Sample records for barrier plasma actuators

  1. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likhanskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low speed flows and atmospheric conditions. This results in low feasibility of the DBDs for aerospace applications. For active flow control at turbine blades, fixed wings, and rotary wings and on hypersonic vehicles, DBD plasma actuators must perform at a wide range of conditions, including rarified flows and combustion mixtures. An efficient, comprehensive, physically based DBD simulation tool can optimize DBD plasma actuators for different operation conditions. Researchers are developing a DBD plasma actuator simulation tool for a wide range of ambient gas pressures. The tool will treat DBD using either kinetic, fluid, or hybrid models, depending on the DBD operational condition.

  2. Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

  3. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low voltages. In view of practical applications certain questions have been also addressed, such as electrodynamic effects which accompany scaling of the actuators to real size models, and environmental effects of ozone production by the plasma actuators.

  4. Dielectric material degradation monitoring of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ronald E.; Houser, Nicole M.; Lavoie, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    It is a known phenomenon that some dielectric materials used to construct plasma actuators degrade during operation. However, the rate at which this process occurs, to what extent, as well as a method to monitor is yet to be established. In this experimental study, it is shown that electrical measurements can be used to monitor changes in the material of the plasma actuators. The procedure we introduce for monitoring the actuators follows from the work of Kriegseis, Grundmann, and Tropea [Kriegseis et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 013305 (2011)], who used Lissajous figures to measure actuator power consumption and capacitance. In the present study, we quantify changes in both the power consumption and capacitance of the actuators over long operating durations. It is shown that the increase in the effective capacitance of the actuator is related to degradation (thinning) of the dielectric layer, which is accompanied by an increase in actuator power consumption. For actuators constructed from layers of Kapton® polyimide tape, these changes are self-limiting. Although the polyimide film degrades relatively quickly, the underlying adhesive layer appears to remain intact. Over time, the effective capacitance was found to increase by up to 36%, 25%, and 11% for actuators constructed with 2, 3, and 4 layers of Kapton tape, respectively. A method is presented to prevent erosion of the Kapton dielectric layer using a coating of Polydimethylsiloxane oil. It is shown the application of this treatment can delay the onset of degradation of the Kapton dielectric material.

  5. Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic Ankush Bhatia, Subrata Roy, and Ryan Gosse

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic flows Ankush flow velocity on momentum transfer of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators J. Appl. Phys. 116, 103301 (2014); 10.1063/1.4894518 Numerical simulation of a plasma actuator based on ion transport J. Appl

  6. High-lift airfoil trailing edge separation control using a single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse Little; Munetake Nishihara; Igor Adamovich; Mo Samimy

    2010-01-01

    Control of flow separation from the deflected flap of a high-lift airfoil up to Reynolds numbers of 240,000 (15 m\\/s) is explored\\u000a using a single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator near the flap shoulder. Results show that the plasma discharge\\u000a can increase or reduce the size of the time-averaged separated region over the flap depending on the frequency of actuation.

  7. Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Ankush; Roy, Subrata; Gosse, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    A numerical study employing discontinuous Galerkin method demonstrating net surface heat reduction for a cylindrical body in Mach 17 hypersonic flow is presented. This application focuses on using sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to inject momentum near the stagnation point. A 5 species finite rate air chemistry model completes the picture by analyzing the effect of the actuator on the flow chemistry. With low velocity near the stagnation point, the plasma actuator sufficiently modifies the fluid momentum. This results in redistribution of the integrated surface heating load on the body. Specifically, a particular configuration of normally pinching plasma actuation is predicted to reduce the surface heat flux at the stagnation point. An average reduction of 0.246% for the integrated and a maximum reduction of 7.68% are reported for the surface heat flux. The temperature contours in the fluid flow (with maximum temperature over 12 000 K) are pinched away from the stagnation point, thus resulting in reduced thermal load. Plasma actuation in this configuration also affects the species concentration distribution near the wall, in addition to the temperature gradient. The combined effect of both, thus results in an average reduction of 0.0986% and a maximum reduction of 4.04% for non-equilibrium calculations. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the impact of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuation on the reduction of thermal load on a hypersonic body.

  8. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Novel Multi-Barrier Plasma Actuators for Increased Thrust

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Novel Multi-Barrier Plasma Actuators by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 and 1-20 kHz, respectively. Such a high potential difference weakly ionizes

  9. Force Measurements of Single and Double Barrier DBD Plasma Actuators in Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Hershkowitz, Noah; Ashpis, David E.

    2008-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the force induced by both single (one electrode insulated) and double (both electrodes insulated) dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators in quiescent air. We have shown that, for single barrier actuators, as the electrode diameter decreased below those values previously studied the induced Force increases exponentially rather than linearly. This behavior has been experimentally verified using two different measurement techniques: stagnation probe measurements of the induced flow velocity and direct measurement of the force using an electronic balance. In addition, we have shown the the induced force is independent of the material used for the exposed electrode. The same techniques have shown that the induced force of a double barrier actuator increases with decreasing narrow electrode diameter.

  10. Phase effect on flow control for dielectric barrier plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. P.; Roy, Subrata [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2006-07-03

    Active control of flow has a wide range of applications. Specifically, mitigation of detachment due to the weakly ionized gas flow past a flat plate at an angle of attack is studied using two asymmetric sets of electrode pairs kept at a phase lag. The equations governing the dynamics of electrons, helium ions, and neutrals are solved self-consistently with charge-Poisson equation. The electrodynamic forces produced by two actuators largely depend on the relative phase between the potentials applied to rf electrodes and distance between them. A suitable phase and an optimum distance exist between two actuators for effective separation control.

  11. Refinement, validation, and implementation of lumped circuit element model for single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Benjamin E.

    Single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been applied to a wide variety of aerodynamic flow control applications ranging from stall suppression of airfoils at high angles of attack to reducing tip leakage in jet engine turbine blades. With increased interest in applying plasma actuators to various engineering problems comes the need for an efficient model of the actuators that can be used in a CFD simulation. Prior to the current work, a model was developed that captured many of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the actuator by using circuits consisting of resistors and capacitors to model the plasma and dielectric material. In the current work, this model was refined by casting the governing equations in terms of a generalized coordinate system so that it can be applied to curved surfaces, the grid dependence of the model was eliminated, and the method of applying this model as a boundary condition to the electrostatic equations to calculate the body forces generated by the actuator was studied. This new formulation of the lumped circuit element model was then validated against various experimental observations including force vector orientation needed to produce observed induced flow, the scaling of the force with input voltage, and the directivity patterns and pressure time-series from acoustic measurements. The model was also implemented in a flow solver for the case of an impulsively started actuator on a flat plate and compared to experimental data found in literature. Finally, the utility of the model was demonstrated by simulating the use of actuators for flow control of the flow over a circular cylinder and a modified blunt trailing edge wind turbine blade.

  12. Simulation of an asymmetric single dielectric barrier plasma actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.P.; Roy, Subrata [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Continuity equations governing electron and ion density are solved with Poisson's equation to obtain spatial and temporal profiles of electron density, ion density, and voltage. The motion of electrons and ions results in charge separation and generation of an electrostatic electric field. Electron deposition downstream of the overlap region of the electrode results in formation of a virtual negative electrode that always attracts the charge separation. The value of charge separation e(n{sub i}-n{sub e}) and the force per volume F=e(n{sub i}-n{sub e})E have been obtained near the dielectric surface for the 50th cycle. Domain integration of the force F=e(n{sub i}-n{sub e})E has been obtained for different plasma densities, frequencies, and rf voltage wave forms. The time average of the x force is positive and the y force is negative over the domain; therefore there is an average net force on the plasma in the positive x and negative y directions. This will result in a moving wave of plasma over the dielectric surface in the positive x direction, which can find application in flow control.

  13. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  14. Effects of pulse polarity on nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Robyn A.; Little, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators are studied in quiescent air using a power supply capable of producing negative and positive polarity waveforms. High voltage pulses are applied to the exposed electrode of typical asymmetric actuator geometry. In addition to polarity, the effects of pulse amplitude, actuator length, and dielectric thickness are also investigated. Schlieren images are used to estimate the relative near surface gas heating, while electrical measurements are acquired simultaneously. Negative polarity pulses develop slightly more energy per unit length for thin dielectrics, while positive polarity is slightly higher for thick dielectrics. In most cases, the difference in per unit length energy produced by positive and negative pulses on equivalent actuators is not outside the measurement uncertainty. Negative polarity pulses are found to produce a stronger pressure wave for a given peak voltage and pulse energy across the test matrix. Results indicate that the negative polarity pulse more efficiently couples electrical energy to the near surface gas as heat. This suggests negative polarity pulses may be preferred for aerodynamic flow control applications employing this actuator arrangement.

  15. Airflow influence on the discharge performance of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J.; Tropea, C. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the effect of the airflow on the performance of dielectric barrier discharge plasma-actuators is investigated experimentally. In order to analyze the actuator's performance, luminosity measurements have been carried out simultaneously with the recording of the relevant electrical parameters. A performance drop of about 10% is observed for the entire measured parameter range at a flow speed of M = 0.145 (U{sub {infinity}}=50 m/s). This insight is of particular importance, since the plasma-actuator control authority is already significantly reduced at this modest speed level. The results at higher Mach numbers (0.4

  16. Flow control over a NACA 0012 airfoil using dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator with a Gurney flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li-Hao; Jukes, Timothy N.; Choi, Kwing-So; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Flow control study of a NACA 0012 airfoil with a Gurney flap was carried out in a wind tunnel, where it was demonstrated that a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuator attached to the flap could increase the lift further, but with a small drag penalty. Time-resolved PIV measurements of the near-wake region indicated that the plasma forcing shifted the wake downwards, reducing its recirculation length. Analysis of wake vortex dynamics suggested that the plasma actuator initially amplified the lower wake shear layer by adding momentum along the downstream surface of the Gurney flap. This enhanced mutual entrainment between the upper and lower wake vortices, leading to an increase in lift on the airfoil.

  17. Effect of external flow velocity on momentum transfer of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Ragni, Daniele; Kotsonis, Marios

    2014-09-01

    An experimental study is performed towards identifying cross-talk effects between DBD plasma actuators and external flow. An actuator is positioned in a boundary layer operated in a range of free stream velocities from 0 to 60 m/s, and tested both in counter-flow and co-flow forcing configurations. Electrical measurements are used for estimating the power consumption and the discharge formation is visualized using a CCD camera. The actuator's force is measured using a sensitive load cell. Results show the power consumption is constant for different flow velocities and actuator configurations. The plasma light emission is constant for co-flow forcing but shows a trend of increasing intensity with counter-flow forcing for increasing free stream velocities. The measured force is constant for free stream velocities larger than 20 m/s, with same magnitude and opposite direction for the counter-flow and co-flow configurations. In quiescent conditions, the measured force is smaller due to the change in wall shear force by the induced wall-jet. An analytical model is presented to estimate the influence of external flow on the actuator force. It is based on conservation of momentum through the ion-neutral collisional process while including the contribution of the wall shear force. Satisfactory agreement is found between the prediction of the model and experimental data at different external flow velocities.

  18. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  19. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Microscale Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Microscale Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma by the Authors. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 d = damped frequency n = natural frequency = damping ratio I. Introduction

  20. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegseis, J. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Tropea, C. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  1. Time-resolved measurements of plasma-induced momentum in air and nitrogen under dielectric barrier discharge actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonov, Sergey [Joint Institute for High Temperature, RAS, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Opaits, Dmitry; Miles, Richard [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Soloviev, Victor [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    There has been much recent interest in boundary layer (BL) actuation by offset surface dielectric barrier discharges (SDBD). These discharges either act directly on the gas momentum through the mechanism of charge separation or they increase the flow stability through the creation of disturbances to the BL at a particular frequency. The objective of the work reported here is to clarify the physical mechanism of plasma-flow interaction. Two problems are considered in detail: the exact spatial/temporal distribution of the plasma-related force, and the specific role of negative ions in the net force budget. The experiments were made with an offset electrode configuration of SDBD at voltage amplitude U{<=}12 kV and frequency f=0.02-2 kHz. The main data were obtained by time-resolved Pitot tube pressure measurements in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Three main features of SDBD behavior were considered. First, the strong inhomogeneity in the spatial distribution of the plasma-induced flow were detected. Second, the principal role of negative ions in plasma-induced flow generation was established. Third, the two types of gas disturbances were observed: the thermal effect and momentum transfer effect (ion wind). To explain the aforementioned features of SDBD behavior in air and nitrogen the results of numerical simulation have been used.

  2. Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Macheret, Sergey O.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, 1011 Lockheed Way, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A detailed physical model for an asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air driven by repetitive nanosecond voltage pulses is developed. In particular, modeling of DBD with high voltage repetitive negative and positive nanosecond pulses combined with positive dc bias is carried out. Operation at high voltage is compared with operation at low voltage, highlighting the advantage of high voltages, however the effect of backward-directed breakdown in the case of negative pulses results in a decrease of the integral momentum transferred to the gas. The use of positive repetitive pulses with dc bias is demonstrated to be promising for DBD performance improvement. The effects of the voltage waveform not only on force magnitude, but also on the spatial profile of the force, are shown. The crucial role of background photoionization in numerical modeling of ionization waves (streamers) in DBD plasmas is demonstrated.

  3. Thrust Vectoring Flow Control Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Jamey; Bolitho, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Thrust vectoring flow control is demonstrated using plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJA). The PSJA is a geometric variant of a plasma actuator, consisting of a symmetric electrode array that results in a circular region of dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Quiescent flow PIV measurements of the PSJA reveal that the flowfield on actuation resembles that of a zero-mass flux or synthetic jet that is useful for flow control, particularly separation reduction. Like synthetic jets, unsteady pulsed actuator operation results in formation of multiple vortex rings. The output jet momentum is found to be affected by the power input, actuator dimension and pulsing frequency. While increasing the input power increases the maximum jet velocity, an optimum range of pulsing frequencies and actuator dimensions are observed to exist in order to maximize jet momentum. By asymmetrically varying the plasma input parameters, such as frequency, amplitude and duty cycle, it is possible to control the jet angle. Vectoring using high frequency pusling akin to synthetic jets is more effective than vectoring by modifying steady control inputs and differences in control effectiveness are due primarily to the time scales associated with the vortex formation.

  4. Novel applications of plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Arzu Ceren

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of two different dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator configurations, a 3-D annular geometry for use in micro thrusters and internal duct aerodynamics and a jet vectoring actuator that acts as a vortex generator and flow control device. The first configuration consists of a closed circumferential arrangement which yields a body force when a voltage difference is applied across the inner and outer electrodes separated by a dielectric. The primary flow is driven by this zero-net mass flux jet at the wall that then entrains fluid in the core of the duct. PIV experiments in both quiescent flow and freestream are conducted on tubes of different diameters while varying parameters such as the modulation frequency, duty cycle and tunnel speed. The values of the induced velocities increase with the forcing frequency and duty cycle although there is a peak value for the forcing frequency after which the velocity and thrust decrease for each thruster. The velocities and thrust increase as the inner diameter of the tubes are increased while the velocity profiles show a great difference with the (l/di) ratio; recirculation occurs after going below a critical value. Experiments in the wind tunnel illustrate that the jet exit characteristics significantly change upon actuation in freestream flow but the effect tends to diminish with increasing inner diameters and tunnel speeds. Using staged arrays of these thrusters result in higher velocities while operating at both in phase and out of phase. The jet vectoring configuration consists of a single embedded electrode separated from two exposed electrodes on either side by the dielectric. The embedded electrode is grounded while the exposed electrodes are driven with a high frequency high voltage input signal. PIV measurements of the actuator in a freestream show that vectoring the jet yields stronger vortices than a linear configuration and increasing the difference between the duty cycles of the channels increases the vortex strength. It is seen that while the vortex is barely visible at the leading edge with little strength, it grows significantly large in the streamwise direction and reaches its maximum strength around mid-chord locations while the circulation distribution shows that the bulk of the circulation is added here. The motion of the vortex along this direction illustrates a braiding phenomena that can be observed via flow visualizations. Streamwise PIV data for this configuration on a wing with a NACA 0012 airfoil is used to plot the reverse flow probability, which in turn reveals that the use of the jet vectoring actuator as a vortex generator jet does suppress separation, but the actuator tends to lose its efficacy with increasing tunnel speeds.

  5. Thrust Measurement of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators: New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis, Frequency Sweeps Methodology, Humidity and Enclosure Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust, or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a grounded large-diameter metal sleeve. Strong dependence on humidity is also shown; the thrust significantly increased with decreasing humidity, e.g., 44 percent increase as relative humidity changed from 18 percent and dew point 33 degF to 50 percent and dew point of 57 degF.

  6. Characterization of novel and conventional dielectric barrier discharge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durscher, Ryan J.

    This document outlines efforts to improve upon the dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. These devices have been studied for use in various aerodynamic applications and have been particularly effective for freestream velocities up to ˜50 m s-1. In order to be truly applicable for a wide range of applications, however, a demonstration of sufficient control authority at higher speeds is necessary. To accomplish this, the plasma actuator requires a significant improvement in output performance, whether the metric be momentum transfer or peak induced velocity. The following work presents efforts to improve these metrics, in part through the development of new actuator configurations. Actuators consisting of multiple powered electrodes are demonstrated to show a substantial reduction in the device's power consumption, while a novel electrode layout is experimentally shown to induce a three-dimensional flow field. To date most actuator configurations used result in two-dimensional vector fields. Furthermore, two materials with extreme dielectric constants, relative to those typically investigated, are characterized. The net thrust of the actuator is shown to improve drastically while simultaneously reducing the actuator's weight by using silica aerogel, a previously unexplored dielectric material. The problem of thrust saturation is also investigated and characterized. The physical mechanisms involved in this limiting factor are identified and a manipulation of the effect is demonstrated.

  7. Control of an axisymmetric subsonic air jet by plasma actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Benard; J. Jolibois; M. Forte; G. Touchard; E. Moreau

    2007-01-01

    It is known that surface non-thermal plasma actuators have proved their efficiency for aerodynamics flow control. In this\\u000a study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is mounted on the diffuser of an axisymmetric turbulent air jet in order to control\\u000a the flow separation along a 12-degree diffuser bevel. The momentum created by the actuator is applied to separate an air flow

  8. Plasma actuators for airflow control: measurement of the non-stationary induced flow velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxime Forte; Luc Leger; Jérôme Pons; Eric Moreau; Gérard Touchard

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the measurement of the instantaneous flow velocity induced by surface plasma actuators in air at atmospheric pressure. More accurately, experiments with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are conducted with two different types of plasma actuators in order to determine the establishment time of the induced airflow. DC corona discharges and AC dielectric barrier discharges are investigated in

  9. Enhancement of the Electromechanical Performances of a Single Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jolibois; E. Moreau

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric study of a single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator has been performed in order to enhance its electromechanical performances. Three input parameters have been investigated: the dielectric thickness, the waveform of the applied high voltage and the voltage slew rate. The goal is to increase the velocity of the discharge-induced electric wind and\\/or to

  10. Separation control using plasma actuators: application to a free turbulent jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Labergue; E. Moreau; N. Zouzou; G. Touchard

    2007-01-01

    This experimental work deals with active airflow control using non-thermal surface plasma actuators in the case of a rectangular cross section turbulent jet. A wide-angle diffuser composed of two adjustable hinged baseplates is linked at the jet exit. Two types of actuators are considered: the DC corona discharge and the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). In both cases, an ionic wind

  11. Investigation of flow separation control by nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, N.; Leyland, P.; Peschke, Ph.; Ott, P.

    2015-06-01

    The ability of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators to control flow separation was investigated on a NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 0015 profile for velocities up to 24 m/s (Re = 230,000). The optimal location for the actuator was determined from oil flow experiments. Moderate voltage levels were applied (3 and 6 kV) and the actuator was operated at frequencies ranging from 0.058 to 10 kHz in pulse and burst modes. The peak effectiveness of the actuator occurred at reduced frequency values of around 1. Plasma influence was observed at all tested angles of attack (up to 26°) and the stall angle was delayed by 8°.

  12. Single dielectric barrier discharge plasma enhanced aerodynamics: physics, modeling and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Corke; Martiqua L. Post; Dmitriy M. Orlov

    2009-01-01

    The term “plasma actuator” has been a part of the fluid dynamics flow control vernacular for more than a decade. A particular\\u000a type of plasma actuator that has gained wide use is based on a single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) mechanism that has\\u000a desirable features for use in air at atmospheric pressures. For these actuators, the mechanism of flow control

  13. Investigation of microscale dielectric barrier discharge plasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Justin C.

    This dissertation presents research performed on reduced-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. A first generation of microscale DBD actuators are designed and manufactured using polymeric dielectric layers, and successfully demonstrate operation at reduced scales. The actuators are 1 cm long and vary in width from tens of microns to several millimeters. A thin-film polymer or ceramic material is used as the dielectric barrier with thicknesses from 5 to 20 microns. The devices are characterized for their electrical, fluidic and mechanical performance. With electrical input of 5 kVpp, 1 kHz, the microscale DBD actuators induce a wall jet with velocity reaching up to 2 m/s and produce 3.5 mN/m of thrust, while consuming an average power of 20 W/m. A 5 mN/m plasma body force was observed, acting on the surrounding air. Failure of the microscale DBD actuators is investigated using thermal measurements of the dielectric surface in addition to both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The cause of device failure is identified as erosion of the dielectric surface due to collisions with ions from the discharge. A second generation of microscale actuators is then designed and manufactured using a more reliable dielectric material, namely silicon dioxide. These actuators demonstrate a significant improvement in device lifetime compared with first-generation microscale DBD actuators. The increase in actuator lifetime allowed the electrical, fluidic and mechanical characterization to be repeated over several input voltages and frequencies. At 7 kVpp, 1 kHz, the actuators with SiO2 dielectric induced velocities up to 1.5 m/s and demonstrated 1.4 mN/m of thrust while consuming an average power of 41 W/m. The plasma body force reached up to 2.5 mN/m. Depending on electrical input, the induced velocity and thrust span an order of magnitude in range. Comparisons are made with macroscale DBD actuators which relate the actuator's output performance and power consumption with the mass and volume of the actuator design. The small size and of microscale DBD actuators reduces its weight and power requirements, making them attractive for portable or battery-powered applications (e.g., on UAVs).

  14. Mechanisms of plasma actuators for hypersonic flow control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Shang; S. T. Surzhikov; R. Kimmel; D. Gaitonde; J. Menart; J. Hayes

    2005-01-01

    A summary of recent research progress in hypersonic plasma actuators for flow control is attempted. It is found that the most effective plasma actuator is derived from an electromagnetic perturbation and amplifies by a subsequent viscous–inviscid interaction. Computational efforts using drift-diffusion theory and a simple phenomenological plasma model, as well as experiments in a hypersonic plasma channel, have shown the

  15. Comparisons of Force Measurement Methods for DBD Plasma Actuators in Quiescent Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Hershkowitz, Noah; Ashpis, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the force induced by both single (one electrode insulated) and double (both electrodes insulated) dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators in quiescent air. We have shown that, for single barrier actuators with cylindrical exposed electrodes, as the electrode diameter decrease the force efficiencies increase much faster than a previously reported linear trend. This behavior has been experimentally verified using two different measurement techniques: stagnation probe measurements of the induced flow velocity and direct measurement of the force using an electronic balance. Actuators with rectangular cross-section exposed electrodes do not show the same rapid increase at small thicknesses. We have also shown that the induced force is independent of the material used for the exposed electrode. The same techniques have shown that the induced force of a double barrier actuator increases with decreasing narrow electrode diameter.

  16. Study of Unsteady Flow Actuation Produced by Surface Plasma Actuator on 2-D Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Minh Khang; Shin, Jichul

    2014-10-01

    Effect of flow actuation driven by low current continuous or pulsed DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator is studied. Schlieren image of induced flow on flat plate taken at a high repetition rate reveals that the actuation is mostly initiated near the cathode. Assuming that the actuation is mostly achieved by ions in the cathode sheath region, numerical model for the source of flow actuation is obtained by analytical estimation of ion pressure force created in DC plasma sheath near the cathode and added in momentum equation as a body force term. Modeled plasma flow actuator is simulated with NACA0012 airfoil oscillating over a certain range of angle of attack (AoA) at specific reduced frequencies of airfoil. By changing actuation authority according to the change in AoA, stabilization of unsteady flow field is improved and hence steady aerodynamic performance can be maintained. Computational result shows that plasma actuation is only effective in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of separated flow. It turns out that plasma pulse frequency should be tuned for optimal performance depending on phase angle and rotating speed. The actuation authority can be parameterized by a ratio between plasma pulse frequency and reduced frequency.

  17. Stressed glass technology for actuators and removable barrier applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwing, Kamilla, J.; Warren, Mial E.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2007-07-01

    There are commercial and military applications in which a material needs to serve as a barrier that must subsequently be removed. In many cases it is desirable that once the barrier has served its function that it then be reduced to small pieces. For example, in pipelines and in downhole drilling applications, valves are needed to function as barriers that can sustain high pressures. Later the valves must be removed and essentially disappear or be rendered to such a small size that they do not interfere with the functioning of other equipment. Military applications include covers on missile silos or launch vehicles. Other applications might require that a component be used once as an actuator or for passive energy storage, and then be irreversibly removed, again so as not to interfere with the function or motion of other parts of the device. Brittle materials, especially those that are very strong, or are pre-stressed, are ideal candidates for these applications. Stressed glass can be produced in different sizes and shapes and the level of strength and pre-stress, both of which control the fragmentation, can be manipulated by varying the processing. Stressed glass can be engineered to fracture predictably at a specific stress level. Controlling the central tension allows the fragment size to be specified. The energy that is stored in the residual stress profile that results from ion exchange or thermal tempering processes can be harnessed to drive fragmentation of the component once it has been deliberately fractured. Energy can also be stored in the glass by mechanical loading. Energy from both of these sources can be released either to perform useful work or to initiate another reaction. Once the stressed glass has been used as a barrier or actuator it can never be ''used'' again because it fragments into many small unrecognizable pieces during the actuation. Under some circumstances it will interfere with the motion or functioning of other parts of a device. Our approach was to use stressed glass to develop capabilities for making components that can be used as barriers, as actuating devices that passively store energy, or as a mechanical weaklink that is destroyed by some critical shock or crush load. The objective of this project was to develop one or more prototype devices using stressed glass technology and demonstrate their potential for applications of interest. This work is intended to provide critical information and technologies for Sandia's NP&A and MT&A customers, and is relevant to commercial applications for these same materials. Most of the studies in this project were conducted using the Corning 0317 sodium aluminosilicate glass composition.

  18. Evaluation of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge Actuator Substrate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Sauti, Godfrey; Xu, Tian-Bing; Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2014-01-01

    A key, enabling element of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator is the dielectric substrate material. While various investigators have studied the performance of different homogeneous materials, most often in the context of related DBD experiments, fundamental studies focused solely on the dielectric materials have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental assessment of the body-force-generating performance of a wide range of dielectric materials in search of opportunities to improve DBD actuator performance. Materials studied included commonly available plastics and glasses as well as a custom-fabricated polyimide aerogel. Diagnostics included static induced thrust, electrical circuit parameters for 2D surface discharges and 1D volume discharges, and dielectric material properties. Lumped-parameter circuit simulations for the 1D case were conducted showing good correspondence to experimental data provided that stray capacitances are included. The effect of atmospheric humidity on DBD performance was studied showing a large influence on thrust. The main conclusion is that for homogeneous, dielectric materials at forcing voltages less than that required for streamer formation, the material chemical composition appears to have no effect on body force generation when actuator impedance is properly accounted for.

  19. Noise control of subsonic cavity flows using plasma actuated receptive channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Arnob; Roy, Subrata

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a passive receptive rectangular channel at the trailing edge of an open rectangular cavity to reduce the acoustic tones generated due to coherent shear layer impingement. The channel is numerically tested at Mach 0.3 using an unsteady three-dimensional large eddy simulation. Results show reduction in pressure fluctuations in the cavity due to which sound pressure levels are suppressed. Two linear dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators are placed inside the channel to enhance the flow through it. Specifically, acoustic suppression of 7?dB was obtained for Mach 0.3 flow with the plasma actuated channel. Also, the drag coefficient for the cavity reduced by over three folds for the channel and over eight folds for the plasma actuated channel. Such a channel can be useful in noise and drag reduction for various applications, including weapons bay, landing gear and branched piping systems.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Hypersonic Flow and Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan; Cheng, Bangqin; Li, Yinghong; Cui, Wei; Yu, Yonggui; Jie, Junhun

    2013-09-01

    For hypersonic flow, it was found that the most effective plasma actuator is derived from an electromagnetic perturbation. An experimental study was performed between hypersonic flow and plasma aerodynamic actuation interaction in a hypersonic shock tunnel, in which a Mach number of 7 was reached. The plasma discharging characteristic was acquired in static flows. In a hypersonic flow, the flow field can affect the plasma discharging characteristics. DC discharging without magnetic force is unstable, and the discharge channel cannot be maintained. When there is a magnetic field, the energy consumption of the plasma source is approximately three to four times larger than that without a magnetic field, and at the same time plasma discharge can also affect the hypersonic flow field. Through schlieren pictures and pressure measurement, it was found that plasma discharging could induce shockwaves and change the total pressure and wall pressure of the flow field.

  1. Active Control of Natural Tollmien-Schlichting Waves using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsonis, Marios; Krishan Shukla, Ram; Probsting, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study is performed on active control of boundary layer instabilities developing on a NACA 0012 airfoil. A closed-loop control system has been implemented using the filtered-x Least Mean Squares adaptive algorithm based on Finite Impulse Response filters. Surface mounted microphones are used as sensors. The controller drives a Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma actuator placed along the span of the airfoil. In contrast to the conventional sinusoidal signal, the actuator is powered using a continuously adapted signal selected by the controller in order to damp the incoming wavetrain of TS waves. High speed 2-component Particle Image Velocimetry is used to characterize the flow in the vicinity of the actuator. Several cases are tested using both open-loop and closed-loop actuation. Tested freestream velocities range from 17 to 25 m / s at chord Reynolds of 0.22 to 0.33 million respectively. Results indicate the suppression of the tonal component of unstable TS waves with closed-loop actuation. Amplitude reduction of approximately 50 % is achieved for freestream velocity of 17 m / s while significant suppression is maintained for higher velocities. In the case of open-loop control, the actuator is operated using non-adapted single-frequency sinusoidal signal.

  2. Numerical simulation of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge actuator in a quiescent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. G.; Zhao, Z. J.; Li, J.; Cui, Y. D.; Khoo, B. C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a numerical study of nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator operating in quiescent air at atmospheric condition. Our study concentrates on plasma discharge induced fluid dynamics and on exploration of parametric space of interest for voltage pulse in an attempt to shed some light into elucidation of the mechanisms whereby the generated shock wave propagates through and affects the external flow. Specifically, a one-dimensional, self-similar, local ionization kinetic model recently developed to predict key parameters of nanosecond pulsed plasma discharge is coupled with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations possibly for the first time. Within the considered range of parameters of the plasma model which is justified for the modeling of surface nanosecond pulsed discharge at atmospheric pressure, our coupled method is able to provide satisfactory prediction of the shock structure generated by the actuator for comparison with experiment, not only in the qualitative shock wave shape but also in quantitative shock front displacement. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the gas heating, shock wave initiation and evolution processes. For example, the characteristic time of the rapid localized heating responsible for shock wave generation, which is yet to be quantified experimentally, is found to be ˜350 ns. We conduct a parametric investigation by varying the peak voltage from 10 kV to 50 kV and rise time from 5 ns to 150 ns. The pressure wave whose behavior is found to be dominated by input voltage amplitude, introduces highly transient, localized disturbance to the quiescent air. In addition, the vortex induced by the shock passage is relatively weak. The interplay of the induced flows by a few successive plasma discharges operating at continuous mode does not appear to be significant, especially at low voltage amplitude.

  3. Switching Behavior of a Plasma-Fluidic Actuator James W. Gregory*

    E-print Network

    Gregory, James W.

    features of plasma actuators and fluidic oscillators to create an actuator that decouples the actuation asymmetry across the nozzle of a fluidic oscillator. In this manner the device effectively serves as a fluid oscillator is derived from the integration of existing plasma actuators and fluidic oscillators. A. Fluidic

  4. Separation Control from the Flap of a High-Lift Airfoil Using DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Jesse; Nishihara, Munetake; Adamovich, Igor; Samimy, Mo

    2008-11-01

    Control of separation from the flap of a high-lift airfoil using a single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator has been investigated experimentally. This project is motivated by the desire to replace existing multi-element flap configurations with a single simple flap to allow more efficient high-lift generation. The results show that a single DBD plasma actuator located at the flap shoulder can increase or reduce the size of the time-averaged separation bubble over the flap depending on the frequency of actuation. In the latter case, the lift on the airfoil is increased due to improved circulation around the model, but it does not result in full reattachment on the deflected flap. These findings are consistent with previous research on high-lift airfoil configurations. The work will be expanded by exploring the effect of multiple actuators as well as their geometry and location on the size and structure of the separated region over the flap. This portion of the work will be done with an emphasis on optimizing the relative phase of each actuator and its effect on the separated flow region.

  5. Stabilisation of a three-dimensional boundary layer by base-flow manipulation using plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörr, P. C.; Kloker, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    The applicability of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for controlling the crossflow-vortex-induced laminar breakdown in a three-dimensional swept-wing-type boundary-layer flow is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Similar to the classical application of suction at the wall the aim is to modify the quasi two-dimensional base flow and to weaken primary crossflow (CF) instability, mainly due to a reduction of the basic CF. Not only localised volumetric forcing by plasma actuators but also CF counter-blowing and spots with a moving wall are investigated to identify effective fundamental mechanisms. It is found that counter blowing always results in partial blockage of the flow and eventually increased CF velocity, whereas moving-wall spots can slightly reduce the CF and the amplitude of crossflow vortices. Using discrete volumetric forcing a significant attenuation even of finite-amplitude crossflow vortices and thus a distinct transition delay is achieved.

  6. Instability wave control in turbulent jet by acoustical and plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Belyaev, I. V.; Faranosov, G. A.; Kopiev, V. A.; Ostrikov, N. N.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Akishev, Yu. S.; Grushin, M. E.; Trushkin, N. I.; Bityurin, V. A.; Klimov, A. I.; Moralev, I. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Taktakishvili, M. I.

    2015-06-01

    It was recently demonstrated by direct experiment in subsonic jets that an instability wave in jet shear layer generated by pure-tone acoustic excitation could be suppressed by another acoustic excitation, which generates an instability wave with the same properties. It was suggested that instability waves could be generated by any oscillating field near the nozzle exit. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of instability wave suppression by other types of periodic excitation. Three types of plasma actuators are considered: (i) high-frequency (HF) dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); (ii) slipping discharge; and (iii) corona discharge. Control authority of the plasma actuators over instability waves is demonstrated. For high-speed hot jets where instability waves are the dominant noise source, instability wave control is equivalent to noise control.

  7. Modelling of plasma aerodynamic actuation driven by nanosecond SDBD discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yifei; Wu, Yun; Cui, Wei; Li, Yinghong; Jia, Min

    2013-09-01

    A two-dimensional air plasma kinetics model (16 species and 44 processes) for nanosecond discharge under atmospheric pressure was developed to reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of discharge characteristics of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator. An energy transfer model, including two channels for energy release from external power source to gas, was developed to couple plasma with hydrodynamics directly in the same dimension. The governing equations included the Poisson equation for the electric potential, continuity equations for each species, electron energy equations for electrons taking part in reactions, and Navier-Stokes equations for non-isothermal fluid. The model was validated through current-voltage profile and electron temperature obtained from experiments. Calculations for discharge characteristics as well as the responses of fluid field from tens of nanoseconds to tens of seconds were performed. Results have shown that local air is heated to 1170 K within tens of nanoseconds and then decreases to 310 K at the end of a discharge period. 30% of the total power is transferred from electric field to electrons while only 20% of this energy is then released to gas through quenching processes. 9% of the total energy is released through ion collision. A micro-shock wave is formed and propagates at the speed of sound. High local density gradient and dynamic viscosity induces vortexes which whirl the heated air downstream. The combined effects of heating convection and vortexes in repetitive pulse discharges lead to the formation of a steady jet, in agreement with experimental results.

  8. Flow control in low pressure turbine blades using plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakumar, Karthik

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study of plasma flow control actuators for flow separation control in low pressure turbine (LPT) blades is presented. The actuator arrangement consists of two copper strips separated by a dielectric medium with an input voltage of approximately 5kV and a frequency input varying from 3-5 kHz, creating a region of plasma used for boundary layer flow control. The effect of varying waveform on control efficacy is investigated using sine, square and saw tooth waveforms. The impact of duty cycle and forcing frequency on both displacement and momentum thickness are also examined. Boundary layer measurements are carried out using PIV while measurements of the wake downstream are performed using a 7-hole probe for Reynolds number ranging from 30,000 to 50,000. Separation is fully controlled in most configurations and boundary layer parameters reveal that the actuator entrains the free-stream flow at the actuator location and creates a region of high turbulence, essentially behaving similar to an active boundary layer trip. A small region of reversed flow near the surface indicates the presence of cross-stream vortical structures. The use of plasma synthetic jet actuators flow LPT flow control is also discussed.

  9. Separation Control in a Centrifugal Bend Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Michael; Corke, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    An experiment and CFD simulation are presented to examine the use of plasma actuators to control flow separation in a 2-D channel with a 135° inside-bend that is intended to represent a centrifugal bend in a gas turbine engine. The design inlet conditions are P = 330 psia., T =1100° F, and M = 0 . 24 . For these conditions, the flow separates on the inside radius of the bend. A CFD simulation was used to determine the location of the flow separation, and the conditions (location and voltage) of a plasma actuator that was needed to keep the flow attached. The plasma actuator body force model used in the simulation was updated to include the effect of high-pressure operation. An experiment was used to validate the simulation and to further investigate the effect of inlet pressure and Mach number on the flow separation control. This involved a transient high-pressure blow-down facility. The flow field is documented using an array of static pressure taps in the channel outside-radius side wall, and a rake of total pressure probes at the exit of the bend. The results as well as the pressure effect on the plasma actuators are presented.

  10. Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Control of a Wing with Distributed Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Menghu; Li, Jun; Liang, Hua; Niu, Zhongguo; Zhao, Guangyin

    2015-06-01

    Experimental investigation of active flow control on the aerodynamic performance of a flying wing is conducted. Subsonic wind tunnel tests are performed using a model of a 35° swept flying wing with an nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuator, which is installed symmetrically on the wing leading edge. The lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient are tested by a six-component force balance for a range of angles of attack. The results indicate that a 44.5% increase in the lift coefficient, a 34.2% decrease in the drag coefficient and a 22.4% increase in the maximum lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved as compared with the baseline case. The effects of several actuation parameters are also investigated, and the results show that control efficiency demonstrates a strong dependence on actuation location and frequency. Furthermore, we highlight the use of distributed plasma actuators at the leading edge to enhance the aerodynamic performance, giving insight into the different mechanism of separation control and vortex control, which shows tremendous potential in practical flow control for a broad range of angles of attack. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51276197, 51207169 and 51336011)

  11. Mechanisms of plasma actuators for hypersonic flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J. S.; Surzhikov, S. T.; Kimmel, R.; Gaitonde, D.; Menart, J.; Hayes, J.

    2005-11-01

    A summary of recent research progress in hypersonic plasma actuators for flow control is attempted. It is found that the most effective plasma actuator is derived from an electromagnetic perturbation and amplifies by a subsequent viscous-inviscid interaction. Computational efforts using drift-diffusion theory and a simple phenomenological plasma model, as well as experiments in a hypersonic plasma channel, have shown the effectiveness of using electro-aerodynamic interaction as a hypersonic flow control mechanism. In principle, the plasma actuator based on magneto-aerodynamic interaction should have an added mechanism in the Lorentz force, making it even more effective as a flow control mechanism. However, this approach also incurs additional challenges and complications due to the Hall effect. Magneto-aerodynamic interactions have also been demonstrated for separated flow control, albeit in a very limited scope. Numerical simulations based on a simple phenomenological plasma model have shown the feasibility of separated flow suppression in shock-boundary-layer interaction over a compression ramp at a hypersonic flow of Mach 14.1. The control mechanism relies on the Lorentz force to energize the retarded shear layer in the viscous interacting region, but the effectiveness of momentum transfer via inelastic collision requires further validation.

  12. Simulation of DBD plasma actuators, and nanoparticle-plasma interactions in argon-hydrogen CCP RF discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamunuru, Meenakshi

    The focus of this work is modeling and simulation of low temperature plasma discharges (LTPs). The first part of the thesis consists of the study of dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma actuators. Use of DBD plasma actuators on airfoil surfaces is a promising method for increasing airfoil efficiency. Actuators produce a surface discharge that causes time averaged thrust in the neutral gas. The thrust modifies the boundary layer properties of the flow and prevents the occurrence of separation bubbles. In simulating the working of an actuator, the focus is on the spatial characteristics of the thrust produced by the discharge over very short time and space scales. The results provide an understanding of the causes of thrust, and the basic principles behind the actuator operation. The second part of this work focusses on low pressure plasma discharges used for silicon nanoparticle synthesis. When reactive semiconductor precursor gases are passed through capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) radio frequency (RF) reactors, nano sized particles are formed. When the reactors are operated at high enough powers, a very high fraction of the nanoparticles are crystallized in the chamber. Nanoparticle crystallization in plasma is a very complex process and not yet fully understood. It can be inferred from experiments that bulk and surface processes initiated due to energetic ion impaction of the nanoparticles are responsible for reordering of silicon atoms, causing crystallization. Therefore, study of plasma-particle interactions is the first step towards understanding how particles are crystallized. The specific focus of this work is to investigate the experimental evidence that hydrogen gas presence in argon discharges used for silicon nanocrystal synthesis, leads to a superior quality of nanocrystals. Influence of hydrogen gas on plasma composition and discharge characteristics is studied. Via Monte Carlo simulation, distribution of ion energy impacting particles surface is studied. It is seen that hydrogen ions cause a reduction in particle floating potential, thereby lowering the ion impaction energies. The hydrogen ion current is also effective in delivering increased number of atomic H radicals to the particle surface, which are known to promote particle crystallization. The work therefore sheds light on the ways in which trace amount of hydrogen gas participates in silicon nanoparticle crystallization in argon silane plasma.

  13. Nanosecond-pulsed plasma actuation in quiescent air and laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correale, G.; Michelis, T.; Ragni, D.; Kotsonis, M.; Scarano, F.

    2014-03-01

    An experimental investigation of the working principles of a nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuator has been conducted. Special emphasis is given on the thermal effects accompanying the rapid deposition of energy associated with this kind of actuation. A ns-DBD plasma actuator has been operated in quiescent air conditions as well as in a flat plate laminar boundary layer, with external flow velocity of 5 and 10 m s-1. Schlieren imaging and particle image velocimetry have been used to characterize the actuation. Additionally, the back-current shunt technique has been used for current measurements, from which energy input (per pulse) is calculated. Cases of 10-, 20- and 50-pulse bursts are tested. Schlieren imaging in still air conditions shows the formation of a high-temperature region in the vicinity of the discharge volume. The spatial extent of the visible ‘hot spot’ depends upon the number of pulses within the burst, following a power law. Schlieren imaging of the span-wise effect of the plasma actuator reveals weak compression waves originating from the loci of discharge filaments. The thermal ‘hot spots’ exhibit significant three-dimensionality. Particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field resulting from the ns-DBDs acting on a laminar boundary layer. The disturbance leads to formation of a Tollmien-Schlichting wave train, with spectral content in good agreement with linear stability theory. It is observed that the group length of the wave train is proportional to the number of pulses within the burst.

  14. Unmanned air vehicle flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge plasma at high wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Wang, WanBo; Wang, XunNian; Li, HuaXing

    2014-06-01

    The present paper described an experimental investigation of separation control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at high wind speeds. The plasma actuator was based on Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) and operated in a steady manner. The flow over a wing of UAV was performed with smoke flow visualization in the ?0.75 m low speed wind tunnel to reveal the flow structure over the wing so that the locations of plasma actuators could be optimized. A full model of the UAV was experimentally investigated in the ?3.2 m low speed wind tunnel using a six-component internal strain gauge balance. The effects of the key parameters, including the locations of the plasma actuators, the applied voltage amplitude and the operating frequency, were obtained. The whole test model was made of aluminium and acted as a cathode of the actuator. The results showed that the plasma acting on the surface of UAV could obviously suppress the boundary layer separation and reduce the model vibration at the high wind speeds. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of the UAV was increased by 2.5% and the lift/drag ratio was increased by about 80% at the wind speed of 100 m/s. The control mechanism of the plasma actuator at the test configuration was also analyzed.

  15. Note: Background Oriented Schlieren as a diagnostics for airflow control by plasma actuators.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, I; Capone, C; Barni, R; Riccardi, C

    2015-02-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is an optical technique sensitive to the first spatial derivative of the refractive index inside a light-transmitting medium. Compared to other Schlieren-like techniques, BOS is more versatile and allows to capture bi-dimensional gradients rather than just one spatial component. We propose to adopt BOS for studying the capabilities of surface dielectric barrier discharges to work like plasma actuators in flow control applications. The characteristics of the BOS we implemented at this purpose are discussed, together with few results concerning the ionic wind produced by the discharge in absence of an external airflow. PMID:25725896

  16. Separation control using plasma actuators: application to a free turbulent jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labergue, A.; Moreau, E.; Zouzou, N.; Touchard, G.

    2007-02-01

    This experimental work deals with active airflow control using non-thermal surface plasma actuators in the case of a rectangular cross section turbulent jet. A wide-angle diffuser composed of two adjustable hinged baseplates is linked at the jet exit. Two types of actuators are considered: the DC corona discharge and the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). In both cases, an ionic wind with a velocity of several m s-1 is generated tangentially to the wall surface. Thus, this induced aerodynamic effect is applied in order to create the separation along the lower hinged baseplate. The effects of both actuators on the flow separation are measured by means of particle image velocimetry for velocity up to 30 m s-1. The main results show that the DBD seems more efficient than the DC corona discharge but the effect decreases with the jet velocity. However, in increasing the discharge frequency up to 1500 Hz, it is possible to separate a 30 m s-1 jet. Finally, by reducing the actuators' length in the spanwise direction, results lead to a visualization of the three-dimensional effects on the separation along the lower hinged baseplate.

  17. Plasma sprayed functionally graded thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Khor; Z. L. Dong; Y. W. Gu

    1999-01-01

    Functionally graded thermal barrier coatings of the system yttria stabilised zirconia\\/NiCoCrAlY were fabricated through plasma spraying using pre-alloyed composite powders as feedstock. Composite powders with different compositions (75% NiCoCrAlY:25% YSZ; 50% NiCoCrAly:50% YSZ and 25% NiCoCrAlY:75% YSZ) were prepared by mechanical alloying and plasma powder spheroidisation, and are subsequently sprayed successively in a single plasma torch to form the functionally

  18. Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.

  19. Effect of a direct current bias on the electrohydrodynamic performance of a surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator for airflow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huijie; Yang, Liang; Qi, Xiaohua; Ren, Chunsheng

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a DC bias on the electrohydrodynamics (EHD) force induced by a surface dielectric barrier AC discharge actuator for airflow control at the atmospheric pressure is investigated. The measurement of the surface potential due to charge deposition at different DC biases is carried out by using a special designed corona like discharge potential probe. From the surface potential data, the plasma electromotive force is shown not affected much by the DC biases except for some reduction of the DC bias near the exposed electrode edge for the sheath-like configuration. The total thrust is measured by an analytical balance, and an almost linear relationship to the potential voltage at the exposed electrode edge is found for the direct thrust force. The temporally averaged ionic wind characteristics are investigated by Pitot tube sensor and schlieren visualization system. It is found that the ionic wind velocity profiles with different DC biases are almost the same in the AC discharge plasma area but gradually diversified in the further downstream area as well as the upper space away from the discharge plasma area. Also, the DC bias can significantly modify the topology of the ionic wind produced by the AC discharge actuator. These results can provide an insight into how the DC biases to affect the force generation.

  20. Combustion stabilization using serpentine plasma actuators Chin-Cheng Wang and Subrata Roya)

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Combustion stabilization using serpentine plasma actuators Chin-Cheng Wang and Subrata Roya 2011) This letter presents a numerical model for combustion stabilization with plasma actuators of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3615292] The topic of plasma assisted combustion (PAC) has been investigated

  1. Plasma Actuators for Turbomachinery Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard, B; Shneider, Mikhail, N.

    2012-01-01

    This report is Part I of the final report of NASA Cooperative Agreement contract no. NNX07AC02A. The period of performance was January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010. This report includes the project summary, a list of publications and reprints of the publications that appeared in archival journals. Part II of the final report includes a Ph.D. dissertation and is published separately as NASA/CR-2012-2172655. The research performed under this project was focused on the operation of surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices driven by high voltage, nanosecond scale pulses plus constant or time varying bias voltages. The main interest was in momentum production and the range of voltages applied eliminated significant heating effects. The approach was experimental supplemented by computational modeling. All the experiments were conducted at Princeton University. The project provided comprehensive understanding of the associated physical phenomena. Limitations on the performance of the devices for the generation of high velocity surface jets were established and various means for overcoming those limitations were proposed and tested. The major limitations included the maximum velocity limit of the jet due to electrical breakdown in air and across the dielectric, the occurrence of backward breakdown during the short pulse causing reverse thrust, the buildup of surface charge in the dielectric offsetting the forward driving potential of the bias voltage, and the interaction of the surface jet with the surface through viscous losses. It was also noted that the best performance occurred when the nanosecond pulse and the bias voltage were of opposite sign. Solutions include the development of partially conducting surface coatings, the development of a semiconductor diode inlaid surface material to suppress the backward breakdown. Extension to long discharge channels was studied and a new ozone imaging method developed for more quantitative determination of surface jet properties.

  2. Plasma morphology and induced airflow characterization of a DBD actuator with serrated electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussot, R.; Leroy, A.; Weber, R.; Rabat, H.; Loyer, S.; Hong, D.

    2013-03-01

    Plasma morphology and airflow induced by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator, whose exposed electrode geometry is designed with a serrated configuration, are investigated in quiescent air and compared with a DBD actuator consisting of electrodes designed with a standard linear strip configuration. ICCD imaging, electrical measurements and three-component laser Doppler velocimetry were carried out to compare various features of these two actuators. With the serrated configuration, ICCD images of the discharge show that streamers are bent, whereas with the linear configuration they are straight. These curved streamers induce a three-dimensional flow topology, which is confirmed by friction line visualization and velocity measurements. Whereas a two-dimensional wall-jet is induced with the linear configuration, a transverse velocity component is measured with the serrated configuration, implying the creation of spanwise-periodic vorticity. Phase-averaged velocity measurements allow the temporal variation of this transverse velocity to be highlighted. On both sides of a tooth, it has qualitatively the same variation as the longitudinal velocity with respect to the negative or positive half-cycles of the high voltage signal. Moreover, with the same electrical operating parameters, the measured longitudinal velocity was higher, particularly at the tips.

  3. Documentation and Control of Flow Separation on a Low Pressure Turbine Linear Cascade of Pak-B Blades Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corke, Thomas c.; Thomas, FLint, O.; Huang, Junhui

    2007-01-01

    This work involved the documentation and control of flow separation that occurs over low pressure turbine (LPT) blades at low Reynolds numbers. A specially constructed linear cascade was utilized to study the flow field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney "Pak-B" shaped blades. Flow visualization, surface pressure measurements, LDV measurements, and hot-wire anemometry were conducted to examine the flow fields with and without separation control. Experimental conditions were chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers (based on axial chord and inlet velocity) from 10,000 to 100,000, and a range of freestream turbulence intensities from u'/U(infinity) = 0.08 to 2.85 percent. The blade pressure distributions were measured and used to identify the region of separation that depends on Reynolds number and the turbulence intensity. Separation control was performed using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. Both steady and unsteady actuation were implemented and found to work well. The comparison between the steady and unsteady actuators showed that the unsteady actuators worked better than the steady ones. For the steady actuators, it was found that the separated region is significantly reduced. For the unsteady actuators, where the signal was pulsed, the separation was eliminated. The total pressure losses (a low Reynolds number) was reduced by approximately a factor of two. It was also found that lowest plasma duty cycle (10 percent in this work) was as effective as the highest plasma duty cycle (50 percent in this work). The mechanisms of the steady and unsteady plasma actuators were studied. It was suggested by the experimental results that the mechanism for the steady actuators is turbulence tripping, while the mechanism for the unsteady actuators is to generate a train of spanwise structures that promote mixing.

  4. Study of flow induced by sine wave and saw tooth plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lianze; Fu, Song

    2011-11-01

    The effect of plasma actuator that uses saw-tooth or sine-wave shape electrodes on boundary layer flows is experimentally investigated. The measurement results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (conventional design using two rectangular strip electrodes)—the actuator that produces a nearly two-dimensional horizontal wall jet upon actuation. PIV measurements are used to characterize the actuators in a quiescent chamber. Operating in a steady manner, the new actuators result in the formation of streamwise and spanwise vortices. That is to say, the new actuators render the plasma actuators inducing three-dimensional variations in the shear layer, offering significant flexibility in flow control. The affected flowfield with the new actuators is significantly larger than that with the conventional linear actuators. While the conventional linear actuators affect primarily the boundary layer flow on a scale of about 1 cm above the wall, the new actuators affect the near wall region at a significantly larger scale. This new design broadens the applicability and enhances the flow control effects and it is potentially a more efficient flow control device.

  5. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  6. On the Development of Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators for High-Speed Flow Control1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H. Kim; M. Nishihara; S. Keshav; I. V. Adamovich; M. Samimy; S. V. Gorbatov; F. V. Pliavaka

    2009-01-01

    Recently developed Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) have shown authority in high-speed, high Reynolds number flow control for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of a few percent. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed RF plasma generator has been

  7. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it has to be tested at 12.4 atm for takeoff, and 6 atm for cruise conditions. If it is to be placed at the low-pressure turbine, it has to be tested at 0.5 and 0.2 atm, respectively. These results have implications for the feasibility and design of DBD plasma actuators for jet engine flow control applications. In addition, the distributions of unit Reynolds number, Mach number, and velocity along the engine are provided. The engine models are non-proprietary and this information can be used for evaluation of other types of actuators and for other purposes.

  8. Force generation due to three-dimensional plasma discharge on a conical forebody using pulsed direct current actuators

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    direct current actuators Kunwar Pal Singh and Subrata Roya Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory Understanding the behavior of three-dimensional plasmas around a pulsed dc actuator can be useful for its efficient operation in many applications. The effect of such actuators is studied using a self

  9. Plasma surface modification and hydrophobic barrier coating of paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2001-07-01

    Development of new technologies for production of alternative paper properties with minimal environmental hazards was the goal of this project. In this study, the utilization of various chemicals under radio frequency (RF) plasma environments was investigated for creation of hydrophobic barrier properties and deposition of electrically conductive conjugated thin layers on the surface of paper. Four basic approaches have been utilized to impart hydrophobic barriers to the paper without affecting bulk properties; argon plasma treatment after Teflon-like chemical; 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (TFE) predeposition, carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) plasma treatment after TFE pre-deposition, carbon tetrafluoride plasma treatment alone and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTSO) plasma treatment of paper under an RF-glow discharge. The chosen chemicals were found to enhance the properties of the paper substrates and surface analysis aided explanation of the mechanism of hydrophobic barrier improvements on paper. An attempt was also made to prepare oriented thin films of pi-conjugated polymers on paper surfaces with a pulsed plasma technique for incorporation of electrically conductive layers. Progressive changes in composition, with varying plasma duty cycles during the plasma polymerization, were observed with thiophene. The results of this study provide additional support for the unusually good control of film chemistry available via the pulsed plasma technique. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated that fragmented thiophene films were obtained under mild plasma conditions, but the discontinuous thiophene film was found to be oriented. The electrical behavior of the thiophene derived deposited layer was dramatically improved with chemical doping. Correlation of the changes of paper surface properties with changes in plasma parameters are partially explained by based on surface chemistry, although other structural features of the paper morphology were also affected to some extent by the treatments. It may be that some of the methods evaluated in this study could be applied by industry, particularly gas-vapor plasma treatments alone; however the approaches were designed to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of plasma modification of the properties of paper.

  10. Development and Application Plasma Actuators for High Reynolds Number and High Speed Jet Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimy, M.; Adamovich, I.; Webb, B.; Kastner, J.; Hileman, J.

    2003-11-01

    Active control of high Reynolds number and high speed jets requires actuators of large bandwidth and amplitude. To meet such a requirement a new plasma actuator termed localized arc filament plasma actuator (LAFPA) has been developed. The actuator, which is located close to the exit of the nozzle and flush mounted with the inner surface of the nozzle, can produce strong localized perturbations of various frequencies (up to 100 kHz) at any pressure (high or low) and flow speed (subsonic or supersonic). Several actuators can be distributed around the nozzle exit to generate streamwise vortices, mimicking tabs/chevrons, or can be phase-locked to force various azimuthal instabilities of the jet. The mechanism by which these actuators affect the flow is localized heating. Up to two LAFPAs have been used in jets of Mach numbers 0.9 and 1.3 and Reynolds numbers a million with encouraging results. Work is in progress to distribute and use four to eight LAFPAs to force the jet.

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements within a single microdischarge of a dielectric barrier discharge actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanfield, S. A.; Menart, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports optical emission spectroscopy measurements resolved laterally within a single microdischarge during the negative half-cycle of a sinusoidally driven dielectric barrier discharge. The maximum values of the reduced electric field, vibrational temperature of N2(C3?u), and rotational temperature of N2+(B2?u+) were approximately 300 Td, 3500 K, and 1200 K, respectively. These values were correlated to the outer-edges of the microdischarge near the plasma-dielectric surface interface. These maximum values were significantly greater than measurements made elsewhere within the microdischarge and suggest a strong sheath at the outer-edges of the microdischarge.

  12. Flow and Noise Control in High Speed and High Reynolds Number Jets Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Kastner, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Utkin, Y.; Adamovich, I.; Brown, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of manipulating flow to change its characteristics is over a century old. Manipulating instabilities of a jet to increase its mixing and to reduce its radiated noise started in the 1970s. While the effort has been successful in low-speed and low Reynolds number jets, available actuators capabilities in terms of their amplitude, bandwidth, and phasing have fallen short in control of high-speed and high Reynolds number jets of practical interest. Localized arc filament plasma actuators have recently been developed and extensively used at Gas Dynamics and Turbulence Laboratory (GDTL) for control of highspeed and high Reynolds number jets. While the technique has been quite successful and is very promising, all the work up to this point had been carried out using small high subsonic and low supersonic jets from a 2.54 cm diameter nozzle exit with a Reynolds number of about a million. The preliminary work reported in this paper is a first attempt to evaluate the scalability of the technique. The power supply/plasma generator was designed and built in-house at GDTL to operate 8 actuators simultaneously over a large frequency range (0 to 200 kHz) with independent control over phase and duty cycle of each actuator. This allowed forcing the small jet at GDTL with azimuthal modes m = 0, 1, 2, 3, plus or minus 1, plus or minus 2, and plus or minus 4 over a large range of frequencies. This power supply was taken to and used, with minor modifications, at the NASA Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR). At NATR, 32 actuators were distributed around the 7.5 in. nozzle (a linear increase with nozzle exit diameter would require 60 actuators). With this arrangement only 8 actuators could operate simultaneously, thus limiting the forcing of the jet at NATR to only three azimuthal modes m = plus or minus 1, 4, and 8. Very preliminary results at NATR indicate that the trends observed in the larger NASA facility in terms of the effects of actuation frequency and azimuthal modes are similar in both small GDTL and larger NASA jets. However, the actuation authority seems to fall short in the larger jet at higher Mach numbers, resulting in decreased amplitude response compared to the small jet, which is attributed at this point to the lack of sufficient number of actuators. The preliminary results seem also to suggest that amplitude of actuation tones is similar in both the small and larger jets.

  13. Two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Weili; Dong Lifang [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Zhang Xinchun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A series of two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals have been obtained by filaments' self-organization in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge with two water electrodes, which undergo the transition from square to square superlattice and finally to the hexagon. The spatio-temporal behaviors of the plasma photonic crystals in nanosecond scale have been studied by optical method, which show that the plasma photonic crystal is actually an integration of different transient sublattices. The photonic band diagrams of the transverse electric (TE) mode and transverse magnetic mode for each sublattice of these plasma photonic crystals have been investigated theoretically. A wide complete band gap is formed in the hexagonal plasma photonic crystal with the TE mode. The changes of the band edge frequencies and the band gap widths in the evolvement of different structures are studied. A kind of tunable plasma photonic crystal which can be controlled both in space and time is suggested.

  14. Two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Weili; Zhang, Xinchun; Dong, Lifang

    2010-11-01

    A series of two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals have been obtained by filaments' self-organization in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge with two water electrodes, which undergo the transition from square to square superlattice and finally to the hexagon. The spatio-temporal behaviors of the plasma photonic crystals in nanosecond scale have been studied by optical method, which show that the plasma photonic crystal is actually an integration of different transient sublattices. The photonic band diagrams of the transverse electric (TE) mode and transverse magnetic mode for each sublattice of these plasma photonic crystals have been investigated theoretically. A wide complete band gap is formed in the hexagonal plasma photonic crystal with the TE mode. The changes of the band edge frequencies and the band gap widths in the evolvement of different structures are studied. A kind of tunable plasma photonic crystal which can be controlled both in space and time is suggested.

  15. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Physics Based Analysis of Horseshoe Plasma Actuator for Improving

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Dynamics Laboratory and Test Facility Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6300 We numerically test horseshoe plasma actuator for film cooling enhancement in gas thermal stresses due to hot effluent gases from the combustion chamber. The problem worsens

  16. Airfoil Roll Control by Bang-Bang Optimal Control Method with Plasma Actuators

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xun

    Airfoil Roll Control by Bang-Bang Optimal Control Method with Plasma Actuators Qingkai Wei 1 Peking, 100871, People's Republic of China The bang-bang optimal control method was proposed for glow discharge-induced roll moments can be rejected. Hence, the proposed bang-bang control method is a promising candidate

  17. Experimental damping of boundary-layer oscillations using DBD plasma actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Grundmann; Cameron Tropea

    2009-01-01

    In the present work artificially excited Tollmien–Schlichting waves were cancelled using plasma actuators operated both in continuous and pulsed modes. To achieve this a vibrating surface, driven by an electromagnetic turbulator, was flush-mounted in a flat plate to excite the TS waves. These were amplified by an adverse pressure gradient induced by an insert on the upper wall of the

  18. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Induced Flow from Serpentine Plasma Actuators Acting in

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Induced Flow from Serpentine Plasma Actuators-957 Copyright © 2011 by the Authors. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 Figure 1. Generic (standard) linear

  19. Force approximation for a plasma actuator operating in atmospheric air Kunwar Pal Singh and Subrata Roya

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Force approximation for a plasma actuator operating in atmospheric air Kunwar Pal Singh and Subrata and numerically tested for air. The magnitude of approximated force increases with the fourth power relationship between force production and air pressure was found. Pavon et al.3 investigated different bulk

  20. Failure analysis of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Berndt; R. A. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings have been subjected to thermal cycling tests with simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring. Process variables and their effect on coating integrity were evaluated in terms of cracking behavior. Failure of the thermal protection is progressive since cracking and crack growth were observed prior to ultimate failure. Catastrophic failure occurs when microcracks are transformed to macrocracks.

  1. A Numerical Model of Plasma-Actuator Effects in Flow-Induced Noise Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Peers; Xun Huang; Xinfu Luo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a computational model was developed to model the potential of plasma actuators to reduce flow-induced noise. The model consisted of a viscous flow solver to compute the flow field and a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic solver to predict the far-field noise radiation. A velocity-inlet boundary condition was used to model the induced velocity effect of plasma

  2. LES of a Jet Excited by the Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of a high-speed jet are governed by the instability waves that form in the free-shear boundary layer of the jet. Jet excitation manipulates the growth and saturation of particular instability waves to control the unsteady flow structures that characterize the energy cascade in the jet.The results may include jet noise mitigation or a reduction in the infrared signature of the jet. The Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPA) have demonstrated the ability to excite a high-speed jets in laboratory experiments. Extending and optimizing this excitation technology, however, is a complex process that will require many tests and trials. Computational simulations can play an important role in understanding and optimizing this actuator technology for real-world applications. Previous research has focused on developing a suitable actuator model and coupling it with the appropriate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods using two-dimensional spatial flow approximations. This work is now extended to three-dimensions (3-D) in space. The actuator model is adapted to a series of discrete actuators and a 3-D LES simulation of an excited jet is run. The results are used to study the fluid dynamics near the actuator and in the jet plume.

  3. Development of localized arc filament RF plasma actuators for high-speed and high Reynolds number flow control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H. Kim; M. Nishihara; I. V. Adamovich; M. Samimy; S. V. Gorbatov; F. V. Pliavaka

    2010-01-01

    Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed\\u000a and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage\\u000a pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5–10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel\\u000a pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has

  4. Physics of internal transport barrier of toroidal helical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Toda, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Diamond, P. H.; Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92093-0319 (United States); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    The role of zonal flows (ZFs) in the formation of an internal transport barrier in a toroidal helical plasma is analyzed. The turbulent transport coefficient is shown to be suppressed when the plasma state changes from the branch of a weak negative radial electric field to the strong positive one. This new transition of turbulent transport is caused by the change of the damping rate of the ZFs. It is clearly demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the damping rate of the ZFs governs the global confinement of toroidal plasmas.

  5. Plasma-Aided Cotton Bioscouring: Dielectric Barrier Discharge Versus Low-Pressure Oxygen Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wang; Xue-Rong Fan; Li Cui; Ping Wang; Jing Wu; Jian Chen

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobic cuticle of the cotton fiber has formed a natural barrier for pectinase to catalyze its substrates (pectins\\u000a beneath the cuticle), thus resulting in an insufficient scouring for cotton. Two plasma-based treatments, dielectric barrier\\u000a discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure and cold oxygen plasma at low pressure in a vacuum system, were used as the pretreatments\\u000a prior to cotton bioscouring,

  6. Recent developments in DBD plasma flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Jun; Choi, Kwing-So; Feng, Li-Hao; Jukes, Timothy N.; Whalley, Richard D.

    2013-10-01

    Flow control using DBD (dielectric-barrier-discharge) plasma actuators is a relatively new, but rapidly expanding area of research. There are a number of review papers available on this subject, but few discuss on their latest developments. The purpose of the present article is to “fill the gap” by reviewing the recent trend of plasma actuator design and to summarise aerodynamic control techniques. Here, we review new plasma actuators, such as plasma synthetic jet actuators, plasma spark jet actuators, three-dimensional plasma actuators and plasma vortex generators, which can induce three-dimensional flows away from the wall. We also review the starting vortex that leads to formation of a plasma wall jet. This is an important subject not only for a better understanding of the flow induced by DBD plasma actuators, but also as a database that can be used to calibrate the numerical models for plasma flow control. Design of DBD plasma actuators to obtain turbulent skin-friction reduction is shown and the modifications to near-wall turbulence structures are summarised. Novel applications of DBD plasma actuators for aerodynamic control are then discussed, including pitch and roll control, plasma jet vectoring, circulation control and plasma flap, showing a potential of DBD plasma actuators for replacing movable, aircraft control surfaces. Finally, vortex shedding control techniques by a number of different plasma actuators are surveyed.

  7. 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Jan. 912, 2006, Reno, NV On Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuators

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Jamey

    that dictates the performance efficiency of the fluidic device.2,3 Plasma actuators can be readily employed­9 They are commonly produced by using an oscillating diaphragm mounted in a cavity that is embedded flush

  8. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pena, Maria I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  9. Air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings on titanium alloy substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhou; Fei Li; Bo He; Jun Wang; Bao-de Sun

    2007-01-01

    Titanium alloys as lightweight structure materials have been shown more interest in the use at moderately elevated temperatures. However, their poor oxidation resistance at temperature above 600 °C limits a wide application. Consequently, thermal protection becomes a concern. 8 wt.% yttria partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were air plasma sprayed on titanium alloy substrates (Ti–6.6Al–3.61Mo–1.69Zr–0.28Si in wt.%). The microstructures and

  10. Failure modes of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Walter Schlichting

    2000-01-01

    Conventional plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are known to fail by spallation of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) topcoat exposing the underlying metal to high temperatures. Failure takes place by crack propagation in the YSZ just above the YSZ\\/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface. Compressive stress in the TGO due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and oxidation is believed to play a

  11. Characteristics of sheath-driven tangential flow produced by a low-current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jichul; Shajid Rahman, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    An experimental investigation of low-speed flow actuation at near-atmospheric pressure is presented. The flow actuation is achieved via low-current ( \\lesssim 1.0 mA) continuous or pulsed DC surface glow discharge plasma. The plasma actuator, consisting of two sharp-edged nickel electrodes, produces a tangential flow in a direction from anode to cathode, and is visualized using high-speed schlieren photography. The induced flow velocity estimated via the schlieren images reaches up to 5 m/s in test cases. The actuation capability increases with pressure and electrode gap distances, and the induced flow velocity increases logarithmically with the discharge power. Pulsed DC exhibits slightly improved actuation capability with better directionality. An analytic estimation of induced flow velocity obtained based on ion momentum in the cathode sheath and gas dynamics in one-dimensional flow yields values similar to those measured.

  12. Optimization of a dielectric barrier discharge actuator by stationary and non-stationary measurements of the induced flow velocity: application to airflow control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Forte; J. Jolibois; J. Pons; E. Moreau; G. Touchard; M. Cazalens

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) may be used as an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuator\\u000a in order to control airflows. In this paper, a parametric study has been performed in order to increase the velocity of the\\u000a ionic wind induced by such actuators. The results show that an optimization of geometrical and electrical parameters allows\\u000a us

  13. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations of actuator geometry in the supersonic base flow determined that inclined cavity and normal cavity actuators positioned on the base near the base edge could produce significant disturbances in the shear layer. The disturbances were able to be tracked in time with phase-locked schlieren imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The final set of flow control experiments were therefore performed with an eight-actuator base using the inclined cavity actuator geometry. The actuators were able to cause moderate influences on the axisymmetric shear layer velocity profile and base pressure. The most substantial changes to the shear layer and base pressure were noted for the highest current and duty cycle tests. At 1 A and 20% duty cycle, the base pressure was reduced by 3.5%. Similar changes were noted for all modes and a range of frequencies from about 10-30 kHz. Increases in duty cycle between 4% and 20% caused a nearly linear decrease in base pressure. Analysis of the shear layer velocity profiles acquired through PIV show a local thickening of the shear layer in the region of the disturbances caused by the actuator. A slight increase in thickness was also observed away from the disturbance. Disturbances were able to be tracked at all frequencies and translated along the shear layer at a convective velocity of 430 +/- 20 m/s. A fairly clear trend of increasing velocity disturbance amplitude correlating to increasing base pressure changes was noted. Moreover, the ability of the disturbances to stay well organized further down the shear layer also appears to be a significant factor in the actuators' effect on base pressure. Consistent with these observations, it appears that increased duty cycle causes increased shear layer disturbance amplitudes. The use of PIV has enabled substantial insight to be gained into the effects of the actuators on the ensemble-averaged flow field and on the variability of the instantaneous flow field with and without control. A sensitive bimodal recirculation region behavior was found in the no-control flow field tha

  14. Shockwave—boundary layer interaction control by plasma aerodynamic actuation: An experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan; Cui, Wei; Li, Ying-Hong; Cheng, Bang-Qin; Jin, Di; Li, Jun

    2014-07-01

    The potential of controlling shockwave—boundary layer interactions (SWBLIs) in air by plasma aerodynamic actuation is demonstrated. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 3 in-draft air tunnel. The separation-inducing shock is generated with a diamond-shaped shockwave generator located on the wall opposite to the surface electrodes, and the flow properties are studied with schlieren imaging and static wall pressure probes. The measurements show that the separation phenomenon is weakened with the plasma aerodynamic actuation, which is observed to have significant control authority over the interaction. The main effect is the displacement of the reflected shock. Perturbations of incident and reflected oblique shocks interacting with the separation bubble in a rectangular cross section supersonic test section are produced by the plasma actuation. This interaction results in a reduction of the separation bubble size, as detected by phase-lock schlieren images. The measured static wall pressure also shows that the separation-inducing shock is restrained. Our results suggest that the boundary layer separation control through heating is the primary control mechanism.

  15. Temporal modulation of plasma species in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature and the moment of maximum species densities is almost consistent with peak discharge current density. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the temporal structure of plasma species in an atmospheric He-N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It is demonstrated that there exist microsecond delays of the moments of the maximum electron and ion densities from the peak of discharge current density. These time delays are caused by a competition between the electron impact and Penning ionizations, modulated by the N{sub 2} level in the plasma-forming gas. Besides, significant electron wall losses lead to the DBD being more positively charged and, with a distinct temporal separation in the peak electron and cation densities, the plasma is characterized with repetitive bursts of net positive charges. The temporal details of ionic and reactive plasma species may provide a new idea for some biological processes.

  16. Development of localized arc filament RF plasma actuators for high-speed and high Reynolds number flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I. V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S. V.; Pliavaka, F. V.

    2010-08-01

    Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow control authority similar to pulsed DC actuators, with a significantly reduced power budget.

  17. Plasma synthetic jet actuator: electrical and optical analysis of the discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinger, A.; Naudé, N.; Cambronne, J. P.; Caruana, D.

    2014-08-01

    Active flow control is based on the development of robust actuators which are reliable, small and easy to integrate. A promising actuator referred to as plasma synthetic jet actuator produces a synthetic jet with high exhaust velocities and holds the promise of enabling high-speed flows. With this high velocity jet, it is possible to reduce fluid phenomena such as transition and turbulence, thus making it possible to increase an aircraft's performance whilst at the same time reducing its environmental impact. This high velocity jet is produced by a pulsed discharge in a microcavity. In this paper, we focus on the properties of the discharge in order to understand the functioning of the actuator. In the first part an electrical description of the discharge in presented. Afterwards, optical measurements (optical emission spectroscopy and ICCD photograph) enable the determination of temperature, volume and duration of the discharge. At the end of the paper we present an electrical model of the discharge, which can be obtained both from electrical measurements and from macroscopic properties of the discharge (temperature, volume). This electrical model can easily be included in electrical simulation software.

  18. Plasma chemistry in CO2 dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehmer, F.; Welzel, S.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Engeln, R.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-assisted gas phase conversion in non-thermal environments is increasingly being considered as promising technology for fuel production from CO2 and hydrogen containing sources. Particularly the rate-limiting activation of CO2 is suggested to be tackled in plasmas at (sub-)atmospheric pressure conditions without the admixture of carrier gases. Therefore CO2 dielectric barrier discharges were studied to assess conversion yields and reaction mechanisms. The CO2 discharges were resonantly excited at around 100 kHz in a flow-tube lab-scale reactor designed to facilitate time-resolved in-situ optical emission and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. Complementary analysis of the gas phase constituents using ex-situ FT-IR spectroscopy and a thorough electrical characterisation were carried out. The CO conversion yields were typically below 5% and hence in-line with similar studies. The energy efficiency can be uniformly described for different external plasma parameters (e.g. flow rate, power input, excitation frequency) as function of the specific energy input. Special attention was paid to the non-negligible formation of by-products such as O3 and O2 which suggests an inefficient recycling of atomic oxygen in secondary CO2 dissociation reactions.

  19. Control of unsteadiness of a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction by using a pulsed-plasma-jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Clemens, Noel T.

    2012-07-01

    A pulsed-plasma jet actuator is used to control the unsteady motion of the separation shock of a shock wave/boundary layer interaction formed by a compression ramp in a Mach 3 flow. The actuator is based on a plasma-generated synthetic jet and is configured as an array of three jets that can be injected normal to the cross-flow, pitched, or pitched and skewed. The typical peak jet exit velocity of the actuators is about 300 m/s and the pulsing frequencies are a few kilohertz. A study of the interaction between the pulsed-plasma jets and the shock/boundary layer interaction was performed in a time-resolved manner using 10 kHz schlieren imaging. When the actuator, pulsed at StL ? 0.04 (f = 2 kHz), was injected into the upstream boundary layer, the separation shock responded to the plasma jet by executing a rapid upstream motion followed by a gradual downstream recovery motion. Schlieren movies of the interaction showed that the separation shock unsteadiness was locked to the pulsing frequency of the actuator, with amplitude of about one boundary layer thickness. Wall-pressure measurements made under the intermittent region showed about a 30% decrease in the overall magnitude of the pressure fluctuations in the low-frequency band associated with unsteady large-scale motion of the separated flow. Furthermore, by increasing the pulsing frequency to 3.3 kHz, the amplitude of the separation shock oscillation was reduced to less than half the boundary layer thickness. Investigation into the effect of the actuator location on the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) showed qualitatively and quantitatively that the actuator placed upstream of the separation shock caused significant modification to the SWBLI unsteadiness, whereas injection from inside the separation bubble did not cause a noticeable effect.

  20. Flow-field characterization of DBD plasma actuators as discrete roughness elements for laminar flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, S. A.; Humble, R. A.; Hofferth, J. W.; Saric, W. S.

    2011-11-01

    For many years there has been an evolving interest in controlling boundary layer transition on swept-wings. With an appropriate distribution of spanwise-periodic discrete roughness elements (DRE), subcritical wavelengths can be excited which supersede the growth of the most-amplified wavelength, thereby delaying the crossflow-dominated laminar-turbulent transition. To elucidate the physics of annular DBD plasma actuators for potential use as DRE and facilitate effective design, they are studied under quiescent flow conditions using particle image velocimetry a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a high-speed camera. A complex flow-field is generated by a single aperture that describes a three-dimensional torus accompanied by a downward, wall-normal jet region. The flow-field is sensitive to aperture size and applied voltage. For arrayed actuators, the tori contract dramatically due to the interaction with vortices from adjacent apertures. A PMT in conjunction with a high-speed camera were used to observe the light intensity from the bulk plasma at high temporal resolution and visualize the individual discharge events. Supported by the NASA/AFOSR National Center for Hypersonic Laminar-Turbulent Transition Research.

  1. Reduced-order modeling of high-speed jets controlled by arc filament plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aniruddha; Serrani, Andrea; Samimy, Mo

    2013-02-01

    Arc filament plasma actuators applied to high-speed and high Reynolds number jets have demonstrated significant mixing enhancement when operated near the jet column mode (JCM) frequency. A feedback-oriented reduced-order model is developed for this flow from experimental data. The existent toolkit of stochastic estimation, proper orthogonal decomposition, and Galerkin projection is adapted to yield a 35-dimensional model for the unforced jet. Explicit inclusion of a "shift mode" stabilizes the model. The short-term predictive capability of instantaneous flow fields is found to degrade beyond a single flow time step, but this horizon may be adequate for feedback control. Statistical results from long-term simulations agree well with experimental observations. The model of the unforced jet is augmented to incorporate the effects of plasma actuation. Periodic forcing is modeled as a deterministic pressure wave specified on the inflow boundary of the modeling domain. Simulations of the forced model capture the nonlinear response that leads to optimal mixing enhancement in a small range of frequencies near the JCM.

  2. Temperature measurement using infrared thermography of the dielectric in a dbd plasma actuator dedicated to subsonic airflow control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Joussot; Dunpin Hong; Vincent Boucinha; Regine Weber-Rozenbaum; Annie Leroy-Chesneau

    2010-01-01

    In order to use the non-thermal plasmas for subsonic airflow control, plasmas created on a dielectric surface have been widely investigated by researchers and engineers in several coutries1. The plasmas in these studies were mainly generated by a corona discharge or a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Usually, electrical parameters including active power are measured as well as the induced ionic

  3. Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP) Annual Technical Symposium 2010 Three-dimensional Modeling of Microscale Plasma Actuators

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    are solved to predict complicated flow structures inside a small channel induced by micron size actuators, the eight-species air chemistry model is also being augmented with the Landau-Teller vibrational relaxation plasma gas interaction, non-equilibrium air chemistry, micropump 1 Introduction Over the last decade

  4. Effect of Dielectric and Liquid on Plasma Sterilization Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mastanaiah, Navya; Johnson, Judith A.; Roy, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Plasma sterilization offers a faster, less toxic and versatile alternative to conventional sterilization methods. Using a relatively small, low temperature, atmospheric, dielectric barrier discharge surface plasma generator, we achieved ?6 log reduction in concentration of vegetative bacterial and yeast cells within 4 minutes and ?6 log reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores within 20 minutes. Plasma sterilization is influenced by a wide variety of factors. Two factors studied in this particular paper are the effect of using different dielectric substrates and the significance of the amount of liquid on the dielectric surface. Of the two dielectric substrates tested (FR4 and semi-ceramic (SC)), it is noted that the FR4 is more efficient in terms of time taken for complete inactivation. FR4 is more efficient at generating plasma as shown by the intensity of spectral peaks, amount of ozone generated, the power used and the speed of killing vegetative cells. The surface temperature during plasma generation is also higher in the case of FR4. An inoculated FR4 or SC device produces less ozone than the respective clean devices. Temperature studies show that the surface temperatures reached during plasma generation are in the range of 30°C–66°C (for FR4) and 20°C–49°C (for SC). Surface temperatures during plasma generation of inoculated devices are lower than the corresponding temperatures of clean devices. pH studies indicate a slight reduction in pH value due to plasma generation, which implies that while temperature and acidification may play a minor role in DBD plasma sterilization, the presence of the liquid on the dielectric surface hampers sterilization and as the liquid evaporates, sterilization improves. PMID:23951023

  5. On the Vortex Dynamic of Airflow Reattachment Forced by a Single Non-thermal Plasma Discharge Actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Benard; Eric Moreau

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and military aircrafts or miniature aerial vehicles can suffer from massive flow separation when high angles of\\u000a attack are required. Single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators have demonstrated their capability of controlling\\u000a such a separated flow at low external velocity. However, the processes resulting in the improvement of the flight performances\\u000a remain unclear. In the present study, the reattachment

  6. Efficiency enhancement of a dielectric barrier plasma discharge by dielectric barrier optimization.

    PubMed

    Meiners, Annette; Leck, Michael; Abel, Bernd

    2010-11-01

    The characteristic feature of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is the dielectric barrier placed between the electrodes. In the present work, the influence of the dielectric barrier to the properties of a DBD in air was investigated. Spectroscopic characterization of the DBD and electrical measurements were carried out. It was shown that the efficiency of a DBD can be considerably improved by optimizing the dielectric barrier. The dielectric material should possess an appropriate relative permittivity and thickness. For thin dielectric barriers, a high secondary emission coefficient becomes important. Additionally, the use of only one dielectric barrier is advantageous. PMID:21133471

  7. Plasma-Based Mixing Actuation in Airflow, Quantitated by Probe Breakdown Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Sergey; Firsov, Alexander; Shurupov, Michail; Yarantsev, Dmitry; Ohio State University Team; JIHT RAS Team

    2013-09-01

    Effective mixing of fuel and oxidizer in air-breathing engine at compressible conditions is an essential problem of high-speed combustion due to short residence time of gas mixture in the combustor of limited length. The effect of the mixing actuation by plasma is observed because of the gasdynamic instability arisen after the long filamentary discharge of submicrosecond duration generated along the contact zone of two co-flown gases. The work is focused on detail consideration of the mechanism of gas instability, promoted by plasma, on effect of the discharge specific localization, and on diagnostics development for qualitative and quantitative estimation of the mixing efficiency. The dynamics of relative concentration of gas components is examined quantitatively by means of Probe Discharge Breakdown Fluorescence (PBF). In this method an optical emission spectra of weak filamentary high-voltage nanosecond probe discharge are collected from local zone of interest in airflow. The first measurements of the mixing efficiency in vicinity of wall-injected secondary gas are presented. It is shown that the method of PBF could deliver experimental data on state of the two-component medium with <1 mcs and <5 mm of time and spatial resolution, correspondingly. Effective mixing of fuel and oxidizer in air-breathing engine at compressible conditions is an essential problem of high-speed combustion due to short residence time of gas mixture in the combustor of limited length. The effect of the mixing actuation by plasma is observed because of the gasdynamic instability arisen after the long filamentary discharge of submicrosecond duration generated along the contact zone of two co-flown gases. The work is focused on detail consideration of the mechanism of gas instability, promoted by plasma, on effect of the discharge specific localization, and on diagnostics development for qualitative and quantitative estimation of the mixing efficiency. The dynamics of relative concentration of gas components is examined quantitatively by means of Probe Discharge Breakdown Fluorescence (PBF). In this method an optical emission spectra of weak filamentary high-voltage nanosecond probe discharge are collected from local zone of interest in airflow. The first measurements of the mixing efficiency in vicinity of wall-injected secondary gas are presented. It is shown that the method of PBF could deliver experimental data on state of the two-component medium with <1 mcs and <5 mm of time and spatial resolution, correspondingly. Funded by AFOSR under Dr Chiping Li supervision

  8. Gas-confined barrier discharges: a simplified model for plasma dynamics in flame environments

    E-print Network

    Guerra-Garcia, Carmen

    In this paper we evaluate the dynamics of non-thermal plasmas developing in extremely non-homogeneous environments. We present the gas-confined barrier discharge (GBD) concept and justify its importance as a first step to ...

  9. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  10. Influence of dielectric barrier materials to the behavior of dielectric barrier discharge plasma for CO 2 decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruixing Li; Yukishige Yamaguchi; Shu Yin; Qing Tang; Tsugio Sato

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an application of dielectric ceramics in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The fracture strength and dielectric strength of Ca0.7Sr0.3TiO3 were greatly improved by the liquid phase sintering using 0.5 wt.% Li2Si2O5 as a sintering additive. The sintered body was efficient when it was

  11. A hypersonic plasma bullet train traveling in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Shi; Fangchun Zhong; Jing Zhang; D. W. Liu; M. G. Kong

    2008-01-01

    An experimental observation of fast-moving plasma bullets produced in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet is reported in this paper. Nanosecond imaging suggests that the atmospheric discharge jet consists of a plasma bullet train traveling at a hypersonic speed from 7.0 km\\/s to 43.1 km\\/s. Yet on a millisecond scale, the bullet train appears as a plasma jet of several centimeters

  12. Recent Developments in the Field of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vaßen; J.-E. Döring; M. Dietrich; H. Lehmann; D. Stöver

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are widely used in gas turbines on thermally highly loaded parts as blades, vanes or combustion chamber to improve the performance of the engines. The standard plasma-sprayed systems consist of a vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) MCrAlY (M = Ni or Co) and an atmospherically plasma sprayed (APS) ceramic top layer made of yttria partially stabilised zirconia

  13. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna P. Arjunan; Alisa Morss Clyne

    2011-01-01

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications. Liquids and endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Plasma treatment of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a

  14. Effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge air plasma on electrode surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changquan; He, Xiangning

    2006-11-01

    In order to study the influence of plasma on electrode, atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma is employed here to treat copper electrode surface. Plasma is generated between the parallel plate electrodes by means of high voltage produced by a high-frequency power supply with transformer. Electrode surface alterations induced by air plasma are investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle measurement. The results show that DBD air plasma removes the organic contaminant on surface and causes electrode surface roughness, oxidization and nitridation. In addition, surface wettability is also improved, as concluded from contact angle measurements.

  15. Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

    2006-05-01

    Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

  16. Development and characterization of plasma actuators for high-speed jet control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Samimy; I. Adamovich; B. Webb; J. Kastner; J. Hileman; S. Keshav; P. Palm

    2004-01-01

    Active control of high Reynolds number and high-speed jets has been hampered due to the lack of suitable actuators. Some of the attributes that would make an actuator suitable for such flows are: high amplitude and bandwidth; small size for distribution around the jet; phase-locking ability for jet azimuthal mode forcing; and sufficient ruggedness for hot jets. We have been

  17. Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martinell, Julio J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. Postal 70-543, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence.

  18. Tunable one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Weili; Dong Lifang [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A tunable one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal is obtained by using a dielectric barrier discharge with two liquid electrodes. It is formed by the self-organization of the filaments, rather than that in an artificial array of electrodes. The dispersion relations of the plasma photonic crystals are calculated by solving the Helmholtz equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penney's problem. The photonic band diagrams of the plasma photonic crystals are studied when changing the filling factor, the lattice constant, and the electron density, based on the experimental results. The critical electron density is given, beyond which the plasma photonic crystal will have a remarkable band structure.

  19. Inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Sichuan; Chen, Jierong; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaoyong; Ma, Yun

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of Microcystis aeruginosa plasma inactivation was investigated using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma. The inactivation efficiency was characterized in terms of optical density. The influence of electrical and physicochemical parameters on M. aeruginosa inactivation was studied to determine the optimal experimental conditions. The influence of active species was studied. The proliferation of the M. aeruginosa cells was significantly decreased under plasma exposure. The morphologic changes in M. aeruginosa were characterized under scanning electron microscopy. These results suggest that the low-temperature plasma technology is a promising method for water pollution control.

  20. Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings for Barrier Applications Against Molten Uranium Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Pragatheeswaran, A.

    2015-06-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on engineering components for protecting them from large thermal load and hot corrosion. Choices of coating material for protection against hot corrosion by uranium are few, because of its high reactivity. Yttrium oxide has a high melting temperature and is inert towards uranium. Therefore, yttrium oxide coatings are effective as a barrier against hot corrosion by uranium and its alloys. This paper gives a summary of the developmental work on plasma-sprayed yttria coatings for corrosion barrier applications against molten uranium. Results show that plasma-sprayed yttria coatings offer a long-term solution to hot corrosion problems.

  1. Technical note - Plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings for smooth intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. A.; Doychak, J.

    1992-09-01

    A new approach for plasma spray deposition of ceramic thermal barrier coatings directly to smooth substrates is described. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings were directly applied to substrates that had been coated with low-pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coats and then centerless ground to simulate a smooth oxidation-resistant substrate. As the high-temperature oxidation behavior of NiAl+Zr is superior to that of MCrALY alloy, the bond coat is not required for oxidation resistance.

  2. Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Nathan Joseph

    Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin/separation line). Streamwise PIV measurements did not show that the boundary layer or separation region were energized by the actuation. The primary effect of the LAFPAs was the displacement of the reflected shock upstream. Jaunet et al. (2012) observed a similar shift in the reflected shock when they heated the wall beneath the boundary layer. A significantly greater power deposition was used in that work, and significantly larger shock displacements were observed. Although the LAFPAs output significantly less power (albeit in an unsteady, highly localized fashion), a parametric sweep strongly pointed to heating as the primary control mechanism. Further investigation and analysis showed that the near-wall heating of the flow by the plasma was the primary control mechanism of the LAFPAs, despite the small power input. The reflected shock was displaced by an increase in the separation region size, which was caused by the degradation of the upstream boundary layer. The LAFPAs degrade the upstream boundary layer through a variety of heating associated mechanisms: 1) Decreasing the density increases the mass flow deficit, 2) The altered skin-friction coefficient acts to retard the flow and make the velocity profile less full, and 3) The heating moves the sonic line further from the wall. Other mechanisms may also play a role.

  3. Quasi-steady and unsteady actuation by surface non-thermal plasma discharge for control of a turbulent round air jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Benard; P. Braud; J. Pons; G. Touchard; E. Moreau

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a nonmechanical device able to generate electrohydrodynamic forces close to a dielectric wall. The generated “electric wind” is actually used to control airflow over various bluff bodies. In this study, a DBD actuator is investigated for the control of a round turbulent air jet. The separation along the bevel of a small angle (12°)

  4. Starting, Travelling & Colliding Vortices: DBD Plasma in Quiescent Air

    E-print Network

    Whalley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Development and interaction of starting vortices initiated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators in quiescent air are illustrated in the attached fluid dynamics videos. These include a series of smoke flow visualisations, showing the starting vortices moving parallel or normal to the wall at several different actuator configurations.

  5. Towards durable thermal barrier coatings with novel microstructures deposited by solution-precursor plasma spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Padture; K. W. Schlichting; T. Bhatia; A. Ozturk; B. Cetegen; E. H. Jordan; M. Gell; S. Jiang; T. D. Xiao; P. R. Strutt; E Garc??a; P Miranzo; M. I Osendi

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of a new processing method—solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS)—for the deposition of ZrO2-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with novel structures has been demonstrated. These desirable structures in the new TBCs appear to be responsible for their improved thermal cycling life relative to conventional plasma-sprayed TBCs. Preliminary results from experiments aimed at understanding the SPPS deposition mechanisms suggest that

  6. Life modeling of atmospheric and low pressure plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Argarwal, P.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The cycles-to-failure vs cycle duration data for three different thermal barrier coating systems, which consist of atmospheric pressure plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 percent Y2O3 over similarly deposited or low pressure plasma sprayed Ni-base alloys, are presently analyzed by means of the Miller (1980) oxidation-based life model. Specimens were tested at 1100 C for heating cycle lengths of 1, 6, and 20 h, yielding results supporting the model's value.

  7. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect

    Algwari, Q. Th. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Electronic Department, College of Electronics Engineering, Mosul University, Mosul 41002 (Iraq); O'Connell, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-19

    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.

  8. Attenuation of single-tone ultrasound by an atmospheric glow discharge plasma barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P. [Lenterra Inc., 7 Tenney Road, West Orange, New Jersey 07052 (United States); Ioppolo, Tindaro; Oetuegen, M. Volkan [Southern Methodist University, 3101 Dyer Street, Dallas, Texas 75205 (United States); Sheverev, Valery A. [Lenterra Inc., 7 Tenney Road, West Orange, New Jersey 07052 (United States); Polytechnic Institute of NYU, 6 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Propagation of 143 kHz ultrasound through an atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air was studied experimentally. The plasma was a continuous dc discharge formed by a multipin electrode system. Distributions of the gas temperature were also obtained in and around the plasma using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Results show significant attenuation of the ultrasound by the glow discharge plasma barrier (up to -24 dB). The results indicate that sound attenuation does not depend on the thickness of the plasma and attenuation is caused primarily by reflection of the sound waves from the plasma due to the sharp gas temperatures gradients that form at the plasma boundary. These gradients can be as high as 80 K/mm.

  9. Electric characteristics of a surface barrier discharge with a plasma induction electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Alemskii, I. N.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Tokarev, A. V.; Yudanov, V. A. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2006-07-15

    Static and dynamic current-voltage and charge-voltage characteristics of a surface barrier discharge with a plasma induction electrode have been investigated experimentally. The dependences of the discharge current on both the gas pressure in the induction electrode tube and the winding pitch of the corona electrode, as well as of the discharge power efficiency on the applied voltage, have been measured.

  10. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annette, Meiners; Michael, Leck; Bernd, Abel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume.

  11. Dielectric barrier plasma dynamics for active control of separated flows

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subrata; Singh, K.P.; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2006-03-20

    The dynamics of separation mitigation with asymmetric dielectric barrier discharges is explored by considering the gas flow past a flat plate at an angle of attack. A self-consistent model utilizing motion of electrons, ions, and neutrals is employed to couple the electric force field to the momentum of the fluid. The charge separation and concomitant electric field yield a time-averaged body force which is oriented predominantly downstream, with a smaller transverse component towards the wall. This induces a wall-jet-like feature that effectively eliminates the separation bubble. The impact of several geometric and electrical operating parameters is elucidated.

  12. Enhanced Design of Turbo-jet LPT by Separation Control Using Phased Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor); Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the documentation and control of flow separation that occurs over turbine blades in the low-pressure turbine stage at low Reynolds numbers that exist at high altitude cruise. We utilize a specially constructed linear cascade that is designed to study the flow field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney 'Pak B' shaped blades. This facility was constructed under a previous one-year NASA Glenn RC initiative. The center blade in the cascade is instrumented to measure the surface pressure coefficient distribution. Optical access allows two-component LDV measurement for boundary layer profiles. Experimental conditions have been chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers from 10 to 100K, and a range of free-stream turbulence levels from u'/U(sub infinity)= 0.08 to 3 percent. The surface pressure measurements were used to define a region of separation and reattachment that depend on the free-stream conditions. The location of separation was found to be relatively insensitive to the experimental conditions. However, reattachment location was very sensitive to the turbulence level and Reynolds number. Excellent agreement was found between the measured pressure distributions and predictions from Euler and RANS simulations. Two-component LDV measurements are presently underway to document the mean and fluctuating velocity components in the boundary layer over the center blade for the range of experimental conditions. The fabrication of the plasma actuator is underway. These are designed to produce either streamwise vortices, or a downstream-directed wall jet. A precursor experiment for the former approach was performed with an array of vortex generators placed just upstream of the separation line. These led to reattachment except for the lowest Reynolds number. Progress has also been made on the proposed concept for a laterally moving wake. This involved constructing a smaller wind tunnel and molding an array of symmetric airfoils to form an array. Following its development, it will be scaled up and used to introduce lateral moving wakes upstream up the Pak-B cascade.

  13. Deformation behavior of plasma-sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed F. Rejda; Darrell F. Socie; Takamoto Itoh

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental deformation study of several candidate diesel engine coating materials, independent of a substrate, has been conducted. Both plasma-sprayed 8%Y2O3–ZrO2 and CaTiO3 material specimens were subjected to various isothermal mechanical tests from room temperature to 800°C to understand their basic constitutive behavior. In this work, it was found that all of the coating materials showed significant irreversible deformation behavior

  14. Characterization of silicon oxide gas barrier films with controlling to the ion current density (ion flux) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su B. Jin; Youn J. Kim; Yoon S. Choi; In S. Choi; Jeon G. Han

    2010-01-01

    Silicon oxide gas barrier films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) for applications to transparent barrier packaging. The barrier properties of the silicon oxide coated film were optimized by varying the bias conditions and input power in the radio frequency plasma. The plasma diagnostics, ion current density and substrate temperature were characterized

  15. Diagnostic of plasma discharge parameters in helium filled dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Pooja; Pal, Udit Narayan; Kumar, Mahesh; Prakash, Ram; Srivastava, Vishnu; Vyas, Vimal

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports the plasma discharge analysis of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source. Helium is used as a working gas. The analysis is performed at fixed working pressure and operating frequency. The investigations are carried out using sinusoidal supply for the generation of discharges where two current pulses have been observed with different polarities in one period. A homogeneous type of discharge has been observed for different operating conditions in this DBD source. Since in situ diagnostics are not possible due to the small geometries in the used DBD source, the electrical measurements and spectroscopic analysis of the discharge have been performed to analyse the plasma discharge. The electrical analysis has been carried out using equivalent electrical circuit model. The plasma density and temperature within the discharge have been estimated using line ratio technique of the observed visible neutral helium lines. The estimated electron plasma density is found to be in close proximity with the plasma simulation code `OOPIC Pro'.

  16. A hypersonic plasma bullet train traveling in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Jianjun; Zhong Fangchun; Zhang Jing; Liu, D. W.; Kong, M. G. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    An experimental observation of fast-moving plasma bullets produced in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet is reported in this paper. Nanosecond imaging suggests that the atmospheric discharge jet consists of a plasma bullet train traveling at a hypersonic speed from 7.0 km/s to 43.1 km/s. Yet on a millisecond scale, the bullet train appears as a plasma jet of several centimeters long. The plasma bullets are produced through several possible mechanisms, the most likely of which is related to the ionization wave. Time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy show that reactive plasma species can be delivered to different spatial sites with varying quantities.

  17. Treatment of Candida albicans biofilms with low-temperature plasma induced by dielectric barrier discharge and atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koban, Ina; Matthes, Rutger; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Welk, Alexander; Meisel, Peter; Holtfreter, Birte; Sietmann, Rabea; Kindel, Eckhard; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kramer, Axel; Kocher, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Because of some disadvantages of chemical disinfection in dental practice (especially denture cleaning), we investigated the effects of physical methods on Candida albicans biofilms. For this purpose, the antifungal efficacy of three different low-temperature plasma devices (an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and two different dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs)) on Candida albicans biofilms grown on titanium discs in vitro was investigated. As positive treatment controls, we used 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The corresponding gas streams without plasma ignition served as negative treatment controls. The efficacy of the plasma treatment was determined evaluating the number of colony-forming units (CFU) recovered from titanium discs. The plasma treatment reduced the CFU significantly compared to chemical disinfectants. While 10 min CHX or NaOCl exposure led to a CFU log10 reduction factor of 1.5, the log10 reduction factor of DBD plasma was up to 5. In conclusion, the use of low-temperature plasma is a promising physical alternative to chemical antiseptics for dental practice.

  18. Effect of Dielectric and Liquid on Plasma Sterilization Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    temperature plasmas generated from room air. Depending on the applied voltage and discharge current, different densities. Fabricated plasmas are ionized gases, made up of ions, electrons and neutrals. These are commonly

  19. Carbon dioxide splitting in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Robby; Somers, Wesley; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-02-01

    Plasma technology is gaining increasing interest for the splitting of CO2 into CO and O2 . We have performed experiments to study this process in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with a wide range of parameters. The frequency and dielectric material did not affect the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency, but the discharge gap can have a considerable effect. The specific energy input has the most important effect on the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency. We have also presented a plasma chemistry model for CO2 splitting, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimental conversion and energy efficiency. This model is used to elucidate the critical reactions that are mostly responsible for the CO2 conversion. Finally, we have compared our results with other CO2 splitting techniques and we identified the limitations as well as the benefits and future possibilities in terms of modifications of DBD plasmas for greenhouse gas conversion in general. PMID:25641832

  20. Generation of tunable plasma photonic crystals in meshed dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yongjie; Dong, Lifang, E-mail: donglfhbu@163.com; Liu, Weibo; He, Yafeng; Li, Yonghui [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China and Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Tunable superlattice plasma photonic crystals are obtained in a meshed dielectric barrier discharge. These plasma photonic crystals are composed of thin artificial lattices and thick self-organized lattices, and can be tuned easily by adjusting the applied voltage. A plasma photonic crystal with self-organized hexagonal lattice coupled to artificial square lattice is first realized. The dispersion relations of the square sublattices with different radii, which are recorded by an intensified charge-coupled device camera, are calculated. The results show that the thick square sublattice has the higher band edge frequencies and wider band widths. Band gaps of superlattice plasma photonic crystals are actually temporal integrations of those of transient sublattices.

  1. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rigney, E.D. [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering

    1996-08-01

    Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

  2. A dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced plasma brush array at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuemei; Zhan Xuefang; Yuan Xin; Zhao Zhongjun; Yan Yanyue; Duan Yixiang [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Tang Jie [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an (China)

    2013-07-15

    This study developed a large volume cold atmospheric plasma brush array, which was enhanced by a dielectric barrier discharge by integrating a pair of DC glow discharge in parallel. A platinum sheet electrode was placed in the middle of the discharge chamber, which effectively reduced the breakdown voltage and working voltage. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicated that many excited argon atoms were distributed almost symmetrically in the lateral direction of the plasma. The concentration variations of reactive species relative to the gas flow rate and discharge current were also examined.

  3. Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  4. Characterization of microstructural defects in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bengtsson; T. Johannesson

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coating and a 1.5 mm thick zirconia top coating were air plasma sprayed onto\\u000a a nickel-base substrate. The top coatings were deposited with the same spraying parameters except for the amount of external\\u000a cooling, which varied from no cooling to the maximum available. This resulted in four sets of samples produced with different

  5. Highly durable thermal barrier coatings made by the solution precursor plasma spray process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Gell; Liangde Xie; Xinqing Ma; Eric H. Jordan; Nitin P. Padture

    2004-01-01

    The solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process offers the prospect of depositing highly durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of low thermal conductivity. In this study, a Taguchi design of experiments was employed to optimize the SPPS process. The spallation life of SPPS TBCs on a MCrAlY bond coated Ni-base superalloy substrate deposited under the optimized processing conditions was demonstrated to

  6. Reduction of NOx from combustion flue gases by superimposed barrier discharge plasma reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang; Tairo Ito

    1997-01-01

    NOx reduction from combustion flue gases by superimposed barrier discharge plasma reactors is experimentally investigated. The experiments are conducted for applied voltages from 0 to 28 kV, flue gas rates from 0.5 to 2 L\\/min, ammonia mixture concentrations from 0.7 to 2.65 stoichiometry, and applied voltage phase differences from 0° to 180°, where two 60-Hz AC power supplies are used.

  7. Surface characteristics and printing properties of PET fabric treated by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. M. Rashed; H. Ahmed; A. Al-Halwagy; A. A. Garamoon

    2009-01-01

    PET (Poly ethylene terephthalate) fabric was treated using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as a type of low temperature plasma under atmospheric pressure for 1 to 15min and different powers ranging between 0.3 to 5W. Effects of DBD treatment on the surface of a test PET fabric are examined, reported and discussed. The surface analysis and characterization were performed using X-ray

  8. Energy confinement scaling for reversed-shear plasmas with internal transport barrier in JT-60U

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takizuka; Y. Sakamoto; T. Fukuda; T. Fujita; Y. Kamada; T. Suzuki; S. Ide; H. Shirai

    2002-01-01

    An energy confinement scaling for reversed-shear plasmas with box-type internal transport barrier (ITB) and L-mode edge is developed based on the JT-60U data. The stored energy is divided into two parts: L-mode base part and core part surrounded by the ITB. The core stored energy Wcore does not simply increase with the net heating power Pnet. A scaling of core

  9. Chemical Mechanisms of Bacterial Inactivation Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma in Atmospheric Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Ma; Guan-Jun Zhang; Xing-Min Shi; Gui-Min Xu; Yun Yang

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma generated by parallel-plate dielectric-barrier discharge with 60-kHz high-voltage power was used to sterilize the bacteria in atmospheric air. Two kinds of typical bacteria, gram-negative E. coli (ATCC8099) and grampositive S. aureus (ATCC6538), were used as test strains. Bacteria cells held by cover-glass were placed on the bottom electrode. By adjusting the applied voltage, gap spacing, and treatment time,

  10. Properties of Induction Plasma Sprayed Iron Based Nanostructured Alloy Coatings for Metal Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Il Shin; François Gitzhofer; Christian Moreau

    2007-01-01

    Metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based\\u000a nanostructured alloy powders. The study of MBTBCs has been initiated to challenge issues associated with current TBC materials\\u000a such as difficult prediction of their “in-service” lifetime. Reliability of TBCs is an important aspect besides the economical\\u000a consideration. Therefore, the study of MBTBCs, which

  11. Skeletal Cell Differentiation Is Enhanced by Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S.; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing ?-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance differentiation, and suggest this technology could be used to enhance bone fusion and improve healing after skeletal injury. PMID:24349203

  12. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-01

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), has recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications including blood coagulation, sterilization and malignant cell apoptosis. Liquids and porcine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in vitro. Plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a higher concentration observed in serum-free medium compared with PBS. Species concentration inside cells peaked 1 h after treatment, followed by a decrease 3 h post treatment. Endothelial cells treated with a plasma dose of 4.2 J cm–2 had 1.7 times more cells than untreated samples 5 days after plasma treatment. The 4.2 J cm–2 plasma dose increased two-dimensional migration distance by 40 per cent compared with untreated control, while the number of cells that migrated through a three-dimensional collagen gel increased by 15 per cent. Tube formation was also enhanced by plasma treatment, with tube lengths in plasma-treated samples measuring 2.6 times longer than control samples. A fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) neutralizing antibody and ROS scavengers abrogated these angiogenic effects. These data indicate that plasma enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation is due to FGF-2 release induced by plasma-produced ROS. Non-thermal plasma may be used as a potential tool for applying ROS in precise doses to enhance vascularization. PMID:21653568

  13. The cold and atmospheric-pressure air surface barrier discharge plasma for large-area sterilization applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dacheng [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao Di [Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Photoelectrical Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Feng Kecheng [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Zhang Xianhui [Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu Dongping [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang Size [Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2011-04-18

    This letter reports a stable air surface barrier discharge device for large-area sterilization applications at room temperature. This design may result in visually uniform plasmas with the electrode area scaled up (or down) to the required size. A comparison for the survival rates of Escherichia coli from air, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} surface barrier discharge plasmas is presented, and the air surface plasma consisting of strong filamentary discharges can efficiently kill Escherichia coli. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH generated in the room temperature air plasmas play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  14. Controlled drug release through a plasma polymerized tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane coating barrier.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Shigemasa; Chen, Meng; Zamora, Paul O

    2012-01-01

    A plasma polymerized tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane (TMCTS) coating was deposited onto a metallic biomaterial, 316 stainless steel, to control the release rate of drugs, including daunomycin, rapamycin and NPC-15199 (N-(9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl)-leucine), from the substrate surface. The plasma-state polymerized TMCTS thin film was deposited in a vacuum plasma reactor operated at a radio-frequency of 13.56 MHz, and was highly adhesive to the stainless steel, providing a smooth and hard coating layer for drugs coated on the substrate. To investigate the influence of plasma coating thickness on the drug diffusion profile, coatings were deposited at various time lengths from 20 s to 6 min, depending on the type of drug. Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) was utilized to characterize coating thickness. Drug elution was measured using a spectrophotometer or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. The experimental results indicate that plasma polymerized TMCTS can be used as an over-coating to control drug elution at the desired release rate. The drug-release rate was also found to be dependent on the molecular weight of the drug with plasma coating barrier on top of it. The in vitro cytotoxicity test result suggested that the TMCTS plasma coatings did not produce a cytotoxic response to mammalian cells. The non-cytotoxicity of TMCTS coating plus its high thrombo-resistance and biocompatibility are very beneficial to drug-eluting devices that contact blood. PMID:21294969

  15. Direct current dielectric barrier assistant discharge to get homogeneous plasma in capacitive coupled discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Yinchang, E-mail: ycdu@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Modern Physics Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Li, Yangfang [Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhe [Modern Physics Department, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to get more homogeneous plasma in the geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma (CCP) discharge. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the auxiliary discharge system to improve the homogeneity of the geometrically asymmetric CCP discharge. The single Langmuir probe measurement shows that the DBD can increase the electron density in the low density volume, where the DBD electrodes are mounted, when the pressure is higher than 5?Pa. By this manner, we are able to improve the homogeneity of the plasma production and increase the overall density in the target volume. At last, the finite element simulation results show that the DC bias, applied to the DBD electrodes, can increase the homogeneity of the electron density in the CCP discharge. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment results.

  16. Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma Treatment on TiO2 Thin Film Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Retsuo; Niibe, Masahito; Fukudome, Toshiaki; Takeichi, Atsushi; Inaoka, Takeshi; Tominaga, Kikuo

    2011-01-01

    Surface treatment effect on TiO2 thin films with the anatase phase by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasmas has been investigated for a variety of gas pressures and treatment times. At a low gas pressure (100 hPa) at which a glow-like discharge plasma occurs, hydrophilicities of TiO2 thin films treated at 5 and 30 min are enhanced compared with that of the as-grown thin film. For the 5 min treatment, this trend is more pronounced probably due to oxygen absorbed on the surface from the air plasma. For the 30 min treatment, the enhanced hydrophilicity is probably due to oxygen vacancy created on the surface by a high fluence of the plasma. When the gas pressure increases to 400 hPa at which a streamer discharge plasma occurs, the hydrophilicity is more weakened than that of the as-grown thin film: the plasma-induced damage occurs regardless of the treatment time. This result would probably result from the higher discharge current and UV light intensity caused by the higher breakdown voltage based on Paschen's law.

  17. Comparison Between Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Ozone Regenerations of Activated Carbon Exhausted with Pentachlorophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Qu, Dong; Huang, Yimei; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O3) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O3 regeneration. O3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration.

  18. Diamond Like Carbon Coating Produced by Plasma Source Ion Implantation as a Corrosion Barrier for Steels in Marine Environments

    E-print Network

    Diamond Like Carbon Coating Produced by Plasma Source Ion Implantation as a Corrosion Barrier Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 June 20, 1997 Abstract A36 steel samples coated with diamond like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma source ion implantation (PSII) were examined in ASTM artificial ocean water (ASTM AOW

  19. Mechanisms and dynamics of the external transport barrier formation in non-linear plasma edge simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chôné, L.; Beyer, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Fuhr, G.; Bourdelle, C.; Benkadda, S.

    2015-07-01

    L-H transition features are reproduced using three-dimensional first-principles plasma edge turbulence simulations. A transport barrier is observed to form spontaneously above a threshold of the input power. The physical mechanism relies on the coupling between the equilibrium pressure gradient and the poloidal flow, through both the radial force balance and the neoclassical friction. Accounting for the actual radial profile and time evolution of the latter is key to the barrier formation. It is found that neoclassical friction acts as an energy source for the flow, which largely overcomes the sink due to the turbulent Reynolds stress during the whole barrier lifetime. Importantly, experimentally reported dynamical features are recovered during the formation and lifetime of the barrier. This includes dithering of the radial electric field, which is reminiscent of experimentally observed limit-cycle oscillations and quasi-periodic relaxation oscillations showing similarities with type-III ELMs. These rich dynamics emerge from interplay between turbulence, turbulence-driven flows and the equilibrium flow governed by force balance.

  20. Mechanical properties of carbon-modified silicon oxide barrier films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on polymer substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bieder; V. Gondoin; Y. Leterrier; G. Tornare; Ph. Rudolf von Rohr; J.-A. E. Månson

    2007-01-01

    Cohesive and adhesive properties of silicon oxide barrier coatings deposited from an oxygen\\/hexamethyldisiloxane gas mixture by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, with controlled incorporation of carbon on 12 ?m thick polyethylene terephtalate films were investigated. The reactor was equipped with a 2.45 GHz slot antenna plasma source and a 13.56 MHz-biased substrate holder. The two plasma sources were operated separately or in a

  1. Actuators for Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Sheplak, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Actuators are transducers that convert an electrical signal to a desired physical quantity. Active flow control actuators modify a flow by providing an electronically controllable disturbance. The field of active flow control has witnessed explosive growth in the variety of actuators, which is a testament to both the importance and challenges associated with actuator design. This review provides a framework for the discussion of actuator specifications, characteristics, selection, design, and classification for aeronautical applications. Actuator fundamentals are discussed, and various popular actuator types used in low-to-moderate speed flows are then described, including fluidic, moving object/surface, and plasma actuators. We attempt to highlight the strengths and inevitable drawbacks of each and highlight potential future research directions.

  2. Sintering and creep behavior of plasma-sprayed zirconia- and hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongming Zhu; Robert A. Miller

    1998-01-01

    The sintering and creep of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings under high temperature conditions are complex phenomena. Changes in thermomechanical and thermophysical properties and in the stress response of these coating systems as a result of the sintering and creep processes are detrimental to coating thermal fatigue resistance and performance. In this paper, the sintering characteristics of ZrO2–8wt%Y2O3, ZrO2–25wt%CeO2–2.5wt%Y2O3, ZrO2–6w%NiO–9wt%Y2O3,

  3. Damage evolution and residual stresses in plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J. P.

    1999-02-03

    Air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings were subjected to thermal cycling and residual stress evolution in thermally grown oxide scale was studied by micro- and macro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy. The macro approach reveals that compressive stress in the oxide scale increases with increasing number of thermal cycles (and thus increasing scale thickness), reaching a value of 1.8 GPa at a scale thickness of 3-4 {micro}m (80 cycles). Micro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that protrusions of the zirconia top coat into the bond coat act as localized areas of high stress concentration, leading to damage initiation during thermal cycling.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of micro plasma actuator for active flow control , , 113-8656 7-3-1, E-mail: okouti@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    E-print Network

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    ) Fig. 1 . Göksel (6) , 10 µm 100 µm 1 mm 5 mm , 3 4 mm , , Fig. 1 Structure and geometrical parameters mm Fig. 2 MEMS fabrication process of plasma actuator. Fig. 3 Present micro plasma actuator (W = 1 mm). C 30 m C 270V/m MEMS Fig. 2 C Fig. 3 Fig. 4 5 × 50 cm2 LDV 488 nm 514.5 nm 75 × 76 × 640 (m3 ) 1 m

  5. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Two Surface Barrier Discharges with Air Plasma against In Vitro Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Rutger; Bender, Claudia; Schlüter, Rabea; Koban, Ina; Bussiahn, René; Reuter, Stephan; Lademann, Jürgen; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kramer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of infected wounds is one possible therapeutic aspect of plasma medicine. Chronic wounds are often associated with microbial biofilms which limit the efficacy of antiseptics. The present study investigates two different surface barrier discharges with air plasma to compare their efficacy against microbial biofilms with chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) as representative of an important antibiofilm antiseptic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG81 and Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A were cultivated on polycarbonate discs. The biofilms were treated for 30, 60, 150, 300 or 600 s with plasma or for 600 s with 0.1% CHX, respectively. After treatment, biofilms were dispensed by ultrasound and the antimicrobial effects were determined as difference in the number of the colony forming units by microbial culture. A high antimicrobial efficacy on biofilms of both plasma sources in comparison to CHX treatment was shown. The efficacy differs between the used strains and plasma sources. For illustration, the biofilms were examined under a scanning electron microscope before and after treatment. Additionally, cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay with L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The cell toxicity of the used plasma limits its applicability on human tissue to maximally 150 s. The emitted UV irradiance was measured to estimate whether UV could limit the application on human tissue at the given parameters. It was found that the UV emission is negligibly low. In conclusion, the results support the assumption that air plasma could be an option for therapy of chronic wounds. PMID:23894661

  6. Nanocomposite Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaohui; Wang, You; Wang, Liang; Hao, Guangzhao; Sun, Xiaoguang; Shan, Fan; Zou, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    This work seeks to develop an innovative nanocomposite thermal barrier coating (TBC) exhibiting low thermal conductivity and high durability compared with that of current TBCs. To achieve this objective, nanosized lanthanum zirconate particles were selected for the topcoat of the TBC system, and a new process—suspension plasma spray—was employed to produce desirable microstructural features: the nanocomposite lanthanum zirconate TBC contains ultrafine splats and high volume porosity, for lower thermal conductivity, and better durability. The parameters of plasma spray experiment included two main variables: (i) spray distance varying from 40 to 80 mm and (ii) the concentration of suspension 20, 25, and 30 wt.%, respectively. The microstructure of obtained coatings was characterized with scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. The porosity of coatings is in the range of 6-10%, and the single phase in the as-sprayed coatings was pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate.

  7. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CH(x)NH(2), etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH(4)N(2) mixture. PMID:17672789

  8. Effects of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment on Pentachlorophenol Removal of Granular Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Puhui; Qu, Guangzhou; Li, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The effects of DBD plasma on the structure of GAC and PCP decomposition were analyzed by N2 adsorption, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of PCP on GAC were fitted with different kinetics and isotherm models, respectively. The results indicate that the types of N2 adsorption isotherm of GAC are not changed by DBD plasma, while the specific surface area and pore volume increase after DBD plasma treatment. It is found that the weight loss of the saturated GAC is the highest, on the contrary, the weight loss of DBD treated GAC is the least because of reduced PCP residue on the GAC. The XPS spectra and SEM image suggest that some PCP on the GAC is removed by DBD plasma, and the surface of GAC treated by DBD plasma presents irregular and heterogeneous morphology. The GC-MS identification of by-products shows that two main dechlorination intermediate products, tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol, are distinguished. The fitting results of experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics indicate that the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models can be used for the prediction of the kinetics of virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC for PCP adsorption, and the Langmuir isotherm model fits better with the data of adsorption isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm in the adsorption of PCP on virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC.

  9. Quiescent double barrier high-confinement mode plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, K. H.; Austin, M. E.; Brennan, D. P.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Fenzi, C.; Fuchs, C.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Lao, L. L.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Rettig, C. L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rost, J. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Strait, E. J.; Synakowski, E. J.; Wade, M. R.; Watkins, J. G.; West, W. P.

    2001-05-01

    High-confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation that is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 s or >25 energy confinement times ?E), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved ?NH89=7 for up to 5 times the ?E of 150 ms. The ?NH89 values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in the standard ELMing H mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  10. QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER H-MODE PLASMAS IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. BURRELL; M.E. AUSTIN; D.P. BRENNAN; J.C. DeBOO; E.J. DOYLE; C. FENZI; C. FUCHS; P. GOHIL; R.J. GROEBNER; L.L. LAO; T.C. LUCE; M.A. MAKOWSKI; G.R. McKEE; R.A. MOYER; C.C. PETTY; M. PORKOLAB; C.L.RETTIG; T.L. RHODES; J.C. ROST; B.W. STALLARD; E.J. STRAIT; E.J. SYNAKOWSKI; M.R. WADE; J.G. WATKINS; W.P. WEST

    2000-11-01

    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987) Vol. I, p. 159] this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  11. On the relationship between the structure and the barrier performance of plasma deposited silicon dioxide -like films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Coclite; Antonella Milella; Riccardo d'Agostino; Fabio Palumbo

    2010-01-01

    Silicon dioxide-like barrier films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from different siloxane and silane precursors. The variation of the precursor was investigated as a route to obtain silicon dioxide-like films with different structures, densities and hence barrier performances.Although the films were characterized by the same elemental composition, some differences in film density and porosity were evidenced from

  12. Localized arc filament plasma actuators for noise mitigation and mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, Mohammad (Inventor); Adamovich, Igor (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for controlling fluid flow. The device includes an arc generator coupled to electrodes. The electrodes are placed adjacent a fluid flowpath such that upon being energized by the arc generator, an arc filament plasma adjacent the electrodes is formed. In turn, this plasma forms a localized high temperature, high pressure perturbation in the adjacent fluid flowpath. The perturbations can be arranged to produce vortices, such as streamwise vortices, in the flowing fluid to control mixing and noise in such flows. The electrodes can further be arranged within a conduit configured to contain the flowing fluid such that when energized in a particular frequency and sequence, can excite flow instabilities in the flowing fluid. The placement of the electrodes is such that they are unobtrusive relative to the fluid flowpath being controlled.

  13. Localized arc filament plasma actuators for noise mitigation and mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, Mohammad (Inventor); Adamovich, Igor (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A device for controlling fluid flow. The device includes an arc generator coupled to electrodes. The electrodes are placed adjacent a fluid flowpath such that upon being energized by the arc generator, an arc filament plasma adjacent the electrodes is formed. In turn, this plasma forms a localized high temperature, high pressure perturbation in the adjacent fluid flowpath. The perturbations can be arranged to produce vortices, such as streamwise vortices, in the flowing fluid to control mixing and noise in such flows. The electrodes can further be arranged within a conduit configured to contain the flowing fluid such that when energized in a particular frequency and sequence, can excite flow instabilities in the flowing fluid. The placement of the electrodes is such that they are unobtrusive relative to the fluid flowpath being controlled.

  14. Efficient barrier for charge injection in polyethylene by silver nanoparticles/plasma polymer stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliere, L.; Makasheva, K.; Laurent, C.; Despax, B.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-09-01

    Charge injection from a metal/insulator contact is a process promoting the formation of space charge in polymeric insulation largely used in thick layers in high voltage equipment. The internal charge perturbs the field distribution and can lead to catastrophic failure either through its electrostatic effects or through energetic processes initiated under charge recombination and/or hot electrons effects. Injection is still ill-described in polymeric insulation due to the complexity of the contact between the polymer chains and the electrodes. Barrier heights derived from the metal work function and the polymer electronic affinity do not provide a good description of the measurements [Taleb et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 20, 311-320 (2013)]. Considering the difficulty to describe the contact properties and the need to prevent charge injection in polymers for high voltage applications, we developed an alternative approach by tailoring the interface properties by the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/plasma polymer stack, deposited on the polymer film. Due to their small size, the AgNPs, covered by a very thin film of plasma polymer, act as deep traps for the injected charges thereby stabilizing the interface from the point of view of charge injection. After a quick description of the method for elaborating the nanostructured layer near the contact, it is demonstrated how the AgNPs/plasma polymer stack effectively prevents, in a spectacular way, the formation of bulk space charge.

  15. Improving Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coatings Based on Particle Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, Georg; Sebold, Doris; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

    2012-06-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) has been proposed as a promising material for thermal barrier coatings. During atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) of La2Zr2O7 a considerable amount of La2O3 can evaporate in the plasma flame, resulting in a non-stoichiometric coating. As indicated in the phase diagram of the La2O3-ZrO2 system, in the composition range of pyrochlore structure, the stoichiometric La2Zr2O7 has the highest melting point and other compositions are eutectic. APS experiments were performed with a TriplexPro™-200 plasma torch at different power levels to achieve different degrees of evaporation and thus stoichiometry. For comparison, some investigations on gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) were included, which is less prone to evaporation and formation of non-stoichiometry. Particle temperature distributions were measured by the DPV-2000 diagnostic system. In these distributions, characteristic peaks were detected at specific torch input powers indicating evaporation and solidification processes. Based on this, process parameters can be defined to provide stoichiometric coatings that show good thermal cycling performance.

  16. Evaluation of pathogen inactivation on sliced cheese induced by encapsulated atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation induced by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, air discharge) produced in a rectangular plastic container and the effect of post-treatment storage time on inactivation were evaluated using agar plates and cheese slices. When agar plates were treated with plasma, populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes showed 3.57, 6.69, and 6.53 decimal reductions at 60 s, 45 s, and 7 min, respectively. When the pathogens tested were inoculated on cheese slices, 2.67, 3.10, and 1.65 decimal reductions were achieved at the same respective treatment times. The post-treatment storage duration following plasma treatment potently affected further reduction in pathogen populations. Therefore, the newly developed encapsulated DBD-plasma system for use in a container can be applied to improve the safety of sliced cheese, and increasing post-treatment storage time can greatly enhance the system's pathogen-inactivation efficiency. PMID:25475265

  17. Determination of the HO2 radical in dielectric barrier discharge plasmas using near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Wei Liu; Yong Xu; Xue-Feng Yang; Ai-Min Zhu; Guo-Li Zhao; Wei-Guo Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) plays an important role in combustion systems, atmospheric chemistry and the removal of air pollutants by non-thermal plasmas. This work reports the determination of the hydroperoxyl radical in dielectric barrier discharge plasmas via near-infrared continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy. HO2 radicals were observed in discharges of HCHO\\/O2\\/H2O\\/N2 mixtures around 6625.7 cm-1 in the first H-OO stretching

  18. Silicon oxynitride gas barrier coatings on poly(ether sulfone) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juno Shim; Ho Gyu Yoon; Sang-Hyun Na; Insun Kim; Soonjong Kwak

    2008-01-01

    Thin silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) has been deposited for a gas barrier layer on the surface of poly(ether sulfone) film using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of a mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and ammonia. The chemical structure of the deposited layer varied from organic to inorganic structures depending on RF plasma input power applied to the reaction system. A silicon-based undercoat

  19. A simple dielectric barrier discharge device for generating slot homogeneous plasma in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Lifang; Zhang Yanzhao; Liu Weiyuan; Yang Li; Chen Junying [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2009-03-02

    We report a simple dielectric barrier discharge device for generating slot homogeneous plasma in atmospheric pressure air. It consists of two parallel water electrodes with a distance adjusting micrometer. With increasing the applied voltage, the discharge becomes homogeneous. The electron temperature, vibrational temperature (T{sub V}) of N{sub 2}, and rotational temperature (T{sub R}) of N{sub 2}{sup +} are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy. Both T{sub V} and T{sub R} remain unchanged along the slot in the homogeneous discharge regime. The trend of the T{sub V} with respect to the applied voltage is opposite from that of T{sub R}, while the electron temperature keeps constant with the increasing applied voltage.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  1. Quiescent Double Barrier H-Mode Plasmas in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, K H; Austin, M E; Brennan, D P; DeBoo, J C; Doyle, E J; Fenzi, C; Fuchs, C; Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lao, L L; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Moyer, R A; Petty, C C; Porkolab, M; Rettig, C L; Rhodes, T L; Rost, J C; Stallard, B W; Strait, E J; Synakowski, E J; Wade, M R; Watkins, J G; West, W P

    2000-11-01

    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H89 = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H89 values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge for multi-point plasma-assisted ignition at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Shcherbanev, S A; Stepanyan, S A; Popov, N A; Starikovskaia, S M

    2015-08-13

    Nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge (nSDBD) is an efficient tool for a multi-point plasma-assisted ignition of combustible mixtures at elevated pressures. The discharge develops as a set of synchronously propagated from the high-voltage electrode charged channels (streamers), with a typical density up to a few streamers per millimetre of the length of the electrode. In combustible mixtures, nSDBD initiates numerous combustion waves propagating from the electrode. Very little is known about nSDBD at high pressures. This work presents a comparative experimental study of the surface dielectric barrier discharge initiated by high-voltage pulses (U=±(20-60)?kV) of different polarities in air at elevated pressures (P=1-6?atm). Discharge morphology, deposited energy and velocity of the discharge front propagation are analysed. Differences between the discharges of positive and negative polarity, as well as the changes in the discharge morphology with changing of a gas mixture composition. PMID:26170430

  3. Physical and Barrier Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition ?-SiC:N:H Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chiu-Chih; Wu, Zhen-Cheng; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chen, Mao-Chieh; Ko, Chung-Chi; Chen, Hsi-Ping; Jang, Syun-Ming; Yu, Chen-Hua; Liang, Mong-Song

    2003-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermal stability and physical and barrier properties of three species of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) ?-SiC:N:H silicon carbide films with different carbon and nitrogen contents and dielectric constants less than a value of 5.5. For comparison, one species of ?-SiN:H film with a k value of 7.2 is also studied. It is found that the dielectric constant decreases with increasing content of carbon and decreasing content of nitrogen in the ?-SiC:N:H film. All of the three species of ?-SiC:N:H and the one species of ?-SiN:H films are thermally stable at temperatures up to 500°C. However, degraded barrier capability and moisture resistance were observed for the ?-SiC:N:H film with a k value of 3.5, which has a C/Si atomic ratio of 0.875. This is presumably due to the poorly crosslinked molecular structure and porosity enhancement caused by the abundant amount of carbon in the ?-SiC:N:H film.

  4. Changes induced in the permeability barrier of the yeast plasma membrane by cupric ion.

    PubMed Central

    Ohsumi, Y; Kitamoto, K; Anraku, Y

    1988-01-01

    A specific effect of Cu2+ eliciting selective changes in the permeability of intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells is described. When 100 microM CuCl2 was added to a cell suspension in a buffer of low ionic strength, the permeability barrier of the plasma membranes of the cells was lost within 2 min at 25 degrees C. The release of amino acids was partial, and the composition of the amino acids released was different from that of those retained in the cells. Mostly glutamate was released, but arginine was mainly retained in the cells. Cellular K+ was released rapidly after CuCl2 addition, but 30% of the total K+ was retained in the cells. These and other observations suggested that Cu2+ caused selective lesions of the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane but did not affect the permeability of the vacuolar membrane. These selective changes were not induced by the other divalent cations tested. A novel and simple method for differential extraction of vacuolar and cytosolic amino acid pools by Cu2+ treatment was established. When Ca2+ was added to Cu2+-treated cells, a large amount of Ca2+ was sequestered into vacuoles, with formation of an inclusion of a Ca2+-polyphosphate complex in the vacuoles. Cu2+-treated cells also showed enhanced uptake of basic amino acids and S-adenosylmethionine. The transport of these substrates showed saturable kinetics with low affinities, reflecting the vacuolar transport process in situ. With Cu2+ treatment, selective leakage of K+ from the cytosolic compartment appears to create a large concentration gradient of K+ across the vacuolar membrane and generates an inside-negative membrane potential, which may provide a driving force of uptake of positively charged substances into vacuoles. Cu2+ treatment provides a useful in situ method for investigating the mechanisms of differential solute pool formation and specific transport phenomena across the vacuolar membrane. PMID:3286617

  5. A cold plasma dielectric barrier discharge atomic emission detector for atmospheric mercury.

    PubMed

    Puanngam, Mahitti; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Unob, Fuangfa; Wang, Jian-Hua; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-05-15

    An automated atmospheric elemental mercury analyzer based on the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomic emission technique was developed. The instrument is based on a gold-on tungsten coiled filament preconcentrator fashioned from commercial quartz-halogen lamps, a DBD excitation source and a radiation detector. An in-house program provided system control and data collection. Several types of radiation detectors, e.g., charge coupled device (CCD) array spectrometers, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and phototube (PT) are investigated. An argon plasma provided better performance than a nitrogen plasma. With approximately 0.88 standard liters per min sampling rate and preconcentration for 2min, the estimated (S/N=3) detection limit was 0.12ng/L (Hg(0)), the linear range extended at least to 6.6ngHg/L. Typical RSD values for determination at the single digit ng/L level ranged from 2.8 to 4.9%. In 19 separate calibrations conducted over 7 days, the calibration slope had a standard error of 1%. The system was applied to the determination of atmospheric mercury in two different locations. PMID:20298901

  6. Improving the thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed CYSZ thermal barrier coatings by laser surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi-Pidani, Raheleh; Shoja-Razavi, Reza; Mozafarinia, Reza; Jamali, Hossein

    2012-05-01

    In this study, substrates of Inconel 738 LC superalloy coupons were first sprayed with a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat and then with a ceria and yttria stabilized zirconia (CYSZ) topcoat by air plasma spraying (APS). After that, the plasma sprayed CYSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The effects of laser glazing on the microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the coatings were evaluated. Thermal shock test was administered by holding specimens at 950 °C for 5 min and then water quenching. More than 20% of the spalled region of the surface of the topcoat was adopted as the criterion for the failure of samples. The microstructures of both the as processed and the tested TBCs were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phases of the coatings were analyzed with X-ray diffractometry (XRD). XRD analysis revealed that both as sprayed and laser glazed topcoats consisted of nonequilibrium tetragonal (T') phase. The results showed that the life times of the as sprayed TBCs were enhanced around fourfold by the formation of a continuous network of segmented cracks perpendicular to the surface and the increase in strain accommodation.

  7. Neutron and X-ray diffraction of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Herman, H.; Singhal, S. P.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    ZrO2-7.8mol. pct. YO1.5, a fused powder, and ZrO2-8.7mol. pct. YO1.5, a prereacted powder, were plasma-sprayed onto steel substrates. Neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction of the as-received powder, the powder plasma sprayed into water, as-sprayed coatings, and coatings heat-treated for 10 and 100 h were carried out to study phase transformations and ordering of the oxygen ions on the oxygen sublattice. The as-received fused powder has a much lower monoclinic percentage than does the pre-reacted powder, this resulting in a much lower monoclinic percentage in the coating. Heat treatment increases the percentages of the cubic and monoclinic phases, while decreasing the tetragonal content. An ordered tetragonal phase is detected by the presence of extra neutron diffraction peaks. These phase transformations and ordering will result in volume changes. The implications of these transformations on the performance of partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings is discussed.

  8. Improved Ethanol Production from Xylose by Candida shehatae Induced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Air Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huixia; Xiu, Zhilong; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-06-01

    Xylose fermentation is essential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Exposure of the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae (C. shehatae) CICC1766 to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma yields a clone (designated as C81015) with stability, which exhibits a higher ethanol fermentation rate from xylose, giving a maximal enhancement in ethanol production of 36.2% compared to the control (untreated). However, the biomass production of C81015 is lower than that of the control. Analysis of the NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)- and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-linked xylose reductases and NAD+-linked xylitol dehydrogenase indicates that their activities are enhanced by 34.1%, 61.5% and 66.3%, respectively, suggesting that the activities of these three enzymes are responsible for improving ethanol fermentation in C81015 with xylose as a substrate. The results of this study show that DBD air plasma could serve as a novel and effective means of generating microbial strains that can better use xylose for ethanol fermentation.

  9. Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline by a novel dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwei; Liu, Runlong; Chen, Pei; Yuan, Shoujun; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) was conducted in a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The factors affecting the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA and the degradation mechanism of 3,4-DCA were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA increased with increasing input power intensity, and the degradation of 3,4-DCA by the novel DBD plasma reactor fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Higher degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA was observed in acidic conditions. The degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA, the removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC), and the detected Cl(-) increased dramatically with adding Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). Degradation of 3,4-DCA could be accelerated or inhibited in the presence of H2O2 depending on the dosage. Several degradation intermediates of 3,4-DCA such as 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 3,4-dichlorophenyl isocyanate, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Based on the identification of aromatic intermediates, acetic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, and Cl(-) released, a possible mineralization pathway of 3,4-DCA was proposed. PMID:25315933

  10. Diamond-like carbon produced by plasma source ion implantation as a corrosion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    There currently exists a broad range of applications for which the ability to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications include engine components, orthopedic devices, textile manufacturing components, hard disk media, optical coatings, and cutting and machining tools (e.g., punches, taps, scoring dies, and extrusion dies). Ion beam processing can play an important role in all of these technologies. Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional ion implantation by: (1) reducing the time and expense for implanting onto complex shapes and large areas and (2) extending the thickness of the modification zone through ion beam enhanced plasma growth of surface coatings. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma source and then pulse biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for complex-shaped targets without complex fixturing. If the pulse bias is a relatively high negative potential (20 to 100 kV) ion implantation will result. If however, a low voltage (50--1,200 eV) high duty cycle pulse bias is applied, film deposition from the chamber gas will result, thereby increasing the extent of the surface modification into the 1--10 micron regime. To evaluate the potential for DLC to be used as a corrosion barrier, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and traditional electrochemistry techniques were used to investigate the breakdown mechanism in chloride and nonchloride containing environments. The effect of surface preparation on coating breakdown was also evaluated.

  11. Effects of electrode geometry on the performance of dielectric barrier/packed-bed discharge plasmas in benzene degradation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Lu, Na; Shang, Kefeng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effects of electrode geometry on benzene degradation in a dielectric barrier/packed-bed discharge plasma reactor with different electrodes were systematically investigated. Three electrodes were employed in the experiments, these were coil, bolt, and rod geometries. The reactor using the coil electrode showed better performance in reducing the dielectric loss in the barrier compared to that using the bolt or rod electrodes. In the case of the coil electrode, both the benzene degradation efficiency and energy yield were higher than those for the other electrodes, which can be attributed to the increased role of surface mediated reactions. Irrespective of the electrode geometry, the packed-bed discharge plasma was superior to the dielectric barrier discharge plasma in benzene degradation at any specific applied voltage. The main gaseous products of benzene degradation were CO, CO2, H2O, and formic acid. Discharge products such as O3, N2O, N2O5, and HNO3 were also detected in the outlet gas. Moreover, the presence of benzene inhibited the formation of ozone because of the competing reaction of oxygen atoms with benzene. This study is expected to offer an optimized approach combining dielectric barrier discharge and packed-bed discharge to improve the degradation of gaseous pollutants. PMID:24061216

  12. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-11-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1-5 mg L(-1)) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.567 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min(-1) for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.523 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min(-1) for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for atrazine; 447 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for c hlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by -products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min(-1) for atrazine; k = 0.061 min(-1) for lindane). PMID:24121639

  13. Development of a diffuse air-argon plasma source using a dielectric-barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jie; Jiang Weiman; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan; Li Shibo; Wang Haojing [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China); Duan Yixiang [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China); Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-01-21

    A stable diffuse large-volume air plasma source was developed by using argon-induced dielectric-barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be operated in a filamentary discharge with the average areal power density of 0.27 W/cm{sup 2} and the gas temperature of 315{+-}3 K. Spatial measurement of emission spectrum and temperature indicates that this plasma is uniform in the central region along the transverse direction. It is also found that the formation of diffuse air plasma mainly lies in the creation of sufficient seed electrons by the Penning effect through collisions between two argon or nitrogen metastables at low electric fields.

  14. Thermal barrier research

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, K.G.

    1990-03-07

    The thermal barrier region in the TARA device is a complex arrangement combining ion-plugging by sloshing ions with an ECRH-generated thermal barrier plasma. An axisymmetric, high-mirror-ratio magnetic field, adjacent to the central cell, provides the confinement of the thermal barrier plasma and sloshing ions. This paper discusses research being done in this thermal barrier region.

  15. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24?h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  16. Influence of outgassing on plasma kinetics during wood treatment in dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R.; Levasseur, O.; Stafford, L.; Naude, N.; Gherardi, N.; Univ. de Montreal Team

    2013-09-01

    We have recently extended the range of applications of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressure to the functionalization of wood surfaces with the objective of improving its durability following natural weathering. Having highly complex chemical composition and microstructure, it can release significant amount of impurities, which can play a crucial role on the plasma kinetics, and therefore on the process dynamics. The influence of wood outgassing on the physics driving DBD operated in nominally pure He was investigated using a combination of time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and collisional-radiative (CR) modeling. For completely outgassed samples, the He I 588 nm-to-707 nm and 668 nm-to-728 nm line intensity ratios were relatively high early in the discharge cycle, decreased abruptly and then remained stable as the current increased and the discharge eventually extinguished. These results were correlated to a decrease of the electron temperature from about 1 eV early in the cycle to about 0.2 eV in the main discharge lifetime. As wood outgassing evolve, study revealed that the release of products (essentially air) from the wood substrate yields to an increase of the cycle-averaged electron temperature as well as to a significant quenching of He metastable atoms. Selected experiments in presence of trace amounts of N2, O2 and dry-air were also performed to better understand their respective roles.

  17. A homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by a bipolar nanosecond pulse in nitrogen and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shou-Zhe; Nie, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-Chun

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a nanosecond bipolar pulse voltage with 20 ns rise time is employed to generate a low gas temperature homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma both in nitrogen and air at atmospheric pressure. Images of the discharge, waveforms of pulse voltage and discharge current, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the discharge are recorded successfully under severe electromagnetic interference. The effects of pulse peak voltage, pulse repetition rate and the gap distance between electrodes on gas temperature and the emission intensities of NO (A 2? ? X 2?), OH (A 2? ? X 2?) and N2 (C\\,^3\\Pi _u \\to B\\,^3\\Pi _g ) are discussed. It is found that the emission intensities of NO (A 2? ? X 2?), OH (A 2? ? X 2?) and N2 (C\\,^3\\Pi _u \\to B\\,^3\\Pi _g ) rise with increasing both pulse peak voltage and pulse repetition rate but decrease with gap distance between the electrodes when it is above 2.5 mm. The effect of concentrations of O2 on the emission intensities of NO (A 2? ? X 2?), OH (A 2? ? X 2?) and N2 (C\\,^3\\Pi _u \\to B\\,^3\\Pi _g ) is also investigated, and it is found that the emission intensities of both NO (A 2? ? X 2?) and OH (A 2? ? X 2?) reach maximum values when the O2 concentration is 0.3%.

  18. Lanthanum hexaaluminate—a new material for atmospheric plasma spraying of advanced thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, C.; Gadow, R.; Schirmer, T.

    2001-12-01

    One of the main application fields of the thermal spraying process is thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Today, partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ or MSZ) is mainly used as a TBC material. At temperatures above 1000 °C, zirconia layers age distinctively, including phenomena shrinkage and microcrack formation. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in TBCs for higher temperature applications. In this paper, lanthanum hexaaluminate, a newly developed TBC material with long-term stability up to 1400 °C, is presented. It ages significantly more slowly at these high temperatures than commercial zirconia-based TBCs. Its composition favors the formation of platelets, which prevent a densification of the coating by postsintering. It consists of La2O3, Al2O3, and MgO. Its crystal structure corresponds to a magnetoplumbite phase. Lanthanum hexaaluminate powders were produced using two different fabrication routes, one based on salts and the other one based on oxides. To optimize the granulate, various raw materials and additives were tested. The slurry was spray dried in a laboratory spray drier and calcined at 1650 °C. Using these two powders, coatings were produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The residual stresses of the coatings were measured by the hole drilling method, and the deposition process was optimized with respect to the residual stresses in the TBC. The coatings were extensively analyzed regarding phase composition, thermal expansion, and long-term stability, as well as microstructural properties.

  19. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  20. Optical emission characteristics of surface nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yun; Li Yinghong; Jia Min; Song Huimin; Liang Hua [Science and Technology on Plasma Dynamics Lab, Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710038 (China)

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports an experimental study of the optical emission characteristics of the surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulsed voltage. N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational and vibrational temperatures are almost the same with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded or upper electrode grounded and lower electrode powered with positive polarity. While the electron temperature is 12% higher with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded. When the frequency is below 2000 Hz, there is almost no influence of applied voltage amplitude and frequency on N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational, vibrational temperature and electron temperature. As the pressure decreases from 760 Torr to 5 Torr, N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational temperature remains almost unchanged, while its vibrational temperature decreases initially and then increases. The discharge mode changes from a filamentary type to a glow type around 80 Torr. In the filamentary mode, the electron temperature remains almost unchanged. In the glow mode, the electron temperature increases while the pressure decreases.

  1. Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O?) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O? which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na?B?O? as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na?B?O? because B?O?(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O?. The main reason was that O? can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

  2. Generation of H and O VUV Emissions in High-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge and Microhollow Cathode Discharge Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yan; A. El Dakroury; M. Laroussi; M. Gupta; K. Martus; P. Kurunczi; K. Becker

    2002-01-01

    As the semiconductor industry pushes toward ever smaller chip feature sizes (< 100 nm), ever shorter wavelengths are sought for the photolithographic process used in their fabrication. We investigated two plasma-based light sources for the generation of near-monochromatic vacuum ultraviolet atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm) and oxygen (130.6 nm) line emissions, (i) a variant of a dielectric barrier discharge and (ii)

  3. Heat Transfer Through Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbines: A Review of Recent Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Golosnoy; A. Cipitria; T. W. Clyne

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of how heat transfer takes place in plasma-sprayed (zirconia-based) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during operation of gas turbines. These characteristics of TBCs are naturally of central importance to their function. Current state-of-the-art TBCs have relatively high levels of porosity (~15%) and the pore architecture (i.e., its morphology, connectivity, and scale) has a strong influence on the

  4. Heat Transfer Through Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbines: A Review of Recent Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Golosnoy; A. Cipitria; T. W. Clyne

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of how heat transfer takes place in plasma-sprayed (zirconia-based) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs)\\u000a during operation of gas turbines. These characteristics of TBCs are naturally of central importance to their function. Current\\u000a state-of-the-art TBCs have relatively high levels of porosity (~15%) and the pore architecture (i.e., its morphology, connectivity,\\u000a and scale) has a strong influence on the

  5. Fabrication of thin vertical mirrors through plasma etch and KOH:IPA polishing for integration into MEMS electrostatic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, M. Q.; Amin, T. M. F.; Ning, Y.; McKinnon, G.; Tulip, J.; Jäger, W.

    2013-03-01

    We developed a process for the fabrication of thin vertical mirrors as integrated structures of MEMS electrostatic actuators. The mirrors can be implemented as a vertical extension of the actuator sidewall, or can be positioned at any movable part of the actuator. The process involves the fabrication of a mesa structure on the handle layer of a silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafer through deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The etch/passivation cycles of the DRIE process were optimized to achieve vertical etch profiles with a depth of up to 200 ?m with an aspect ratio of 10:1. The DRIE process introduced typical etch scallops with peak-to-valley and rms roughnesses on the order of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A mask layer was used to pattern a 2.1 ?m sacrificial oxide layer for the mesa structure. A second mask layer allowed us to define a large etch cavity for handle layer back-etch. The DRIE etched mesa structure was then etched with diluted potassium hydroxide (KOH) in isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Temperature and etch concentration were optimized for the removal of etch scallops without the formation of <111> etch facets. The etch scallops were almost completely removed and mirror quality surfaces were achieved. The developed mesa structures are suitable for integration into actuators that are patterned in the device layer. A third masking layer, aligned through infrared camera, was used to position the thin vertical mirror at the actuator sidewall. The process provides design flexibility in integrating vertical mirrors of adjustable dimensions to movable elements of MEMS structures.

  6. Induction of apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure of resistive barrier cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Anderson, Heather; Gonzales, Xavier F

    2014-03-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ambient temperature ionized gas, is gaining extensive interest as a promising addition to anti-tumor therapy primarily due to the ability to generate and control delivery of electrons, ions, excited molecules, UV photons, and reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to a specific site. The heterogeneous composition of CAP offers the opportunity to mediate several signaling pathways that regulate tumor cells. Consequently, the array of CAP generated products has limited the identification of the mechanisms of action on tumor cells. The aim of this work is to assess the cell death response of human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure to CAP generated RNS by utilizing a novel resistive barrier discharge system that primarily produces RNS. The effect of variable treatments of CAP generated RNS was tested in THP-1 cell (human monocytic leukemia cell line), a model for hematological malignancy. The number of viable cells was evaluated with erythrosine-B staining, while apoptosis and necrosis was assessed by endonuclease cleavage observed by agarose gel electrophoresis and detection of cells with the exclusionary dye propidium iodide and fluorescently labeled annexin-V by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Our observations indicate that treatment dosage levels of 45 s of exposure to CAP emitted RNS-induced apoptotic cell death and for higher dosage conditions of ?50 s of exposure to CAP induced necrosis. Overall the results suggest that CAP emitted RNS play a significant role in the anti-tumor potential of CAP. PMID:24022746

  7. Improved Oxidation Life of Segmented Plasma Sprayed 8YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2004-03-01

    Unconventional plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were produced and evaluated by interrupted or cyclic furnace oxidation life testing. First, approximately 250 µm thick 8YSZ coatings were directly sprayed onto grit blasted surfaces of PWA 1484, without a bond coat, to take advantage of the excellent oxidation resistance of this superalloy. For nominal sulfur (S) contents of 1 ppmw, total coating separation took place at relatively short times (200 h at 1100°C). Reductions in the S content, by melt desulfurization commercially (0.3 ppmw) or by hydrogen (H2) annealing in the laboratory (0.01 ppmw), improved scale adhesion and extended life appreciably, by factors of 5-10. However, edge-initiated failure persisted, producing massive delamination as one sheet of coating. Secondly, surfaces of melt desulfurized PWA 1484 were machined with a grid of grooves or ribs (˜250 µm wide and high), resulting in a segmented TBC surface macrostructure, for the purpose of subverting this failure mechanism. In this case, failure occurred only as independent, single-segment events. For grooved samples, 1100 °C segment life was extended to ˜1000h for 5 mm wide segments, with no failure observed out to 2000 h for segments ?2.5 mm wide. Ribbed samples were even more durable, and segments ?6 mm remained intact for 2000 h. Larger segments failed by buckling at times inversely related to the segment width and decreased by oxidation effects at higher temperatures. This critical buckling size was consistent with that predicted for elastic buckling of a TBC plate subject to thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Thus, low S substrates demonstrate appreciable coating lives without a bond coat, while rib segmenting extends life considerably.

  8. Digital Actuator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator technology over legacy analog sensor technology in both quantitative and qualitative ways. 2. To recognize and address the added difficulty of digital technology qualification, especially in regard to software common cause failure (SCCF), that is introduced by the use of digital actuator technology.

  9. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  10. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  11. Physical and Barrier Properties of Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposited ?-SiC:H Films from Trimethylsilane and Tetramethylsilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chiu-Chih; Chen, Mao-Chieh; Ko, Chung-Chi; Wu, Zhen-Cheng; Jang, Syun-Ming; Liang, Mong-Song

    2003-07-01

    This work investigates the thermal stability and physical and barrier properties of two species of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) ?-SiC:H silicon carbide films (with k-values less than 5) deposited using trimethylsilane, (CH3)3SiH (3MS) and tetramethylsilane, (CH3)4Si (4MS) organosilicate gases. It is found that the 4MS ?-SiC:H film contains a higher content of carbon and has a lower dielectric constant. Both of the 3MS and 4MS ?-SiC:H films are thermally stable at temperatures up to 500°C. However, degraded barrier property and moisture resistance were observed for the 4MS ?-SiC:H film; this is attributed to the porosity enrichment caused by the film’s high carbon content. The 3MS ?-SiC:H film, which exhibits a superior Cu-barrier property, is a potential candidate for replacing the higher dielectric constant Si3N4 film as a Cu-cap barrier and etching stop layer in the Cu damascene structure.

  12. Quantification of the effect of surface heating on shock wave modification by a plasma actuator in a low-density supersonic flow over a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussot, Romain; Lago, Viviana; Parisse, Jean-Denis

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations focused on the shock wave modification induced by a dc glow discharge. The model is a flat plate in a Mach 2 air flow, equipped with a plasma actuator composed of two electrodes. A weakly ionized plasma was created above the plate by generating a glow discharge with a negative dc potential applied to the upstream electrode. The natural flow exhibited a shock wave with a hyperbolic shape. Pitot measurements and ICCD images of the modified flow revealed that when the discharge was ignited, the shock wave angle increased with the discharge current. The spatial distribution of the surface temperature was measured with an IR camera. The surface temperature increased with the current and decreased along the model. The temperature distribution was reproduced experimentally by placing a heating element instead of the active electrode, and numerically by modifying the boundary condition at the model surface. For the same surface temperature, experimental investigations showed that the shock wave angle was lower with the heating element than for the case with the discharge switched on. The results show that surface heating is responsible for roughly 50 % of the shock wave angle increase, meaning that purely plasma effects must also be considered to fully explain the flow modifications observed.

  13. Columnar-Structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Thin Film Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS-TF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospach, Andreas; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    The very low-pressure plasma Spray (VLPPS) process has been developed with the aim of depositing uniform and thin coatings with coverage of a large area by plasma spraying. At typical pressures of 100-200 Pa, the characteristics of the plasma jet change compared to conventional low-pressure plasma-spraying processes (LPPS) operating at 5-20 kPa. The combination of plasma spraying at low pressures with enhanced electrical input power has led to the development of the LPPS-TF process (TF = thin film). At appropriate parameters, it is possible to evaporate the powder feedstock material providing advanced microstructures of the deposits. This technique offers new possibilities for the manufacturing of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Besides the material composition, the microstructure is an important key to reduce thermal conductivity and to increase strain tolerance. In this regard, columnar microstructures deposited from the vapor phase show considerable advantages. Therefore, physical vapor deposition by electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD) is applied to achieve such columnar-structured TBCs. However, the deposition rate is low, and the line-of-sight nature of the process involves specific restrictions. In this article, the deposition of TBCs by the LPPS-TF process is shown. How the evaporation of the feedstock powder could be improved and to what extent the deposition rates could be increased were investigated.

  14. Nonthermal Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Inactivation Involves Oxidative DNA Damage and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Suresh G.; Cooper, Moogega; Yost, Adam; Paff, Michelle; Ercan, Utku K.; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Brooks, Ari D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress leads to membrane lipid peroxidation, which yields products causing variable degrees of detrimental oxidative modifications in cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key regulators in this process and induce lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli. Application of nonthermal (cold) plasma is increasingly used for inactivation of surface contaminants. Recently, we reported a successful application of nonthermal plasma, using a floating-electrode dielectric-barrier discharge (FE-DBD) technique for rapid inactivation of bacterial contaminants in normal atmospheric air (S. G. Joshi et al., Am. J. Infect. Control 38:293-301, 2010). In the present report, we demonstrate that FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation involves membrane lipid peroxidation in E. coli. Dose-dependent ROS, such as singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide-like species generated during plasma-induced oxidative stress, were responsible for membrane lipid peroxidation, and ROS scavengers, such as ?-tocopherol (vitamin E), were able to significantly inhibit the extent of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. These findings indicate that this is a major mechanism involved in FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation of bacteria. PMID:21199923

  15. High-speed photographs of a dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Teschke; J. Kedzierski; E. G. Finantu-Dinu; D. Korzec; J. Engemann

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated by use of an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. It is shown that the APPJ is mainly an electrical phenomenon and not a flow related one. The jet does not consist of a voluminous plasma. Much more, the presented plasma source acts like a \\

  16. Influence of wall-charge accumulation on the gas dielectric barrier discharge in alternating current plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Bingang; Wei Wei; Shinoda, Tsutae; Liu Chunliang [Advanced Display Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710049 (China)

    2007-03-05

    Influences of wall-charge accumulation on gas dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) breakdown threshold and sustaining voltage margin of alternating current plasma display panel (AC-PDP) were investigated. It is observed that wall-charge accumulation results in a remarkable increase of gas DBD breakdown threshold during sustaining discharge period. Sustaining voltage margin is reduced by the threshold increase. A larger margin can be obtained when the threshold is decreased by removing unfavorable influence of wall-charge accumulation. Compared with normal margin, improved margin has a larger value and a faster linear increase with increasing wall-charge voltage. That indicates a way to improve AC-PDP performances remarkably.

  17. Polyaniline actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Smela; Wen Lu; Benjamin R. Mattes

    2005-01-01

    Drawn polyaniline films and fibers doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane-1-sulfonic acid, PANI(AMPS), were electrochemically cycled in HCl and their material properties and actuation performance comprehensively characterized. The Young's modulus was obtained as a function of applied voltage. Actuator figures of merit were derived from isotonic and isometric measurements, including strain, stress, work, power, creep, and efficiency. The effects of sample length, solution

  18. Photostrictive actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Uchino; P. Poosanaas; K. Tonooka

    2001-01-01

    Photostrictive materials, exhibiting light-induced strains, are of interest for future generation wireless remote control photo-actuators, micro-actuators, and micro-sensors applications. (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti) O3 (PLZT) ceramics doped with WO3 exhibit large photostriction under uniform illumination of nearultraviolet light. Using a bimorph configuration, a photo-driven relay and a micro walking device have been demonstrated. However, for the fabrication of these devices, higher

  19. Photostrictive actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patcharin Poosanaas; Kazuhiko Tonooka; Kenji Uchino

    2000-01-01

    Photostrictive materials, exhibiting light induced strain, are of interest for future generation wireless remote control photo-actuators, micro-actuators, and micro-sensors applications. (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti) O3 (PLZT) ceramics doped with WO3 exhibit large photostriction under uniform illumination of near-ultraviolet light. Using a bimorph configuration, a photo-driven relay and a micro walking device have been demonstrated. However, for the fabrication of these devices,

  20. Assessment of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor at atmospheric pressure for the removal of bisphenol A and tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, Maria; Molina, Ricardo; Bayona, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a laboratory-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) nonthermal plasma reactor at atmospheric pressure was assessed for the removal of bisphenol A (1 mg L(-1)) and tributyltin (10 mg L(-1)) from aqueous solutions. The elimination of both the compounds followed an exponential decay equation, and a first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for them (k = 0.662 min(-1) for bisphenol A and k = 0.800 min(-1) for tributyltin), reaching in both cases about 96% removal after 5-min treatment. Accordingly, plasma DBD reactors could be used as alternative advanced oxidation technologies for the removal of some persistent and toxic pollutants from water and wastewater, although further research should be performed to evaluate the effluent toxicity. PMID:24701940

  1. Surface treatment for Cu metallization on polyimide film by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Jin Cho; Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Jin-Hyo Boo

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) surface treatment method was applied to surface modification of polyimide (PI) films to enhance the adhesion between copper layer and PI surface by electroless plating. Also, APP was ignited by radio frequency (RF; 13.56 MHz) plasma power supply. In this study, nontoxic gases (nitrogen, oxygen, and NO (nitrogen:oxygen = 1:1)) plasma effects were mainly investigated instead of toxic gas

  2. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

  3. Microstreamer dynamics during plasma remediation of NO using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    E-print Network

    Kushner, Mark

    Microstreamer dynamics during plasma remediation of NO using atmospheric pressure dielectric- ate toxins from atmospheric pressure gas streams. Plasma remediation is one technique which has been methods for the removal of oxides of nitrogen NxOy from atmospheric gas streams and among those techniques

  4. The sterilization of Escherichia coli by dielectric-barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hu; Yun, Guo

    2011-06-01

    The sterilization of E. coli (ATCC8099) using an atmospheric pressure, air DBD plasma driven by 100 Hz high-voltage power supply was investigated in this paper. The results showed that germicidal efficiency was closely related to the plasma treatment time, the gap spacing, the initial cell density and the surface characters of substrate materials. The germicidal efficiency was 99.999% under the conditions of 5-min plasma treatment, 3-cm gap spacing and on PET films. After plasma exposure for 5 min, the temperature was observed below 43 °C which could not lead to inactivate E. coli. The observation of protein leakage and cell morphology alteration by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques revealed that the etching action on cell membrane by electrons, ions and radicals was primary reason of DBD air plasma sterilization.

  5. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  6. Failure mechanisms associated with the thermally grown oxide in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Rabiei; A. G Evans

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and durability of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) produced by the thermal spray method have been characterized. Upon exposure, the bond coat chemistry and microstructure change by inter-diffusion with the substrate and upon thickening of the thermally grown oxide (TGO). A wedge impression test, in conjunction with observations by scanning electron microscopy, has been used to probe the

  7. Effect of electrode shape in dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for NOx removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Takaki; Masaki Shimizu; Seiji Mukaigawa; Tamiya Fujiwara

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study on nitrogen oxides (NOx) removal from a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas was carried out in geometry of various electrodes for dielectric barrier discharge reactor to improve the removal efficiency. The electrodes employed in the experiment were a plane, a trench, and a multipoint geometry. The right-pyramids, which were used as multipoint, had 45° tip angle and

  8. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nishihara; K. Takashima; J. W. Rich; I. V. Adamovich

    2011-01-01

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled

  9. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nagaraj, B.A. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Aircraft Engine Group

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  10. Barrier Metal Properties of Amorphous Tantalum Nitride Thin Films between Platinum and Silicon deposited using Remote Plasma Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Hee Han; Kwang-Nam Cho; Jae-Eung Oh; Su-Hyoun Paek; Chang-Soo Park; Sang-In Lee; Moon Yong Lee; Jong Gil Lee

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous TaN thin films have been prepared by remote plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition using pentakis-dimethyl-amino-tantalum (PDMATa) in hydrogen plasma. The dependence of film properties such as resistivity, impurity contents, and microstructures on deposition conditions is reported. All obtained films have been tested as diffusion barriers between platinum and silicon in a stacked-capacitor type memory cell for future, high-density

  11. Properties of SiO 2-like barrier layers on polyethersulfone substrates by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Wuu; W. C. Lo; L. S. Chang; R. H. Horng

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the characterization of silicon oxide (SiO2) films on polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for transparent barrier applications. The film properties, such as deposition rate, etch rate, roughness, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), were found to increase as the plasma power increased from 10 to 120 W. As the pressure of chamber increases from 75

  12. Photostrictive actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Uchino

    1990-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that PLZT ceramics exhibit large photostriction under optical irradiation, and are applicable to photostrictive actuators. Photo-driven relays and micro-walking machines have been developed, which are designed to start moving under irradiation and have neither electric lead wires nor electric circuits

  13. Removal of ammonia from gas streams with dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanyan Xia; Li Huang; Xiaohong Shu; Renxi Zhang; Wenbo Dong; Huiqi Hou

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the experimental study of gas-phase removal of ammonia (NH3) via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, in which we mainly concentrated on three aspects—influence of initial NH3 concentration, peak voltage, and gas residence time on NH3 removal efficiency. Effectiveness, e.g. the removal efficiency, specific energy density, absolute removal amount and energy yield, of the self-made DBD

  14. New material concepts for the next generation of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Stöver; G. Pracht; H. Lehmann; M. Dietrich; J. E. Döring; R. Vaßen

    2004-01-01

    In application as a thermal barrier coating (TBC), partially stabilized zirconia (Zr) approaches some limits of performance.\\u000a To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature capability and a longer lifetime of the coating are\\u000a needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials and concepts for application\\u000a as TBC. Materials whose compositions

  15. Lanthanum hexaaluminate—a new material for atmospheric plasma spraying of advanced thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Friedrich; R. Gadow; T. Schirmer

    2001-01-01

    One of the main application fields of the thermal spraying process is thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Today, partially stabilized\\u000a zirconia (YSZ or MSZ) is mainly used as a TBC material. At temperatures above 1000 ?C, zirconia layers age distinctively,\\u000a including phenomena shrinkage and microcrack formation. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in TBCs for higher temperature\\u000a applications. In this paper,

  16. Dielectric barrier discharges used for the conversion of greenhouse gases: modeling the plasma chemistry by fluid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bie, Christophe; Martens, Tom; van Dijk, Jan; Paulussen, Sabine; Verheyde, Bert; Corthals, Steven; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2011-04-01

    The conversion of methane to value-added chemicals and fuels is considered to be one of the challenges of the 21st century. In this paper we study, by means of fluid modeling, the conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons or oxygenates by partial oxidation with CO2 or O2 in a dielectric barrier discharge. Sixty-nine different plasma species (electrons, ions, molecules, radicals) are included in the model, as well as a comprehensive set of chemical reactions. The calculation results presented in this paper include the conversion of the reactants and the yields of the reaction products as a function of residence time in the reactor, for different gas mixing ratios. Syngas (i.e. H2 + CO) and higher hydrocarbons (C2Hx) are typically found to be important reaction products.

  17. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schaekers, Marc [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Blasco, Nicolas [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)] [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  18. Deposition of SiO2 by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition as the Diffusion Barrier to Polymer Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chang Hyun; Lee, June Hee; Lim, Jong Tae; Cho, Nam Gil; Moon, Cheol Hee; Yeom, Geun Young

    2005-02-01

    SiO2 thin films were deposited at the temperatures <150°C by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using a tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)/N2/O2 gas mixture, and the physical and chemical characteristics as well as the characteristics as a transparent diffusion barrier to H2O were investigated. Using a gas combination of TEOS(40 sccm)/O2(500 sccm)/N2(100 sccm) at source power of 500 W and dc bias voltage of -350 V, SiO2 with a stoichometric composition of SiO2 and a smooth surface similar to the substrate could be deposited. When a multilayer diffusion barrier composed of parylene(800 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/parylene(800 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/parylene(800 nm) was formed on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate, the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the substrate was decreased from 54.1 to 0.3 gm/(m2\\cdotday).

  19. Is the mammalian cell plasma membrane a barrier to oxygen transport?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WITOLD K. SUBCZYNSKI; LARRY E. HOPWOOD; JAMES S. HYDE

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen transport in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) plasma membrane has been studied by observing the collision of molecular oxygen with nitroxide radical spin labels placed in the lipid bilayer portion of the membrane at various distances from the membrane surface using the long-pulse saturation- recovery electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The collision rate was estimated for 5-, 12-, and

  20. Plasma Separation Process: Betacell (BCELL) code: User's manual. [Bipolar barrier junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taherzadeh

    1987-01-01

    The emergence of clearly defined applications for (small or large) amounts of long-life and reliable power sources has given the design and production of betavoltaic systems a new life. Moreover, because of the availability of the plasma separation program, (PSP) at TRW, it is now possible to separate the most desirable radioisotopes for betacell power generating devices. A computer code,

  1. A low-power magnetic-field-assisted plasma jet generated by dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie, E-mail: tangjie1979@opt.ac.cn; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China); Duan, Yixiang [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi'an 710119 (China); Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-01-06

    A magnetic field is introduced to the dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge for efficient plasma generation, with the discharge power of 2.7?W and total energy consumption reduced to 34% of the original. By spatially examining the emission spectra and plasma temperature, it is found that their peaks shift from edges to the center and the negative and anode glows merge into the positive column and disappear, accompanied by improvement of uniformity and chemical activity of the enlarged plasma. This lies in the enhancement of ionization in the curved and lengthened electron path and the dispersion of discharge domains.

  2. Electrorepulsive actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor); Curry, Kenneth C. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a linear actuator that operates under the principle that like charges repel and opposite charges attract. The linear actuator consists of first and second pairs of spaced opposed conductors where one member of each pair of conductors is attached to a fixed member, and where the other member of each pair of conductors is attached to a movable member such as an elongated rod. The two pairs of spaced conductors may be provided in the form of two spacedly interwound helical vanes where the conductors are located on the opposite sides of the two helical vanes. One helical vane extends inwardly from a housing and the other helical vane extends outwardly from an elongated rod. The elongated rod may be caused to move linearly with respect to the housing by applying appropriate charges of like or opposite polarity to the electrical conductors on the helical vanes.

  3. Integrated feature scale modeling of plasma processing of porous and solid SiO2. II. Residual fluorocarbon polymer stripping and barrier layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Arvind; Kushner, Mark J.

    2004-07-01

    The adoption of low dielectric constant materials as inter-level dielectrics in microelectronics fabrication will ultimately depend on process integration. Porous SiO2 (PS) is one candidate material. Cleaning of residual polymer from trenches following etching using fluorocarbon plasmas and the deposition of a continuous barrier layer are critical processes for integration of PS as inter-level dielectrics. To investigate these issues, reactions mechanisms for plasma stripping of fluorocarbon polymer using oxygen containing plasmas and deposition of metal barrier coatings into PS trenches were developed, and incorporated into a feature profile model. The reaction mechanism was validated by comparison to experiments for blanket plasma etching of polytetrafluoroethylene using Ar-O2 chemistries. Plasma stripping of fluorocarbon polymers from solid SiO2 (SS) trenches was found to be less efficient at higher aspect ratios. Stripping was also less efficient from PS trenches having large average pore radius and high interconnectivity. Cu ionized metal physical vapor deposition was investigated as a surrogate for barrier coating in SS and PS trenches. Compared to SS, thin film deposition was less conformal for PS having closed pore networks. Thicker films were required for interconnected PS to avoid pin-hole formation. .

  4. Polyaniline actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Smela; Benjamin R. Mattes

    2005-01-01

    Actuation of polyaniline (PANI)\\/Au bending bilayers and stretched polyaniline fibers doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane-1-sulfonic acid was studied in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. Electrochemical activity was retained even upon repeated cycling into the pernigraniline state, unlike in HCl. The polyaniline expanded 1.6% from the leucoemeraldine state to the emeraldine state, similar to the strain in HCl, and then contracted 0.2% upon entering the

  5. Rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotary actuators and other mechanical devices incorporating shape memory alloys are provided herein. Shape memory alloys are a group of metals which when deformed at temperatures below their martensite temperatures, resume the shapes which they had prior to the deformation if they are heated to temperatures above their austensite temperatures. Actuators in which shape memory alloys are employed include bias spring types, in which springs deform the shape memory alloy (SMA), and differential actuators, which use two SMA members mechanically connected in series. Another type uses concentric cylindrical members. One member is in the form of a sleeve surrounding a cylinder, both being constructed of shape memory alloys. Herein two capstans are mounted on a shaft which is supported in a framework. Each capstan is capable of rotating the shaft. Shape memory wire, as two separate lengths of wire, is wrapped around each capstan to form a winding around that capstan. The winding on one capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a prestretched state. The winding on the other capstan is so wrapped that the wire is in a taut, but not a prestretched, state. Heating one performs work in one direction, thus deforming the other one. When the other SMA is heated the action is reversed.

  6. Plasma Sheath Modeling Using The Three Fluid Plasma Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Lilly; Uri Shumlak

    2010-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the use of plasma actuators for high speed flow control applications. In the plasma actuator, current is driven through the surrounding weakly ionized plasma to impart control moments on the hypersonic vehicle. Accurate modeling of plasma sheath physics is of particular importance for the plasmas found in high speed flight applications. This study employs

  7. Microstructure of zirconia-yttria plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Harmsworth; R. Stevens

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the characterization of the highly complex microstructure of zirconia coatings,\\u000a which arise as a result of the plasma-spraying process. The fine structure has been observed to change through the thickness\\u000a of the coating, behaviour which has been related to the cooling rate and crystallization of the deposited material. Microstructural\\u000a features such

  8. Comparative studies of core and edge transport barrier dynamics of DIII-D and TFTR tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synakowski, E. J.; Beer, M. A.; Bell, R. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Carreras, B. A.; Diamond, P. H.; Doyle, E. J.; Ernst, D.; Fonck, R. J.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C. M.; Hahm, T. S.; Hammett, G. W.; Levinton, F. M.; Mazzucato, E.; McKee, G.; Newman, D. E.; Park, H. K.; Rettig, C. L.; Rewoldt, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rice, B. W.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    1999-11-01

    The plasma dynamics of enhanced confinement regimes in the TFTR core and the DIII-D core and edge are compared in order to identify a common physics basis. Despite differences in transition timescale and location, as well as the sign of the radial electric field Er, observations suggest that E × B shear effects on turbulence induced transport play a dominant role in governing barrier dynamics in all cases. Fast confinement bifurcations are observed in the TFTR core enhanced reverse shear (ERS) regime and in the edge DIII-D H mode. Both show spontaneous Er shear layer formation prior to the confinement change and a negative Er well that persists as steep gradients form. These dynamics differ from those of DIII-D negative central shear (NCS) plasmas. There, slow transitions are observed when the applied torque from unidirectional beam injection is small, while faster development and more dramatic confinement improvements occur at higher applied torques. Unlike the H mode and ERS cases, the NCS core generally has a positive Er hill and no strong Er shear precursor. However, similarity experiments performed on TFTR indicate that ERS, L mode and NCS-like regimes can all be accessed in a continuous fashion by varying the E × B shear through changes in the applied torque at constant power. As in the DIII-D NCS case, core confinement in TFTR reverse shear plasmas improves slowly as co-rotation begins to dominate the determination of Er, no strong Er shear layer develops prior to that improvement, and the plasma possesses a positive Er hill. Reductions in transport with Er gradients of either sign are consistent with the picture of E × B shear suppression and decorrelation of turbulence. At fixed input power, intermediate levels of confinement improvement are achieved by varying the E × B shear with changes in the applied neutral beam torque. The data suggest that control over the plasma pressure profile in a reactor may be possible if an external source of E × B shear, such as might be applied with RF techniques, is used to modify the shear which otherwise occurs.

  9. Time-dependent volume force produced by a non-thermal plasma actuator from experimental velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, N.; Debien, A.; Moreau, E.

    2013-06-01

    The electrohydrodynamic volume force produced by the Coulomb force acting on charged species in weakly ionized gas can improve the aerodynamic performances of academic and industrial turbulent flows. In this paper, a single dielectric barrier discharge is investigated with a focus on the experimental characterization of the time-resolved topology of the produced electrohydrodynamic volume force. The distribution of force over the volume of gas is calculated from velocity measurements by resolving simplified Navier-Stokes equations. Comparisons between the present calculated body force and data from the open literature confirm the accuracy of the method used. This study reveals that the unsteady force shows large fluctuations with an alternation of positive and negative longitudinal forces. The glow and streamer discharge regimes contribute differently to the electrohydrodynamic volume force. Both regimes promote a positive volume force longitudinal to the flow and a negative volume force in the transverse direction. However, the momentum transfer is significantly larger during the glow regime. A negative volume force (70% of the positive force amplitude) is observed following the glow phase, when there is no discharge. This negative volume force results from the local flow deceleration due to viscous influence at the wall and turbulent diffusion in the flow.

  10. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  11. Use of indentation technique to measure elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Ferber, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.

  12. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  13. Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Barrier Coatings and Encapsulated Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report silicon oxide coatings deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology (PECVD) on 125 ?m polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces for the purpose of the shelf lifetime extension of sealed polymer solar cells. After optimization of the processing parameters, we achieved a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ca. 10-3 g/m2/day with the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) less than 0.05 cc/m2/day, and succeeded in extending the shelf lifetime to about 400 h in encapsulated solar cells. And then the chemical structure of coatings related to the properties of encapsulated cell was investigated in detail.

  14. Is the mammalian cell plasma membrane a barrier to oxygen transport?

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen transport in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) plasma membrane has been studied by observing the collision of molecular oxygen with nitroxide radical spin labels placed in the lipid bilayer portion of the membrane at various distances from the membrane surface using the long-pulse saturation-recovery electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The collision rate was estimated for 5-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acids from spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) measured in the presence and absence of molecular oxygen. Profiles of the local oxygen transport parameters across the membrane were obtained showing that the oxygen diffusion-concentration product is lower than in water for all locations at 37 degrees C. From oxygen transport parameter profiles, the membrane oxygen permeability coefficients were estimated according to the procedure developed earlier by Subczynski et al. (Subczynski, W. K., J. S. Hyde, and A. Kusumi. 1989. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 86:4474-4478). At 37 degrees C, the oxygen permeability coefficient for the plasma membrane was found to be 42 cm/s, about two times lower than for a water layer of the same thickness as the membrane. The oxygen concentration difference across the CHO plasma membrane at physiological conditions is in the nanomolar range. It is concluded that oxygen permeation across the cell plasma membrane cannot be a rate-limiting step for cellular respiration. Correlations of the form PM = cKs between membrane permeabilities PM of small nonelectrolyte solutes of mol wt less than 50, including oxygen, and their partition coefficients K into hexadecane and olive oil are reported. Hexadecane: c = 26 cm/s, s = 0.95; olive oil: c = 23 cm/s, s = 1.56. These values of c and s differ from those reported in the literature for solutes of 50 less than mol wt less than 300 (Walter, A., and J. Gutknecht. 1986. Journal of Membrane Biology. 90:207-217). It is concluded that oxygen permeability through membranes can be reliably predicted from measurement of partition coefficients. PMID:1324973

  15. Multi-scale modelling of pulsed nanosecond dielectric barrier plasma discharges in plane-to-plane geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Sharath; Yang, Vigor; Adamovich, Igor

    2013-04-01

    An integrated theoretical and numerical framework is developed to study the dynamics of energy coupling, gas heating and generation of active species by repetitively pulsed nanosecond dielectric barrier discharges (NS DBDs) in air. The work represents one of the first attempts to simulate, in a self-consistent manner, multiple (more than 100) nanosecond pulses. Detailed information is obtained about the electric-field transients during each voltage pulse, and accumulation of plasma generated species and gas heating over ms timescales. The plasma is modelled using a two-temperature, detailed chemistry scheme, with ions and neutral species in thermal equilibrium at the gas temperature, and electrons in thermal nonequilibrium. The analysis is conducted with pressures and pulsing frequency in the range 40-100 Torr and 1-105 Hz, respectively. The input electrical energy is directly proportional to the number density, and remains fairly constant on a per molecule basis from pulse to pulse. Repetitive pulsing results in uniform production of atomic oxygen in the discharge volume via electron-impact dissociation during voltage pulses, and through quenching of excited nitrogen molecules in the afterglow. The ion Joule effect causes rapid gas heating of ˜40 K/pulse in the cathode sheath and generates weak acoustic waves. Conductive heat loss to the walls during the time interval between voltage pulses prevents overheating of the cathode layer and development of ionization instabilities. A uniform ‘hat-shaped’ temperature profile develops in the discharge volume after multiple pulses, due to chemical heat release from quenching of excited species. This finding may explain experimentally observed volumetric ignition (as opposed to hot-spot ignition) in fuel-air mixtures subject to NS DBD.

  16. New formation technology for a plasma display panel barrier-rib structure using a precise metal mold fabricated by the UV-LIGA process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seung-Hyun; Park, Yong-Suk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2002-01-01

    We present a new formation technology for a plasma display panel (PDP) barrier-rib structure by which we can obtain a barrier-rib with a high aspect ratio and reduce the manufacturing cost. Firstly, a precise metal mould is manufactured for massively replicating the PDP barrier-rib construction using the UV-LIGA process with a thick negative photoresist (SU-8 50: Microchem Corp). The proposed sequence includes several processes: amorphous silicon as an adhesion layer; dipping into xylene and n-butyl acetate after the development of SU-8; two step removal of the SU-8 layer; rip-off process, etc. The proposed processes produce a copper mould with a high aspect ratio, good surface roughness and a uniform thickness. Secondly, a PDP barrier-rib structure is formed using the roll-pressing method with a reusable metal mould fabricated by the proposed UV-LIGA process. This is a very simple and inexpensive method consisting of printing the barrier-rib paste, drying, roll-pressing and firing. Consequently, by combining the UV-LIGA and roll-pressing processes, the desired barrier-rib shapes can be made with a high aspect ratio and various dimensions. The combination of the UV-LIGA and roll-pressing processes also demonstrates the possibility of achieving two major goals in the barrier-rib processes; i.e., developing a barrier-rib structure with a high aspect ratio that can be applied to high-definition televisions, and reducing the manufacturing cost.

  17. Thermal Aging Behavior of Axial Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuexing; Wang, Liang; Yang, Jiasheng; Li, Dachuan; Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Shao, Fang; Tao, Shunyan

    2015-02-01

    7.5YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited onto the stainless steel substrates using axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS). Free-standing coatings were isothermally aged in air from 1200 to 1600 °C for 24 h and at 1550 °C for 20 to 100 h, respectively. Thermal aging behavior such as phase composition, microstructure evolutions, grain growth, and mechanical properties for thermal-aged coatings were investigated. Results show that the as-sprayed metastable tetragonal (t'-ZrO2) phase decomposes into equilibrium tetragonal (t-ZrO2) and cubic (c-ZrO2) phases during high-temperature exposures. Upon further cooling, the c-ZrO2 may be retained or transform into another metastable tetragonal (t?-ZrO2) phase, and tetragonal ? monoclinic phase transformation occurred after 1550 °C/40 h aging treatment. The coating exhibits a unique structure with segmentation cracks and micro/nano-size grains, and the grains grow gradually with increasing aging temperature and time. In addition, the hardness ( H) and Young's modulus ( E) significantly increased as a function of temperature due to healing of pores or cracks and grain growth of the coating. And a nonmonotonic variation is found in the coatings thermal aged at a constant temperature (1550 °C) with prolonged time, this is a synergetic effect of coating sintering and m-ZrO2 phase formation.

  18. Plasma Separation Process: Betacell (BCELL) code: User's manual. [Bipolar barrier junction

    SciTech Connect

    Taherzadeh, M.

    1987-11-13

    The emergence of clearly defined applications for (small or large) amounts of long-life and reliable power sources has given the design and production of betavoltaic systems a new life. Moreover, because of the availability of the plasma separation program, (PSP) at TRW, it is now possible to separate the most desirable radioisotopes for betacell power generating devices. A computer code, named BCELL, has been developed to model the betavoltaic concept by utilizing the available up-to-date source/cell parameters. In this program, attempts have been made to determine the betacell energy device maximum efficiency, degradation due to the emitting source radiation and source/cell lifetime power reduction processes. Additionally, comparison is made between the Schottky and PN junction devices for betacell battery design purposes. Certain computer code runs have been made to determine the JV distribution function and the upper limit of the betacell generated power for specified energy sources. A Ni beta emitting radioisotope was used for the energy source and certain semiconductors were used for the converter subsystem of the betacell system. Some results for a Promethium source are also given here for comparison. 16 refs.

  19. FLUIDS, PLASMAS AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES: The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Yang; Zhen-Duo Wang; Shou-Ye Zhang; Li-Zhen Yang; Qiang Chen

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C2H2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation,

  20. New functionally graded thermal barrier coating system based on LaMgAl 11O 19\\/YSZ prepared by air plasma spraying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Chen; Lijian Gu; Binglin Zou; Ying Wang; Xueqiang Cao

    A new functionally graded thermal barrier coating (FG-TBC) based on LaMgAl11O19 (LaMA)\\/YSZ has been designed and prepared via air plasma spraying. The microstructure and phase stability are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM and high-temperature DSC analysis. Results indicate that all the LaMA and LaMA-containing intermediate composite coatings suffer irreversible phase transformations induced by the recrystallization of amorphous LaMA coating and

  1. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  2. Microstructure and properties of in-flight rare-earth doped thermal barrier coatings prepared by suspension plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Stephanie

    Thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity improve the efficiency of gas turbine engines by allowing higher operating temperatures. Recent studies were shown that coatings containing a pair of rare-earth oxides with equal molar ratio have lower thermal conductivity and improved sintering resistance compared to the undoped 4-4.5 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In the present work, rare-earth doped coatings were fabricated via suspension plasma spray by spraying YSZ powder-ethanol suspensions that contained dissolved rare-earth nitrates. The compositions of the coatings determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy verified that 68 +/- 8% of the rare-earth nitrates added into the suspension was incorporated into the coatings. Two coatings containing different concentrations of the same dopant pair (Nd2O3/Yb2O3), and three coatings having similar concentrations of different dopant pairs (Nd 2O3/Yb2O3, Nd2O3/Gd 2O3, and Gd2O3/Yb2O 3) were produced and compared. The effect of dopant concentration and dopant pair type on the microstructure and properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM-EDX, and the laser flash method. The cross-sectional morphology of all coatings displayed columnar structure. The porosity content of the coating was found to increase with increasing dopant concentration, but did not significantly change with dopant pairs. Similarly, increasing the Nd2O3/Yb2O 3 concentration lowered the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed coatings. Although the effect of changing dopant pair type is not as significant as increasing the dopant concentration, the coating that contained Gd2O 3/Yb2O3 exhibited the lowest conductivity compared to coatings that had other dopant pairs. Thermal conductivity measurement performed on the heat treated coatings indicated a larger conductivity increase for the rare-earth doped coatings. A detailed study on the microstructural change of the coatings after various heat treatments at 1200°C and 1300°C showed evidence of crack healing and grain growth. Comparison between the rare-earth dopant distribution of a selected coating before and after a 1300°C/50 hr heat treatment suggests the possibility of dopant rearrangement, which can further increase the thermal conductivity. An explanation on the difference in the properties of the rare-earth doped coatings produced by SPS and conventional processes was discussed.

  3. The algorithm and program complex for splitting on a parts the records of acoustic waves recorded during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle with the purpose of analyzing their robust spectral and correlation characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernousov, A. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Skvortsova, N. N.

    2014-03-01

    Currently acute problem of developing new technologies by reducing the noise of aircraft engines, including the directional impact on the noise on the basis of the interaction of plasma disturbances and sound generation pulsations. One of the devices built on this principle being developed in GPI RAS. They are plasma actuators (group of related to each other gaps, built on the perimeter of the nozzle) of various shapes and forms. In this paper an algorithm was developed which allows to separate impulses from the received experimental data, acquired during the work of plasma actuator flush-mounted in the model plane nozzle. The algorithm can be adjusted manually under a variety of situations (work of actuator in a nozzle with or without airflow, adjustment to different frequencies and pulse duration of the actuator). And program complex is developed on the basis of MatLab software, designed for building sustainable robust spectral and autocovariation functions of acoustic signals recorded during the experiments with the model of a nozzle with working actuator.

  4. Flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of pork butt and beef loin: effects on pathogen inactivation and meat-quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    The effects of a flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system using a sealed package on microbial inactivation and quality attributes of fresh pork and beef were tested. Following a 10-min treatment, the microbial-load reductions of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium were 2.04, 2.54, and 2.68 Log CFU/g in pork-butt samples and 1.90, 2.57, and 2.58 Log CFU/g in beef-loin samples, respectively. Colorimetric analysis showed that DBD-plasma treatment did not significantly affect L* values (lightness) of pork and beef samples, but lowered a* values (redness) significantly after 5- and 7.5-min exposures. The plasma treatment significantly influenced lipid oxidation only after a 10-min exposure. The texture of both types of meat was unaffected by plasma treatment. All sensory parameters of treated and non-treated samples were comparable except for taste, which was negatively influenced by the plasma treatment (P < 0.05). This thin-layer DBD-plasma system can be applied to inactivate foodborne pathogens. The observed minor deterioration of meat quality might be prevented by the use of hurdle technology. PMID:25475266

  5. Destruction of volatile organic compounds in air by a superimposed barrier discharge plasma reactor and activated carbon filter hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Urashima; J. S. Chang; T. Ito

    1997-01-01

    The superimposed barrier discharge and activated carbon filter hybrid systems are used to remove toluene and trichloro-ethylene (TCE) from air streams. The superimposed barrier discharge consists of silent and surface discharges. Experiments are conducted for the gas flow rate from 1 to 10 L\\/min., applied power from 0 to 7 W and toluene and TCE initial concentration from 0 to

  6. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lenore Rasmussen, David Schramm, Paul Rasmussen, Kevin Mullaly, Ras Labs, LLC, Intelligent Materials for Prosthetics & Automation, Lewis D. Meixler, Daniel Pearlman and Alice Kirk

    2011-05-23

    Ras Labs produces contractile electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple, and contract (new development) with low electric input. In addition, Ras Labs produces EAP materials that quickly contract and expand, repeatedly, by reversing the polarity of the electric input, which can be cycled. This phenomenon was explored using molecular modeling, followed by experimentation. Applied voltage step functions were also investigated. High voltage steps followed by low voltage steps produced a larger contraction followed by a smaller contraction. Actuator control by simply adjusting the electric input is extremely useful for biomimetic applications. Muscles are able to partially contract. If muscles could only completely contract, nobody could hold an egg, for example, without breaking it. A combination of high and low voltage step functions could produce gross motor function and fine manipulation within the same actuator unit. Plasma treated electrodes with various geometries were investigated as a means of providing for more durable actuation.

  7. Uniaxial Electric Actuator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site includes a cut-away animation of how a uniaxial electric actuator operates. Objective: Describe how the uniaxial electric actuator works. You can find this animation under the heading "Automation Technology."

  8. Electromechanical rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. P.; McMahon, W. J.

    1995-05-01

    An electromechanical rotary actuator has been developed as the prime mover for a liquid oxygen modulation valve on the Centaur Vehicle Rocket Engine. The rotary actuator requirements, design, test, and associated problems and their solutions are discussed in this paper.

  9. Electromechanical rotary actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. P.; Mcmahon, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    An electromechanical rotary actuator has been developed as the prime mover for a liquid oxygen modulation valve on the Centaur Vehicle Rocket Engine. The rotary actuator requirements, design, test, and associated problems and their solutions are discussed in this paper.

  10. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  11. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, Subimal; Fátima Cerqueira, Maria; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, Pedro; Bourée, Jean Eric

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, each single layer being treated by argon plasma. The plasma treatment allows creating smoother surface and surface atom rearrangement. We define a critical thickness of the single layer film and focus our attention on the effect of increasing the number of SiNx single-layers on the barrier properties. A water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 2 × 10-4 g/(m2·day) is reported for SiNx multilayer stack and a physical interpretation of the plasma treatment effect is given.

  12. Breaching the diffusion barrier that compartmentalizes the transmembrane glycoprotein CE9 to the posterior-tail plasma membrane domain of the rat spermatozoon

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    CE9 is a posterior-tail domain-specific integral plasma membrane glycoprotein of the rat testicular spermatozoon. During epididymal maturation, CE9 undergoes endoproteolytic processing and then redistributes into the anterior-tail plasma membrane domain of the spermatozoon (Petruszak, J. A. M., C. L. Nehme, and J. R. Bartles. 1991. J. Cell. Biol. 114:917-927). We have determined the sequence of CE9 and found it to be a Type Ia transmembrane protein identical to the MRC OX-47 T-cell activation antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predicted to have two immunoglobulin-related loops and three asparagine-linked glycans disposed extracellularly. Although encoded by a single gene and mRNA in the rat, the majority of spermatozoal CE9 is of smaller apparent molecular mass than its hepatocytic counterpart due to the under-utilization of sites for asparagine-linked glycosylation. By fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, CE9 was determined to be mobile within the posterior- tail plasma membrane domain of the living rat testicular spermatozoon, thus implying the existence of a regional barrier to lateral diffusion that is presumed to operate at the level of the annulus. Through the development of an in vitro system, the modification of this diffusion barrier to allow for the subsequent redistribution of CE9 into the anterior-tail domain was found to be a time-, temperature-, and energy- dependent process. PMID:8425897

  13. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  14. Folded dielectric elastomer actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Carpi; Claudio Salaris; Danilo DeRossi

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based linear actuators with contractile ability are currently demanded for several types of applications. Within the class of dielectric elastomer actuators, two basic configurations are available today for such a purpose: the multi-layer stack and the helical structure. The first consists of several layers of elementary planar actuators stacked in series mechanically and parallel electrically. The second configuration relies on

  15. Hardware Components: Sensors, Actuators,

    E-print Network

    Hu, Fei

    in an electric field light-electric effects; magnetic effects; ... #12;3 5 Example: Acceleration Sensor MEMS1 1 Hardware Components: Sensors, Actuators, Converters + Sudeep Pasricha Colorado State University and Tony Givargis 2 Simplified Block Diagram actuators #12;2 3 Sensors and Actuators Sensors: Capture

  16. GEC Student Award for Excellence Finalist: Interaction of Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma with DNA inside Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Kalghatgi; Crystal Kelly; Gregory Fridman; Jane Clifford-Azizkhan; Alexander Fridman; Gary Friedman

    2008-01-01

    Direct non-thermal plasma is now being widely considered for various medical applications, viz; cancer treatment, coagulation, wound healing. However, the understanding of the interaction between non-thermal plasma and cells is lacking. Here we study the possibility that effects of the plasma treatment can penetrate though cellular membranes without destroying them. One of the most important of such effects to investigate

  17. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  18. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-01

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  19. Physical and Barrier Properties of Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposited alpha-SiC:H Films from Trimethylsilane and Tetramethylsilane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Chih Chiang; Mao-Chieh Chen; Chung-Chi Ko; Zhen-Cheng Wu; Syun-Ming Jang; Mong-Song Liang

    2003-01-01

    This work investigates the thermal stability and physical and barrier properties of two species of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) alpha-SiC:H silicon carbide films (with k-values less than 5) deposited using trimethylsilane, (CH3)3SiH (3MS) and tetramethylsilane, (CH3)4Si (4MS) organosilicate gases. It is found that the 4MS alpha-SiC:H film contains a higher content of carbon and has a lower dielectric constant.

  20. Oxidation and crack nucleation\\/growth in an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating with NiCrAlY bond coat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Chen; X. Wu; B. R. Marple; P. C. Patnaik

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (APS-TBC) system was investigated in both air and low-pressure oxygen environments. It was found that mixed oxides, in the form of (Cr,Al)2O3·Ni(Cr,Al)2O4·NiO, formed heterogeneously at a very early stage during oxidation in air, and in the meantime, a layer of predominantly Al2O3 grew rather uniformly along the rest of the ceramic\\/bond

  1. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium-Titanium Nitride Mixed-Phase Layers for Direct-Plate Liner and Copper Diffusion Barrier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, Adam James

    Current interconnect networks in semiconductor processing utilize a sputtered TaN diffusion barrier, Ta liner, and Cu seed to improve the adhesion, microstructure, and electromigration resistance of electrochemically deposited copper that fills interconnect wires and vias. However, as wire/via widths shrink due to device scaling, it becomes increasingly difficult to have the volume of a wire/via be occupied with ECD Cu which increases line resistance and increases the delay in signal propagation in IC chips. A single layer that could serve the purpose of a Cu diffusion barrier and ECD Cu adhesion promoter could allow ECD Cu to occupy a larger volume of a wire/via, leading to a decrease in line resistance and decrease in signal delay. Previous work has shown RuTaN, RuWCN, and RuCo films can act as Cu diffusion barriers and be directly platable to thickness of 2-3nm. However, other material selections may prove as effective or possibly better. Mixed-phase films of ruthenium titanium nitride grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated for their performance as a Cu diffusion barrier and as a surface for the direct plating of ECD Cu. All Ru was deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) while TiN was deposited by either thermal ALD or PEALD. RuTiN, films with thermal ALD TiN and a Ru:Ti of 20:1 showed barrier performance comparable to PVD TaN at 3-4 nm thickness and 15 nm planar films were directly platable. Follow up work is certainly needed for this material set, yet initial results indicate RuTiN could serve as an effective direct plate liner for Cu interconnects.

  2. Columnar-Structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Thin Film Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS-TF)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hospach; Georg Mauer; Robert Vaßen; Detlev Stöver

    2011-01-01

    The very low-pressure plasma Spray (VLPPS) process has been developed with the aim of depositing uniform and thin coatings\\u000a with coverage of a large area by plasma spraying. At typical pressures of 100-200 Pa, the characteristics of the plasma jet\\u000a change compared to conventional low-pressure plasma-spraying processes (LPPS) operating at 5-20 kPa. The combination of plasma\\u000a spraying at low pressures with enhanced

  3. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  4. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  5. Furnace Cyclic Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia-Yttria and Multi-Component Rare Earth Oxide Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Nesbitt, James A.; McCue, Terry R.; Barrett, Charles A.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to enable further increases in engine temperatures. However, the coating performance and durability become a major concern under the increasingly harsh thermal cycling conditions. Advanced zirconia- and hafnia-based cluster oxide thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity and improved thermal stability are being developed using a high-heat-flux laser-rig based test approach. Although the new composition coatings were not yet optimized for cyclic durability, an initial durability screening of numerous candidate coating materials was carried out using conventional furnace cyclic tests. In this paper, furnace thermal cyclic behavior of the advanced plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria-based thermal barrier coatings that were co-doped with multi-component rare earth oxides was investigated at 1163 C using 45 min hot cycles. The ceramic coating failure mechanisms were studied by using scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction phase analysis after the furnace tests. The coating cyclic lifetime will be discussed in relation to coating phase structures, total dopant concentrations, and other properties.

  6. Optical emission characteristics of medium- to high-pressure N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge plasmas during surface modification of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Dongping; Niu Jinhai; Yu Naisen [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China) and Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2011-11-15

    The authors measured the band spectra (first and second positive systems) of the nitrogen molecule by optical emission spectroscopy with an aim to understand the mechanism of surface processing by medium- to high-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas. The experimentally measured and calculated spectra were compared to determine the vibrational and rotational temperatures of the N{sub 2} (C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) state in the generated plasmas. The authors generated the N{sub 2} DBD plasmas at a driving frequency of 1-7 kHz and a discharge pressure of 20-10{sup 5} Pa for the surface modification of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sample. It was found that the vibrational temperature was greatly affected by the N{sub 2} pressure while the rotational temperature remained constant in the N{sub 2} pressure range of 20-10{sup 5} Pa. The emission intensity of N{sub 2} first positive system (B{sup 3}{Pi}{yields}A{sup 3}{Sigma}) rapidly decreased at an increasing N{sub 2} pressure due to the collisional relaxation process of the B{sup 3}{Pi} state with N{sub 2} molecules. The N{sub 2}{sup +}(B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}{yields}X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) radiative transition was observed in the low-pressure DBD plasmas, which was attributed to the direct electron impact ionization of N{sub 2} molecules. The surface characterizations of treated PET samples by contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy indicate that the low-pressure N{sub 2} DBD plasma is an effective method for the surface modification of polymers. Analysis indicates the plasma characteristics such as electron temperature and ion energy are mainly dependent on the N{sub 2} pressure, which turn to determine the surface properties of treated PET samples.

  7. Plasma Dynamics Group Aerospace & Energetics Research Program

    E-print Network

    Shumlak, Uri

    renewed interest in the use of plasma actuators for high speed flow control applications. In the plasma actuator, current is driven through the surrounding weakly ionized plasma to impart control moments on the hypersonic vehicle. This expanded study employs the three-fluid (electrons, ions, neutrals) plasma model

  8. Smart Material-Actuated Rotor Technology – SMART

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich K. Straub; Dennis K. Kennedy; David B. Domzalski; Ahmed A. Hassan; Hieu Ngo; V. Anand; Terry Birchette

    2004-01-01

    Vibration, noise, and aerodynamic design compromises are primary barriers to further improvements in effectiveness of the helicopter. The MD900 light utility helicopter main rotor system is modified to include in-blade smart material actuation for active control. A piezoelectric (PE)-driven trailing edge flap is used for vibration, noise, and aerodynamic performance improvements. A shape memory alloy (SMA)-driven trailing edge trim tab

  9. Effect of pre-charging to plasma reactor on repetitive barrier discharges produced by reciprocal traveling wave voltage pulse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Kadowaki; Keisuke Yamaga; Sakae Nishimoto; Isamu Kitani

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study for NOx decomposition using repetitive streamer discharges produced by reciprocal traveling wave voltage pulse from a direct-grounded coaxial cable. When the cable is charged and then grounded at one end of the cable without any resistance, a reciprocal traveling voltage pulse is repeatedly applied to a barrier-type reactor at the opposite end with a

  10. Sensors and Actuators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Sensors and Actuators A (SAAA) disseminates "...information on all aspects of research and development of solid-state devices for transducing physical signals." Sensors and Actuators B (SAAB) "...is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to covering research and development in the field of chemical sensors, actuators and microsystems." Issues of SAAA available range from September 1999 to the present; issues of SAAB cover January 2000-present.

  11. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  12. Plasma membrane cholesterol: a possible barrier to intracellular oxygen in normal and mutant CHO cells defective in cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadeem; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Ta Yuan; Chang, Catherine C; Fung, Peter C W; Grinberg, Oleg; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold

    2003-01-14

    The effect of the cholesterol content of the plasma membrane on the intracellular concentration of oxygen in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and their mutants was investigated by EPR oximetry. Total and free cholesterol content was significantly higher in 25 RA CHO cells as compared to wild-type and M 19 CHO cells, with most of the free cholesterol in normal and mutant CHO cells located in the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane cholesterol content also was altered by various biochemical means, and the effect on the oxygen gradient was studied. Comparing the three cell lines, the gradient was larger with increased content of cholesterol in the plasma cell membrane. This result also is supported by an additional increase in the oxygen gradients with the incorporation of additional cholesterol in the plasma membrane and a decrease in the oxygen gradient when the cholesterol was depleted from the plasma membrane. The results indicate that the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma membrane can be an important factor for the magnitude of the oxygen gradient observed across the cell membrane. PMID:12515536

  13. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  14. Comprehensive piezoceramic actuator review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Chris J.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2002-07-01

    Piezoceramic actuation has become an area of increased interest in the past ten years. Having been used for many years as sensors in such applications as pressure transducers and smoke detectors, piezoceramics are now being used as prime movers in fuel injectors and valve lifters. In an effort to aid the engineering community, this paper will conduct a comprehensive review of several piezoceramic actuators. Classical design parameters will be derived for each actuator such as blocked force and free stroke. In addition, more esoteric entities such as mechanical efficiency and energy density will also be derived. The result will be design metrics of popular piezoceramic actuators containing vital design equations, validated with empirical data. Of the many different configurations of piezoceramic actuators, this paper will investigate the bimorph and unimorph bender. These actuator types are finding increased use in semi-active structural damping, energy harvesting and vibration control. The work in this paper will show experimental verification of various actuator types as well as theoretical derivations. In addition to unimorphs, bimorphs and stack actuators a novel type of unimorph bender, the THUNDER actuator (developed and licensed by NASA) will be included in the review.

  15. Improved Electrohydraulic Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamtil, James

    2004-01-01

    A product line of improved electrohydraulic linear actuators has been developed. These actuators are designed especially for use in actuating valves in rocket-engine test facilities. They are also adaptable to many industrial uses, such as steam turbines, process control valves, dampers, motion control, etc. The advantageous features of the improved electrohydraulic linear actuators are best described with respect to shortcomings of prior electrohydraulic linear actuators that the improved ones are intended to supplant. The flow of hydraulic fluid to the two ports of the actuator cylinder is controlled by a servo valve that is controlled by a signal from a servo amplifier that, in turn, receives an analog position-command signal (a current having a value between 4 and 20 mA) from a supervisory control system of the facility. As the position command changes, the servo valve shifts, causing a greater flow of hydraulic fluid to one side of the cylinder and thereby causing the actuator piston to move to extend or retract a piston rod from the actuator body. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) directly linked to the piston provides a position-feedback signal, which is compared with the position-command signal in the servo amplifier. When the position-feedback and position-command signals match, the servo valve moves to its null position, in which it holds the actuator piston at a steady position.

  16. Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Zille, Andrea; Souto, Antonio Pedro

    2014-02-01

    The physico-chemical improvements occasioned by DBD plasma discharge in dyeing process of polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fibers were investigated. The SEM, fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, surface energy, FTIR, XPS and pH of aqueous extracts confirm the high polar functionalization of PA66 fibers due to plasma incorporation of oxygen atoms from atmospheric air. DBD plasma-generated reactive species preferentially break the CN bonds, and not the aliphatic C-C chain of PA66. Formation of low-molecular weight acidic molecules that act as dye "carrier" and creation of micro-channels onto PA66 surface seems to favor dye diffusion into the fiber cores. Plasma treatment allows high level of direct dye diffusion and fixation in PA66 fibers at lower temperatures and shorter dyeing times than traditional dyeing methods.

  17. Modeling of residual stresses in a plasma-sprayed zirconia\\/alumina functionally graded-thermal barrier coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujanto Widjaja; Andi M. Limarga; Tick Hon Yip

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) structures composed of Al2O3 and ZrO2 with different chemical compositions on the NiCoCrAlY bondcoat are proposed to improve the oxidation resistance of TBC systems. The concept of functionally graded materials is applied to manage residual stresses due to sharp interface between dissimilar materials that can lead to a premature failure of TBC system. A numerical study

  18. Plasma-modified interfaces between polypropylene films and vacuum roll-to-roll coated thin barrier layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch Bichler; T Kerbstadt; H.-C Langowski; U Moosheimer

    1999-01-01

    Vacuum roll-to-roll coating is an important method to improve the functionality of polymer films, especially in flexible packaging applications. The most common coating material is Al, and oxides like SiOx or Al2O3 are used less frequently. The final functionality — as the adhesion and permeation barrier — depends very much on the character or chemical composition of the interface between

  19. Air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings that are resistant to high-temperature attack by glassy deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Drexler; Kentaro Shinoda; Angel L. Ortiz; Dongsheng Li; Alexander L. Vasiliev; Andrew D. Gledhill; Sanjay Sampath; Nitin P. Padture

    2010-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, at these high operating temperatures, environmentally ingested airborne sand\\/ash particles melt on the hot TBC surfaces and form calcium–magnesium–aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass deposits. The molten CMAS glass penetrates the TBCs, leading to loss of strain tolerance and TBC failure. Here we demonstrate

  20. Piston actuated nastic materials 

    E-print Network

    Shah, Viral

    2009-05-15

    the angle of attack on a helicopter’s rotor blade. Small piston actuators distributed through the beam’s outer core provide the internal work needed. By actuating the piston elements in their axial direction, which is transverse to the beam’s central axis...

  1. Lock for hydraulic actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Two clamps hold rod in fixed extension from cylinder even when power is off, converting actuator into stiff structural member. Locked actuator is useful as mechanical support or linkage or as fail-safe device in case of loss of hydraulic pressure. Potential applications include manufacturing processes and specialized handling and holding devices.

  2. Acoustic Measurements in a Hexamethyldisiloxane-Loaded Low-Temperature Direct Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Effluent: Nozzle Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.; Müller, D.; Paa, W.

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) measurements as well as laser light scattering experiments were performed during SiO2 layer deposition. SiO2 was generated in low-temperature atmospheric plasma torches (?500 W), which were seeded with hexamethyldisiloxane. These AE measurements can be used to detect the necessity for nozzle cleaning online. The plasma torches were used to obtain high-quality SiO2 coatings. For electrical power of less than 350 W, we observed parasitic SiO2 deposition in the burner nozzle, which decreases the nozzle aperture within several hours of operation time. No parasitic SiO2 deposition inside the burner nozzle was observed when the plasma source was operated at more than 350 W. The reduced nozzle aperture causes increased plasma velocities and acoustic noise. Especially burst-like increases of this acoustic emission were assumed to be correlated to the ejection of particles. This hypothesis could be confirmed by measurements of scattered light from a sheet of laser light at 248 nm. The obtained correlations suggest using a microphone as a low-cost monitor for the degree of parasitic deposition inside the plasma burner nozzle. The threshold for acoustic noise detection has to be chosen low enough to avoid burst-like emission of particles.

  3. The cortical acto-Myosin network: from diffusion barrier to functional gateway in the transport of neurosecretory vesicles to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Andreas; Tomatis, Vanesa M; Kasula, Ravikiran; Meunier, Frederic A

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of regulated exocytosis is linked to an array of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, asthma, and diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning neuroexocytosis including the processes that allow neurosecretory vesicles to access and fuse with the plasma membrane and to recycle post-fusion, is therefore critical to the design of future therapeutic drugs that will efficiently tackle these diseases. Despite considerable efforts to determine the principles of vesicular fusion, the mechanisms controlling the approach of vesicles to the plasma membrane in order to undergo tethering, docking, priming, and fusion remain poorly understood. All these steps involve the cortical actin network, a dense mesh of actin filaments localized beneath the plasma membrane. Recent work overturned the long-held belief that the cortical actin network only plays a passive constraining role in neuroexocytosis functioning as a physical barrier that partly breaks down upon entry of Ca(2+) to allow secretory vesicles to reach the plasma membrane. A multitude of new roles for the cortical actin network in regulated exocytosis have now emerged and point to highly dynamic novel functions of key myosin molecular motors. Myosins are not only believed to help bring about dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton, tethering and guiding vesicles to their fusion sites, but they also regulate the size and duration of the fusion pore, thereby directly contributing to the release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Here we discuss the functions of the cortical actin network, myosins, and their effectors in controlling the processes that lead to tethering, directed transport, docking, and fusion of exocytotic vesicles in regulated exocytosis. PMID:24155741

  4. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma in Ar/O{sub 2} promoting apoptosis behavior in A549 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jun; Li Hui; Chen Wei; Lv Guohua; Wang Xingquan; Zhang Guoping; Wang Pengye [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Yang Size [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Aeronautics, Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2011-12-19

    The Ar/O{sub 2} plasma needle in the induction of A549 cancer cells apoptosis process is studied by means of real-time observation. The entire process of programmed cell death is observed. The typical morphological changes of A549 apoptosis are detected by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, for example, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Cell viability is determined and quantified by neutral red uptake assay, and the survival rate of A549 from Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas is presented. Further spectral analysis indicates the reactive species, including O and OH play crucial roles in the cell inactivation.

  5. Isotropic nitride etching for thin nitride barrier self-aligned contact (TNBSAC) in an inductively coupled plasma chemical etcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Ok; Kim, Jong-Sam; Kim, Jin-Woong; Seol, Yeo-Song

    1998-09-01

    The bitline contact hole and the storage node contact hole of 0.22 micrometers in 1G DRAM device manufacturing of 0.18 micrometers design rule were formed with thin nitride barrier self- aligned contact (TNBSAC) technology. In this work the isotropic dry etching process for the removal of nitride used as an oxide etching barrier in TNBSAC was characterized with respect to the parameters such as O2/(NF3 + O2) flow rate ratio, total flow rate, pressure, chiller temperature. From these tests, an isotropic nitride etching recipe was evaluated as the following: 0.8Torr 900Watt 60NF3 140O2 10 degrees C, nitride etch rate equals 1200 angstrom/min, selectivity of nitride to middle temperature oxide (MTO) equals 7.2, selectivity to Boro Phosphor Silicate Glass equals 7. When this condition was applied to TNBSAC technology, good etching characteristics was achieved enough to be implemented into device manufacturing like MTO loss less 100 angstrom on wordline corner, no Si substrate damage and contact hole CD bias about 160 angstrom. When the bitline contact hole and the storage node contact hole in 1G DRAM device fully processed form isolation to metallization were defined with TNBSAC technology, the electrical characterization of the bitline contact hole was investigated comparing TNBSAC with sidewall oxide spacer contact (SOSCON) technology. TNBSAC employing the isotopic nitride etching showed the short free connection, the lower junction leakage current and the lower contact resistance compared with SOSCON.

  6. Computational study of temporal behavior of incident species impinging on a water surface in dielectric barrier discharge for the understanding of plasma–liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Oda, Akinori; Kato, Ryo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Tanoue, Hideto; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tero, Ryugo

    2015-01-01

    A lipid bilayer is a basic structure of the cell membrane and is stable in liquid solution. In this study, we analyzed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) containing water on a quartz substrate using a one-dimensional fluid model. To simulate atmospheric pressure plasma for practical use, a tiny amount of N2 gas (0.5 ppm) was added to He gas ambient as an impure gas. The calculated current–voltage (I–V) characteristics reproduced the measured ones qualitatively. We focused on the behavior of DBD at the plasma–liquid interface and analyzed the temporal behavior of the electric field strength and incident fluxes of charged, excited, and radical species on the water surface. By varying the gap length, it was shown that the maximum electric field strength in an AC cycle saturated at gap lengths ?0.15 cm. The incident fluxes of N2+ and He2+ on the water surface are almost the same and show strong correlations with the electric field in the vicinity of the water surface.

  7. A Novel Plasma-Sprayed Durable Thermal Barrier Coating with a Well-Bonded YSZ Interlayer Between Porous YSZ and Bond Coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Li, Yong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric plasma-sprayed YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in industrial gas turbine engines to protect the superalloy blades from failure. The failure of TBCs in service occurs by the spalling of YSZ coating. Crack propagation leading to the failure of plasma-sprayed TBCs usually occurs within the YSZ coating near the YSZ/bond coat interface. In the present study, a novel durable TBC consisting of a YSZ interlayer of well-bonded lamellae between the bond coat and the conventional YSZ porous top coat was introduced. The YSZ interlayer was deposited at different coating surface temperatures, which resulted in the formation of YSZ with significantly improved interlamellar bonding. The result shows that the thermal cyclic lifetime of the novel TBCs with the 20-30-?m-thick YSZ interlayer increased by a factor of 4 compared with that of the conventional one. The improved thermal cyclic lifetime was attributed to the controlled transition of the cracking path from near the YSZ/bond coat interface to the YSZ top layer. The effect of the YSZ interlayer thickness on the lifetime of TBCs was also investigated.

  8. Optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of a barrier discharge excited in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with nitrogen and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, A. A.; Guivan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Shuaibov, A. K.

    2010-09-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of an atmospheric-pressure barrier discharge excited in a HgBr2: N2: He mixture, which was used as the working medium of a small-size (with a radiation area of 8 cm2) exciplex gas-discharge radiation source. The mean radiation power of 87 mW was achieved at the radiation wavelength ?max = 502 nm. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific energy lost in the processes involving electrons, the electron temperature and density, and the rate constants of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the components of the working mixture were calculated as functions of the reduced field E/ N. The plasma of a discharge excited in a HgBr2: N2: He mixture can be used as the working medium of a small-size blue-green radiation source. Such a source can find application in biotechnology, photonics, and medicine and can also be used to manufacture gas-discharge display panels.

  9. Detection of segmentation cracks in top coat of thermal barrier coatings during plasma spraying by non-contact acoustic emission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Numerous cracks can be observed in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal ones and they have opposite impact on the properties of TBCs. Vertical cracks reduce the residual stress in the top coat and provide strain tolerance. On the contrary, horizontal cracks trigger delamination of the top coat. However, monitoring methods of cracks generation during APS are rare even though they are strongly desired. Therefore, an in situ, non-contact and non-destructive evaluation method for this objective was developed in this study with the laser acoustic emission (AE) technique by using laser interferometers as a sensor. More AE events could be detected by introducing an improved noise reduction filter and AE event detection procedures with multiple thresholds. Generation of vertical cracks was successfully separated from horizontal cracks by a newly introduced scanning pattern of a plasma torch. Thus, generation of vertical cracks was detected with certainty by this monitoring method because AE events were detected only during spraying and a positive correlation was observed between the development degree of vertical cracks and the total AE energy in one experiment.

  10. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  11. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  12. Action of a pulsed DBD actuator on a slow jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Magnier; BinJie Dong; Dunpin Hong; Jacques Hureau

    2008-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the ability of surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to modify subsonic airflows (on airfoils, cylinders and flat plate) has been demonstrated by several studies. In the present experimental work, a very fast pulse (50ns) high voltage generator was used to realize an electrohydrodynamic actuator. This device consisted of a series of 12 elementary DBDs. The

  13. 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 5-8 Jan 2009, Orlando, Florida Forward-Blowing Plasma Actuation over Forebody

    E-print Network

    Liu, Feng

    and yawing moments of opposite signs can be obtained at high angles of attack by activating one of the plasma-force coefficient, local normal-force/qd Cn = yawing-moment coefficient about cone base, yawing moment/qSD Cp

  14. Transport, interactions and retention of plasma proteins in the intima: the barrier function of the internal elastic lamina.

    PubMed

    Smith, E B

    1990-08-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of our current understanding of the relation between plasma macromolecules and atherogenesis. Plasma proteins enter normal intima by vesicular transport across normal endothelium, and convective transport within the intima; accumulation depends mainly on molecular size and the molecular sieve properties of the internal elastic lamina. Within the intima the proteins may be modified; particularly striking changes occur in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and in fibrinogen. Fibrinogen appears to be converted to fibrin which is then lysed, providing a continuing source of fibrin degradation products (FDP). Fibrin also seems to be associated with a tightly bound, plasmin-releasable apo-B-containing lipoprotein; work in progress suggests that much of this fraction is accounted for by lipoprotein(a). PMID:2226536

  15. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  16. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  17. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  18. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  19. Piezoelectrically actuated tunable capacitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuang-Yuan Lee; Eun Sok Kim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of the first MEMS piezoelectric tunable capacitors employing zinc oxide (ZnO) actuation. Relatively simple design rules for the device-structure optimization for largest deflection are shown from simulation results based on theoretical equations. The ZnO-actuated tunable capacitors are accordingly designed and fabricated with both surface and bulk micromachining techniques. Through the surface micromachining

  20. Laser Initiated Actuator study

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, B.

    1991-06-27

    The program task was to design and study a laser initiated actuator. The design of the actuator is described, it being comprised of the fiber and body subassemblies. The energy source for all experiments was a Spectra Diode 2200-H2 laser diode. The diode is directly coupled to a 100 micron core, 0.3 numerical aperture fiber optic terminated with an SMA connector. The successful testing results are described and recommendations are made.

  1. Piston actuated nastic materials

    E-print Network

    Shah, Viral

    2009-05-15

    PISTON ACTUATED NASTIC MATERIALS A Thesis by VIRAL SHAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PISTON ACTUATED NASTIC MATERIALS A Thesis by VIRAL SHAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  2. Hydrogels for Actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Richter

    \\u000a In microsystem technology research a material with such a diversity and significance like silicon in microelectronics has\\u000a not been established for the last 20 years. Recently in microfluidics and in special imaging systems hydrogels get ready to\\u000a take this place. Here we present a review on hydrogel based microsystems with actuator or sensor-actuator functionalities.\\u000a Automatic microfluidic systems based on the

  3. Photostrictive actuators -new perspective-

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Uchino; P. Poosanaas; K. Tonooka

    2001-01-01

    Photostrictive materials, exhibiting light-induced strains, are of interest for future generation wireless remote control photo-actuators, micro-actuators, and micro-sensors applications. (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti) O3 (PLZT) ceramics doped with WO3 exhibit large photostriction under uniform illumination of near-ultraviolet light. Using a bimorph configuration, a photo-driven relay and a micro walking device have been demonstrated. However, for the fabrication of these devices, higher

  4. Control of vortex on a non-slender delta wing by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang-yin; Li, Ying-hong; Liang, Hua; Han, Meng-hu; Hua, Wei-zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments are conducted for improving the aerodynamic performance of delta wing using a leading-edge pulsed nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD). The whole effects of pulsed NS-DBD on the aerodynamic performance of the delta wing are studied by balanced force measurements. Pressure measurements and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are conducted to investigate the formation of leading-edge vortices affected by the pulsed NS-DBD, compared to completely stalled flow without actuation. Various pulsed actuation frequencies of the plasma actuator are examined with the freestream velocity up to 50 m/s. Stall has been delayed substantially and significant shifts in the aerodynamic forces can be achieved at the post-stall regions when the actuator works at the optimum reduced frequency of F + = 2. The upper surface pressure measurements show that the largest change of static pressure occurs at the forward part of the wing at the stall region. The time-averaged flow pattern obtained from the PIV measurement shows that flow reattachment is promoted with excitation, and a vortex flow pattern develops. The time-averaged locations of the secondary separation line and the center of the vortical region both move outboard with excitation.

  5. Barrier Thickness Dependence of Electrical Properties and DC Device Characteristics of AlGaN\\/GaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Higashiwaki; Toshiaki Matsui

    2004-01-01

    We report on the barrier thickness dependence of the electrical properties and DC device characteristics of Al0.4Ga0.6N\\/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs). The HFET structures with 8-25-nm-thick AlGaN barrier layers were grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. All of the fabricated HFET devices with a gate length of 1 mum showed a good DC performance and an excellent pinch-off

  6. GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistor structures with homogeneous lattice-matched InAlN barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, Stephen W.; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Wu, Feng; Kyle, Erin C. H.; Burke, Peter G.; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.

    2014-04-01

    Metal-polar In0.17Al0.83N barriers, lattice-matched to GaN, were grown under N-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The compositional homogeneity of these barriers was confirmed by plan-view high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Metal-polar In0.17Al0.83N/(GaN)/(AlN)/GaN structures were grown with a range of AlN and GaN interlayer (IL) thicknesses to determine the optimal structure for achieving a low two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet resistance. It was determined that the presence of a GaN IL was necessary to yield a 2DEG sheet density above 2 × 1013 cm-2. By including AlN and GaN ILs with thicknesses of 3 nm and 2 nm, respectively, a metal-polar In0.17Al0.83N/GaN/AlN/GaN structure regrown on a GaN-on-sapphire template yielded a room temperature (RT) 2DEG sheet resistance of 163 ?/?. This structure had a threading dislocation density (TDD) of ˜5 × 108 cm-2. Through regrowth on a free-standing GaN template with low TDD (˜5 × 107 cm-2), an optimized metal-polar In0.17Al0.83N/GaN/AlN/GaN structure achieved a RT 2DEG sheet resistance of 145 ?/? and mobility of 1822 cm2 V-1 s-1. High-electron-mobility transistors with output current densities above 1 A mm-1 were also demonstrated on the low-TDD structure.

  7. Non-collinear valve actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A non-collinear valve actuator includes a primary actuating system and a return spring system with each applying forces to a linkage system in order to regulate the flow of a quarter-turn valve. The primary actuating system and return spring system are positioned non-collinearly, which simply means the primary actuating system and return spring system are not in line with each other. By positioning the primary actuating system and return spring system in this manner, the primary actuating system can undergo a larger stroke while the return spring system experiences significantly less displacement. This allows the length of the return spring to be reduced due to the minimization of displacement thereby reducing the weight of the return spring system. By allowing the primary actuating system to undergo longer strokes, the weight of the primary actuating system may also be reduced. Accordingly, the weight of the non-collinear valve actuator is reduced.

  8. Characterization of the ionic wind produced by a DBD actuator designed to control the laminar-to-turbulent transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Boucinha; Romain Joussot; Pierre Magnier; Régine Weber

    Non thermal plasma actuators have provided a novel means of studying active flow control in aerodynamic research. The ionic wind induced by such devices has the ability to couple momentum into boundary layers resulting in control of flow separation or delay of laminar-to-turbulent transition. Significant results would probably be obtained at higher Reynolds numbers if the plasma actuators were systematically

  9. Hybrid electromechanical actuator and actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid electromechanical actuator has two different types of electromechanical elements, one that expands in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto and one that contracts in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto. The two electromechanical elements are (i) disposed in relation to one another such that the transverse directions thereof are parallel to one another, and (ii) mechanically coupled to one another at least at two opposing edges thereof. Electric power is applied simultaneously to the elements.

  10. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 124 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and terragonal phases.

  11. Design and fabrication of a micro thermal actuator for cellular grasping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ho-Yin; Li, Wen J.

    2004-04-01

    The development of a novel polymer-based micro robotic gripper that can be actuated in a fluidic medium is presented in this paper. Our current work is to explore new materials and designs for thermal actuators to achieve micromanipulation of live biological cells. We used parylene C to encapsulate a metal heater, resulting in effectively a tri-layered thermal actuator. Parylene C is a bio-compatible dielectric polymer that can serve as a barrier to various gases and chemicals. Therefore, it is suitable to serve as a thermal/electrical/chemical isolation material for protecting the metal heater from exposing to an aqueous environment. We have demonstrated parylene actuators (2 mm×100 ?m×0.5 ?m) to operate in an aqueous environment using 10 to 80 mW input power. The temperature of these actuators at full deflection was estimated to be ˜60°C, which is much lower than the typical requirement of >100°C to actuate other conventional MEMS actuators.Danio rerio follicles in fluidic medium were captured successfully using these actuators. Moreover, these actuators were found to be responsive to moderate rise in environmental temperature, and hence, we could vary the fluidic medium temperature to actuate trimorphs on a chip without any input of electrical energy, i.e., raising the fluidic temperature from 23°C to 60°C could actuate the trimorphs to grasp follicles of ˜1 mm size in diameter. At 60°C, the embryos inside the follicles were observed to be alive, i.e., they were still moving in the biological fluid isolated by the follicle membrane. The smallest follicles grasped were ˜500 ?m in diameter using 800 ?m×130 ?m×0.6 ?m actuators. The fabrication process, modeling, and optimization of the trimorph actuators are presented. Based on the successful operation of these polymer-based actuators, we are currently developing multifinger thermal microgrippers for cellular grasping and manipulation, which can potentially be hybridly integrated with circuits for computer control.

  12. Parallel Coupled Micro-Macro Actuators

    E-print Network

    Morrell, John Bryant

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a new actuator system consisting of a micro-actuator and a macro-actuator coupled in parallel via a compliant transmission. The system is called the Parallel Coupled Micro-Macro Actuator, or PaCMMA. ...

  13. Sticky Actuator: Free-Form Planar Actuators for Animated Objects

    E-print Network

    Niiyama, Ryuma

    We propose soft planar actuators enhanced by free-form fabrication that are suitable for making everyday objects move. The actuator consists of one or more inflatable pouches with an adhesive back. We have developed a ...

  14. The actuated Workbench : 2D actuation in tabletop tangible interfaces

    E-print Network

    Pangaro, Gian Antonio, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    The Actuated Workbench is a new actuation mechanism that uses magnetic forces to control the two-dimensional movement of physical objects on flat surfaces. This mechanism is intended for use with existing tabletop Tangible ...

  15. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on E. coli: Influence of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar gases

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Palm, Gottfried J. [Institute for Biochemistry, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 4, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed on Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli BL21. Treatment was carried out using plasma generated with different compositions of gases: CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} (1:2), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (1:1), N{sub 2}, and Ar, and by varying plasma power and treatment time. E. coli cells were exposed under the DBD plasma in triplicates, and their surviving numbers were observed in terms of colony forming units. It has been observed that the CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma exhibits relatively higher sterilization property toward E. coli compared to plasma generated by using O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar gas mixtures. The time to kill up to 90% of the initial population of the E. coli cells was found to be about 2-3 min for CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas mixture DBD plasma. A prolongation of treatment time and an increase in the dissipated power significantly improved the E. coli killing efficiency of the atmospheric pressure DBD plasma.

  16. Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Identification was achieved by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The most abundant fragment ion intensity of each compound was used for quantification. For DBDI and SESI, absolute gas phase detection limits in the low ppt range (in MS/MS mode) were achieved for all compounds investigated. Although the sensitivity of both methods was comparable, the active capillary DBDI sensitivity was found to be dependent on the applied AC voltage, thus enabling direct tuning of the sensitivity and the in-source fragmentation, which may become a key feature in terms of field applicability. Our findings underline the applicability of DBDI and SESI for the direct, sensitive detection and quantification of several CWA types and their degradation products. Furthermore, they suggest the use of DBDI in combination with hand-held instruments for CWAs on-site monitoring. PMID:25427190

  17. CMAS-Resistant Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Based on Y2O3-Stabilized ZrO2 with Al3+ and Ti4+ Solute Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturk, Bilge S.; Garces, Hector F.; Ortiz, Angel L.; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay; Padture, Nitin P.

    2014-04-01

    The higher operating temperatures in gas-turbine engines made possible by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are engendering a new problem: environmentally ingested airborne silicate particles (sand, ash) melt on the hot TBC surfaces and form calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) glass deposits. The molten CMAS glass degrades the TBCs, leading to their premature failure. Here, we demonstrate the use of a commercially manufactured feedstock powder, in conjunction with air plasma spray process, to deposit CMAS-resistant yttria-stabilized zirconia-based TBCs containing Al3+ and Ti4+ in solid solution. Results from the characterization of these new TBCs and CMAS/TBCs interaction experiments are presented. The CMAS mitigation mechanisms in these new TBCs involve the crystallization of the anorthite phase. Raman microscopy is used to generate large area maps of the anorthite phase in the CMAS-interacted TBCs demonstrating the potential usefulness of this method for studying CMAS/TBCs interactions. The ubiquity of airborne sand/ash particles and the ever-increasing demand for higher operating temperatures in future high efficiency gas-turbine engines will necessitate CMAS resistance in all hot-section components of those engines. In this context, the versatility, ease of processing, and low cost offered by the process demonstrated here could benefit the development of these new CMAS-resistant TBCs.

  18. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers localized near an internal transport barrier in high-?p mode plasmas in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeji, S.; Kamada, Y.; Ozeki, T.; Ishida, S.; Takizuka, T.; Neyatani, Y.; Tokuda, S.

    1997-12-01

    Local steep pressure gradient generated near an internal transport barrier drives a radially localized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability with low toroidal mode number (n) in the high-?p mode plasma in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [Y. Koide et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1623 (1997)]. The instability occurs in the ?p regime lower than that for the ?p-collapse and its growth rate is of the order of the ideal MHD instability. By a linear analysis of ideal MHD stability, low n modes localized near the internal transport barrier are found to be destabilized in the situation that the bootstrap current driven by the steep pressure gradient reduces the local magnetic shear (s?0) where the safety factor is right close to an integer value.

  19. Osteoconductive Potential of Barrier NanoSiO2 PLGA Membranes Functionalized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Terriza, Antonia; Vilches-Pérez, Jose I.; de la Orden, Emilio; Yubero, Francisco; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan L.; González-Elipe, Agustin R.; Vilches, José; Salido, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of tailoring membrane surfaces with osteoconductive potential, in particular in biodegradable devices, to create modified biomaterials that stimulate osteoblast response should make them more suitable for clinical use, hopefully enhancing bone regeneration. Bioactive inorganic materials, such as silica, have been suggested to improve the bioactivity of synthetic biopolymers. An in vitro study on HOB human osteoblasts was performed to assess biocompatibility and bioactivity of SiO2 functionalized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membranes, prior to clinical use. A 15?nm SiO2 layer was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), onto a resorbable PLGA membrane. Samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). HOB cells were seeded on sterilized test surfaces where cell morphology, spreading, actin cytoskeletal organization, and focal adhesion expression were assessed. As proved by the FT-IR analysis of samples, the deposition by PECVD of the SiO2 onto the PLGA membrane did not alter the composition and other characteristics of the organic membrane. A temporal and spatial reorganization of cytoskeleton and focal adhesions and morphological changes in response to SiO2 nanolayer were identified in our model. The novedous SiO2 deposition method is compatible with the standard sterilization protocols and reveals as a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of resorbable PLGA membranes. PMID:24883304

  20. Characteristics of SiO x N y films deposited by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using HMDS\\/NH 3\\/O 2\\/Ar for water vapor diffusion barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Lee; C. H. Jeong; H. B. Kim; J. T. Lim; S. J. Kyung; G. Y. Yeom

    2006-01-01

    SiOxNy thin films were deposited by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICP-PECVD) using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, 99.9%)\\/NH3\\/O2\\/Ar at a low temperature, and examined for use as a water vapor diffusion barrier. The film characteristics were investigated as a function of the O2:NH3 ratio. An increase in the O2:NH3 ratio decreased the level of impurities such as –CHx, N–H in

  1. Conducting polymer actuators : temperature effects

    E-print Network

    Del Zio, Michael R. (Michael Robert), 1982-

    2006-01-01

    In order to utilize conducting polymer actuators as a viable engineering solution, it is necessary to produce usable levels of force with a reasonable bandwidth. Polypyrrole actuated at temperatures as high as 100 °C ...

  2. Conceptual hermetically sealed elbow actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1968-01-01

    Electrically or hydraulically powered, hermetically sealed angular or rotary actuator deflects mechanical members over a range of plus or minus 180 degrees. The actuator design provides incremental flexures which keep the local deflection rate within elastic limits.

  3. A reactionless precision pointing actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiktor, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The applications, design, control and testing of an actuator that provides the precise motion control of a gimbal platform without torquing against the basebody to which it is attached are described. The reactionless actuator described was given the name reactuator.

  4. Torsional Ratcheting Actuating System

    SciTech Connect

    BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; BITSIE,FERNANDO

    2000-01-24

    A new type of surface micromachined ratcheting actuation system has been developed at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. The actuator uses a torsional electrostatic comb drive that is coupled to an external ring gear through a ratcheting scheme. The actuator can be operated with a single square wave, has minimal rubbing surfaces, maximizes comb finger density, and can be used for open-loop position control. The prototypes function as intended with a minimum demonstrated operating voltage of 18V. The equations of motion are developed for the torsional electrostatic comb drive. The resonant frequency, voltage vs. displacement and force delivery characteristics are predicted and compared with the fabricated device's performance.

  5. Spring-powered actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, R. J.; Gaiger, D. J.; Simkins, N.

    1985-07-30

    A spring-powered actuator especially for operating devices such as fire and/or smoke dampers, doors, hatches, vents, traps, valves and other devices having components which are movable between at least two positions. The spring-powered actuator of the invention comprises a longitudinally-displaceable re-wind screw which is rotatable to recharge the spring of the actuator, and a tilting element on the screw which is mounted for tilting movement with respect to the screw axis to allow longitudinal movement of the re-wind screw so as to permit rapid and reliable release of energy stored in the spring. When used in a combination fire and smoke damper, it thus opens or closes the blades of the latter.

  6. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Arrangement for Air Disinfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ermel; M. Kurrat

    Plasma arrangements are widely used for disinfection purposes. Dangerous microorganisms and microbes should be destructed in plasma region due to summary effect of produced ozone, irradiation of hard UV and generated active species. Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) develop with sufficiently high electrical field in the gas area of an arrangement with at least one insulation barrier between two electrodes. DBD

  7. Pneumatic Actuator Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive activity adapted from MATEC, learn about pneumatic actuator systems, which use compressed air to transmit motion. Animations illustrate the components of a typical pneumatic actuator system: the computer, communication module, programmable logic controller, input/output module, solenoid valve, and pneumatic device. Observe how the system functions as a whole, and learn more about some common pneumatic devices.The interactive is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download it as well.

  8. Tetherless thermobiochemically actuated microgrippers

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Randall, Christina L.; Benson, Bryan R.; Bassik, Noy; Stern, George M.; Gracias, David H.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate mass-producible, tetherless microgrippers that can be remotely triggered by temperature and chemicals under biologically relevant conditions. The microgrippers use a self-contained actuation response, obviating the need for external tethers in operation. The grippers can be actuated en masse, even while spatially separated. We used the microgrippers to perform diverse functions, such as picking up a bead on a substrate and the removal of cells from tissue embedded at the end of a capillary (an in vitro biopsy). PMID:19139411

  9. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    DOEpatents

    Love, Lonnie J. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Loudon, TX)

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  10. Considerations For Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lenore Rasmussen, Lewis D. Meixler and Charles A. Gentile

    2012-02-29

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) that bend, swell, ripple (first generation materials), and now contract with low electric input (new development) have been produced. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments, molecular modeling, electrolyte experiments, pH experiments, and an ionic concentration experiment were used to determine the chain of events that occur during contraction and, reciprocally, expansion when the polarity is reversed, in these ionic EAPs. Plasma treatment of the electrodes, along with other strategies, allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface, analogous to nerves and tendons moving with muscles during movement. Challenges involved with prototyping actuation using contractile EAPs are also discussed.

  11. Electrostatic curved electrode actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Legtenberg; John Gilbert; Stephen D. Senturia; Miko Elwenspoek

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of an electrostatic actuator consisting of a laterally compliant cantilever beam and a fixed curved electrode, both suspended above a ground plane. A theoretical description of the static behavior of the cantilever as it is pulled into contact with the rigid fixed-electrode structure is given. Two models are presented: a simplified semi-analytical model

  12. Thermally actuated CMOS micromirrors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bühler; J. Funk; O. Paul; F.-P. Steiner; H. Baltes

    1995-01-01

    Thermally actuated micromirrors fabricated using a standard CMOS process and one subsequent anisotropic silicon etch step are presented. The device consists of a mirror plate supported by bimorph cantilever beams. Even short beams show a large deflection effect. A theoretical analysis valid for n-morph bending beams has been derived and found to be consistent with experimental and computer-simulation results.

  13. Mirror support smart actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Williams; M. Pi; Juan C. Gonzalez; B. Mack; Carlos Martin; Luis F. Rodriguez-Ramos

    1995-01-01

    The Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) has presented the proposal for the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) 8 m telescope. As a part of this project, we have proposed a distributed control system using the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol for the control of hundreds of force actuators for the support of the 8 m diameter thin meniscus

  14. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  15. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  16. Series elastic actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill A. Pratt; Matthew M. Williamson

    1995-01-01

    It is traditional to make the interface between an actuator and its load as stiff as possible. Despite this tradition, reducing interface stiffness offers a number of advantages, including greater shock tolerance, lower reflected inertia, more accurate and stable force control, less inadvertent damage to the environment, and the capacity for energy storage. As a trade-off, reducing interface stiffness also

  17. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  18. Scalable synthetic muscle actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Bobbio; Michael A. Pennington; Stephen W. Smith; Jason Zara; Harry J. Leamy; John A. Hudak; Jennifer Pagan; Paul C. Elliot

    2000-01-01

    We will discuss our work to build, characterize, and scale- up a metallized plastic muscle-like actuator called a Spiral Wound Transducer (SWT). Prototype SWTs have been built using microelectronics fabrication methods. The prototypes have demonstrated large amplitude motion and analog response. The prototypes, though small, have demonstrated forces equivalent to 12 grams for compressions of more than 15 percent at

  19. Microwave power for smart material actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Golembiewskii, Walter; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.

    2004-02-01

    The concept of microwave-driven smart material actuators was envisioned and developed as the best option to alleviate the complexity and weight associated with a hard-wire-networked power and control system for smart actuator arrays. The patch rectenna array was initially designed for high current output, but has undergone further development for high voltage output devices used in shape control applications. Test results show that more than 200 V of output were obtained from a 6 × 6 array at a far-field exposure (1.8 m away) with an X-band input power of 18 W. The 6 × 6 array patch rectenna was designed to theoretically generate voltages up to 540 V, but practically it has generated voltages in the range between 200 and 300 V. Testing was also performed with a thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor and electro-active paper as smart actuators attached to the 6 × 6 array. Flexible dipole rectenna arrays built on thin-film-based flexible membranes are most applicable for NASA's various missions, such as microwave-driven shape controls for aircraft morphing and large, ultra-lightweight space structures. An array of dipole rectennas was designed for high voltage output by densely populating Schottky barrier diodes to drive piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators. The dipole rectenna array will eventually be integrated with a power allocation and distribution logic circuit and microbatteries for storage of excessive power. The roadmap for the development of wireless power drivers based on the rectenna array for shape control requires the development of new membrane materials with proper dielectric constants that are suitable for dipole rectenna arrays.

  20. Influence of gas pressure and applied voltage on Xe excimer radiation from a micro dielectric barrier discharge for plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Uchida, Satoshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)

    2009-10-01

    We present the influence of gas pressure and applied voltage on Xe excimer radiation from a microdielectric barrier discharge (micro-DBD) in Ne/Xe gas mixture for plasma display panel. Measurements show that the excimer radiation with the 172 nm band lines is strongly observed in the afterglow, and drastically increases with an increase in gas pressure and applied voltage. It is also found that for high gas pressure and low voltage, excimer molecule (Xe{sub 2}{sup *}) is efficiently produced because of less infrared emission from Xe excited atom. The reaction processes of Xe metastable atom (Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}), which is a precursor for Xe{sub 2}{sup *}, are theoretically analyzed using a one-dimensional fluid model. Increasing gas pressure results in large excimer radiation due to the enhancement of the following three processes, i.e., the conversion process from Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} to Xe{sub 2}{sup *}, the direct electron impact excitation from ground state to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}, and the collisional de-excitation process from upper level (Xe{sup **}) to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}. The simulation analytical result shows that for lower voltage, Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} is efficiently produced due to the increase in the ratio of direct excitation to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} from ground state and the suppression of the stepwise ionization from Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} by electron collisions. While for high voltage operation of micro-DBD, the recombination process with Xe molecular ion (Xe{sub 2}{sup +}) and electron contributes to the total excimer radiation, which can be responsible for the large excimer radiation observed in experiment.

  1. Vehicle barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  2. plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L. J.; Wu, X. M.

    2014-12-01

    As-deposited HfO2 films were modified by CHF3, C4F8, and mixed C4F8/O2 plasmas in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma chamber driven by radio frequency generators of 60 MHz as the high frequency (HF) source and 2 MHz as the low frequency source (60/2 MHz). The influences of various surface plasma treatments under CHF3, C4F8, and C4F8/O2 were investigated in order to understand the chemical and structural changes in thin-film systems, as well as their influence on the electrical properties. Fluorine atoms were incorporated into the HfO2 films by either CHF3 or C4F8 plasma treatment; meanwhile, the C/F films were formed on the surface of the HfO2 films. The formation of C/F layers decreased the k value of the gate stacks because of its low dielectric constant. However, the addition of O2 gas in the discharge gases suppressed the formation of C/F layers. After thermal annealing, tetragonal HfO2 phase was investigated in both samples treated with CHF3 and C4F8 plasmas. However, the samples treated with O-rich plasmas showed monoclinic phase, which indicated that the addition of O plasmas could influence the Hf/O ratio of the HfO2 films. The mechanism of the t-HfO2 formation was attributed to oxygen insufficiency generated by the incorporation of F atoms. The capacitors treated with C4F8/O2 plasmas displayed the highest k value, which ascribed that the C/F layers were suppressed and the tetragonal phase of HfO2 was formed. Good electrical properties, especially on the hysteresis voltage and frequency dispersion, were obtained because the bulk traps were passivated by the incorporation of F atoms. However, the H-related traps were generated during the CHF3 plasma treatments, which caused the performance degradation. All the treated samples showed lower leakage current density than the as-deposited HfO2 films at negative bias due to the reduced trap-assisted tunneling by the incorporation of F to block the electrons transferring from metal electrode to the trap level.

  3. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  4. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  5. New Actuators for Aircraft and Space Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Claeyssen; B. Grohmann; M. Christmann; T. Lorkowski; R. LeLetty

    2008-01-01

    Actuators are key elements of air- and spacecrafts. In the recent years the concept of the more-electric aircraft pushed the development of electrical actuation systems to substitute hitherto used hydraulic actuators in a broad range of applications such as flight control, landing gear and brake actuation. On top of that the superior dynamics of electrical actuators, especially when utilizing the

  6. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (compiler); Sharkey, John (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  7. Scissor thrust valve actuator

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin G.; Watkins, John C; Nitzel, Michael E.

    2006-08-29

    Apparatus for actuating a valve includes a support frame and at least one valve driving linkage arm, one end of which is rotatably connected to a valve stem of the valve and the other end of which is rotatably connected to a screw block. A motor connected to the frame is operatively connected to a motor driven shaft which is in threaded screw driving relationship with the screw block. The motor rotates the motor driven shaft which drives translational movement of the screw block which drives rotatable movement of the valve driving linkage arm which drives translational movement of the valve stem. The valve actuator may further include a sensory control element disposed in operative relationship with the valve stem, the sensory control element being adapted to provide control over the position of the valve stem by at least sensing the travel and/or position of the valve stem.

  8. Automatic rotary valve actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.E.

    1985-03-28

    This report describes the design, construction, and operation of a microcomputer-controlled valve actuator for operating test valves requiring rotary motion of the valve stem. An AIM 65 microcomputer, using a FORTH language program, controls an air motor and air clutch mounted within an oven to accomplish testing at elevated temperatures. The valve actuator closes the test valve until a preset torque is reached and then opens the valve to its initial starting point. The number of cycles and extremes of rotation are tallied and printed as the test progresses. Provisions are made to accept remote signals to stop the test and to indicate to a remote device when the test has been stopped.

  9. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  10. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  11. Dissolution actuated sample container

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  12. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  13. Cellular Pressure-Actuated Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    A modification of a pressure-actuated joint has been proposed to improve its pressure actuation in such a manner as to reduce the potential for leakage of the pressurizing fluid. The specific joint for which the modification is proposed is a field joint in a reusable solid-fuel rocket motor (RSRM), in which the pressurizing fluid is a mixture of hot combustion gases. The proposed modification could also be applicable to other pressure-actuated joints of similar configuration.

  14. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  15. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  16. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    E-print Network

    Mooney, Luke M.

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator ...

  17. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V. [Michael A. Chaszeyka Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratories, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 {+-} 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

  18. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2011-06-01

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 ± 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

  19. Plasma actuated heat transfer Subrata Roya

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Laboratory and Test Facility, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville mandatory to protect them from high thermal stresses in- duced by hot combustion gases and thus increasing

  20. Conducting polymer actuator enhancement through microstructuring

    E-print Network

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2007-01-01

    Electroactive conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophenes are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanisms in these materials are based on the diffusion ...

  1. Piezoelectric actuated gimbal

    DOEpatents

    Tschaggeny, Charles W. (Woods Cross, UT); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bamberg, Eberhard (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-13

    A gimbal is described and which includes a fixed base member defining an axis of rotation; a second member concentrically oriented relative to the axis of rotation; a linear actuator oriented in immediate, adjoining force transmitting relation relative to the base member or to the second member, and which applies force along a linear axis which is tangential to the axis of rotation so as to cause the second member to rotate coaxially relative to the fixed base member; and an object of interest mounted to the second member such that the object of interest is selectively moved relative to the base member about the axis of rotation.

  2. Scalable synthetic muscle actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbio, Stephen M.; Pennington, Michael A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Zara, Jason M.; Leamy, Harry J.; Hudak, John A.; Pagan, Jennifer; Elliot, Paul C.

    2000-06-01

    We will discuss our work to build, characterize, and scale- up a metallized plastic muscle-like actuator called a Spiral Wound Transducer (SWT). Prototype SWTs have been built using microelectronics fabrication methods. The prototypes have demonstrated large amplitude motion and analog response. The prototypes, though small, have demonstrated forces equivalent to 12 grams for compressions of more than 15 percent at 30 Hz. The size of the SWTs is essentially unrestricted. Our work with commercially available metallized Mylar films to produce much larger, more powerful, and lower cost SWT devices will also be discussed.

  3. Plasma Membrane Protein Trafficking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Ann Peer

    \\u000a The plasma membrane is the interface between the cytosol and the external environment. The proteins that reside and function\\u000a on the plasma membrane regulate the cellular entrance and exit of bioactive molecules, actuate signaling cascades in response\\u000a to external stimuli, and potentiate interactions between cells. The presence and abundance of proteins on the plasma membrane\\u000a is regulated by anterograde and

  4. Magnetic actuation of hinged microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong W. Yi; Chang Liu

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated magnetic actuation of hinged, surface micromachined structures. Electroplated magnetic material (Permalloy) is integrated with two types of hinged microstructures and the magnetic actuation process has been experimentally characterized. Under a given external magnetic field, the angular displacement of a hinged structure is determined by the volume of the magnetic material or by the stiffness of an auxiliary

  5. Convex methods in actuator placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Chmielewski; Jui-Kun Peng; Amit M. Manthanwar

    2002-01-01

    A new formulation of the actuator placement problem is presented. This formulation considers capital cost in the objective function and highlights the importance of magnitude limits on both input and output signals through variance bounding constraints on each. Thus, the proposed optimization problem is aimed at finding the set of minimum cost actuator arrays such that there exists a linear

  6. Design of FSMA spring actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-hung Chen; Minoru Taya

    2004-01-01

    A new spring actuator composing of two parts: driving unit and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) spring, is designed based on hybrid actuation mechanism. The driving unit, which is based on hybrid magnet, consists of coil, yoke, and ring shape permanent magnet (PM); the FSMA spring can be either composite material, which is made of shape memory alloy of superelastic

  7. Thermally Actuated Omnidirectional Walking Microrobot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yegân Erdem; Yu-Ming Chen; Matthew Mohebbi; John W. Suh; Gregory T. A. Kovacs; Robert B. Darling; Karl F. Bohringer

    2010-01-01

    We describe a walking microrobot that is propelled by cilialike thermal bimorph actuator arrays. The robot consists of two actuator array chips, each having an 8 × 8 array of “motion pixels,” which are composed of four orthogonally oriented cilia. Each group of unidirectional cilia is controlled independently for each chip, which provides planar motion with three degrees of freedom

  8. Linear electric actuators and generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Boldea; S. A. Nasar

    1999-01-01

    Linear electric actuators and generators (LEAGs) are electromagnetic devices which develop directly short-travel progressive (or oscillatory) linear motion. Machine tool sliding tables, pen recorders and free piston power machines are typical industrial applications for LEAGs. Their recent revival in applications in compressors, pumps, electromagnetic valve actuators, active shock absorbers, vibrators, etc. Prompts this review, which presents main LEAGs configurations, their

  9. Linear electric actuators and generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Boldea; S. A. Nasar

    1997-01-01

    Linear electric actuators and generators (LEAGs) are electromagnetic devices which develop directly short-travel progressive (or oscillatory) linear motion. Machine tool sliding tables, pen recorders, and free piston power machines are typical industrial applications for LEAGs. Their revival in applications in compressors, pumps, electromagnetic valve actuators, active shock absorbers, vibrators, etc. prompts this review, which presents main LEAGs configurations, their principles

  10. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  11. Remotely-actuated biomedical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

  12. Biosensing and actuation for microbiorobots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Selman Sakar; Edward B. Steager; A. Agung Julius; MinJun Kim; Vijay Kumar; George J. Pappas

    2010-01-01

    One of the great challenges in nano\\/micro scale science and engineering is the independent manipulation of cells and man-made objects with active sensing. For such work, there is a need for controllable actuators. Actuation can be realized using inorganic components; however, these systems are expensive to produce and require sophisticated fabrication techniques. Furthermore, they do not have integrated biosensing elements

  13. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Adolf; Mohsen Shahinpoor; Daniel J. Segalman; Walter R. Witkowski

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel

  14. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Adolf; M. Shahinpoor; D. J. Segalman; W. R. Witkowski

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in

  15. Rectenna performances for smart membrane actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; King, Glen C.; Woodall, Charles

    2002-07-01

    The patch rectenna array was initially designed for high voltage output in shape control applications. The test results show that more than 200 volts of output was obtained from a 6 X 6 array at a far-field exposure (1.8 meters away) with an x-band input power of 18 watts. The 6 X 6 array patch rectenna was designed to generate theoretical voltages of up to 540 volts, but normal output was range 200 and 300 volts. Test were also performed with a THUNDER actuator attached to the 6 x 6 array. Flexible dipole rectenna arrays built on thin-film based flexible membranes are envisioned as the best option for NASA applications, such as microwave-driven shape controls for aircraft morphing and large ultra lightweight space structures. An array of dipole rectennas was designed for a high voltage output by densely populating it with Schottky barrier diodes to drive piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators. The dipole rectenna array will eventually be integrated with a PAD logic circuit for power allocation and distribution and microbatteries for storage of excess power. The development of rectenna array-based wireless power drivers for shape control requires the development of new membrane materials with dielectric constants that are suitable for dipole rectenna arrays.

  16. Actuator-valve interface optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, O.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code, Actuator Valve Response (AVR), has been developed to optimize the explosive actuator-valve interface parameters so that the valve plunger velocity is at a maximum when the plunger reaches the valve tubes. The code considers three forces to act on the valve plunger before the plunger reaches the valve tubes. These are the pressure force produced by the actuator, the shear force necessary to shear the seal disks on the actuator and the valve plunger, and the friction force caused by friction between the plunger and the plunger bore. The three forces are modeled by expressions that are explicitly functions of the plunger displacement. A particular actuator-valve combination was analyzed with the computer code AVR with four different combinations of valve plunger seal disk shear strength and initial friction force. (LEW)

  17. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  18. T-Slide Linear Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John

    2009-01-01

    T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off-the-shelf, electric servomotor, a motor angle resolution sensor (typically an encoder or resolver), and microprocessor-based intelligent software. In applications requiring precision positioning, it may be necessary to add strain gauges to the T-slide housing. Existing sensory- interactive motion control art will work for T slides. For open-loop positioning, a stepping motor emulation technique can be used.

  19. Simple casting based fabrication of PEDOT:PSS-PVDF-ionic liquid soft actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaite, Aiva; Tondu, Bertrand; Mathieu, Fabrice; Souéres, Philippe; Bergaud, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Despite a growing interest in conducting polymer based actuators, a robust fabrication technique is still needed. We suggest a fabrication method that allows fast production of conducting polymer actuators from commercially available polyvinylidene flouride membranes (PVDF) and a PEDOT/PSS solution. In order to improve adhesion of those materials, Ar plasma induced grafting is used to create hydrophilic surfaces of up to 40 ?m. Hydrophilic PVDF-graft-polyethylene glycol allows diffusion of PEDOT/PSS in the pores of the membranes, while hydrophobic middle layers prevent short circuits. In this way, soft actuators can be fabricated by consequent drop casting and drying of conducting polymer.

  20. Combining series elastic actuation and magneto-rheological damping for the control of agile locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Garcia; J. C. Arevalo; G. Muñoz; P. Gonzalez-de-Santos

    2011-01-01

    All-terrain robot locomotion is an active topic of research. Search and rescue maneuvers and exploratory missions could benefit from robots with the abilities of real animals. However, technological barriers exist to ultimately achieving the actuation system, which is able to meet the exigent requirements of these robots. This paper describes the locomotion control of a leg prototype, designed and developed

  1. Shearless transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Morrison, Philip J.,

    Morrison8 , M Roberto9 , K Gentle8 , Yu Kuznetsov1 and I C Nascimento1 1 Instituto de F´isica, Universidade for the formation of internal transport barriers is the existence of a non-monotonic flow profile, which gives rise to reversed shear flows and the formation of shearless curves. These curves act as dikes preventing chaotic

  2. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Segalman, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witkowski, Walter R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  3. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  4. Gear-Driven Turnbuckle Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Ricky N.

    2010-01-01

    This actuator design allows the extension and contraction of turnbuckle assemblies. It can be operated manually or remotely, and is extremely compact. It is ideal for turnbuckles that are hard to reach by conventional tools. The tool assembly design solves the problem of making accurate adjustments to the variable geometry guide vanes without having to remove and reinstall the actuator system back on the engine. The actuator does this easily by adjusting the length of the turnbuckles while they are still attached to the engine.

  5. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Evaluation of integrity and barrier performance of atomic layer deposited WN{sub x}C{sub y} films on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiO{sub 2} for Cu metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Moon-Sang; Yim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum; Park, Hyung-Sang; Koh, Wonyong; Li, Wei-Min; Stokhof, Maarten; Sprey, Hessel [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); ASM Genitech Korea Ltd., Daejeon 306-230 (Korea, Republic of); ASM Microchemistry Ltd., Vaeinoe Auerin katu 12 A, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); ASM Belgium N.V., Kapeldreef 75, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-08-21

    The nucleation and growth of WN{sub x}C{sub y} films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO{sub 2} is characterized as a function of the number of ALD cycles using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The island growth of isolated WN{sub x}C{sub y} nanocrystals is directly observed at the early stages of film growth. The nucleation of the WN{sub x}C{sub y} film can be significantly enhanced by NH{sub 3} plasma treatment before the deposition of WN{sub x}C{sub y}. The capacitance-voltage measurements conducted after bias-temperature stressing reveals that an ALD-WN{sub x}C{sub y} film deposited with a thickness of approximately 5.2 nm on the NH{sub 3} plasma-treated PECVD SiO{sub 2} shows good diffusion barrier performance against Cu migration.

  7. Binary actuation of solar mirrors

    E-print Network

    Gomez, Teresa M

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of binary actuators to adjust the shape of an array of mirrors. To explore this concept, an experimental system was refurbished and recalibrated. This experimental system was used to explore ...

  8. Modeling of Piezoelectric Tube Actuators

    E-print Network

    El Rifai, Osamah M.

    A new dynamic model is presented for piezoelectric tube actuators commonly used in high-precision instruments. The model captures coupling between motions in all three axes such as bending motion due to a supposedly pure ...

  9. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  10. Plastic micropump with ferrofluidic actuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Yamahata; Mathieu Chastellain; Virendra K. Parashar; Alke Petri; Heinrich Hofmann; Martin A. M. Gijs

    2005-01-01

    We present the realization and characterization of a new type of plastic micropump based on the magnetic actuation of a magnetic liquid. The pump consists of two serial check-valves that convert the periodic motion of a ferrofluidic plug into a pulsed quasi-continuous flow. The ferrofluid is actuated by the mechanical motion of an external NdFeB permanent magnet. The water-based ferrofluid

  11. Fabrication of TiNi shape memory actuator for micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Eiji; Mitsuya, Takashi; Shibata, Takayuki

    1999-09-01

    We are attempting to develop a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated micropump as a component for use in micro analysis or micro dosage systems. In this paper, we will discuss the fabrication process and dynamic actuation properties of an SMA actuator. TiNi thin film of about 6 micrometers in thickness was deposited onto a Si wafer with a square recess on its reverse side, and annealed at 500 degrees C for 1h in a vacuum to memorize an initial flat shape. The TiNi thin film and a Pyrex glass cap of 500 micrometers thickness with a square recess were then anodically bonded together in a vacuum to form a chamber to which a bias pressure was to be applied to deform the TiNi thin film. After removing the remaining 50 $mUm thick Si layer beneath the TiNi thin film by RIE in SF6 plasma, a shape memory diaphragm of 5mm square in size was completed. The fabricated actuator was driven by resistive heating and air-cooling under a bias pressure of 200 kPa, which was applied by a nitrogen gas flow through a small hole pieced in the Pyrex glass cap. Under these conditions, the actuator gave displacements of about 95 micrometers at the center during repeated thermal cycles. A Si check valve structure, to be assembled with the actuator to construct a micropump, was also fabricated through a process of anisotropic etching and fusion bonding. The flow resistance for forward flow proved to be about one-three hundredths of that for backward flow.

  12. Reproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    ;Isolating Barriers Premating barriers. Spatial. Geographical isolation Habitat isolation. Temporal. OverlapReproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers: Premating Postmating-Prezygotic Postzygotic #12 in flowering times. Antirrhinum majus striatum Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus #12;Isolating Barriers Premating

  13. Microstructures and properties of laser-glazed plasma-sprayed ZrO{sub 2}-YO{sub 1.5}/Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.L.; Tsai, P.C. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Technology

    1995-12-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) consisting of two layers with various yttria contents (ZrO{sub 2}-YO{sub 1.5}/Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y) were plasma sprayed, and parts of the various specimens were glazed by using a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. All the specimens were then subjected to furnace thermal cycling tests at 1,100 C; the effect of laser glazing on the durability and failure mechanism of the TBCs was then evaluated. From these results, two models were developed to show the failure mechanism of as-sprayed and laser-glazed TBCs: model A, which is thermal-stress dominant, and model V, which is oxidation-stress dominant. For top coats containing cubic phase, cubic and monoclinic phases, or tetragonal and a relatively larger amount of monoclinic phases, whose degradation is thermal-stress dominant, laser glazing improved the durability of TBCs by a factor of about 2 to 6. Segmented cracks that occurred during glazing proved beneficial for accommodating thermal stress and raising the tolerance to oxidation, which resulted in a higher durability. Thermal barrier coatings with top coats containing tetragonal phase had the highest durability. Degradation of such TBCs resulted mainly from oxidation of the bond coats. For top coats with a greater amount of monoclinic phase, thermal mismatch stress occurred during cooling and detrimentally affected durability.

  14. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  15. An electrolytically actuated micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateya, Daniel A.; Shah, Ashish A.; Hua, Susan Z.

    2004-04-01

    An electrolytically actuated bubble micropump capable of precise dosing at high pumping speed is discussed. The fluid displacement is achieved by sequentially generating electrolytic gas bubbles directly inside the microfluidic channels. The operation of the pump thus requires no moving mechanical parts. A series of phase-shifted dc voltage pulses (ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 V) were applied to inflate the bubbles. Results show that the liquid displacement and pumping rate can be easily and accurately controlled by adjusting the applied voltage, pulse width, and pulse interval. An optimized pump rate of 24 nl/min, corresponding to a flow velocity of 640 ?m/s was achieved for a channel size of 25×25 ?m in cross section. The measured volume displacements and pump rates were found to be in close agreement with the Faraday bubble growth mechanism. Results also show that the pump can reliably operate at high backpressure (up to 110.1 kPa), and a decrease in pump rate due to elevated backpressure can be offset simply by a small increase in voltage or pulse width.

  16. Actuator selection for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.; Ruan, Mifang

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of selecting the actuator locations and the determination of the required number of actuators for large space structures. The selection is based on the definitions of the degree of controllability, the independence of actuators, and the effectiveness of the individual actuators. An algorithm is developed that can be used for the selection of the essential number of actuators and for finding some defects of the system, such as the insuffiency of the available actuator locations for effective control of the whole system or a too crowded frequency distribution. The efficiency of the algorithm was demonstrated by an application to the Space Station.

  17. Parameters of a pulsed plasma accelerator torch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Griniuk; V. I. Lisichenko; N. L. Sokolova

    1975-01-01

    Results of an investigation of plasma streams generated by a pulsed plasma accelerator actuated by electrical explosion of thin-wire conductors are reported. Al, Fe, and W conductors were tested. Plasma bunches accelerated were examined by means of ultrahigh-speed photography, spectroscopy, calorimetry, and a ballistic pendulum. The dynamics, velocity characteristics, and energy contents of the bunches were studied, and estimates of

  18. Development of plasma streamwise vortex generators for increased boundary layer control authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Patrick; Schatzman, David; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint

    2009-11-01

    This experimental study focuses on active boundary layer flow control utilizing streamwise vorticity produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. A novel plasma streamwise vortex generator (PSVG) layout is presented that mimics the passive flow control characteristics of the trapezoidal vane vortex generator. The PSVG consists of a common insulated electrode and multiple, exposed streamwise oriented electrodes used to produce counter-rotating vortical structures. Smoke and oil surface visualization of boundary layer flow over a flat plate compare the characteristics of passive control techniques and different PSVG designs. Passive and active control over a generic wall-mounted hump model, Rec = 288,000-575,000, are compared through static wall pressure measurements along the model's centerline. Different geometric effects of the PSVG electrode configuration were investigated. PSVG's with triangular exposed electrodes outperformed ordinary PSVG's under certain circumstances. The electrode arrangement produced flow control mechanisms and effectiveness similar to the passive trapezoidal vane vortex generators.

  19. A vacuum-driven peristaltic micropump with valved actuation chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianguo; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a simple peristaltic micropump design incorporated with valved actuation chambers and propelled by a pulsed vacuum source. The vacuum-driven peristaltic micropump offers high pumping rates, low backflow, appreciable tolerance to air bubbles, and minimal destruction to fluid contents. The pumping device, fabricated by laser micromachining and plasma bonding of three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers, includes a pneumatic network, actuation membranes, and microfluidic channels. As the key to peristaltic motion, the sequential deflection of the elastic membranes is achieved by periodic pressure waveforms (negative) traveling through the pneumatic network, provided by a vacuum source regulated by an electromagnetic valve. This configuration eliminates the complicated control logic typically required in peristaltic motion. Importantly, the valved actuation chambers substantially reduce backflow and improve the pumping rates. In addition, the pneumatic network with negative pressure provides a means to effectively remove air bubbles present in the microflow through the gas-permeable PDMS membrane, which can be highly desired in handling complex fluidic samples. Experimental characterization of the micropump performance has been conducted by controlling the resistance of the pneumatic network, the number of normally closed valves, the vacuum pressure, and the frequency of pressure pulses. A maximal flow rate of 600 µL min-1 has been optimized at the pulsed vacuum frequency of 30 Hz with a vacuum pressure of 50 kPa, which is comparable to that of compressed air-actuated peristaltic micropumps.

  20. Influence of layer type and order on barrier properties of multilayer PECVD barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Dahlmann, R.; Hopmann, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Due to their macromolecular structure, plastics are limited in their scope of application whenever high barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour permeation is required. One solution is the deposition of thin silicon oxide coatings in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) processes. A way to improve performance of barrier coatings is the use of multilayer structures built from dyad layers, which combine an inorganic barrier layer and an organic intermediate layer. In order to investigate the influence of type and number of dyads on the barrier performance of coated 23 µm PET films, different dyad setups are chosen. The setups include SiOCH interlayers and SiOx-barrier layers deposited using the precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO). A single reactor setup driven in pulsed microwave plasma (MW) mode as well as capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) mode is chosen. In this paper the effects of a variation in intermediate layer recipe and stacking order using dyad setups on the oxygen barrier properties of multilayer coatings are discussed with regard to the chemical structure, morphology and activation energy of the permeation process. Changes in surface nano-morphology of intermediate layers have a strong impact on the barrier properties of subsequent glass-like coatings. Even a complete failure of the barrier is observed. Therefore, when depositing multilayer barrier coatings, stacking order has to be considered.

  1. Euler force actuation mechanism for siphon valving in compact disk-like microfluidic chips

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yongbo; Fan, Jianhua; Zhou, Song; Zhou, Teng; Wu, Junfeng; Li, Yin; Liu, Zhenyu; Xuan, Ming; Wu, Yihui

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Euler force induced by the acceleration of compact disk (CD)-like microfluidic chip, this paper presents a novel actuation mechanism for siphon valving. At the preliminary stage of acceleration, the Euler force in the tangential direction of CD-like chip takes the primary place compared with the centrifugal force to function as the actuation of the flow, which fills the siphon and actuates the siphon valving. The Euler force actuation mechanism is demonstrated by the numerical solution of the phase-field based mathematical model for the flow in siphon valve. In addition, experimental validation is implemented in the polymethylmethacrylate-based CD-like microfluidic chip manufactured using CO2 laser engraving technique. To prove the application of the proposed Euler force actuation mechanism, whole blood separation and plasma extraction has been conducted using the Euler force actuated siphon valving. The newly introduced actuation mechanism overcomes the dependence on hydrophilic capillary filling of siphon by avoiding external manipulation or surface treatments of polymeric material. The sacrifice for highly integrated processing in pneumatic pumping technique is also prevented by excluding the volume-occupied compressed air chamber. PMID:24753736

  2. Euler force actuation mechanism for siphon valving in compact disk-like microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongbo; Fan, Jianhua; Zhou, Song; Zhou, Teng; Wu, Junfeng; Li, Yin; Liu, Zhenyu; Xuan, Ming; Wu, Yihui

    2014-03-01

    Based on the Euler force induced by the acceleration of compact disk (CD)-like microfluidic chip, this paper presents a novel actuation mechanism for siphon valving. At the preliminary stage of acceleration, the Euler force in the tangential direction of CD-like chip takes the primary place compared with the centrifugal force to function as the actuation of the flow, which fills the siphon and actuates the siphon valving. The Euler force actuation mechanism is demonstrated by the numerical solution of the phase-field based mathematical model for the flow in siphon valve. In addition, experimental validation is implemented in the polymethylmethacrylate-based CD-like microfluidic chip manufactured using CO2 laser engraving technique. To prove the application of the proposed Euler force actuation mechanism, whole blood separation and plasma extraction has been conducted using the Euler force actuated siphon valving. The newly introduced actuation mechanism overcomes the dependence on hydrophilic capillary filling of siphon by avoiding external manipulation or surface treatments of polymeric material. The sacrifice for highly integrated processing in pneumatic pumping technique is also prevented by excluding the volume-occupied compressed air chamber. PMID:24753736

  3. Cryogenic actuator for subnanometer positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, B. v.; Janssen, H.; Paalvast, S.; Albers, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses the development, realization, and qualification of a positioning actuator concept specifically for cryogenic environments. Originally developed for quantum physics research, the actuator also has many applications in astronomic cryogenic instruments to position optical elements with nanometer level accuracy and stability. Typical applications include the correction of thermally induced position errors of optical components after cooling down from ambient to cryogenic temperatures or sample positioning in microscopes. The actuator is nicknamed the ‘PiezoKnob’ because it is piezo based and it is compatible with the typical manipulator knob often found in standard systems for optical benches, such as linear stages or tip/tilt lens holders. Actuation with high stiffness piezo elements enables the Piezoknob to deliver forces up to 50 Newton which allows relatively stiff guiding mechanisms or large pre-loads. The PiezoKnob has been qualified at 77 Kelvin and was shown to work down to 2 Kelvin. As part of the qualification program, the custom developed driving electronics and set point profile have been fine-tuned, by combing measurements with predictions from a dynamic model, thus maximizing efficiency and minimizing power dissipation. Furthermore, the actuator holds its position without power and thanks to its mechanical layout it is absolutely insensitive to drift of the piezo elements or the driving electronics.

  4. Temperature-memory polymer actuators

    PubMed Central

    Behl, Marc; Kratz, Karl; Noechel, Ulrich; Sauter, Tilman; Lendlein, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Reading out the temperature-memory of polymers, which is their ability to remember the temperature where they were deformed recently, is thus far unavoidably linked to erasing this memory effect. Here temperature-memory polymer actuators (TMPAs) based on cross-linked copolymer networks exhibiting a broad melting temperature range (?Tm) are presented, which are capable of a long-term temperature-memory enabling more than 250 cyclic thermally controlled actuations with almost constant performance. The characteristic actuation temperatures Tacts of TMPAs can be adjusted by a purely physical process, guiding a directed crystallization in a temperature range of up to 40 °C by variation of the parameter Tsep in a nearly linear correlation. The temperature Tsep divides ?Tm into an upper Tm range (T > Tsep) forming a reshapeable actuation geometry that determines the skeleton and a lower Tm range (T < Tsep) that enables the temperature-controlled bidirectional actuation by crystallization-induced elongation and melting-induced contraction. The macroscopic bidirectional shape changes in TMPAs could be correlated with changes in the nanostructure of the crystallizable domains as a result of in situ X-ray investigations. Potential applications of TMPAs include heat engines with adjustable rotation rate and active building facades with self-regulating sun protectors. PMID:23836673

  5. Evaluation of different dielectric barrier discharge plasma configurations as an alternative technology for green C1 chemistry in the carbon dioxide reforming of methane and the direct decomposition of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rico, Víctor J; Hueso, José L; Cotrino, José; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2010-03-25

    Carbon dioxide reforming of methane and direct decomposition of methanol have been investigated using dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressure and reduced working temperatures. Two different plasma reactor configurations are compared and special attention is paid to the influence of the surface roughness of the electrodes on the conversion yields in the first plasma device. The influence of different filling gap dielectric materials (i.e., Al(2)O(3) or BaTiO(3)) in the second packed configuration has been also evaluated. Depending on the experimental conditions of applied voltage, residence time of reactants, feed ratios, or reactor configuration, different conversion yields are achieved ranging from 20 to 80% in the case of methane and 7-45% for the carbon dioxide. The direct decomposition of methanol reaches 60-100% under similar experimental conditions. Interestingly, the selectivity toward the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is kept almost constant under all the experimental conditions, and the formation of longer hydrocarbon chains or coke as a byproduct is not detected. The maximum efficiency yields are observed for the packed-bed reactor configuration containing alumina for both reaction processes (approximately 1 mol H(2) per kilowatt hour for dry reforming of methane and approximately 4.5 mol H(2) per kilowatt hour for direct decomposition of methanol). PMID:20184329

  6. Flow control via synthetic jet actuation 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Adam Cole

    2005-02-17

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to determine the ability of Synthetic Jet Actuators to control the aerodynamic properties of a wing. The Synthetic Jet Actuator (SJA) was placed at two separate positions on a wing comprised of a NACA0015...

  7. Micromechanical actuators for insect flight mechanics

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Hui, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This project aims to develop MEMS actuators to aid in the study of insect flight mechanics. Specifically, we are developing actuators that can stimulate the antennae of the crepuscular hawk moth Manduca Sexta. The possible ...

  8. Investigations of A Spherical Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooyers, Mark

    Low-cost, simple and robust actuators are important for emerging robotics technologies. In this thesis, a hyperelastic spherical dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) was fabricated out of BJB TC-5005 and tested to determine its feasibility as an actuator. The mechanics of the actuator were modelled analytically using an Ogden material model for large deformations. The electrical actuation mechanism was also derived. A seamless spherical DEA with an external radius of 30.65 mm was inflated, recording the expansion with and without actuation potentials. The hysteresis upon inflation and deflation of the spherical DEA was also investigated, and a pressure difference of 65Pa was recorded. The force output of a sandwich-type compression of the sealed spherical DEA was measured with different actuation potentials and compression distances. The sandwich-type compression is suitable as an actuator as it showed a 3% change in height when inflated to 817 Pa and loaded from 2 to 6 N.

  9. New electrode materials for dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Lam, Tuling; Biggs, James; Hu, Liangbing; Yu, Zhibin; Ha, Soonmok; Xi, Dongjuan; Senesky, Matthew K.; Grüner, George; Pei, Qibing

    2007-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators exert strain due to an applied electric field. With advantageous properties such as high efficiency and their light weight, these actuators are attractive for a variety of applications ranging from biomimetic robots, medical prosthetics to conventional pumps and valves. The performance and reliability however, are limited by dielectric breakdown which occurs primarily from localized defects inherently present in the polymer film during actuation. These defects lead to electric arcing, causing a short circuit that shuts down the entire actuator and can lead to actuator failure at fields significantly lower than the intrinsic strength of the material. This limitation is particularly a problem in actuators using large-area films. Our recent studies have shown that the gap between the strength of the intrinsic material and the strength of large-area actuators can be reduced by electrically isolating defects in the dielectric film. As a result, the performance and reliability of dielectric elastomers actuators can be substantially improved.

  10. Electromechanical flight control actuator. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An electromechanical actuator that will follow a proportional control command with minimum wasted energy is developed. The feasibility of meeting space vehicle actuator requirements using advanced electromechanical concepts is demonstrated. Recommendations for further development are given.

  11. Development and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-print Network

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2011-01-01

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanism of these materials depends upon the motion of ions in and out ...

  12. Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

  13. Design of FSMA spring actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-hung; Taya, Minoru

    2004-07-01

    A new spring actuator composing of two parts: driving unit and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) spring, is designed based on hybrid actuation mechanism. The driving unit, which is based on hybrid magnet, consists of coil, yoke, and ring shape permanent magnet (PM); the FSMA spring can be either composite material, which is made of shape memory alloy of superelastic grade, and soft ferromagnetic material, or FSMAs such as FePd. In this design, driving units are inserted in between ferromagnetic springs. This will provide the actuator with larger force and stroke. FEM analysis under axis symmetric model has been used to optimize the driving components. According to the numerical results, the iron blocks, both on the top and the bottom, can provide larger magnetic forces facing downwards and upwards respectively due to the gradient of magnetic flux density. Advantages of this design are simple, robust, and compact yet providing relatively large force (20N) and stroke (30mm).

  14. A Parylene Bellows Electrochemical Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Po-Ying; Sheybani, Roya; Gutierrez, Christian A.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Meng, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    We present the first electrochemical actuator with Parylene bellows for large-deflection operation. The bellows diaphragm was fabricated using a polyethylene-glycol-based sacrificial molding technique followed by coating in Parylene C. Bellows were mechanically characterized and integrated with a pair of interdigitated electrodes to form an electrochemical actuator that is suitable for low-power pumping of fluids. Pump performance (gas generation rate and pump efficiency) was optimized through a careful examination of geometrical factors. Overall, a maximum pump efficiency of 90% was achieved in the case of electroplated electrodes, and a deflection of over 1.5 mm was demonstrated. Real-time wireless operation was achieved. The complete fabrication process and the materials used in this actuator are bio-compatible, which makes it suitable for biological and medical applications. PMID:21318081

  15. Electromechanical propellant control system actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill; Weir, Rae Ann

    1990-01-01

    New control mechanism technologies are currently being sought to provide alternatives to hydraulic actuation systems. The Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for this purpose. Through this effort, an in-house designed electromechanical propellant valve actuator has been assembled and is presently being evaluated. This evaluation will allow performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulics systems. The in-house design consists of the following hardware: a three-phase brushless motor, a harmonic drive, and an output spline which will mate with current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant control valves. A resolver and associated electronics supply position feedback for the EMA. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. Frequency response testing has been performed with further testing planned as hardware and test facilities become available.

  16. Wellhead with hydraulic pump actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.D.; Brown, M.A.; Rohling, L.J.

    1984-07-31

    A wellhead assembly especially suited for oil wells has a wide working pressure range and employs three components which fit together to seal the well casing, hold the tubing against high wellhead pressures, and provide a connection to the tubing through which the sucker rods are operated. The primary casing seal is formed by the mating contact of metal surfaces that are not subject to deterioration. The actuator for the subsurface pump is a vertically disposed hydraulic cylinder unit aligned with the sucker rods and forming the uppermost section of an elongated cylindrical housing, which also has a lowermost section on the wellhead that provides the outlets for the fluid pumped from the well, and an intermediate, control section that contains a spool valve for controlling the hydraulic actuator. The spool is shifted by the piston and rod of the hydraulic actuator at the upper and lower limits of their stroke to thereby reciprocate the sucker rods and operate the subsurface pump.

  17. Design of large deflection electrostatic actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Grade; Hal Jerman; Thomas W. Kenny

    2003-01-01

    Electrostatic, comb-drive actuators have been designed for applications requiring displacements of up to 150 ?m in less than 1 ms. A nonlinear model of the actuator relates the resonant frequency and the maximum stable deflection to the actuator dimensions. A suite of experiments that were carried out on deep reactive ion etched (DRIE), single-crystal silicon, comb-drive actuators confirm the validity

  18. Distributed structural control using multilayered piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudney, Harley H.; Inman, Daniel J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    1990-01-01

    A method of segmenting piezoelectric sensors and actuators is proposed which can preclude the currently experienced cancelation of sensor signals, or the reduction of actuator effectiveness, due to the integration of the property undergoing measurement or control. The segmentation method is demonstrated by a model developed for beam structures, to which multiple layers of piezoelectric materials are attached. A numerical study is undertaken of increasing active and passive damping of a beam using the segmented sensors and actuators over unsegmented sensors and actuators.

  19. Effects of argon and oxygen flow rate on water vapor barrier properties of silicon oxide coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Ryong Kim; Moinul Haque Choudhury; Won-Ho Kim; Gon-Ho Kim

    2010-01-01

    Plasma polymer coatings were deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates while varying the operating conditions, such as the Ar and O2 flow rates, at a fixed radio frequency power of 300W. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the untreated PET was 54.56g\\/m2\\/day and was decreased after depositing the silicon oxide (SiOx) coatings. The minimum WVTR, 0.47g\\/m2\\/day, was

  20. Distributed actuator reconfiguration in networked control systems

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Distributed actuator reconfiguration in networked control systems Andr´e Teixeira, Jos´e Ara of distributed reconfiguration of first-order networked control systems under actuator faults. In particular, we, reconfigurable control, networked control systems, actuator networks, distributed optimization, large

  1. ELECTROSTATICALLY-ACTUATED RECONFIGURABLE ELASTOMER MICROFLUIDICS

    E-print Network

    Maharbiz, Michel

    ELECTROSTATICALLY-ACTUATED RECONFIGURABLE ELASTOMER MICROFLUIDICS Meng-Ping Chang1 , and Michel M a user-programmable reconfigurable elastomer microfluidic system which employs electrostatic actuation of water-filled elastomer microfluidic channels. Device actuation was achieved by applying 5 MHz, 15-20 V

  2. Force relaxation in charged dielectric elastomer actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ragusch; A. Becker; G. Kofod

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the investigation of dielectric elastomer actuators is developed, in which the relaxation of actuation force is observed under constant strain condition in an open-circuit regime. Independent isothermal surface potential decay measurements were employed to study the charge storage properties of the same elastomer materials. The following materials were used for dielectric elastomer actuators fabrication: VHB (adhesive

  3. High permittivity ferroelectric actuators for radar applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ficklen; J. Weaver; C. Chen; A. A. Ayon

    2009-01-01

    We report a new method of fabricating thermal bimorph actuators utilizing high permittivity ferroelectric thin films. This device is the first known thermal cantilever actuator employing barium titanate (BaTiO3) for RF applications. Compared to electrostatic actuators, this MEMS structure is designed to handle high RF transmitted power while maintaining a high capacitance ratio due to the high permittivity of the

  4. Biomorphic systems based on smart actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarita Thakoor; Brett Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    A comparative review of actuation technologies is presented. Innovative mechanisms ideas that combine high force and deflection are described. Flexible smart actuators are obtained utilizing real time adaptive biomorphic controls. Such flexible smart actuators constitute an enabling technology for a variety of biomorphic systems ranging from small, agile biomorphic explorers that emulate biological mobility to much larger humanoid or anthropomorphic

  5. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF VARIABLE CAM TIMING ACTUATORS

    E-print Network

    controlled hydraulic actuators to adjust the inlet and exhaust valve timings to the crankshaft position are exposed in Section 6. 2. MODELING OF THE VCT ACTUATOR 2.1 Physical modeling qi qo pi po xv Pe Pe Ps x Piston Spool valve Figure 1. Variable Valve Timing actuator scheme.

  6. Active suspension with multilayer dielectric elastomer actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Karsten; Peter Lotz; Helmut F. Schlaak

    2011-01-01

    A promising application for dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) is the active vibration control in the low frequency range (0 - 200 Hz). The active and passive properties of the actuator can be joined to eliminate the disturbances in the whole frequency range. These actuators can be used for protection of lightweight sensible equipment like optic e. g. components. This paper

  7. Electromechanical flight actuators for advanced flight vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERGEY EDWARD LYSHEVSKI

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft flight quantities and success of the mission depend to a great extent upon the actuator performance, and flight actuators must be designed to achieve the specified criteria. Electromechanical flight actuators driven by electric motors have begun to displace hydraulic technology in advanced flight vehicles. In aerospace application, permanent-magnet stepper motors are perfectly suited due to their efficiency and

  8. Application of smart material-hydraulic actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric H. Anderson; Gregory L. Bales; Edward V. White

    2003-01-01

    The application of a new class of actuators is considered. The actuators under development combine a high energy density smart material, specifically a piezoelectric material, with internal servohydraulic components. Large displacement outputs are produced, while the high force capacity of the stiff smart material is retained, for a net high-energy output. The actuator is considered \\

  9. Application of Smart Material-Hydraulic Actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric H. Anderson; Gregory L. Bales; Edward V. White

    The application of a new class of actuators is considered. The actuators under development combine a high energy density smart material, specifically a piezoelectric material, with internal servohydraulic components. Large displacement outputs are produced, while the high force capacity of the stiff smart material is retained, for a net high- energy output. The actuator is considered \\

  10. Microfabricated electrostatic actuators for hard disk drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Horsley; Roberto Horowitz; Albert P. Pisano

    1998-01-01

    A dual-stage servo system which utilizes a high-bandwidth secondary actuator has been proposed for magnetic hard disk drives. Microfabricated actuators are promising candidates for this secondary actuator, since they offer the benefits of extremely small size and weight and may be batch fabricated for reduced production cost. This paper presents the design of an electrostatic microactuator which produces sufficient output

  11. Combined actuator and latch for cartridge powered actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    Combined attenuator and latch stops and latches in place a given mass which is to be moved a discrete distance to effect a desired condition. This device is used in a retraction actuator driven by a pyrotechnic thruster, and can be tailored to meet specific design requirements.

  12. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Jamie K.; Wood, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso- and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys—high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity—their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180° motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the folding sections. The actuator has a thin ( < 1 mm) profile, making it appropriate for use in robotic origami. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in the actuator prototype.

  13. Composite flight-control actuator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bott, Richard; Ching, Fred

    1992-01-01

    The composite actuator is 'jam resistant', satisfying a survivability requirement for the Navy. Typically, the push-pull force needed to drive through the wound area of the composite actuator is 73 percent less than that of an all-metal actuator. In addition to improving the aircraft's combat survivability, significant weight savings were realized. The current design of the survivable, composite actuator cylinder is 36 percent lighter than that of the production steel cylinder, which equates to a 15 percent overall actuator weight savings.

  14. Microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator is to develop the capability to mount a small programmable device on laboratory models. This capability will allow research in the active control of flexible structures. The approach in developing the actuator will be to mount all components as a single unit. All sensors, electronic and control devices will be mounted with the actuator. The goal for the force output capability of the actuator will be one pound force. The programmable force actuator developed has approximately a one pound force capability over the usable frequency range, which is above 2 Hz.

  15. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2?), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  16. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  17. Stick and slip actuators (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Carl; Breguet, Jean-Marc; Bergander, Arvid; Clavel, Reymond

    2000-10-01

    Stick and Skip Actuators (SSA) are particularly well adapted to micro- robotics. A simple design, a very high intrinsic resolution (a few nanometers) and a high rigidity make them especially interesting in high precision micro-manipulations. Moreover, a smart design allows to combine the guiding and actuating function. The mechanical interface between the piezo-elements and the guiding mechanisms in an important point of the stick and slip actuators. The design of this interface and the choice of the material are very important. Both aspects have an impact on the rigidity, which has an influence on the behavior of the actuator. They have also an incidence onf the reliability (lifetime) because the design gives the contact condition and the material the wear resistance. In addition, a loading system allowing to keep the mechanical contact at this interface has a direct effect on the contact pressure. In order to confirm the performance of SSA, prototypes have been developed at the ISR. Their designs have bene made for application in optical microscopy, for manipulators in industrial assembly of micro- engineering products, for micro-factory, chemical and bio-engineering equipment for research or routine tasks, such as testing, screening etc. This paper presents a short description of several SSA made by the IRS and describes the parameters characterizing the stick and slip motion and the mechanical interface.

  18. Micro mechatronics and micro actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenoni Ishihara; Fumihito Arai; Toshio Fukuda

    1996-01-01

    Micro mechatronics is the synergetic integration of both mechanical and electronic systems based on scaling effects in the micro world. A micro mechatronics system is expected to be the key component of the mechanical system, such as in electronic automotive technologies. Micro mechatronics requires the organic combination of micro devices such as micro processor, micro sensor, and micro actuator. Among

  19. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  20. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  1. Dry Etching Process for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Thin-Film Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaze, Yutaka; Kimura, Isao; Endo, Mitsuhiro; Ueda, Masahisa; Kikuchi, Shin; Nishioka, Yutaka; Suu, Koukou

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric thin-film-actuator manufacturing technique by sputtering and dry etching processes. PZT etching rate and taper angle were investigated, and we obtained a very high etching rate (about 190 nm/min) and a high taper angle (62°). (001)/(100)-oriented PZT thin films on a (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate (6 in.) were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, and Pt on PZT were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. Pt/PZT/Pt piezoelectric thin-film actuators were fabricated by dry etching using an inductively super magnetron (ISM) plasma source. The characteristics of the ISM plasma source are high-density plasma and low-pressure operation attributable to the effect of the permanent magnet. The electrical properties of a piezoelectric thin-film-actuator cell fabricated by dry etching were investigated. The remanent polarization (Pr value) of a piezoelectric thin-film actuator with 3-?m-thick PZT film was 41 ?C/cm2 at an applied voltage of 30 V, and remanent polarization characteristics without the dependence on element size (30-300 ?m diameter) were obtained. Moreover, the displacement of a PZT thin-film-actuator was measured by contact atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), and a displacement of 4 nm was obtained at 3 ?m thickness of the PZT film, 30-?m-diameter element size, and an applied electric field of 100 kV/cm. It was clarified that the fabrication of PZT piezoelectric thin-film-actuators by dry etching using an ISM plasma source is effective.

  2. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    PubMed

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the displacement from a capacitance gap sensor and impedance spectra were measured at specific intervals. The average degradation in the stroke over the life test was found to be small (<3%) for the primary stacks and <4% for the redundant stacks. It was noted that about half of the stroke reduction occurred within the first 10 billion cycles. At the end of the life test, it was found that the actuator could recover about half of the lost stroke by applying a dc voltage of 100 V at room temperature. The data up to 100 billion cycles for these tests and the analysis of the experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:21507759

  3. Plasma aerodynamic control of both subsonic and supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Seong-Kyun; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2012-10-01

    We present both subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic flow control studies using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators. Flow-aligned DBD actuators designed to impart spanwise forcing and create streamwise vorticity are used for reattaching separated subsonic flows on inclined flat plates and trailing angled flaps. We demonstrate enhanced control authority when these DBD actuators are used in conjunction with boundary layer bleeding, also driven by DBD actuators within the bleed channels. DBD actuators of similar configuration are also used to control boundary layer separation in unstarting supersonic flows at Mach 4.7 flow condition. In these unstart studies, planer laser Rayleigh scattering is used to visualize flow features such as boundary layer thinning, thickening, and shock waves. A significant thinning of the boundary layer is observed with DBD actuation and spanwise forcing. This thinning is the result of the drawing in of high speed fluid from the supersonic core and is shown to lead to a delay in the unstart process.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Actuator Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Keith S.; Liu, Yuanming; Lee, Chern-Jiin; Hendricks, Steven

    2010-01-01

    NASA will launch a 900 kg rover, part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, to Mars in October of 2011. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars in August of 2012. The rover employs 31, electric-motor driven actuators to perform a variety of engineering and science functions including: mobility, camera pointing, telecommunications antenna steering, soil and rock sample acquisition and sample processing. This paper describes the MSL rover actuator thermal design. The actuators have stainless steel housings and planetary gearboxes that are lubricated with a "wet" lubricant. The lubricant viscosity increases with decreasing temperature. Warm-up heaters are required to bring the actuators up to temperature (above -55 C) prior to use in the cold wintertime environment of Mars (when ambient atmosphere temperatures are as cold as -113 C). Analytical thermal models of all 31 MSL actuators have been developed. The actuators have been analyzed and warm-up heaters have been designed to improve actuator performance in cold environments. Thermal hardware for the actuators has been specified, procured and installed. This paper presents actuator thermal analysis predicts, and describes the actuator thermal hardware and its operation. In addition, warm-up heater testing and thermal model correlation efforts for the Remote Sensing Mast (RSM) elevation actuator are discussed.

  5. Light-Driven Polymeric Bimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Gregory; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Light-driven polymeric bimorph actuators are being developed as alternatives to prior electrically and optically driven actuators in advanced, highly miniaturized devices and systems exemplified by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), micro-electro-optical-mechanical systems (MEOMS), and sensor and actuator arrays in smart structures. These light-driven polymeric bimorph actuators are intended to satisfy a need for actuators that (1) in comparison with the prior actuators, are simpler and less power-hungry; (2) can be driven by low-power visible or mid-infrared light delivered through conventional optic fibers; and (3) are suitable for integration with optical sensors and multiple actuators of the same or different type. The immediate predecessors of the present light-driven polymeric bimorph actuators are bimorph actuators that exploit a photorestrictive effect in lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics. The disadvantages of the PLZT-based actuators are that (1) it is difficult to shape the PLZT ceramics, which are hard and brittle; (2) for actuation, it is necessary to use ultraviolet light (wavelengths < 380 nm), which must be generated by use of high-power, high-pressure arc lamps or lasers; (3) it is difficult to deliver sufficient ultraviolet light through conventional optical fibers because of significant losses in the fibers; (4) the response times of the PLZT actuators are of the order of several seconds unacceptably long for typical applications; and (5) the maximum mechanical displacements of the PLZT-based actuators are limited to those characterized by low strains beyond which PLZT ceramics disintegrate because of their brittleness. The basic element of a light-driven bimorph actuator of the present developmental type is a cantilever beam comprising two layers, at least one of which is a polymer that exhibits a photomechanical effect (see figure). The dominant mechanism of the photomechanical effect is a photothermal one: absorption of light energy causes heating, which, in turn, causes thermal expansion.

  6. Charge transfer in surface barrier discharge on ? sec to msec time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, Sergey; Adamovich, Igor; Petrishchev, Vitaly; OSU Team

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents experimental results characterizing dynamics of development and kinetics of energy coupling in surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD), sustained over dielectric and weakly conducting liquid surfaces, over a wide range of time scales and electrical conductivities. Time-resolved discharge development and mechanisms of coupling with quiescent air are analyzed using nanosecond gate camera imaging, high-sensitivity time-resolved schlieren imaging, surface charge sensor, and Laser Differential Interferometry. It is shown that NS SDBD plasmas generate high-amplitude, broadband, stochastic, point-wise, near-surface perturbations on a long time scale (>100 ?s) after the discharge pulse. These perturbations are caused by discharge contraction and originate from the ends of individual streamers where they attach to the surface. It is also demonstrated a significant increase of energy (surface charge) stored on the dielectric surface during the NS discharge pulse, which in this case greatly exceeds energy dissipated as Joule heat (up to a few hundred percent). The present results strongly suggest that surface charge accumulation, along with use of alternating polarity pulse waveform, may significantly improve performance of surface discharge plasma actuators.

  7. Gas Barrier Properties of Diamond-like Carbon Films Synthesized by Using Remote Type Microwave Plasma CVD under Sub-ambient Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachimoto, Y.; Noborisaka, M.; Shirakura, A.; Kuroyanagi, C.; Suzuki, T.

    2013-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on polyethylene (PE) substrates with a remote type microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) apparatus at 10 kPa. We investigated the effect of source gas flow rate and microwave power on oxygen transmission rate of DLC films. Acetylene (C2H2) and argon (Ar) gas were used for source gas and carrier gas, respectively. From the result of contact-type profiler and atomic force microscope, oxygen transmission rate decreased as thickness increased and surface roughness decreased with increasing C2H2 flow rate. The oxygen transmission rate of DLC film synthesized at the C2H2 flow rate of 0.50 l/min and the microwave power of 1.0 kW on 300 ?m thick PE substrates was 141 cc/m2·day, while that of uncoated PE substrates was 247 cc/m2·day.

  8. Accurate free-form surface actuation using a non-pre-stretched silicone dielectric polymer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompvoets, F. M. H.; Brokken, D.; de Koning, H.; Martam, W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric polymer actuators promise to revolutionize user interfaces by enabling surface actuators that can change surface shape and give tactile feedback from a thin layer. We have realized a programmable surface actuator, based on non-pre-stretched silicone, which is capable of realizing large freeform surface deformations from relatively thin layers, while maintaining very good control over the shape of the actuated surface. Moreover, the actuator setup allows the use of a thin, stiff top layer, which addresses friction and stickiness problems commonly associated with using soft elastomers in tactile displays. Out-of-plane deformations exceeding 300 ?m are possible, facilitating 'tactile exploration' of the actuated shapes.

  9. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    Wall conditioning of fusion devices involves removal of desorbable hydrogen isotopes and impurities from interior device surfaces to permit reliable plasma operation. Techniques used in present devices include baking, metal film gettering, deposition of thin films of low-Z material, pulse discharge cleaning, glow discharge cleaning, radio frequency discharge cleaning, and in situ limiter and divertor pumping. Although wall conditioning techniques have become increasingly sophisticated, a reactor scale facility will involve significant new challenges, including the development of techniques applicable in the presence of a magnetic field and of methods for efficient removal of tritium incorporated into co-deposited layers on plasma facing components and their support structures. The current status of various approaches is reviewed, and the implications for reactor scale devices are summarized. Creation and magnetic control of shaped and vertically unstable elongated plasmas have been mastered in many present tokamaks. The physics of equilibrium control for reactor scale plasmas will rely on the same principles, but will face additional challenges, exemplified by the ITER/FDR design. The absolute positioning of outermost flux surface and divertor strike points will have to be precise and reliable in view of the high heat fluxes at the separatrix. Long pulses will require minimal control actions, to reduce accumulation of AC losses in superconducting PF and TF coils. To this end, more complex feedback controllers are envisaged, and the experimental validation of the plasma equilibrium response models on which such controllers are designed is encouraging. Present simulation codes provide an adequate platform on which equilibrium response techniques can be validated. Burning plasmas require kinetic control in addition to traditional magnetic shape and position control. Kinetic control refers to measures controlling density, rotation and temperature in the plasma core as well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45?0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas that must operate in the wall stabilized regime for reactor levels of ? >= 0.03.

  10. Thermopneumatic actuator for tactile displays and smart actuation circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Verdu, F.; Madueno, Manuel J.; Navas, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a thermopneumatic actuator to build large tactile displays as well as a smart activation circuitry to study and improve its performance. Since the main drawback of large tactile screens in the market is their cost, this proposal is intended to reduce the price because of the simplicity of the actuator and the potential low cost assembling. A small display with 4 x 4 taxels and 2.54mm of distance between centres has been built to show the viability of the proposal. Furthermore, a smart actuation strategy is implemented where the heater element (a diode) is also used as sensor in a feedback control loop that improves the dynamic response. Such strategy consists in sensing the voltage drop in the diode to measure its temperature, thus it can be heated up quickly without being destroyed because power supply is decreased once the target temperature is reached. We have measured rise times around 2 seconds and fall times around 4 seconds, while the maximum force and stroke are above 10grams (0.1N) and 1mm respectively. The obtained results are good, specially to implement a large tactile screen. Power consumption is high, but it could be lower if latching mechanisms are used to keep the taxel active without power supply.

  11. Microstructures and properties of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings of La2(Zr0.7Ce0.3)2O7/8YSZ made by atmospheric plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhai; Xiang, Jianying; Huang, Jihua; Zhao, Xingke

    2015-06-01

    A double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) of La2(Zr0.7Ce0.3)2O7/8YSZ (LZ7C3/8YSZ) was prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The phase structure, composition, thermal conductivity, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, adhesion strength and thermal shock behavior of the LZ7C3/8YSZ coating were investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the phase structures of top coat LZ7C3 was different from the powder for spraying, which consists of pyrochlore LZ and fluorite LC structures. Main peaks between LZ and LC in as-sprayed LZ7C3 have almost overlapping diffracted angles and approximately equal diffracted intensity. Thermal shock lifetime and adhesion strength of the DCL LZ7C3/8YSZ coating are enhanced significantly as compared to single LZ7C3 coating, and are very close to that of single 8YSZ coating. The mechanisms of performance improvement are considered to be effictive reduction of stress concentration between substrate and LZ7C3 coating by 8YSZ buffer effect, and the gentle thermal gradient initiated at the time of quenching in water. The DCL LZ7C3/8YSZ coating has lower thermal conductivity than 8YSZ, which was only 25% of 8YSZ bulk material and 65% of 8YSZ coating by APS.

  12. Actuator networks for navigating an unmonitored mobile robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Schiff; Anand Kulkarni; Danny Bazo; V. Duindamx; Ron Alterovitz; Dezhen Song; K. Goldberg

    2008-01-01

    Building on recent work in sensor-actuator networks and distributed manipulation, we consider the use of pure actuator networks for localization-free robotic navigation. We show how an actuator network can be used to guide an unobserved robot to a desired location in space and introduce an algorithm to calculate optimal actuation patterns for such a network. Sets of actuators are sequentially

  13. Electromagnetic actuator to reduce vibration sources Thibaut Chailloux*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electromagnetic actuator to reduce vibration sources Thibaut Chailloux* , L. Morel* , F. Sixdenier), hydraulic or pneumatic actuators, electromagnetic actuators [1], piezoelectric actuators. As part of a study to compensate a vibration on an aircraft engine for which an electromagnetic actuator was recommended. (The

  14. Electrochemical actuation of gilded polyaniline bilayers in aqueous acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Lu; Elisabeth Smela; Benjamin R. Mattes

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the electrochemical actuation of gilded polyaniline bilayers in acidic aqueous electrolytes. Gilding was found to be a useful method to ensure a uniform potential distribution across polyaniline films so that well-defined electrochemistry and electrochemical actuation could be obtained. Electrochemical actuation of gilded polyaniline bilayers was studied by means of bending and linear actuation. Actuation could

  15. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P. (Leawood, KS)

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  16. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  17. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  18. Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Chan, Di-Sien S; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

  19. Fluidic Automation of Nitrate and Nitrite Bioassays in Whole Blood by Dissolvable-Film Based Centrifugo-Pneumatic Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

  20. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Brailovski; P. Terriault; T. Georges; D. Coutu

    2010-01-01

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2…0.3; angle of attack ?1…+2?), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside

  1. Entake or exhaust valve actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, J.M.

    1993-08-03

    Intake or exhaust valve actuator assembly is described for an internal combustion engine for hydraulically opening and closing an intake or exhaust valve for admitting intake gases from an intake conduit into a combustion chamber or permitting exhaust gases to escape from the combustion chamber into an exhaust conduit, the engine including a piston which oscillates in the combustion chamber, a cylinder head which encloses the combustion chamber and contains the intake or exhaust valve and the intake or exhaust conduit, and timing means to detect phase of the piston as it oscillates in the combustion chamber; the intake or exhaust valve actuator assembly comprising a sleeve mounted in the cylinder head, a piston member slidably disposed in the sleeve cylindrical cavity, the piston member being affixed onto the stem of the associated intake or exhaust valve, and a rod bearing member mounted in the distal end of the sleeve for guiding the rod portion and forming a sliding seal therewith, and the sleeve having a distal port and a proximal port formed therein for communicating fluid pressure to the cylindrical cavity respectively distally and proximally of the piston member head portion; and hydraulic valve means actuated by the timing means and coupled to the distal and proximal ports to apply fluid pressure to at least one of the ports to move the piston member and open and close the associated intake or exhaust valve in accordance with the detected phase of the piston of the engine; and wherein the actuator assembly piston member is provided with a coating of titanium nitride on the cylindrical face of the head portion and on the rod portion, and wherein the mating surfaces of the sleeve cylindrical cavity and the rod bearing member are provided with a coating of a hard material of a lower hardness than the titanium nitride.

  2. Thermally actuated MEMS optical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Sinclair

    2005-01-01

    Micromirrors with linear deflection behaviors have been found useful for systems requiring 1D and 2D optical scanning patterns and are solutions for low-cost vector or video raster image generators. The advantages of thermal buckle-beam and bimorph actuators are high resulting force, low MEMS area and low voltage requirements. The mirror devices presented in this paper can achieve modest deflection angles

  3. “Monomorph Actuators” Using Semiconductive Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Kenji; Yoshizaki, Mikihiko; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Sakai, Naomichi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    1987-07-01

    A new type of bending actuator, “monomorph”, is proposed by using a single plate of semiconductive piezoelectric ceramics. The principle of bending originates from the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a single plate caused by the semiconductor—metal electrode contact. Monomorph characteristics are exemplified in lead zirconate based and barium titanate ceramics. A bend curvature comparable to that of conventional piezoelectric “bimorphs” can be obtained.

  4. Multidimensional Plasma Sheath Modeling Using The Three Fluid Plasma Model in General Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Robert; Shumlak, Uri

    2012-10-01

    There has been renewed interest in the use of plasma actuators for high speed flow control applications. In the plasma actuator, current is driven through the surrounding weakly ionized plasma to impart control moments on the hypersonic vehicle. This expanded general geometry study employs the three-fluid (electrons, ions,neutrals) plasma model as it allows the capture of electron inertial effects, as well as energy and momentum transfer between the charged and neutral species. Previous investigations have typically assumed an electrostatic electric field. This work includes the full electrodynamics in general geometries. Past work utilizing the research code WARPX (Washington Approximate Riemann Problem) employed cartesian grids. In this work, the problem is expanded to general geometries with the euler fluid equations employing Braginskii closure. In addition, WARPX general geometry grids are generated from Cubit or CAD files. Comparisons are made against AFRL magnetized plasma actuator experiments.

  5. Actuation fluid adapter for hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled fuel injector and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Keyster, Eric S. (Peoria, IL); Merchant, Jack A. (Peoria, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector adapter consists of a block defining a pressure communication passage therethrough and an actuation fluid passage. The actuation fluid passage includes three separate branches that open through an outer surface of the block at three separate locations.

  6. Improving actuator disk wake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Gomes, V. M. M. G.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Silva Lopes, A.

    2014-06-01

    The wind energy industry has traditionally relied on simple wake models for estimating Wind Turbine (WT) wake losses. Despite limitations, low requirements in terms of detailed rotor information makes their use feasible, unlike more complex models, such as Blade Element Method (BEM) or Actuator Line. Froude's Actuator Disk (AD) does not suffer the simpler model's limitation of prescribing the wake through a closed set of equations, while sharing with them the low rotor data requirements. On the other hand they require some form of parametrization to close the model and calculate total thrust acting on the flow. An Actuator Disk model was developed, using an iterative algorithm based on Froude's one-dimensional momentum theory to determine the WT's performance, proving to be successful in estimating the performance of both machines in undisturbed flow and in the wake of an upstream machines. Before Froude's AD limitations compared to more complex rotor models, load distributions emulating those of a BEM model were tested. The results show that little impact is obtained at 3 rotor diameters downstream and beyond, agreeing with common definition of a far-wake that starts at 1-2 diameters downstream, where rotor characteristics become negligible and atmospheric flow effects dominate.

  7. Electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkow, Zygmunt

    Attention is given to the development and testing of electromechanical actuator (EMA) systems for use in first- and second-stage thrust vector control of rocket engines. An overview of the test program is also presented. Designs for both first- and second-stage actuators employ redundant dc brushless, three-phase rare-earth permanent magnet motors. The first-stage actuator is about 28 hp per motor and uses a roller screw. Second-stage thrust vector control is implemented with a much smaller actuator of about 1 hp per motor. This actuator uses a gear drive with a recycling ball screw mechanism. An operational EMA is presented. This 6.5-in. actuator is capable of a stall force of 1350 pounds per motor and a frequency response of about 5 HZ.

  8. A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngho Ko; Sungyoung Na; Youngwoo Lee; Kyoungrae Cha; Seong Young Ko

    2012-01-01

    Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the

  9. FEM modelling of Piezo-actuated Microswitches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chapuis; F. Bastien; J. F. Manceau; F. Casset; P. L. Charvet

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study of microswitches with piezoelectric actuation. With the help of analysis modelling and FEM commercial software (ANSYS), we investigated the potentiality of AlN as piezoelectric actuator. Firstly, we compared AlN with PZT to actuate simple structures by bimorph effect as cantilever or clamped-clamped membrane. After this investigation, we focused on means to improve the deflection and

  10. Design aspects of shape memory actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominiek Reynaerts; Hendrik Van Brussel

    1998-01-01

    The need for high performance and at the same time compact actuators has existed for a long time, especially for multi-degree-of-freedom devices like robot hands and walking robots. These devices mostly use electrical actuators. Also for the presented research, the interest in designing actuators based on shape Memory Alloys emerged from a study in the field of multi-fingered robot hands.

  11. Direct-drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1995-07-11

    A high-torque, low speed, positive-drive field actuator motor is disclosed including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 37 figs.

  12. Vibrotactile using micromachined electromagnetic actuators array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, A.; Ducloux, O.; Tiercelin, N.; Deblock, Y.; Pernod, P.; Preobrazhensky, V.

    2006-04-01

    One motivating application of this technology is the development of a tactile display interface, where discrete mechanical actuators apply vibratory excitation at discrete locations on the skin. Specifically, this paper describes the development fabrication and characterization of a 4 x 4 micro-actuator array of vibrating pixels for fingertip tactile communication. The vibrting pixels are generated by using an electromagnetic microresonator. The fabrication sequence and the actuation performance of the array are also presented.

  13. A Gas-Actuated Anthropomorphic Transhumeral Prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin B. Fite; Thomas J. Withrow; Keith W. Wait; Michael Goldfarb

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an anthropomorphic 21 degree-of-freedom, 9 degree-of-actuation arm prosthesis for use by transhumeral amputees. The design leverages the power density of pneumatic actuation with the energy density of liquid propellants to obtain a self-powered dexterous prosthesis in which all of the requisite power, actuation, and sensing is packaged within the volumetric envelope of a normal

  14. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  15. Multidimensional Plasma Sheath Modeling Using The Three Fluid Plasma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Robert; Shumlak, Uri

    2011-10-01

    There has been renewed interest in the use of plasma actuators for high speed flow control applications. In the plasma actuator, current is driven through the surrounding weakly ionized plasma to impart control moments on the hypersonic vehicle. This expanded study employs the three-fluid (electrons, ions, neutrals) plasma model as it allows the capture of electron inertial effects, as well as energy and momentum transfer between the charged and neutral species. Previous investigations have typically assumed an electrostatic electric field. This work includes the full electrodynamics. Past work was conducted in 1- and 2-D. In this work, the problem is expanded to 3-D with the fluid equations extended from euler to Braginskii.

  16. Network-centric Actuation Control in Sensor/Actuator Networks based on Bio-inspired

    E-print Network

    Breu, Ruth

    ) and sensor/actuator networks (SANET). Looking at the most pressing issues in such networks, the limited of the current availability, i.e. they care about the potential removal and addition of sensor nodes. DynamicsNetwork-centric Actuation Control in Sensor/Actuator Networks based on Bio-inspired Technologies

  17. Distributed Multi-Actuator Control for Workload Balancing in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changhua Wu; Girma S. Tewolde; Weihua Sheng; Bin Xu; Yu Wang

    2011-01-01

    This technical note presents strategies for systematic ways to control mobile actuators in distributed wireless sensor and actuator net- works. The efficiency, responsiveness, and service lifetime of the mobile ac- tuators depend on the allocation of the workload to each individual actu- ator. Starting from an initial deployment, the proposed distributed multi- actuator control algorithmcomputes theload ineach partition and usesthe

  18. Actuation of MAV control surface using conducting shape memory polymer actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam S. Goo; Il H. Paik; Kwang J. Yoon; Yong C. Jung; Jae W. Cho

    2004-01-01

    The current MAVs used servomotors as actuators for the control surfaces, such as elevators and rudders. In this paper, the application possibility of conducting shape memory polymer to smart actuator has been assessed. Our final goal will be to replace the servomotor with a newly developed conducting shape memory polymer actuator. As the first step, a conducting shape memory polymer

  19. Bucky gel actuators optimization towards haptic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubak, Grzegorz; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca; Hata, Kenji; Ricci, Davide

    2014-03-01

    An ideal plastic actuator for haptic applications should generate a relatively large displacement (minimum 0.2-0.6 mm, force (~50 mN/cm2) and a fast actuation response to the applied voltage. Although many different types of flexible, plastic actuators based on electroactive polymers (EAP) are currently under investigation, the ionic EAPs are the only ones that can be operated at low voltage. This property makes them suitable for applications that require inherently safe actuators. Among the ionic EAPs, bucky gel based actuators are very promising. Bucky gel is a physical gel made by grounding imidazolium ionic liquids with carbon nanotubes, which can then be incorporated in a polymeric composite matrix to prepare the active electrode layers of linear and bending actuators. Anyhow, many conflicting factors have to be balanced to obtain required performance. In order to produce high force a large stiffness is preferable but this limits the displacement. Moreover, the bigger the active electrode the larger the force. However the thicker an actuator is, the slower the charging process becomes (it is diffusion limited). In order to increase the charging speed a thin electrolyte would be desirable, but this increases the probability of pinholes and device failure. In this paper we will present how different approaches in electrolyte and electrode preparation influence actuator performance and properties taking particularly into account the device ionic conductivity (which influences the charging speed) and the electrode surface resistance (which influences both the recruitment of the whole actuator length and its speed).

  20. Cryogenic magnetostrictive actuators and stepper motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chad H.

    2000-11-01

    Energen, Inc. has developed actuators based on cryogenic magnetostrictive materials. These actuators are designed to provide precision positioning and active control of adaptive optical surfaces such as those that are being considered for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The NGST is a large 8-mm diameter segmented reflecting telescope that uses a thin optical surface mounted on a rigid composite backstructure. The mounts consists of multiple actuators that are used to align the mirror segments and actively control the radius of curvature for optimum optical performance. Energen, Inc. has developed several types of actuators. A linear actuator consists of a rod of magnetostrictor surrounded by an electric coil that when energized causes the rod to elongate. These type of actuators are used for high speed active control. Energen also has developed a linear stepper motor that consists of an actuator mounted in two clamps. By operating the clamps and actuator in the proper sequence the actuator indexes forward and backward. Submicron positioning resolution along with strokes of 20 mm are possible. Furthermore, the stepper motor locks into position when powered off--ideal for applications where position must be held for long periods of time.