spitzer and JCMT Observations of the Active Galactic Nucleus in the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594)

    E-print Network

    G. J. Bendo; B. A. Buckalew; D. A. Dale; B. T. Draine; R. D. Joseph; R. C. Kennicutt, Jr.; K. Sheth; J. -D. T. Smith; F. Walter; D. Calzetti; J. M. Cannon; C. W. Engelbracht; K. D. Gordon; G. Helou; D. Hollenbach; E. J. Murphy; H. Roussel

    2006-03-07

    We present Spitzer 3.6-160 micron images, Spitzer mid-infrared spectra, and JCMT SCUBA 850 micron images of the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594), an Sa galaxy with a 10^9 M_solar low luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). The brightest infrared sources in the galaxy are the nucleus and the dust ring. The spectral energy distribution of the AGN demonstrates that, while the environment around the AGN is a prominent source of mid-infrared emission, it is a relatively weak source of far-infrared emission, as had been inferred for AGN in previous research. The weak nuclear 160 micron emission and the negligible polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from the nucleus also implies that the nucleus is a site of only weak star formation activity and the nucleus contains relatively little cool interstellar gas needed to fuel such activity. We propose that this galaxy may be representative of a subset of low ionization nuclear emission region galaxies that are in a quiescent AGN phase because of the lack of gas needed to fuel circumnuclear star formation and Seyfert-like AGN activity. Surprisingly, the AGN is the predominant source of 850 micron emission. We examine the possible emission mechanisms that could give rise to the 850 micron emission and find that neither thermal dust emission, CO line emission, bremsstrahlung emission, nor the synchrotron emission observed at radio wavelengths can adequately explain the measured 850 micron flux density by themselves. The remaining possibilities for the source of the 850 micron emission include a combination of known emission mechanisms, synchrotron emission that is self-absorbed at wavelengths longer than 850 microns, or unidentified spectral lines in the 850 micron band.

  7. X-Ray Emission from the Prototypical LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Henkel, C.; Braatz, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    We examine the 0.1-10.0 keV X-ray spectrum of the bright nuclear LINER galaxy NGC 1052, one of two elliptical galaxies known to contain a luminous H2O maser. The observed 2.0-10.0 keV spectrum is unusually flat (photon index ?~0.2) and is best described as intrinsically power-law shaped nuclear flux that is either (1) attenuated by a complex absorber with ~70% of the nuclear flux absorbed by a column density of NH~3×1023 cm-2 and ~30% absorbed by a column density of NH~3-5×1022 cm-2 or (2) reprocessed, with the nuclear source blocked and the X-rays Compton reflected in our direction by high column density (>=1024 cm-2) gas. The moderate equivalent width of the Fe K? line favors the dual absorption model as the most likely scenario. The 0.1-2.0 keV spectrum does not resemble the few times 106-107 K thermal emission typically found in other elliptical galaxies, but instead is best described as nuclear X-rays leaking through a patchy absorber or scattered in our direction by low-density, ionized gas plus a 15%-20% contribution from a thermal component, which is most likely due to the galaxy. The absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of the nuclear source is LX~8×1041 ergs s-1 or LX~2×1043 ergs s-1 for the dual-absorption and Compton-reflection models, respectively. The absorbing and H2O masing gases appear to be spatially separate in this galaxy.

  8. Spiral- and bar-driven peculiar velocities in Milky Way-sized galaxy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Bovy, Jo; Kawata, Daisuke; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Famaey, Benoit; Siebert, Arnaud; Monari, Giacomo; Cropper, Mark

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the kinematic signatures induced by spiral and bar structure in a set of simulations of Milky Way-sized spiral disc galaxies. The set includes test particle simulations that follow a quasi-stationary density wave-like scenario with rigidly rotating spiral arms, and N-body simulations that host a bar and transient, corotating spiral arms. From a location similar to that of the Sun, we calculate the radial, tangential and line-of-sight peculiar velocity fields of a patch of the disc and quantify the fluctuations by computing the power spectrum from a two-dimensional Fourier transform. We find that the peculiar velocity power spectrum of the simulation with a bar and transient, corotating spiral arms fits very well to that of APOGEE red clump star data, while the quasi-stationary density wave spiral model without a bar does not. We determine that the power spectrum is sensitive to the number of spiral arms, spiral arm pitch angle and position with respect to the spiral arm. However, it is necessary to go beyond the line-of-sight velocity field in order to distinguish fully between the various spiral models with this method. We compute the power spectrum for different regions of the spiral discs, and discuss the application of this analysis technique to external galaxies.

  9. The detection of supergalactic winds: The edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, V.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Recillas, E.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    We are studying a sample of spiral galaxies which host nuclear starbursts. Our aim is first to detect supergalactic winds (SGWs) and second to establish the conditions needed for the onset of the supergalactic wind phase. In this contribution we present preliminary work on the galaxy NGC 4631. We analyze Fabry--Perot observations (TAURUS) taken at the 4.2~m William Herschel Telescope Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM). Data have been complemented with long slit spectroscopy (ISIS) taken from the La Palm a (ORM) data archive. Recently X-ray observations from Chandra have evidenced the escaping of hot gas from the disk into the halo. We identify possible SGW features on both sides of the disk. Emission lines are split revealing outflows and blow-out into the galactic halo. More detailed analysis has been undertaken in order to decide wether or not the galaxy has an SGW. Typical sizes of split lines areas range from 55~pc (a bubble feature) to 142.5~pc, the largest extent. Velocities of split lines range from 40 km/s to 85 km/s.

  10. An XMM-Newton Observation of the Massive Edge-on Sb Galaxy NGC 2613

    E-print Network

    Li, Z; Irwin, J A; Chaves, T; Li, Zhiyuan; Irwin, Judith A.; Chaves, Tara

    2006-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton observation of the massive edge-on Sb galaxy NGC 2613. We discover that this galaxy contains a deeply embedded active nucleus with a 0.3-10 keV luminosity of 3.3x10^40 erg/s and a line-of-sight absorption column of 1.2x10^23 cm^-2. Within the 25 mag/arcsec^2 optical B-band isophote of the galaxy, we detect an additional 4 sources with an accumulated luminosity of 4.3x10^39 erg/s. The bulk of the unresolved X-ray emission spatially follows the near-infrared (NIR) K-band surface brightness distribution; the luminosity ratio L_X/L_K ~ 8x10^-4 is consistent with that inferred from galactic discrete sources. This X-ray-NIR association and the compatibility of the X-ray spectral fit with the expected spectrum of a population of discrete sources suggest that low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are the most likely emitters of the unresolved emission in the disk region. The remaining unresolved emission is primarily due to extraplanar hot gas. The luminosity of this gas is at least a factor of 10 ...

  11. Neutral Hydrogen Observations of the Amorphous Galaxy NGC 4670 at Moderate Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; van Woerden, Hugo; Gallagher, John S., III

    1996-12-01

    We present a moderate resolution H I map of the amorphous galaxy NGC 4670. Our previous lower resolution data had shown a symmetric H I distribution centered on the single supergiant H II region and highly concentrated to the center of the galaxy. We now resolve the central H I distribution into three clouds, with the eastern cloud located on the central H II region and 1.1 kpc from the westernmost cloud. Masses of the clouds are of order 108 Msun and are associated with the intense central star formation that has produced a luminous, compact star cluster. The central gas surface density is very high at the new resolution, and the surface density drops off rapidly with radius. We determine a rotation curve for the galaxy; however, the low and uncertain value of the inclination (i ˜28°) and the possible presence of a warp make the derived rotation speed (VR ˜110 km s-1) quite uncertain. There is some correspondence between features in the H I distribution and locations of H? loops and filaments that emanate from the central H II region.

  12. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star-forming Galaxy NGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Aloisi, A.; Bright, S. N.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Ryon, J. E.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Wofford, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star-forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (? 100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy using a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent ?. We recover a weighted mean index of ? ˜ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3.?3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of ? ˜ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The strength of the clustering increases with decreasing age and clusters older than 40 Myr lose their clustered structure very rapidly and tend to be randomly distributed in this galaxy, whereas the mass of the star cluster has little effect on the clustering strength. This is consistent with results from other studies that the morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering resembles the same hierarchy as the turbulent interstellar medium.

  13. Warm Dust and Spatially Variable PAH Emission in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 1705

    E-print Network

    Cannon, J M; Bendo, G J; Buckalew, B A; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Li, A; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D T; Thornley, M D; Walter, F; Armus, Lee; Bendo, George J.; Buckalew, Brent A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cannon, John M.; Dale, Daniel A.; Draine, Bruce T.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl D.; Helou, George; Hollenbach, David J.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Leitherer, Claus; Li, Aigen; Meyer, Martin J.; Murphy, Eric J.; Regan, Michael W.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Roussel, Helene; Sheth, Kartik; Smith, John-David T.; Thornley, Michele D.; Walter, Fabian

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1705 obtained as part of SINGS. The galaxy morphology is very different shortward and longward of ~5 microns: short-wavelength imaging shows an underlying red stellar population, with the central super star cluster (SSC) dominating the luminosity; longer-wavelength data reveals warm dust emission arising from two off-nuclear regions offset by ~250 pc from the SSC. These regions show little extinction at optical wavelengths. The galaxy has a relatively low global dust mass (~2E5 solar masses, implying a global dust-to-gas mass ratio ~2--4 times lower than the Milky Way average). The off-nuclear dust emission appears to be powered by photons from the same stellar population responsible for the excitation of the observed H Alpha emission; these photons are unassociated with the SSC (though a contribution from embedded sources to the IR luminosity of the off-nuclear regions cannot be ruled out). Low-resolution IRS spectroscopy shows moderate-streng...

  14. HALOGAS: H I Observations and Modeling of the Nearby Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 4244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Rand, Richard J.; Heald, George H.; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kamphuis, Peter

    2011-10-01

    We present 21 cm observations and models of the H I kinematics and distribution of NGC 4244, a nearby edge-on Scd galaxy observed as part of the Westerbork HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS) survey. Our models give insight into the H I kinematics and distribution with an emphasis on the potential existence of extraplanar gas as well as a negative gradient in rotational velocity with height above the plane of the disk (a lag). Our models yield strong evidence against a significantly extended halo and instead favor a warp component along the line of sight as an explanation for most of the observed thickening of the disk. Based on these models, we detect a lag of -9+3 - 2 km s-1 kpc-1 in the approaching half and -9 ± 2 km s-1 kpc-1 in the receding half. This lag decreases in magnitude to -5 ± 2 km s-1 kpc-1 and -4 ± 2 km s-1 kpc-1 near a radius of 10 kpc in the approaching and receding halves, respectively. Additionally, we detect several distinct morphological and kinematic features including a shell that is probably driven by star formation within the disk.

  15. A distance to the galaxy NGC4258 from observations of Cepheid variable stars.

    PubMed

    Maoz, E; Newman, J A; Ferrarese, L; Stetson, P B; Zepf, S E; Davis, M; Freedman, W L; Madore, B F

    1999-09-23

    Cepheid variable stars pulsate in a way that is correlated with their intrinsic luminosity, making them useful as 'standard candles' for determining distances to galaxies; the potential systematic uncertainties in the resulting distances have been estimated to be only 8-10%. They have played a crucial role in establishing the extragalactic distance scale and hence the value of the Hubble constant. Here we report observations of Cepheids in the nearby galaxy NGC4258; the distance calculated from the Cepheids is 8.1 +/- 0.4 Mpc, where the uncertainty does not include possible systematic errors. There is an independently determined geometric distance to this galaxy of 7.2 +/- 0.5 Mpc, based on the observed proper motions of water masers orbiting the central black hole; the distances differ by 1.3sigma. If the maser-based distance is adopted and the Cepheid distance scale revised accordingly, the derived value of the Hubble constant would increase by 12 +/- 9%, while the expansion age of the Universe would decrease by the same amount. PMID:16862105

  16. NGC 4051 and the Nature of Narrow-Line Seyfert I Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. M.; McHardy, I. M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the results of a three-year program of coordinated X-ray and optical monitoring of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. The principal results of this program are: (1) The H-beta emission line time lag and Doppler width yield a virial mass estimate of about 1.1 mission solar masses, at the extreme low end of AGN masses. A plausible adjustment for inclination effects increases this mass slightly to about 1.4 mission solar masses. (2) During the third year of this campaign, both the X-ray continuum and the He II 4686 line went into extremely low states, although the optical continuum and the H-beta broad line were both still present and variable. We suggest that the inner part of the accretion disk may have gone into an advection-dominated state, yielding little radiation from the hotter inner disk. (3) The He II 4686 line is almost five times as broad as H-beta, and it is strongly blueward asymmetric, as are the high-ionization UV lines recorded in archive spectra of NGC 4051. The data are consistent with the Balmer lines arising in a low-inclination disk-like configuration, and the high-ionization lines arising in an outflowing wind, of which we observe preferentially the near side.

  17. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies. III. NGC 4038/39 and NGC 5584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2015-07-01

    We present the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distances to Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) host galaxies NGC 4038/39 and NGC 5584. Based on the deep images constructed using archival Hubble Space Telescope data, we detect red giant branch stars in each galaxy. VI photometry of the resolved stars and corresponding I-band luminosity functions show the TRGB to be at {I}{TRGB}=27.67+/- 0.05 for NGC 4038/39 and {I}{TRGB}=27.77+/- 0.04 for NGC 5584. From these estimates, we determine the distance modulus to NGC 4038/39 to be {(m-M)}0=31.67+/- 0.05 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 21.58+/- 0.50+/- 1.19 Mpc) and the distance modulus to NGC 5584 to be {(m-M)}0=31.76+/- 0.04 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 22.49+/- 0.41+/- 1.24 Mpc). We derive a mean absolute maximum magnitude of SNe Ia of {M}V=-19.27+/- 0.08 from the distance estimates of five SNe Ia (including two SNe in this study and three SNe Ia from our previous studies), and we derive a value of {M}V=-19.19+/- 0.10 using three low-reddened SNe Ia among the five SNe Ia. With these estimates, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, {H}0=69.8+/- 2.6 (random) ± 3.9 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1 and 72.2 ± 3.3 (random) ± 4.0(systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1, respectively. The value from the five SNe is similar to those from the cosmic microwave background analysis, and not much different within errors, from those of recent Cepheid calibrations of SNe Ia. The value from the three SNe is between the values from the two methods.

  18. A Starburst in the Core of a Galaxy Cluster: the Dwarf Irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Marcelo D.; Chanamé, Julio; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2015-09-01

    Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling toward the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster for the first time, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes at a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts, when galaxy-scale interactions were more common. Using the spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and auxiliary Very Large Telescope/FORS1 ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ? 4× {10}6 years and stellar masses from a few 1000 up to ? 3× {10}4{M}? , slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and initial mass function. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep H? imaging data to determine the current star formation rate in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, ?, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find ? to be among the largest such values available in the literature, consistent with starburst galaxies. Thus a large fraction of the current star formation in NGC 1427A is occurring in star clusters, with the peculiar spatial arrangement of such complexes strongly hinting at the possibility that the starburst is being triggered by the passage of the galaxy through the cluster environment. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 70.B-0695.

  19. Peanuts at an Angle: Detecting and Measuring the Three-Dimensional Structure of Bars in Moderately Inclined Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Erwin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We show that direct detection and measurement of the vertically thickened parts of bars (so-called "boxy" or "peanut-shaped" bulges) is possible not only for edge-on galaxies but also for galaxies with moderate inclinations (i peanut can usually be detected for inclinations as low as i ~ 40 deg -- and in exceptional cases down to i ~ 30 deg. In agreement with the predictions from N-body simulations, the signature is most easily detectable when the bar's position angle is within ~ 50 deg of the galaxy major axis; in particular, galaxies where the bar lies very close to the minor axis do not show the signature clearly or at all. For galaxies with i = 40--65 deg and relative angles peanut struc...

  20. Search for Obscured Nucleus in a Luminous IRAS Galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen

    1999-01-01

    IRAS discovered very luminous objects which emit the vast majority of their radiation in the infrared wavelength. The energy source of such a tremendous amount of emission is not understood. Starburst and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to be the origin of their power. X-ray observations are expected to be able to reveal the characteristics of the AGN component. However, some are very X-ray quiet, because the AGN is thought to be obscured by a large column density. In order to determine the primary luminosity of the nucleus, we need an X-ray observation with a wide energy band at least up to several tens of keV. We propose to observe NGC 6240, one of the luminous IRAS galaxies, to investigate the characteristics of its AGN, which must be obscured by large column density.

  1. Looking inside the nest: the hidden structure of the merger galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletsky, Y.; Gadotti, D. A.; Moiseev, A.; Alves, J.; Kniazev, A.

    2011-11-01

    We present an analysis of the circumnuclear structure of NGC 1316 using both near-infrared imaging and stellar kinematics. 2D decomposition of the images suggests the presence of a structure that resembles inner gaseous spiral arms, at about 5-15 arcsec from the centre (?500 to 1500 pc). We also find a disc-like stellar structure with radius less than 200 pc. Analysis of previously published SINFONI integral field kinematics data indicates a kinematically decoupled core in the same spatial scale, further evidence that indeed the nuclear stellar structure found is a kinematically cold stellar disc. We suggest that both newly found structural components are the result of a recent accretion of a companion galaxy.

  2. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Meng; Huang Song; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2013-08-10

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (M{sub I} Almost-Equal-To -18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of {approx}90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies.

  3. Near-infrared polarimetry of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J. D.; Clemens, D. P. E-mail: clemens@bu.edu

    2014-05-01

    The edge-on galaxy NGC 891 was probed using near-infrared (NIR) imaging polarimetry in the H band (1.6 ?m) with the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins Telescope. Polarization was detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three out to a surface brightness of 18.8 mag arcsec{sup –2}. The unweighted average and dispersion in polarization percentage (P) across the full disk were 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively, and the same quantities for polarization position angle (P.A.) were 12° and 19°, respectively. At least one polarization null point, where P falls nearly to zero, was detected in the northeast disk but not the southwest disk. Several other asymmetries in P between the northern and southern disk were found and may be related to spiral structure. Profiles of P and P.A. along the minor axis of NGC 891 suggest a transition from magnetic (B) field tracing dichroic polarization near the disk mid-plane to scattering dominated polarization off the disk mid-plane. A comparison between NIR P.A. and radio (3.6 cm) synchrotron polarization P.A. values revealed similar B-field orientations in the central-northeast region, which suggests that the hot plasma and cold, star-forming interstellar medium may share a common B-field. Disk-perpendicular polarizations previously seen at optical wavelengths are likely caused by scattered light from the bright galaxy center and are unlikely to be tracing poloidal B-fields in the outer disk.

  4. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4649 (M 60): KINEMATICS AND DISTANCE REDETERMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, A. M.; Mendez, R. H.; Bernardi, F.; Thomas, J.; Das, P.; Gerhard, O. E-mail: mendez@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2011-07-20

    Using a slitless spectroscopy method with (1) the 8.2 m Subaru telescope and its FOCAS Cassegrain spectrograph and (2) the ESO Very Large Telescope unit 1 (Antu) and its FORS2 Cassegrain spectrograph, we have detected 326 planetary nebulae (PNs) in the giant Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M 60) and measured their radial velocities. After rejecting some PNs more likely to belong to the companion galaxy NGC 4647, we have built a catalog with kinematic information for 298 PNs in M 60. Using these radial velocities, we have concluded that they support the presence of a dark matter halo around M 60. Based on an isotropic, two-component Hernquist model, we estimate the dark matter halo mass within 3R{sub e} to be 4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, which is almost one-half of the total mass of about 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} within 3R{sub e}. This total mass is similar to that estimated from globular cluster, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations. The dark matter becomes dominant outside. More detailed dynamical modeling of the PN data is being published in a companion paper. We have also measured the m(5007) magnitudes of many of these PNs and built a statistically complete sample of 218 PNs. The resulting PN luminosity function (PNLF) was used to estimate a distance modulus of 30.7 {+-} 0.2 mag, equivalent to 14 {+-} 1 Mpc. This confirms an earlier PNLF distance measurement based on a much smaller sample. The PNLF distance modulus remains smaller than the surface brightness fluctuation distance modulus by 0.4 mag.

  5. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind.

    PubMed

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Warren, Steven R; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ostriker, Eve C; Ott, Jürgen; Zwaan, Martin; Fisher, David B; Weiss, Axel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2013-07-25

    The under-abundance of very massive galaxies in the Universe is frequently attributed to the effect of galactic winds. Although ionized galactic winds are readily observable, most of the expelled mass (that is, the total mass flowing out from the nuclear region) is likely to be in atomic and molecular phases that are cooler than the ionized phases. Expanding molecular shells observed in starburst systems such as NGC 253 (ref. 12) and M 82 (refs 13, 14) may facilitate the entrainment of molecular gas in the wind. Although shell properties are well constrained, determining the amount of outflowing gas emerging from such shells and the connection between this gas and the ionized wind requires spatial resolution better than 100?parsecs coupled with sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales, a combination hitherto not available. Here we report observations of NGC 253, a nearby starburst galaxy (distance ??3.4 megaparsecs) known to possess a wind, that trace the cool molecular wind at 50-parsec resolution. At this resolution, the extraplanar molecular gas closely tracks the H? filaments, and it appears to be connected to expanding molecular shells located in the starburst region. These observations allow us to determine that the molecular outflow rate is greater than 3 solar masses per year and probably about 9 solar masses per year. This implies a ratio of mass-outflow rate to star-formation rate of at least 1, and probably ?3, indicating that the starburst-driven wind limits the star-formation activity and the final stellar content. PMID:23887428

  6. Interplay Between Chaotic and Regular Motion in a Time-Dependent Barred Galaxy Model

    E-print Network

    T. Manos; T. Bountis; Ch. Skokos

    2012-12-12

    We study the distinction and quantification of chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent Hamiltonian barred galaxy model. Recently, a strong correlation was found between the strength of the bar and the presence of chaotic motion in this system, as models with relatively strong bars were shown to exhibit stronger chaotic behavior compared to those having a weaker bar component. Here, we attempt to further explore this connection by studying the interplay between chaotic and regular behavior of star orbits when the parameters of the model evolve in time. This happens for example when one introduces linear time dependence in the mass parameters of the model to mimic, in some general sense, the effect of self-consistent interactions of the actual N-body problem. We thus observe, in this simple time-dependent model also, that the increase of the bar's mass leads to an increase of the system's chaoticity. We propose a new way of using the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI) method as a reliable criterion to estimate the relative fraction of chaotic vs. regular orbits in such time-dependent potentials, which proves to be much more efficient than the computation of Lyapunov exponents. In particular, GALI is able to capture subtle changes in the nature of an orbit (or ensemble of orbits) even for relatively small time intervals, which makes it ideal for detecting dynamical transitions in time-dependent systems.

  7. Contemporaneous observations of the radio galaxy NGC 1275 from radio to very high energy ?-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksi?, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi?, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Suri?, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Terzi?, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Balmaverde, B.; Kataoka, J.; Rekola, R.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: The radio galaxy NGC 1275, recently identified as a very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) ?-ray emitter by MAGIC, is one of the few non-blazar active galactic nuclei detected in the VHE regime. The purpose of this work is to better understand the origin of the ?-ray emission and locate it within the galaxy. Methods: We studied contemporaneous multifrequency observations of NGC 1275 and modeled the overall spectral energy distribution. We analyzed unpublished MAGIC observations carried out between October 2009 and February 2010, and the previously published observations taken between August 2010 and February 2011. We studied the multiband variability and correlations by analyzing data of Fermi-LAT in the 100 MeV-100 GeV energy band, as well as Chandra (X-ray), KVA (optical), and MOJAVE (radio) data taken during the same period. Results: Using customized Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to early MAGIC stereoscopic data, we detect NGC 1275 also in the earlier MAGIC campaign. The flux level and energy spectra are similar to the results of the second campaign. The monthly light curve above 100 GeV shows a hint of variability at the 3.6? level. In the Fermi-LAT band, both flux and spectral shape variabilities are reported. The optical light curve is also variable and shows a clear correlation with the ?-ray flux above 100 MeV. In radio, three compact components are resolved in the innermost part of the jet. One of these components shows a similar trend as the Fermi-LAT and KVA light curves. The ?-ray spectra measured simultaneously with MAGIC and Fermi-LAT from 100 MeV to 650 GeV can be well fitted either by a log-parabola or by a power-law with a subexponential cutoff for the two observation campaigns. A single-zone synchrotron-self-Compton model, with an electron spectrum following a power-law with an exponential cutoff, can explain the broadband spectral energy distribution and the multifrequency behavior of the source. However, this model suggests an untypical low bulk-Lorentz factor or a velocity alignment closer to the line of sight than the parsec-scale radio jet.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Barred & unbarred galaxies N, O abundance ratio (Florido+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido E., Zurita A., Perez I., Perez-Montero E., Coelho P.R.T., Gadotti D.A.

    2015-11-01

    The tables contain nebular emission line fluxes for the central region of 251 barred and 324 unbarred galaxies. The sample contains all spiral face-on galaxies (axial ratio b/a>=0.9) in the SDSS DR-2, with stellar masses larger than 1010 the solar mass, redshift 0.02galaxy sample. (2 data files).

  9. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54 kpc from its center—corresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ? –0.5 to –0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < –0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ?54 kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ? –1.3 and with total mass 2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} ? 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC 3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC 3115 of 30.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 ± 0.2 ± 0.5{sub sys} Mpc)

  10. X-ray Emission from the Prototypical LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    K. A. Weaver; A. S. Wilson; C. Henkel; J. A. Braatz

    1999-02-18

    We examine the 0.1 to 10.0 keV X-ray spectrum of the bright nuclear LINER galaxy NGC 1052, one of two elliptical galaxies known to contain a luminous H2O maser. The observed 2.0-10.0 keV spectrum is unusually flat (photon index Gamma~0.2) and best described as intrinsically power-law shaped nuclear flux that is either (1) attenuated by a complex absorber with ~70% of the nuclear flux absorbed by a column density of NH ~ 3x10^23 cm^{-2} and ~30% absorbed by a column density of NH ~ 3-5x10^{22} cm^{-2}, or (2) reprocessed, with the nuclear source blocked and the X-rays Compton reflected in our direction by high column density (>=10^{24} cm^{-2}) gas. The moderate equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line favors the dual absorption model as the most likely scenario. The 0.1-2.0 keV spectrum does not resemble the few times 10^6 to 10^7 K thermal emission typically found in other elliptical galaxies, but instead is best described as nuclear X-rays leaking through a patchy absorber or scattered in our direction by low-density, ionized gas with the thermal contribution limited to about 15% for solar abundances. The absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of the nuclear source is L_X ~ 8x10^{41} ergs s^{-1} or L_X ~ 2x10^{43} ergs s^{-1} for the dual-absorption and Compton-reflection models, respectively. The absorbing and H2O masing gases appear to be spatially separate in this galaxy.

  11. A Bound Violation on the Galaxy Group Scale: The Turn-around Radius of NGC 5353/4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The first observational evidence for the violation of the maximum turn-around radius on the galaxy group scale is presented. The NGC 5353/4 group is chosen as an ideal target for our investigation of the bound-violation because of its proximity, low-density environment, optimal mass scale, and the existence of a nearby thin straight filament. Using the observational data on the line-of-sight velocities and three-dimensional distances of the filament galaxies located in the bound zone of the NGC 5353/4 group, we construct their radial velocity profile as a function of separation distance from the group center and then compare it to the analytic formula obtained empirically by Falco et al. to find the best-fit value of an adjustable parameter with the help of the maximum likelihood method. The turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 is determined to be the separation distance where the adjusted analytic formula for the radial velocity profile yields zero. The estimated turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 turned out to substantially exceed the upper limit predicted by the spherical model based on the ?CDM cosmology. Even when the restrictive condition of spherical symmetry is released, the estimated value is found to be only marginally consistent with the ?CDM expectation.

  12. SHOCK EXCITED MOLECULES IN NGC 1266: ULIRG CONDITIONS AT THE CENTER OF A BULGE-DOMINATED GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Smith, J. D.; Crocker, A. F.; Wolfire, M. G.; Draine, B. T.; Croxall, K. V.; Van der Werf, P.; Dale, D. A.; Rigopoulou, D.; Wilson, C. D.; Schinnerer, E.; Groves, B. A.; Kreckel, K.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Walter, F.; Armus, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Calzetti, D.; Koda, J.; Bayet, E.; and others

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the far infrared (IR) spectrum of NGC 1266, a S0 galaxy that contains a massive reservoir of highly excited molecular gas. Using the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer, we detect the {sup 12}CO ladder up to J = (13-12), [C I] and [N II] lines, and also strong water lines more characteristic of UltraLuminous IR Galaxies (ULIRGs). The {sup 12}CO line emission is modeled with a combination of a low-velocity C-shock and a photodissociation region. Shocks are required to produce the H{sub 2}O and most of the high-J CO emission. Despite having an IR luminosity 30 times less than a typical ULIRG, the spectral characteristics and physical conditions of the interstellar medium of NGC 1266 closely resemble those of ULIRGs, which often harbor strong shocks and large-scale outflows.

  13. Modeling the physical properties in the ISM of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC4214

    E-print Network

    Dimaratos, A; Bigiel, F; Madden, S C

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for the interstellar medium of NGC4214 with the objective to probe the physical conditions in the two main star-forming regions and their connection with the star formation activity of the galaxy. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model an HII region and the associated photodissociation region (PDR) to reproduce the emission of mid- and far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines from the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes for these two regions. Input parameters of the model, such as elemental abundances and star formation history, are guided by earlier studies of the galaxy, and we investigated the effect of the mode in which star formation takes place (bursty or continuous) on the line emission. Furthermore, we tested the effect of adding pressure support with magnetic fields and turbulence on the line predictions. We find that this model can satisfactorily predict (within a factor of ~2) all observed lines that originate from the ionized medium ([SIV] 10.5um, [NeIII] 15.6um,...

  14. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star Forming Galaxy NGC 628

    E-print Network

    Grasha, K; Adamo, A; Kim, H; Elmegreen, B G; Gouliermis, D A; Aloisi, A; Bright, S N; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Dale, D A; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, D M; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Smith, L J; Ryon, J E; Thilker, D; Ubeda, L; Wofford, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broad band WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (clusters within the galaxy, identified from a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent $\\alpha$. We recover a weighted mean index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3".3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The stre...

  15. A DIRECT STELLAR METALLICITY DETERMINATION IN THE DISK OF THE MASER GALAXY NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zachary; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert

    2013-12-20

    We present the first direct determination of a stellar metallicity in the spiral galaxy NGC 4258 (D = 7.6 Mpc) based on the quantitative analysis of a low-resolution (?5 Å) Keck Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph spectrum of a blue supergiant star located in its disk. A determination of stellar metallicity in this galaxy is important for the absolute calibration of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation as an anchor for the extragalactic distance scale and for a better characterization of its dependence as a function of abundance. We find a value 0.2 dex lower than solar metallicity at a galactocentric distance of 8.7 kpc, in agreement with recent H II region studies using the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 Å. We determine the effective stellar temperature, gravity, luminosity, and line-of-sight extinction of the blue supergiant being studied. We show that it fits well on the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation, strengthening the potential of this method as a new extragalactic distance indicator.

  16. STAR CLUSTERS IN THE NEARBY LATE-TYPE GALAXY NGC 1311

    SciTech Connect

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Grijs, Richard de; Anders, Peter; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Mager, Violet A.

    2008-01-15

    Ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared images of the nearby (D {approx} 5.5 Mpc) SBm galaxy NGC 1311, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal a small population of 13 candidate star clusters. We identify candidate star clusters based on a combination of their luminosity, extent, and spectral energy distribution. The masses of the cluster candidates range from {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub sun} up to {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, and show a strong positive trend of larger mass with increasing with cluster age. Such a trend follows from the fading and dissolution of old, low-mass clusters, and the lack of any young super-star clusters of the sort often formed in strong starbursts. The cluster age distribution is consistent with a bursting mode of cluster formation, with active episodes of age {approx}10 Myr, {approx}100 Myr, and {approx}>Gyr. The ranges of age and mass we probe are consistent with those of the star clusters found in quiescent Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  17. The energy source of the filaments around the giant galaxy NGC 1275

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Williams, R. J. R.; Lazarian, A.; Ferland, G. J.; Johnstone, R. M.

    2011-10-01

    The brightest galaxy in the nearby Perseus cluster, NGC 1275, is surrounded by a network of filaments. These were first observed through their H? emission but are now known to have a large molecular component with a total mass approaching 1011 M? of gas. The filaments are embedded in hot intracluster gas and stretch over 80 kpc. They have an unusually low excitation spectrum which is well modelled by collisional heating and ionization by secondary electrons. Here we note that the surface radiative flux from the outer filaments is close to the energy flux impacting on them from particles in the hot gas. We propose that the secondary electrons within the cold filaments, which excite the observed submillimetre through ultraviolet emission, are due to the hot surrounding gas efficiently penetrating the cold gas through reconnection diffusion. Some of the soft X-ray emission seen from the filaments is then due to charge exchange, although this is insufficient to account for all the observed X-ray flux. The filaments are complex with multiphase gas. Interpenetration of hot and cold gases leads to the filaments growing in mass, at a rate of up to 100 M? yr-1. The lack of soft X-ray cooling emission in cool core clusters is then due to the non-radiative cooling of hot gas on mixing with cold gas around and within the central galaxy.

  18. The dynamics of the bulge dominated galaxy NGC 7814 in MOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, G. W.; van der Heyden, K. J.; Diaferio, A.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The bulge dominated galaxy NGC 7814 provides one of the strongest dynamical tests possible for MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Spitzer 3.6 ?m photometry fixes the bulge parameterisation and strongly constrains the properties of the subdominant stellar disk. Furthermore, the distance is known to better than 5%, virtually eliminating it as a free parameter. The rotation curve is easily measured, since the H I (and stellar) disks are edge on, and both the receding and approaching sides agree very well. Aims: We explore the agreement between the model and observed rotation curves in MOND given that the only two free parameters available are the mass-to-light ratios of the bulge and disk. Methods: We use a grid based MOND Poisson solver that accurately solves for the MOND gravity and produces our model rotation curves from a given mass distribtion. The input to the Poisson solver is a 3D distribution of N particles which is generated from modelling the observed distribution of stars and gas in the galaxy. Results: By ensuring a superior fit to the radial surface brightness profile than previous works, by virtue of a double Sérsic fit to the bulge, we were able to produce excellent fits to the rotation curve with typical values for both mass-to-light ratios. Conclusions: The model rotation curve of a mass distribution in MOND is extremely sensitive to the bulge-disk decomposition and even slight deviation from the observed mass distribution can produce large differences in the model rotation curve.

  19. The interstellar disk-halo connection in the spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Cecil, Gerald; Bland-Hawthorne, J.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the morphology and excitation of ionized gas in the nearby Sc galaxy NGC 3079. The almost edge-on orientation is ideal for studying the vertical structure of the gaseous disk, and especially the diffuse ionized medium (DIM) found between the bright H II regions. We used the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI) to map 150,000 H-alpha + (N II) lambda lambda 6548, 6583 emission-line profiles across the entire disk, with resolution 70 km/s at subarcsecond steps, down to a flux level of approximately 10(exp -17) ergs/s/sq cm (EM approximately equal to 4 cm(exp -6) pc). The DIM contributes approximately 30% of the total disk H-alpha emission within a radius of 10 kpc. The DIM has broader emission lines and larger (N II) H-alpha flux ratios than the adjacent H II regions. Within a radius of 5 kpc, we find that the X-shaped filaments reported in previous studies emerge from the inner (R approximately equal to 1.5 kpc) disk, and rise more than 4 kpc above the disk plane. The morphology, kinematics, and excitation of the filaments suggest that they form a biconic interface between the undisturbed disk gas, and gas entrained in the wide-angle outflow. The DIM beyond 5 kpc radius is more vertically extended than the thick ionized disk detected in our Galaxy and in a few nearby edge-on systems. After correcting for dust, the vertical profile of this DIM has an exponential scale height of about 1.1 kpc, similar to that of the H I disk. The (N II) lambda 6538/H-alpha flux ratio of the DIM increases monotonically with vertical height, reaching unity for absolute value of z greater than or approximately equal to 2.5 kpc. The flux required to keep the DIM ionized at R = 8 kpc is similar to that near the solar circle of our Galaxy. Highly dilute radiation from O stars in the galactic plane probably maintains the DIM. The total mass of the DIM is of order 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) solar mass, representing less than 1% of the total dynamical mass of NGC 3079. Mechanical energy from intense star formation in the disk probably lifts the DIM above the disk. The several bubbles and filaments within 1 kpc of the disk plane is direct evidence for gas flow between the disk and halo.

  20. ROSAT detection of diffuse hot gas in the edge-on galaxy NGC 4631

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q. David; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Steakley, Michael F.; Norman, Colin A.; Braun, Robert

    1994-01-01

    ROSAT observation is presented of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4631, a nearby Sc/SBd galaxy best known for its extended radio halo. Because of the low foreground Galactic X-ray-absorbing gas column density, N(sub H) approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 20)cm(exp -2), this observation is sensitive to gas of temperature greater than or equal to a few times 10(exp 5) K. A soft (approximately 0.25 keV) X-ray radiation out to more than 8 kpc above the midplane of the galaxy was detected. The strongest X-ray emission in the halo is above the central disk, a region of about 3 kpc radius which shows high star formation activity. The X-ray emission in the halo is bordered by two extended filaments of radio continuum emission. Diffuse X-ray emission from hot gas in the galaxy's disk was found. The spectrum of the radiation can be characterized by a thermal plasma with a temperature of 3 x 10(exp 6) K and a radiative cooling rate of approximately 8 x 10(exp 39) ergs s(exp -1). This rate is only a few percent of the estimated supernova energy release in the interstellar medium of the galaxy. Analysis of the X-ray spectrum shows evidence for the presence of a cooler (several times 10(exp 5) K) halo gas component that could consume a much larger fraction of the supernova energy. Strong evidence was found for disk/halo interaction. Hot gas apparently blows out from supershells in the galaxy's disk at a rate of approximately 1 solar mass yr(exp -1). This outflow of hot gas drags magnetic field lines up in the halo and forms a magnetized gaseous halo. If the magnetic field lines are still anchored to the disk gas at large disk radii, the outflowing gas may be confined high above the disk by magnetic pressure. A strong X-ray source which coincides spatially with an H I supershell has been identified. However, the source is likely an extremely luminous X-ray binary with L(sub chi)(0.1 - 2 keV) approximately 5 x 10(exp 39) ergs s(exp -1), which makes it a stellar mass black hole candidate.

  1. Accretion-Inhibited Star Formation in the Warm Molecular Disk of the Green-valley Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3226?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Mundell, C.; Bitsakis, T.; Lacy, M.; Alatalo, K.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy and Herschel photometry of the peculiar "Green Valley" elliptical galaxy NGC 3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), forms a pair with NGC 3227 and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and H I filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16 ?m reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc long H I tail. In situ star formation associated with the infrared (IR) plume is identified from narrowband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. The end of the IR plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring containing 0.7-1.1 × 107 M ? detected within the central kiloparsec. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H2 is in a warm state. Photometry derived from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-IR shows evidence for a low star-formation rate of ~0.04 M ? yr-1 averaged over the last 100 Myr. A mid-IR component to the spectral energy distribution (SED) contributes ~20% of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC 3226's global UV-optical "green" colors via the resurgence of star formation in a "red and dead" galaxy. This form of "cold accretion" from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies and may actually inhibit star formation.

  2. ACCRETION-INHIBITED STAR FORMATION IN THE WARM MOLECULAR DISK OF THE GREEN-VALLEY ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 3226?

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, P. N.; Bitsakis, T.; Alatalo, K.; Mundell, C.; Lacy, M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2014-12-20

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy and Herschel photometry of the peculiar ''Green Valley'' elliptical galaxy NGC 3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), forms a pair with NGC 3227 and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and H I filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16 ?m reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc long H I tail. In situ star formation associated with the infrared (IR) plume is identified from narrowband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. The end of the IR plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring containing 0.7-1.1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?} detected within the central kiloparsec. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H{sub 2} is in a warm state. Photometry derived from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-IR shows evidence for a low star-formation rate of ?0.04 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} averaged over the last 100 Myr. A mid-IR component to the spectral energy distribution (SED) contributes ?20% of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC 3226's global UV-optical ''green'' colors via the resurgence of star formation in a ''red and dead'' galaxy. This form of ''cold accretion'' from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies and may actually inhibit star formation.

  3. NGC 404, A Rejuvenated Lenticular Galaxy on a Merger-Induced, Blueward Excursion into the Green Valley

    E-print Network

    Thilker, David A; Schiminovich, David; de Paz, Armando Gil; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F; Wyder, Ted; Rich, R Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Christopher D; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Small, Todd

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion (1-4x R_25) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using GALEX UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's HI ring (formed by a merger event according to del Rio et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival HST imaging reveals resolved upper main sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate surface density (Sigma_{SFR}) is 2.2x10^-5 Msun/yr/kpc^2. Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the HI ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5x10^-3 Msun/yr. The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the Universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy CMD, the presence of the SF HI ring places NGC 404 in the g...

  4. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Massari, D.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-12-10

    We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr{sup –1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v {sub rot} = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s{sup –1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.

  5. Nuclear spirals as feeding channels to the Supermassive Black Hole: the case of the galaxy NGC 6951

    E-print Network

    Thaisa Storchi-Bergmann; Oli L. Dors Jr.; Rogemar A. Riffel; Kambiz Fathi; David J. Axon; Andrew Robinson; Alessandro Marconi; Goran Ostlin

    2007-07-27

    We report the discovery of gas streaming motions along nuclear spiral arms towards the LINER nucleus of the galaxy NGC 6951. The observations, obtained using the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope, yielded maps of the flux distributions and gas kinematics in the Halpha, [NII]6584 and [SII]6717,31 emission lines of the inner 7x5 arcsec^2 of the galaxy. This region includes a circumnuclear star-forming ring with radius 500pc, a nuclear spiral inside the ring and the LINER nucleus. The kinematics of the ionized gas is dominated by rotation, but subtraction of a kinematic model of a rotating exponential disk reveals deviations from circular rotation within the nuclear ring which can be attributed to (1) streaming motions along the nuclear spiral arms and (2) a bipolar outflow which seems to be associated to a nuclear jet. On the basis of the observed streaming velocities and geometry of the spiral arms we estimate a mass inflow rate of ionized gas of 3x10^(-4) Msun/yr, which is of the order of the accretion rate necessary to power the LINER nucleus of NGC 6951. Similar streaming motions towards the nucleus of another galaxy with LINER nucleus -- NGC 1097 -- have been reported by our group in a previous paper. Taken together, these results support a scenario in which nuclear spirals are channels through which matter is transferred from galactic scales to the nuclear region to feed the supermassive black hole.

  6. THE TWO-PHASE FORMATION HISTORY OF SPIRAL GALAXIES TRACED BY THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE BAR FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic

    2012-09-20

    We study the evolution of galactic bars and the link with disk and spheroid formation in a sample of zoom-in cosmological simulations. Our simulation sample focuses on galaxies with present-day stellar masses in the 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} range, in field and loose group environments, with a broad variety of mass growth histories. In our models, bars are almost absent from the progenitors of present-day spirals at z > 1.5, and they remain rare and generally too weak to be observable down to z Almost-Equal-To 1. After this characteristic epoch, the fractions of observable and strong bars rise rapidly, bars being present in 80% of spiral galaxies and easily observable in two thirds of these at z {<=} 0.5. This is quantitatively consistent with the redshift evolution of the observed bar fraction, although the latter is presently known up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. Our models hence predict that the decrease in the bar fraction with increasing redshift should continue with a fraction of observable bars not larger than 10%-15% in disk galaxies at z > 1. Our models also predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, in agreement with existing data. We find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation, namely redshift z Almost-Equal-To 0.8-1 in the studied mass range, corresponds to the epoch at which today's spirals acquire their disk-dominated morphology. At higher redshift, disks tend to be rapidly destroyed by mergers and gravitational instabilities and rarely develop significant bars. We hence suggest that the bar formation epoch corresponds to the transition between an early 'violent' phase of spiral galaxy formation at z {>=} 1 and a late 'secular' phase at z {<=} 0.8. In the secular phase, the presence of bars substantially contributes to the growth of the (pseudo-)bulge, but the bulge mass budget remains statistically dominated by the contribution of mergers, interactions, and disk instabilities at high redshift. Early bars at z > 1 are often short-lived, while most of the bars formed at z {<=} 1 persist down to z = 0, late cosmological gas infall being necessary to maintain some of them.

  7. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND STAR FORMATION IN EDGE-ON GALAXIES. I. NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Kijeong; Wong, Tony; Howk, J. Christopher; Van der Hulst, J. M. E-mail: wongt@astro.illinois.edu E-mail: vdhulst@astro.rug.nl

    2011-02-15

    We analyze images of BIMA {sup 12}CO (J = 1 {yields} 0) , Very Large Array H I, and Spitzer 3.6 and 24 {mu}m emission toward the edge-on galaxy NGC 891 and derive the radial and vertical distributions of gas and the radial distributions of stellar mass and recent star formation. We describe our method of deriving radial profiles for edge-on galaxies, assuming circular motion, and verify basic relationships between star formation rate (SFR) and gas and stellar content, and between the molecular-to-atomic ratio and hydrostatic midplane pressure that have been found in other galaxy samples. The Schmidt law index we find for the total gas (H{sub 2} + H I) is 0.85 {+-} 0.55, but the Schmidt law provides a poor description of the SFR in comparison to a model that includes the influence of the stellar disk. Using our measurements of the thickness of the gas disk and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, we estimate volume densities and pressures as a function of radius and height in order to test the importance of pressure in controlling the {rho}{sub H{sub 2}}/{rho}{sub H{sub i}} ratio. The gas pressure in two dimensions P(r, z) using constant velocity dispersion does not seem to correlate with the {rho}{sub H{sub 2}}/{rho}{sub H{sub i}} ratio, but the pressure using varying velocity dispersion appears to correlate with the ratio. We test the importance of gravitational instability in determining the sites of massive star formation and find that the Q parameter using a radially varying gas velocity dispersion is consistent with self-regulation (Q {approx} 1) over a large part of the disk.

  8. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very sensitive to large-scale, low-surface-brightness emission. The KAT-7 observations detected 33 per cent more flux than previous Very Large Array observations, mainly in the outer parts and in the halo for a total H I mass of 2.1 ± 0.1 × 109 M?. H I can be found at large distances perpendicular to the plane out to projected distances of ˜9-10 kpc away from the nucleus and ˜13-14 kpc at the edge of the disc. A novel technique, based on interactive profile fitting, was used to separate the main disc gas from the anomalous (halo) gas. The rotation curve (RC) derived for the H I disc confirms that it is declining in the outer parts, as seen in previous optical Fabry-Perot measurements. As for the anomalous component, its RC has a very shallow gradient in the inner parts and turns over at the same radius as the disc, kinematically lagging by 100 km s-1. The kinematics of the observed extra-planar gas is compatible with an outflow due to the central starburst and galactic fountains in the outer parts. However, the gas kinematics shows no evidence for inflow. Analysis of the near-IR WISE data, shows clearly that the star formation rate is compatible with the starburst nature of NGC 253.

  9. Circumnuclear Star Clusters in the Galaxy Merger NGC 6240, Observed with Keck Adaptive Optics and HST

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L K; Max, C E; Schneider, G

    2007-02-12

    We discuss images of the central {approx} 10 kpc (in projection) of the galaxy merger NGC 6240 at H and K{prime} bands, taken with the NIRC2 narrow camera on Keck II using natural guide star adaptive optics. We detect 28 star clusters in the NIRC2 images, of which only 7 can be seen in the similar-spatial-resolution, archival WFPC2 Planetary Camera data at either B or I bands. Combining the NIRC2 narrow camera pointings with wider NICMOS NIC2 images taken with the F110W, F160W, and F222M filters, we identify a total of 32 clusters that are detected in at least one of these 5 infrared ({lambda}{sub c} > 1 {micro}m) bandpasses. By comparing to instantaneous burst, stellar population synthesis models (Bruzual & Charlot 2003), we estimate that most of the clusters are consistent with being {approx} 15 Myr old and have photometric masses ranging from 7 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 4 x 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}}. The total contribution to the star formation rate (SFR) from these clusters is approximately 10M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}, or {approx} 10% of the total SFR in the nuclear region. We use these newly discovered clusters to estimate the extinction toward NGC 6240's double nuclei, and find values of A{sub v} as high as 14 magnitudes along some sightlines, with an average extinction of A{sub v} {approx} 7 mag toward sightlines within {approx} 3-inches of the double nuclei.

  10. Establishing the connection between peanut-shaped bulges and galactic bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuijken, Konrad; Merrifield, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are due to the presence of a central bar. Although bars cannot be detected photometrically in edge-on galaxies, we show that barred potentials produce a strong kinematic signature in the form of double-peaked line-of-sight velocity distributions with a characteristic 'figure-of-eight' variation with radius. We have obtained spectroscopic observations of two edge-on galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges (NGC 5746 and NGC 5965), and they reveal exactly such line-of-sight velocity distributions in both their gaseous (emission line) and their stellar (absorption line) components. These observations provide strong observational evidence that peanut-shaped bulges are a by-product of bar formation.

  11. ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PEANUT-SHAPED BULGES AND GALACTIC BARS

    E-print Network

    Konrad Kuijken; Michael R. Merrifield

    1995-01-31

    It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are due to the presence of a central bar. Although bars cannot be detected photometrically in edge-on galaxies, we show that barred potentials produce a strong kinematic signature in the form of double-peaked line-of-sight velocity distributions with a characteristic ``figure-of-eight'' variation with radius. We have obtained spectroscopic observations of two edge-on galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges (NGC~5746 and NGC~5965), and they reveal exactly such line-of-sight velocity distributions in both their gaseous (emission line) and their stellar (absorption line) components. These observations provide strong observational evidence that peanut-shaped bulges are a by-product of bar formation.

  12. The BaLROG project - I. Quantifying the influence of bars on the kinematics of nearby galaxies

    E-print Network

    Seidel, M K; Martínez-Valpuesta, I; Díaz-García, S; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Knapen, J H

    2015-01-01

    We present the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample of 16 morphologically distinct barred spirals to characterise observationally the influence of bars on nearby galaxies. Each galaxy is a mosaic of several pointings observed with the IFU spectrograph SAURON leading to a tenfold sharper spatial resolution (~100 pc) compared to ongoing IFU surveys. In this paper we focus on the kinematic properties. We calculate the bar strength Qb from classical torque analysis using 3.6 {\\mu}m Spitzer (S4G) images, but also develop a new method based solely on the kinematics. A correlation between the two measurements is found and backed up by N-body simulations, verifying the measurement of Qb . We find that bar strengths from ionised gas kinematics are ~2.5 larger than those measured from stellar kinematics and that stronger bars have enhanced influence on inner kinematic features. We detect that stellar angular momentum "dips" at 0.2$\\pm$0.1 bar lengths and half of our sample exhibits an anti-correlation ...

  13. The Ringed Spiral Galaxy NGC 4622. I. Photometry, Kinematics, and the Case for Two Strong Leading Outer Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, Ronald J.; Byrd, Gene G.; Freeman, Tarsh

    2003-02-01

    The intriguing nearly face-on southern ringed spiral galaxy NGC 4622, the first galaxy definitively shown to have leading spiral structure, is revisited in this paper with new images from the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) WFPC2, together with ground-based optical and near-IR imaging, and a Fabry-Perot H? velocity field. The data provide new information on the disk/bulge/halo mix, rotation curve, star formation in the galaxy, and the sense of winding of its prominent spiral arms. Previously, we suggested that the weaker, inner single arm most likely has the leading sense, based on a numerical simulation. Now, taking advantage of HST resolution and using de Vaucouleurs' standard extinction and reddening technique to determine the near side of the galaxy's slightly tilted disk, we come to the more surprising conclusion that the two strong outer arms have the leading sense. We suggest that this highly unusual configuration may be the result of a past minor merger or mild tidal encounter. Possible evidence for a minor merger is found in a short, central dust lane, although this is purely circumstantial and an unrelated interaction with a different companion could also be relevant. The leading arms may be allowed to persist because NGC 4622 is dark halo dominated (i.e., not ``maximum disk'' in the inner regions) and displays a significantly rising rotation curve. The new HST observations also reveal a rich globular cluster system in the galaxy. The mean color of these clusters is (V-I)0=1.04, and the specific frequency is 3.4+/-0.6. The luminosity function of these clusters confirms the membership of NGC 4622 in the Centaurus Cluster. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ?100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Pa?, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 ?m emission, as well as the Pa? line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Pa? map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ? 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  15. The SLUGGS survey: multipopulation dynamical modelling of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 from stars and globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pota, Vincenzo; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Forbes, Duncan A.; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Foster, Caroline; Walker, Matthew G.; Strader, Jay; Roediger, Joel C.

    2015-07-01

    We perform in-depth dynamical modelling of the luminous and dark matter (DM) content of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Our strategy consists of solving the spherical Jeans equations for three independent dynamical tracers: stars, blue globular clusters (GCs) and red GCs in a self-consistent manner. We adopt a maximum-likelihood Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting technique in the attempt to constrain the inner slope of the DM density profile (the cusp/core problem), and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the galaxy. We find the inner logarithmic slope of the DM density profiles to be ? = 0.6 ± 0.4, which is consistent with either a DM cusp (? = 1) or with a DM core (? = 0). Our findings are consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and marginally consistent with a Kroupa IMF. We infer tangential orbits for the blue GCs, and radial anisotropy for red GCs and stars. The modelling results are consistent with the virial mass-concentration relation predicted by ? cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. The virial mass of NGC 1407 is log Mvir = 13.3 ± 0.2M?, whereas the stellar mass is log M* = 11.8 ± 0.1 M?. The overall uncertainties on the mass of NGC 1407 are only 5 per cent at the projected stellar effective radius. We attribute the disagreement between our results and previous X-ray results to the gas not being in hydrostatic equilibrium in the central regions of the galaxy. The halo of NGC 1407 is found be DM-dominated, with a dynamical mass-to-light ratio of M/L=260_{-100} ^{+174} M_{?}/L_{?, B}. However, this value can be larger up to a factor of 3 depending on the assumed prior on the DM scale radius.

  16. Probing the X-Ray Binary Populations of the Ring Galaxy NGC 1291

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, B.; Fabbiano, G.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D. W.; Belczynski, K.; Brassington, N. J.; Pellegrini, S.; Tzanavaris, P.; Wang, J.; Zezas, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present Chandra studies of the X-ray binary (XRB) populations in the bulge and ring regions of the ring galaxy NGC 1291. We detect 169 X-ray point sources in the galaxy, 75 in the bulge and 71 in the ring, utilizing the four available Chandra observations totaling an effective exposure of 179 ks. We report photometric properties of these sources in a point-source catalog. There are approx. 40% of the bulge sources and approx. 25% of the ring sources showing > 3(sigma) long-term variability in their X-ray count rate. The X-ray colors suggest that a significant fraction of the bulge (approx. 75%) and ring (approx. 65%) sources are likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The spectra of the nuclear source indicate that it is a low-luminosity AGN with moderate obscuration; spectral variability is observed between individual observations. We construct 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for the bulge and ring XRB populations, taking into account the detection incompleteness and background AGN contamination. We reach 90% completeness limits of approx.1.5 x 10(exp 37) and approx. 2.2 x 10(exp 37) erg/s for the bulge and ring populations, respectively. Both XLFs can be fit with a broken power-law model, and the shapes are consistent with those expected for populations dominated by LMXBs. We perform detailed population synthesis modeling of the XRB populations in NGC 1291 , which suggests that the observed combined XLF is dominated by aD old LMXB population. We compare the bulge and ring XRB populations, and argue that the ring XRBs are associated with a younger stellar population than the bulge sources, based on the relative over-density of X-ray sources in the ring, the generally harder X-ray color of the ring sources, the overabundance of luminous sources in the combined XLF, and the flatter shape of the ring XLF.

  17. Box/Peanut and Bar structures in edge-on and face-on SDSS nearby galaxies I. Catalogue

    E-print Network

    Yoshino, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We investigate Box/Peanut and bar structures in image data of edge-on and face-on nearby galaxies taken from SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) to present catalogues containing the surface brightness parameters and the morphology classification. About 1700 edge-on galaxies and 2600 face-on galaxies are selected from SDSS DR7 in g, r and i-band. The images of each galaxy are fitted with the model of 2-dimensional surface brightness of S\\'{e}rsic bulge and exponential disk. After removing some irregular data, Box/Peanut, bar and other structures are easily distinguished by eye using residual (observed minus model) images. We find 292 Box/Peanut structures in the 1329 edge-on samples and 630 bar structures in 1890 face-on samples in i-band, after removing some irregular data. Then the fraction of Box/Peanut galaxies is about 22 percent against the edge-on samples, and that of bar is about 33 percent (about 50 percent if 629 elliptical galaxies are removed) against the face-on samples. Furthermore the strengths of t...

  18. Dynamical Influence of Bars on the Star Formation in Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Combes, F.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Leon, S.

    2008-10-01

    Star formation depends strongly on both the local environment of galaxies and the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005; Sulentic et al. 2006; Lisenfeld et al. 2007; Verlay et al. 2007a,b,c), H? and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. We characterize the H? emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and least inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We subsequently study the H? morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (H?), and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r).

  19. MRK 1216 and NGC 1277 - an orbit-based dynamical analysis of compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?ld?r?m, Ak?n; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Husemann, Bernd; Lyubenova, Mariya; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-09-01

    We present a dynamical analysis to infer the structural parameters and properties of the two nearby, compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies MRK 1216 and NGC 1277. Combining deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, wide-field integral field unit stellar kinematics, and complementary long-slit spectroscopic data out to three effective radii, we construct orbit-based models to constrain their black hole masses, dark matter content and stellar mass-to-light ratios. We obtain a black hole mass of log(M•/M?) = 10.1_{-0.2}^{+0.1} for NGC 1277 and an upper limit of log(M•/M?) = 10.0 for MRK 1216, within 99.7 per cent (3?) confidence. The stellar mass-to-light ratios span a range of ?V = 6.5_{-1.5}^{+1.5} in NGC 1277 and ?H = 1.8_{-0.8}^{+0.5} in MRK 1216 and are in good agreement with single stellar population models of a single power-law Salpeter initial mass function. Even though our models do not place strong constraints on the dark halo parameters, they suggest that dark matter is a necessary ingredient in MRK 1216, with a dark matter contribution of 22^{+30}_{-20} per cent to the total mass budget within one effective radius. NGC 1277, on the other hand, can be reproduced without the need for a dark halo, and a maximal dark matter fraction of 13 per cent within the same radial extent. In addition, we investigate the orbital structures of both galaxies, which are rotationally supported and consistent with photometric multi-Sérsic decompositions, indicating that these compact objects do not host classical, non-rotating bulges formed during recent (z ? 2) dissipative events or through violent relaxation. Finally, both MRK 1216 and NGC 1277 are anisotropic, with a global anisotropy parameter ? of 0.33 and 0.58, respectively. While MRK 1216 follows the trend of fast-rotating, oblate galaxies with a flattened velocity dispersion tensor in the meridional plane of the order of ?z ˜ ?, NGC 1277 is highly tangentially anisotropic and seems to belong kinematically to a distinct class of objects.

  20. Positional Coincidence of H2O Maser and a Plasma Obscuring Torus in Radio Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    Satoko Sawada-Satoh; Seiji Kameno; Kayoko Nakamura; Daichi Namikawa; Katsunori M. Shibata; Makoto Inoue

    2008-02-28

    We present multi-frequency simultaneous VLBA observations at 15, 22 and 43 GHz towards the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 1052. These three continuum images reveal a double-sided jet structure, whose relative intensity ratios imply that the jet axis is oriented close to the sky plane. The steeply rising spectra at 15-43 GHz at the inner edges of the jets strongly suggest that synchrotron emission is absorbed by foreground thermal plasma. We detected H2O maser emission in the velocity range of 1550-1850 km/s, which is redshifted by 50-350 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 1052. The redshifted maser gas appears projected against both sides of the jet, in the same manner as the HI seen in absorption. The H2O maser gas are located where the free-free absorption opacity is large. This probably imply that the masers in NGC 1052 are associated with a circumnuclear torus or disk as in the nucleus of NGC 4258. Such circumnuclear structure can be the sence of accreting onto the central engine.

  1. The Cepheid distance to the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258: Studying systematics with the Large Binocular Telescope

    E-print Network

    Fausnaugh, M M; Gerke, J R; Macri, L M; Riess, A G; Stanek, K Z

    2014-01-01

    We identify and phase a sample of 81 Cepheids in the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258 using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), and obtain calibrated mean magnitudes in up to 4 filters for a subset of 43 Cepheids using archival HST data. We employ 3 models to study the systematic effects of extinction, the assumed extinction law, and metallicity on the Cepheid distance to NGC 4258. We find a correction to the Cepheid colors consistent with a grayer extinction law in NGC 4258 compared to the Milky Way ($R_V =4.9$), although we believe this is indicative of other systematic effects. If we combine our Cepheid sample with previously known Cepheids, we find a significant metallicity adjustment to the distance modulus of $\\gamma_1 = -0.60 \\pm 0.21$ mag/dex, for the Zaritsky et al. (1994) metallicity scale, as well as a weak trend of Cepheid colors with metallicity. Conclusions about the absolute effect of metallicity on Cepheid mean magnitudes appear to be limited by the available data on the metallicity gradient in NGC...

  2. CLUSTER 77 IN NGC 4449: THE NUCLEUS OF A SATELLITE GALAXY BEING TRANSFORMED INTO A GLOBULAR CLUSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Martinez-Delgado, D.

    2012-01-20

    We report the discovery in our Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys B, V, and I images of NGC 4449 of a globular cluster (GC) which appears associated with two tails of blue stars. The cluster is massive (M {approx} 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) and highly flattened ({epsilon} {approx} 0.24). From the color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stars we infer active star formation in the tails over the past {approx}200 Myr. In a diagram of mean projected mass density inside r{sub e} versus total mass the cluster lies at the upper end of the GC distribution, where galaxy nuclei are. The northwest tail is associated with a concentration of H I and infrared (dust/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) emission which appears as part of a much longer stream wrapping around the galaxy. These properties suggest that the cluster may be the nucleus of a former gas-rich satellite galaxy undergoing tidal disruption by NGC 4449. If so, the cluster is seen in an earlier phase compared to other suggested nuclei of disrupted galaxies such as {omega} Cen (Milky Way) and G1 (M31).

  3. High-resolution Imaging of Water Maser Emission in the Active Galaxies NGC 6240 and M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Edwards, Philip G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of observations of 22 GHz H2O maser emission in NGC 6240 and M51 made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Two major H2O maser features and several minor features are detected toward the southern nucleus of NGC 6240. These features are redshifted by about 300 km s-1 from the galaxy's systemic velocity and remain unresolved at the synthesized beam size. A combination of our two-epoch observations and published data reveals an apparent correlation between the strength of the maser and the 22 GHz radio continuum emission, implying that the maser excitation relates to the activity of an active galactic nucleus in the southern nucleus rather than star-forming activity. The star-forming galaxy M51 hosts H2O maser emission in the center of the galaxy; however, the origin of the maser has been an open question. We report the first detection of 22 GHz nuclear radio continuum emission in M51. The continuum emission is co-located with the maser position, which indicates that the maser arises from nuclear active galactic nucleus-activity and not from star-forming activity in the galaxy.

  4. The Connection between ULXs and Infrared Star-Forming Regions in the Merging Pair of Galaxies NGC 4485/90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, Edward; Hornschemeier, Ann; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Roberts, Timothy; Ward, Martin

    2004-09-01

    We propose IRAC imaging of the starburst galaxy system NGC 4485/90, and pointed IRS spectral mapping for eight locations within the galaxies. NGC 4485/90 houses an extraordinarily large number of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and has a dense array of HII star-forming (SF) regions. We will use IRAC images to study correlation statistics between the the six ULXs and nearby IR-luminous SF regions. The IRS spectral mapping data is to be taken for rectangular regions centered on the six ULXs, and for two comparison regions in NGC 4490. These spectra will be used to measure physical characteristics (e.g. density, excitation) of the gas in the SF regions and to diagnose properties (e.g. luminosity, hardness) of the components of the ionizing radiation. Our proposed Spitzer observations will help distinguish between competing models for ULXs, and will greatly complement on-going X-ray spectral diagnostic work, which is currently only possible for very X-ray bright ULXs.

  5. The Nature of Infrared Emission in the Local Group Dwarf Galaxy NGC 6822 As Revealed by Spitzer

    E-print Network

    Cannon, J M; Armus, L; Bendo, G J; Calzetti, D; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Roussel, H; Bot, C; Buckalew, B; Dale, D A; De Blok, W J G; Gordon, K D; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Sheth, K; Thornley, M D; Cannon, John M.; Walter, Fabian; Armus, Lee; Bendo, George J.; Calzetti, Daniela; Draine, Bruce T.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Helou, George; Jr., Robert C. Kennicutt; Leitherer, Claus; Roussel, Helene; Bot, Caroline; Buckalew, Brent; Dale, Daniel A.; Gordon, Karl D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Meyer, Martin J.; Murphy, Eric J.; Sheth, Kartik; Thornley, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer imaging of the metal-deficient (Z ~30% Z_sun) Local Group dwarf galaxy NGC 6822. On spatial scales of ~130 pc, we study the nature of IR, H alpha, HI, and radio continuum emission. Nebular emission strength correlates with IR surface brightness; however, roughly half of the IR emission is associated with diffuse regions not luminous at H alpha (as found in previous studies). The global ratio of dust to HI gas in the ISM, while uncertain at the factor of ~2 level, is ~25 times lower than the global values derived for spiral galaxies using similar modeling techniques; localized ratios of dust to HI gas are about a factor of five higher than the global value in NGC 6822. There are strong variations (factors of ~10) in the relative ratios of H alpha and IR flux throughout the central disk; the low dust content of NGC 6822 is likely responsible for the different H alpha/IR ratios compared to those found in more metal-rich environments. The H alpha and IR emission is associated with high-column d...

  6. Sampling methods for stellar masses and the mmax-Mecl relation in the starburst dwarf galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Carsten; Kroupa, Pavel; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan

    2014-07-01

    It has been claimed in the recent literature that a non-trivial relation between the mass of the most-massive star, mmax, in a star cluster and its embedded star cluster mass (the mmax - Mecl relation) is falsified by observations of the most-massive stars and the H? luminosity of young star clusters in the starburst dwarf galaxy NGC 4214. Here, it is shown by comparing the NGC 4214 results with observations from the Milky Way that NGC 4214 agrees very well with the predictions of the mmax - Mecl relation and with the integrated galactic stellar initial mass function theory. The difference in conclusions is based on a high degree of degeneracy between expectations from random sampling and those from the mmax - Mecl relation, but are also due to interpreting mmax as a truncation mass in a randomly sampled initial mass function. Additional analysis of galaxies with lower SFRs than those currently presented in the literature will be required to break this degeneracy.

  7. NGC 1266: Characterization of the Nuclear Molecular Gas in an Unusual SB0 Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, J.; Rangwala, N.; Maloney, P. R.; Kamenetzky, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    With a substantial nuclear molecular gas reservoir and broad, high-velocity CO molecular line wings previously interpreted as an outflow, NGC 1266 is a rare SB0 galaxy. Previous analyses of interferometry, spectrally resolved low-J CO emission lines, and unresolved high-J emission lines have established basic properties of the molecular gas and the likely presence of an active galactic nucleus. Here, new spectrally resolved CO J = 5-4 to J = 8-7 lines from Herschel Space Observatory HIFI observations are combined with ground-based observations and high-J Herschel SPIRE observations to decompose the nuclear and putative outflow velocity components and to model the molecular gas to quantify its properties. Details of the modeling and results are described, with comparisons to previous results and exploration of the implications for the gas excitation mechanisms. Among the findings, like for other galaxies, the nuclear and putative outflow molecular gas are well represented by components that are cool (T_nuclear {=} 6+10-2 K and T outflow ~ 30 K), comprising bulk of the mass (log M_nuclear/M? {=} 8.3+0.5-0.4 and log M_outflow/M? {=} 7.6+0.3-0.3), and the minority of the luminosity (log L_nuclear/L? {=} 5.44+0.22-0.18 and log L outflow/L ? ~ 6.5) and warm (T_nuclear {=} 74+130-26 K and T outflow > 100 K), comprising a minority of the mass (log M_nuclear/M? {=} 7.3+0.5-0.5 and log M outflow/M ? ~ 6.3) but the majority of the luminosity (log L_nuclear/L? {=} 6.90+0.16-0.16 and log L outflow/L ? ~ 7.2). The outflow has an anomalously high L CO/L FIR of 1.7 × 10-3 and is almost certainly shock excited.

  8. The Dense Plasma Torus Around the Nucleus of an Active Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    S. Kameno; S. Sawada-Satoh; M. Inoue; Z. -Q. Shen; K. Wajima

    2001-04-03

    A subparsec-scale dense plasma torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is unveiled. We report on very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at 2.3, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz towards the active galaxy NGC 1052. The convex spectra of the double-sided jets and the nucleus imply that synchrotron emission is obscured through free--free absorption (FFA) by the foreground cold dense plasma. A trichromatic image was produced to illustrate the distribution of the FFA opacity. We found a central condensation of the plasma which covers about 0.1 pc and 0.7 pc of the approaching and receding jets, respectively. A simple explanation for the asymmetric distribution is the existence of a thick plasma torus perpendicular to the jets. We also found an ambient FFA absorber, whose density profile can be ascribed to a spherical distribution of the isothermal King model. The coexistence of torus-like and spherical distributions of the plasma suggests a transition from radial accretion to rotational accretion around the nucleus.

  9. Stellar metallicity of the extended disk and distance of the spiral galaxy NGC 3621

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at

    2014-06-10

    Low resolution (?4.5 Å) ESO VLT/FORS spectra of blue supergiant stars are analyzed to determine stellar metallicities (based on elements such as iron, titanium, and magnesium) in the extended disk of the spiral galaxy, NGC 3621. Mildly subsolar metallicity (–0.30 dex) is found for the outer objects beyond 7 kpc, independent of galactocentric radius and compatible with the absence of a metallicity gradient, confirming the results of a recent investigation of interstellar medium H II region gas oxygen abundances. The stellar metallicities are slightly higher than those from the H II regions when based on measurements of the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 Å but lower than the ones obtained with the R {sub 23} strong line method. It is shown that the present level of metallicity in the extended disk cannot be the result of chemical evolution over the age of the disk with the present rate of in situ star formation. Additional mechanisms must be involved. In addition to metallicity, stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and bolometric magnitudes are determined. After the application of individual reddening corrections for each target, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars is used to obtain a distance modulus of 29.07 ± 0.09 mag (distance D = 6.52 ± 0.28 Mpc). This new distance is discussed in relation to Cepheid and the tip of the red giant branch distances.

  10. THE NEAR VICINITY OF THE BLACK HOLE AT THE CORE OF GALAXY NGC 4261 - ARTIST CONCEP